Christian Churches of God

No. F043








Commentary on John: Introduction and Part 1

(Edition 1.0 20220812-20220812)


Commentary on Chapters 1-4.




Christian Churches of God

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Commentary on John Part 1


Modern textual criticism has often sought to diminish the significance, placement and dating, of the Fourth Gospel. Some have even tried to divorce John son of Zebedee from the John at Ephesus. Tradition places it in the Fourth position but some early manuscripts (MSS) such as Codex Bezae (D) and the Washington Codex (W) place the two Gospels of Apostolic authorship, Matthew and John first, with Mark and Luke after them. The early placing of the Gospels is also explained in the Commentary on the Gospel of Matthew (F040i) and in the Restoration of Mark (F041) and Luke (F042) by Peter and Paul respectively, in the introductions to those gospels.


From F040i: “The traditional theory of the Gospels holding that Matthew was the first gospel rests on the statement of Papius (2nd cent), quoted by Eusebius (Church Hist. III, 39.16). It was recorded that Matthew had written in Hebrew and the term used in reference to what he wrote was referred to as the logion, or oracles. Matthew’s gospel was used by some, such as the Ebionites, exclusively and thus resulted in theological errors by them. Papius himself, in his writings, as quoted by Eusebius, discusses the Gospel of Mark before Matthew and this fact is erroneously overlooked by most scholars, and Grant (ibid) notes this fact on p, 303, col. 2). This erroneous view was adopted by Augustine and it penetrated the common view of the churches.


Further evidence for the placement of the order of the gospels is found from a mosaic at the mausoleum of Galla Placidia outside the church of San Vitale at Ravenna. She was the sister of the Emperor Honorius, emperor of the West.  She was very adventurous but died soon after her mausoleum was built. The date of the Mosaic was ca. 440 CE and the Mosaic has a low antique book case with sloping shoulders. The Mosaic shows the Gospels as:

Marcus Lucas

Matteus Ioannes

This was done just over a century from Nicaea in 325 CE and just nine years after the council of Ephesus in 431 CE. This mosaic antedates the common acceptance of the conjecture of Augustine based on Papius’ work, ignoring Papius’ comment mentioning Mark first. He supposed that Matthew came first and then Mark who abridged him and then Luke and John. The reality was that Mark preceded Matthew and Matthew expanded on Mark and wrote in Hebrew which was sent into Asia Minor and translated into Greek, Aramaic and then Arabic. It was taken into India beginning the church there (cf. 122D).


Other lists are available from MSS which show other orders of production such as the placing of the apostles’ names first in importance such as the Clermont list from Egypt ca. 300 CE with Matthew, John, Mark and Luke, or the Cheltenham list discovered by Mommsen in 1885, and sometimes called the Mommsen list, coming from North Africa ca. 360 CE.” Further references are listed in (F040i).


The earliest reference to the text of John is recorded as coming from an Egyptian Papyrus fragment deciphered by C.H. Roberts in 1934. He found that the fragment bore the Text of John 18:31-33 in the front and John 18:37-38 on the back. Precise dating of the fragment dated its time of origin at between 125-130 CE. Thus this text is clear proof that John was written well before 125 and was well known in Egypt at that time. This find, at the very least, confirms that the Gospel of John was written well prior to 125 CE and available in Egypt and in use as a reference source there before 125 CE. This would at least confirm its production prior to Revelation at the latest. A. Remmers notes: “This papyrus is kept in Manchester at the John Ryland's Library and bears the term P52. [1]”


Context, Dating and Interpretation

Clement of Alexandria made the statement that “John wrote a spiritual gospel” (Eusebius, Hist. eccl. 6.14.7). Since then readers have tended to assume that the Gospel is less historical than the Synoptic Gospels. This is probably incorrect. At least many details in John are considered closer to the historical context of Jesus than those in the Synoptic accounts. The most significant for example in the duration of his ministry, John's narrative has Jesus engaged in a ministry of some two and a half years, compared to the single year in the other Gospels. In John, Jesus attends multiple festivals in Jerusalem, including three annual Passover festivals (2:13; 6:4; 11:55). An active ministry of several years is correct. The Synoptic gospels were concerned with explaining the historical ministry. Each gospel had a specific purpose. John was concerned with explaining the sequence of activities and theological purpose of the incarnation. It is critical to understanding the Sign of Jonah over the mission of John and the Christ as we can see from the text Commentary on Jonah (F032) and also Sign of Jonah and the History of the Reconstruction of the Temple (No. 013).  The actions of the church at Jerusalem after the death of James in the year 63/64 CE and their actions, in fleeing to Pella, are good evidence for the existence of the Gospels prior to that date and well before the fall of the Temple in 70 CE and their tying the prophecies of Daniel Chapter 9 into the Sign of Jonah (F027ix); (see also War with Rome and the Fall of the Temple (No. 298)). This is compelling evidence re the Sign. Instead, the 14th  to 17th Century Protestants, who wrote the Textus Receptus, and then the KJV, insisted on tying the text of Daniel 9:24-27 (and many other Greek texts) to the creation, and to the ministry of Christ, by forgery, rather than understand the Sign of Jonah (F027ix). The 1st Century church seemed at the very least to have understood the early phases of the Sign of Jonah at least up until 70/71 CE, even if they did not understand the Completion of the Sign of Jonah (No. 013B) up to the wars of the end.


The Gospel of John is also the only one that directly addresses the historical reality of living under Roman occupation (11:48). Other differences in chronology are also very significant. While the Synoptic Gospels are confined to discussing the one Passover of 30 CE, the Gospel of John is recognised as not having Jesus sharing a Passover meal with the disciples, as indicated might be the case in the Synoptic Gospels. This caused confusion among some of the 20th Century Churches of God who did not understand the Passover kept here under the Temple Calendar. Instead, Jesus' last meal was on the day before Passover in accordance with the procedures of Deut 16:5-8 which provides for the tribes of Israel to go into temporary accommodation. Trinitarians who keep the Festival and Calendar of the goddess Easter do not seem to even want to understand what is transpiring over the Passover of 30 CE, which is the last of the three Passovers mentioned in the gospel, i.e. from 28, 29 and 30 CE. (See the papers Christ’s Age at Baptism and the Duration of His Ministry (No. 019) and also Timing of the Crucifixion and the Resurrection (No. 159).)  In the Gospel of John, Jesus is the Lamb of God crucified on the day before Passover at 3PM on 14 Abib, which is the correct day on which the Passover is slaughtered and the first lamb killed at 3PM is presented before the High priest each year (see Josephus (BJ. 3). Also understanding the timing of 14 Abib in 30 CE according to the Temple Calendar (No. 156) (not the Hillel Calendar of modern Jews issued in 358 CE based on postponements and on Babylonian Intercalations brought to Hillel in 344 CE by two Babylonian rabbis (see 195; 195b, 195C, 195D). The Churches of God did not keep the Hillel Calendar for over the entire period of its existence, from its issue in 358 CE, until judaisers brought it into the Churches of God in the 1940s, through ignorance.  In the Synoptic Gospels, the Last Supper has been seen as a Passover meal that is transformed into a Eucharistic meal. It was in fact set aside to become the Annual Lord’s Supper as the Second Sacrament of the Church (Sacraments of the Church (No. 150)). It has nothing to do with the wafer and water (and part wine) sacrament of the Sun and Mystery cults of Baal worship on Sundays.


In the Fourth Gospel, Jesus is the image and revelation of God in the world as the elohim of Psalm 45:6-7 and Heb. 1:8-9; and also Ps. 110:1 (see No. 177; 178). The importance of these OT texts is seemingly ignored or downplayed by Trinitarian academics (see the texts in The Plan of Salvation (No. 001A); How God Became a Family (No. 187); The Pre-existence of Jesus Christ (No. 243)). He was sent by God and knowing this fact and the Beings is Eternal Life (Jn. 17:3; No. 133). One who knows Jesus, knows God (1:18; 14:9), as Jesus was the only born God (monogenes theos) who declared Him, as stated in 1:18 and one who follows the Laws of God and the Faith and Testimony of Christ (Rev. 12:17; 14:12), and also the commandment of Jesus to love others in the community, will abide in God's love and have complete joy (15:10). Believers have been granted eternal life and promised a place with the Father and the Son (3:16; 8:51; 14:1–3). So also, one who does not believe, and does not keep the Commandments of God, has already been condemned (3:18). One who does not abide in Jesus “is thrown away like a branch” to wither and burn (15:6). If believers have eternal life in the First Resurrection (No. 143A), sinners, (those who do not believe and follow the Laws of God and the Testimony and Faith of Jesus (Rev. 12:17; 14:12) will die. For John explains that sin is transgression of the law (1Jn. 3:4). Sinners will die in their sins (8:24). The sinners, as we see from Revelation, face The Second Death (No. 143C) at the end of the Second Resurrection (No. 143B) if they do not repent (Rev. Ch. 20 F066v). Anyone who believes, that when they die, they go to heaven, and others go to hell, are by definition not Christians, as that is the doctrine of the Baal worshippers of the Sun and Mystery cults (see also Justin Martyr, Dial. LXXX re-quoted in No. 143A above). These pagan doctrines had entered Judaism through the Gnostic doctrines in Alexandria, and John (and Christ) condemned them as hoi Ioudaioi, “the Jews.” Christ refers to them as those who say they are Jews and are not (Rev. 3:9). This was prophecy that was happening with the Edomites under the Maccabees ca 160 BCE, and which was to come to fruition on an ongoing basis, from Herod and the Idumeans in Judea, and under the Romans, over the period to the Fifth Century with the Arabs and Phoenician North Africans, Canaanites, and Egyptians, into Spain, and then until well into the Seventh Century when the Turkic Khazzar Ashkenazi converted to Judaism ca. 630 CE. Historically, Jesus and all of his disciples were Jewish, so it may seem puzzling to hear John's Jesus declare that unbelieving children of Abraham are offspring of the devil (8:39–44). John was himself a Levite and allegedly wore the Ephod.  Yet reference to Revelation 3:9 explains the conflict and the modern YDNA also tells the story (see. No. 212E). These pseudo Jews were corrupting God’s Law and the Temple Calendar with their traditions, and do so to this day. See The Day of the Lord and the Last Days (No. 192).


The New Oxford Annotated Bible states:

“Scholars debate even how to translate the phrase hoi Ioudaioi, since it clearly cannot refer to all Jewish people. Because the Gospel also contrasts a positive response to Jesus in the rural region of Galilee with the increasing hostility of Judeans in Jerusalem, some favor “the Judeans” as the translation of hoi Ioudaioi. Especially given the legacy of violent anti-Semitism in Western history, the problem of translation is a serious one. One theory about the historical context of the Gospel popular in the late twentieth century explained the hostile use of “the Jews” as the reaction to a formal expulsion of Christ- believers from Jewish synagogues. The theory rested on the Gospel's use of the Gk. term aposynagogos (lit.,“out from the synagogue”). It appears three times in the Gospel (9.22; 12.42; 16.2), but nowhere else in ancient Greek literature. In recent years, the notion of a formal expulsion from the synagogue as the historical background for the Gospel has been disproven, since it assumed that a benediction from a later period in Jewish liturgy represented a curse against Jesus's followers. The synagogue expulsion theory also fails to account for evidence from the Gospel narrative. For example, 12.11 refers to voluntary departure from the synagogue rather than expulsion. In some places, “the Jews” is used in neutral ways, as in references to the festival of the Jews that Jesus attends (5.1), or the Jews who gather with Mary and Martha to comfort them (11.19). Indeed, one should also note that Mary and Martha, clearly intimate associates with Jesus, are still associating with the Jews—they have not been “put out of the synagogue.” In other places, the expression “the Jews” is a variation on the negative group opposed to Jesus, “unbelievers” or even “the world.” Generally, when Gospel writers refer to “the Jews” in antagonistic ways, they have religious authorities in mind. Consequently, some scholars think that references to being driven out of the synagogue may be included in the Gospel to prevent Jesus-believers who had left the synagogue from returning to it again (see 1 Jn 2.19). In this sense, a more accurate description of the circumstances reflected by the rhetoric of the Gospel would see the heated rhetoric flowing both ways. That is, the followers of Jesus may have opted out of the local synagogue in anger over bitter disagreements about the identity of Jesus. These references to being “put out” may reveal little more than the frustrations, anger and pain between otherwise closely interrelated groups. One purpose of the Gospel may have been to reassure and shore up the belief of the community, in light of these tense circumstances (see 20.31, note b).” Colleen Conway

The New Oxford Annotated Bible with Apocrypha (pp. 1917-1920). Oxford University Press. Kindle Edition.


It is actually more serious than that and it necessitates the despatch of the Witnesses after the voice of Dan-Ephraim (see 1:19ff; Jer. 4:15-27; (No. 044)) in the Last Days (see No. 135; 141D) at the Completion of the Sign of Jonah (No. 013B)). Christ says that we will not have finished fleeing through the cities of Israel until the Son of Man comes (Mat. 10:23) (F040ii).


The significance of the Gospel of John is centred on its identification of the position of Christ as the Son of God who was allocated Israel as his inheritance by the One True God Eloah at Deut. 32:8 (RSV not KJV (see No. 164F; 164G). The Synoptic Gospels present the Christ, but do not fully explain his position in the Bible texts. John presents and explains it within terms that can be understood from the Scriptures themselves and as Christ says, he was the son of God (Deut. 32:8; Ps. 45:6-7; 110:1; Heb. 1:8-9) and the role of mankind is to become elohim or theoi, as gods, and  Scripture cannot be broken (Jn 10:34-36) (see the Elect as Elohim (No. 001)).  The gospel begins with the Pre-existence of Jesus Christ (No. 243) as the Oracle of God (see Oracles of God (No. 184)), the Logos, and in its first eighteen verses it details the relationship of the Oracle as a god (elohim or theos) that spoke for the One True God, whom no one had ever seen, or had even heard his voice (1:18; see also 1Tim. 6:16) and God (Eloah; Ha Elohim; Ho Theos or Yahovih SHD 3069). Eloah alone is immortal (Jn. 17:3; 1Tim, 6:16). He is the Elyon or the Most High Elohim or God and He sent Jesus Christ; and on understanding and knowing these entities depend Eternal Life (No 133). These issues are never addressed, because the gospel of John cannot be explained Biblically within Trinitarian terms, and therefore it is never properly developed, except, in part, in such works as A.E. Knoch’s Concordant Literal New Testament.  We will deal with this aspect below in chapter 1. The Bible does not contain or refer to the Trinity, which did not exist until 381 CE at Constantinople. The KJV text at 1Jn 5:7 is a well known forgery among others (See No. 164f).


In the OT the oracle was termed the Memra in Hebrew. In the NT the Memra is termed the Logos and its position is explained first up in John 1:1-18. The theology of the OT is that The Angel of the Presence is the son of God, as elohim, that gave the Law to Moses at Sinai after taking Israel out of Egypt. He was one among many Sons of God as developed in the Psalms also. These statements are confirmed in the NT by Stephen in Acts before he was martyred (Acts 7:30-53) and again by Paul (in 1Cor. 10:1-4) (see Gen. 48:15-16; The Angel of YHVH (No. 024)). The Trinitarian Church even went to the extent of suppressing these scriptures from being used in this regard in the canons of the councils, even though they are plain enough on their face. In fact denial of the Trinity was punished by death by hanging, and even quartering, up until the Seventeenth Century. So also, the sequence of the Creation was suppressed. For example the Creation of the world ab origine by the One True God, who summoned the entire host of the Sons of God to be present at the creation under their Morning Stars or leaders, was recorded in Job 38:4-7; Proverbs 30:4-5. The Sons of God referred to as the Loyal Host were going before God, and which body included Satan and the Fallen Host before the fall (Job 1:6; 2:1). The text is ignored by most churches. Indeed, the KJV contains numerous forgeries and mistranslations aimed at placing the creation in the hands of Christ, whereas the elohim host were in the recreation referred to in Genesis chapter 1 (see also Nos. 164F, 164G).


This being, who became the Christ, was clearly identified as the Subordinate God of Israel of Psalm 45:6-7 (see Nos. 177 and 178) and, as Jesus Christ, in Hebrews 1:8-9. This member of the council of the elohim was to become High Priest of the Host after the Order of Melchisedek, as we see in Commentary on Hebrews (F058) (see Melchisedek (No. 128)). That was the purpose of his incarnation under the Plan of Salvation (No. 001A).


From 1:19 the text then develops the position of John the Baptist in prophecy dealing with the position of Christ and his purpose. The text then, to chapter 12, is generally identified as the First Section of the Gospel concerning the place of Christ in the message and the revelation of his position and then from 13:1 the text proceeds to the death and resurrection. We become concerned with his sacrifice, fulfilling prophecy and enabling the salvation of the entire host and mankind, and his return to heaven to the Father, to await the unfolding of the plan. The final phase is then revealed to Christ and through him to John at Patmos, in order to complete the sequence in Revelation.  The Gospel was revealed before the fall of the Temple when John first went to Ephesus, or some think even earlier, perhaps before they even left Jerusalem for Ephesus. We will never be sure of the timing until the First Resurrection and we are told the sequence of events.


Structure and Literary Style

As we see above, the narrative divides into two main sections. Chapters 1–12 describe Jesus' time in the world during which he performs signs to disclose the true nature of his identity to those who believe. After the Resurrection of Lazarus he concludes his public ministry and declares the hour in which he was to be glorified (12:20-50). At 13:1, Jesus tells his disciples that his time to return to the Father has come, beginning the second part of Gospel. The remaining chapters include Jesus' farewell meal and the ceremony of the foot-washing (No. 099), bread and wine (No. 100), with the disciples, where he prepares them for his departure (chs. 13–17), followed by the passion and resurrection narrative (chs. 18–20), and an epilogue (ch. 21). In addition to relating Jesus' signs, the first part describes increasing conflict between Jesus and his opponents, culminating in the final plan to put Jesus to death (11:53). This decision comes following the raising of Lazarus, which itself points ahead to Jesus' death and resurrection. So also does Mary's anointing of Jesus in Bethany, which anticipates his burial (12:7–8). Thus, Chs. 11–12 provide the transition from the first half of the Gospel, focusing on Jesus coming into the world and his ministry, to the second part, focused on his glorification and ascent to the Father. The Gospel contains many distinctive traditions and literary features. For example, the narrative presents Jesus in extended dialogues with other characters along with lengthy discourses about his identity and purpose. These exchanges often lead to misunderstanding on the part of his conversation partners. Example are, the scenes with Nicodemus, (3:1–21) and the Samaritan Woman (4:1–42), where Jesus uses words with double meanings. Likewise, Jesus' narratives also employ symbolic imagery to describe Jesus' identity. That language leads to questions and protests from listeners. Christ uses “I am” statements, which are symbolically charged (Ex. 3:14). The Johannine Jesus uses the phrase to define himself by way of objects from everyday life such as bread (6:35), light (8:12), door (10:7), good shepherd (10:11), and true vine (15:1). In some cases, the phrase is used more abstractly. Jesus instructs his listener that he is the resurrection (11:25), the way, the truth, and the life (14:6). In this way he draws attention to the life-giving qualities of the divine saviour. In several cases the phrase is used without a direct object (8:28,58), echoing the “I am” theophany of Exodus, where God reveals His name using the first-person form of the verb to be (Ex 3:14). The name Yahovah (SHD 3068) is a third person form of the verb to be meaning: He causes to be. The second form as Yahovih (SHD 3069) is read by Jews as Elohim whereas 3068 was read as Adonai and resulted in 134 changes in the MT by the Sopherim (cf. No. 164f).  In this way Christ was declaring himself as the Son of God as Elohim of Israel of Deut. 32:8 (RSV) (see also No. 024). This focus on the identity of Jesus is also in the Gospel's distinctive description of Jesus' wondrous acts as “signs” of his position. In the Synoptic Gospels, Jesus' miracles point to the in-breaking of the kingdom of God. In this Gospel, the signs reveal Jesus' glory and brings people to belief in him. So also many agree that irony also appears regularly as a literary device, where characters unknowingly convey theological truths about Jesus. Two recognised prime examples are Caiaphas's declaration about Jesus' death for “the people” (11:49–52), and Pilate's question “What is truth?” as he stands before Jesus who has proclaimed himself as the Truth (18:38). In these texts we see many significant theological statements revealing the Christ as the Pre-existent Elohim of Israel, that took Israel out of Egypt and gave the Law to Moses and who was the prophesied Messiah.



by E.W. Bullinger



"BEHOLD YOUR GOD" (Isaiah 40:9). 

THE FORERUNNER. John 1:1-28 .


THE KINGDOM. John 1:35 - John 4:54 .

THE KING. John 5:1 - John 6:71 .

THE KING. John 7:1 - John 11:54 .

THE KINGDOM.  John 11:54 - John 18:1 .


THE SUCCESSORS. John 21:1-25 .


For the New Testament and the order of its Books, see Appdx-95.

For the Diversity of the Four Gospels, see Appdx-96 .

For the Unity of the Four Gospels, see Appdx-97.

For the Fourfold Ministry of the Lord, see Appdx-119.

For words peculiar to John's writings, see some 84 words recorded in the notes.


The Divine purpose in the Gospel by John is to present the Lord Jesus as God. [The subordinate God of Israel of Psalm 45:6-7 and Hebrews 1:8-9 ed.] This is the one great feature which constitutes the difference between this Gospel and the other three.


It has already been noted that in the first three Gospels the Lord Jesus is presented respectively as Israel's King, Jehovah's Servant, and the Ideal Man; and that those incidents, words, and works are selected, in each Gospel, which specially accord with such presentation.


Thus they present the Lord on the side of His perfect humanity. It is this that links them together, and is the real reason for their being what is called "Synoptic", and for the marked difference between them, taken together, and the fourth Gospel.


It would have been a real marvel had there been perfect similarity between the selected words and works which characterize the first three Gospels and those of the fourth, where the presentation is on the side of His Deity. That would indeed have presented an insoluble problem.


The differences which have been noted are not due to any peculiarity of literary style, or of individual character, but are necessitated by the special presentation of the Lord which is the design of each Gospel.


Hence, in the Structure of the fourth Gospel (above), when compared with the other three, it will be noted that there is no Temptation in the Wilderness, and no Agony in the Garden. The reason for this is obvious, for both would have been entirely out of place, and out of harmony with the purpose of the Gospel as a whole.


For the same reason, while the Transfiguration is recorded in the first three Gospels, no mention is made of it in John, the reason being that it concerned the sufferings and the earthly glory of the Son of man (Ap. 98, XVI and 149), while in John the presentation of the of the Son of God (Ap. 98 XV) is concerned with His heavenly and eternal glory.


The only incidents which John records in common with the first three Gospels are seven in number (Appdx-10), viz.: 

The Work of John the Baptist. 

The last Supper. 

The Anointing at Bethany. 

The Passion, and 

The Resurrection, and 

Two Miracles: the Feeding of the 5,000 and

Walking on the Sea. 


In the other Gospels, miracles are so called, or "mighty works", but in John they are always called "signs" (see Appdx-176), because they are recorded not as to their facts or their effects, but as to their number and signification.


In John it is the Person of the Lord that is presented, rather than His offices; and His ministry is mainly in Jerusalem and Judaea rather than in Galilee.


Hence the Lord's visits to the Feasts find a special place (John 2:13-3:21John 5:1John 7:10John 10:22John 11:55, &c.); while His ministry in Galilee is constantly assumed, rather than described (John 6:1John 7:1John 10:40).


These differences are due, not to the conditions of religious thought prevalent in John's day, but to the presentation of the Lord for all time. 



The purpose of the Holy Spirit by John, in his presentation of the Messiah, is to say to us and to all, "Behold your God" [Ps. 45:6-7 ed]; and His Deity is observed throughout this Gospel. See John 1:3John 1:14John 1:33John 1:34John 1:49John 3:13 , John 3:14 ; John 5:23John 5:26John 6:51John 6:62John 8:58John 13:33, &c. This is emphasized by the first and last references (John 1:1John 20:28John 20:31).


The same purpose and design are seen in the presentation of the Lord as having the Divine attribute of Omniscience. This is not entirely absent in the other Gospels; but it pervades the fourth Gospel, and is manifested by much more frequent reference (see Table on p. 1511 Companion Bible).


In this connection the presentation of the Lord as God required special words which are not needed and are not found in the other Gospels. Attention is called to some 84 in the notes. But of important words which are characteristic of this Gospel, and are found in other Gospels, the necessity of their more frequent use will be seen from the following examples which are set out below, and referred to in the notes. In most cases the number of the occurrences is more than in all the other three put together.


It is not only the use of certain words that characterizes this special presentation of the Lord, but the absence of others is equally instructive. For, as in Matthew and Luke the Lord is constantly addressed as "Lord", but not often in Mark, where it would not be in keeping with His presentation as Jehovah's servant ; so in John the Lord is never represented as praying to the Father as in the other Gospels, but always as saying or speaking to Him. This is a special characteristic of the fourth Gospel, wonderfully in harmony with its great design. On the other hand, prayer is specially required on the part of a king (as in Matthew) in respect of his delegated authority (Matthew 14:23Matthew 26:36Matthew 26:39Matthew 26:42Matthew 26:44); also on the part of a servant, in respect of His assumed subjection (Mark 1:35Mark 6:46Mark 14:32Mark 14:35Mark 14:39); and of an ideal Man in respect of his dependence upon God at all times (Luke 3:21 ; Luke 5:16Luke 6:12Luke 9:18Luke 9:28Luke 9:29Luke 11:1Luke 22:41Luke 22:46).


Thus, while in the first three Gospels the Lord is presented on the side of His humanity, as in prayer on eight occasions, not once is He so presented in John's Gospel. And the reason is obvious. Moreover, He "lays down" His life; no one takes it from Him. This occ. only in John 6:0 



John Chapters 1-4 (RSV)

Chapter 1

1In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 2He was in the beginning with God; 3all things were made through him, and without him was not anything made that was made. 4In him was life, and the life was the light of men. 5The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness has not overcome it. 6There was a man sent from God, whose name was John. 7He came for testimony, to bear witness to the light, that all might believe through him. 8He was not the light, but came to bear witness to the light. 9The true light that enlightens every man was coming into the world. 10He was in the world, and the world was made through him, yet the world knew him not. 11He came to his own home, and his own people received him not. 12But to all who received him, who believed in his name, he gave power to become children of God; 13who were born, not of blood nor of the will of the flesh nor of the will of man, but of God. 14And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, full of grace and truth; we have beheld his glory, glory as of the only Son from the Father. 15(John bore witness to him, and cried, "This was he of whom I said, 'He who comes after me ranks before me, for he was before me.'") 16And from his fulness have we all received, grace upon grace. 17For the law was given through Moses; grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. 18No one has ever seen God; the only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has made him known. 19And this is the testimony of John, when the Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, "Who are you?" 20He confessed, he did not deny, but confessed, "I am not the Christ." 21And they asked him, "What then? Are you Elijah?" He said, "I am not." "Are you the prophet?" And he answered, "No." 22They said to him then, "Who are you? Let us have an answer for those who sent us. What do you say about yourself?" 23He said, "I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness, 'Make straight the way of the Lord,' as the prophet Isaiah said." 24Now they had been sent from the Pharisees. 25They asked him, "Then why are you baptizing, if you are neither the Christ, nor Elijah, nor the prophet?" 26John answered them, "I baptize with water; but among you stands one whom you do not know, 27even he who comes after me, the thong of whose sandal I am not worthy to untie." 28This took place in Bethany beyond the Jordan, where John was baptizing. 29The next day he saw Jesus coming toward him, and said, "Behold, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world! 30This is he of whom I said, 'After me comes a man who ranks before me, for he was before me.' 31I myself did not know him; but for this I came baptizing with water, that he might be revealed to Israel." 32And John bore witness, "I saw the Spirit descend as a dove from heaven, and it remained on him. 33I myself did not know him; but he who sent me to baptize with water said to me, 'He on whom you see the Spirit descend and remain, this is he who baptizes with the Holy Spirit.' 34And I have seen and have borne witness that this is the Son of God." 35The next day again John was standing with two of his disciples; 36and he looked at Jesus as he walked, and said, "Behold, the Lamb of God!" 37The two disciples heard him say this, and they followed Jesus. 38Jesus turned, and saw them following, and said to them, "What do you seek?" And they said to him, "Rabbi" (which means Teacher), "where are you staying?" 39He said to them, "Come and see." They came and saw where he was staying; and they stayed with him that day, for it was about the tenth hour. 40One of the two who heard John speak, and followed him, was Andrew, Simon Peter's brother. 41He first found his brother Simon, and said to him, "We have found the Messiah" (which means Christ). 42He brought him to Jesus. Jesus looked at him, and said, "So you are Simon the son of John? You shall be called Cephas" (which means Peter). 43The next day Jesus decided to go to Galilee. And he found Philip and said to him, "Follow me." 44Now Philip was from Beth-sa'ida, the city of Andrew and Peter. 45Philip found Nathan'a-el, and said to him, "We have found him of whom Moses in the law and also the prophets wrote, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph." 46Nathan'a-el said to him, "Can anything good come out of Nazareth?" Philip said to him, "Come and see." 47Jesus saw Nathan'a-el coming to him, and said of him, "Behold, an Israelite indeed, in whom is no guile!" 48Nathan'a-el said to him, "How do you know me?" Jesus answered him, "Before Philip called you, when you were under the fig tree, I saw you." 49Nathan'a-el answered him, "Rabbi, you are the Son of God! You are the King of Israel!" 50Jesus answered him, "Because I said to you, I saw you under the fig tree, do you believe? You shall see greater things than these." 51And he said to him, "Truly, truly, I say to you, you will see heaven opened, and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of man."


Intent of Chapter 1

vv. 1-5 In the Beginning was the Word...

v. 1 The Logos is the Memra or Oracle of the OT. With God - the Greek means towards the God (see Concordant Literal New Testament. A. E. Knoch). The Word was distinct from the One True God.

En arche en ho logos Kai ho logos en pros ton Theon, kai theos en ho logos.

In the beginning was the word and the word was towards the God and a theos (god) was the word (or oracle).

There is no indefinite article in the Greek and hence it must be inferred, as some translators have done, based on the clear evidence of 1:18; and Ps. 45:6-7; and Heb. 1:8-9, which shows clearly that the subordinate God of Israel, the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, was Jesus Christ. Eloah, the Elyon, was also his God for whom he spoke. Christ, as Elohim of Israel, did not create the world. Job 38:4-7 (Ps. 33:6; Prov. 30:4-5) shows the One True God Eloah created the Earth and required all of the Sons of God and their Morning Star leaders be present when He did so. Satan and the entire Host were among them (Job 1:6; 2:1). These elohim were sent to refurbish or recreate the earth in Gen. 1:3, after it had become tohu and bohu in Gen. 1:1. God the Father did not create it that way. He formed it to be inhabited (Isa. 45:18). God therefore sent the sons of God as elohim to refurbish it, under the Messiah as elohim to enable the Plan of Salvation (No. 001A).

Bullinger in his notes to v. 1 below seems to try to explain the Koine text and make some sense in Trinitarianism. He later reportedly agreed with Knoch that the Trinitarian system was false and not explicable but he was by then too old to correct the error. The text en arche refers to the beginning of the Physical creation. The text does not imply eternality in the Sons of God. They were all created by the Father (see How God Became a Family (No. 187)). He alone is immortal, no man has ever seen him, or heard his voice (1Tim 6:16). 


God the Father reveals all things through the prophets using His Oracle, and the Holy Spirit (Amos 3:7-8). He also redeems the people through the prophets and His Word (Ps. 107:19-20). All the sons of God were Created by the Father who alone is eternal (1Tim. 6:16) (cf. How God Became a Family (No. 187)). See also the Shema (No. 002B). "’Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God is one LORD’. The Shema relates to the original Judeo-Christian worship of the one true God. The basic principle of the Shema in Deuteronomy 6:4 and Mark 12:28-34 (F041iii) is reflected in the singular aspect of God. This text has been used by Trinitarians and Binitarians to attempt to assert a unity to the elohim such that God and Christ are one elohim. However, this is false. The singularity of Eloah is absolute and does not include the son selected as Messiah, as Proverbs 30:4-5 shows. Indeed it includes none of the sons of God, of which there are, and always have been, many (Job 1:6; 2:1; 38:4-7).”

v. 3 Messiah was the Elohim sent over the Elohim Host to refurbish the earth after it became tohu and bohu in Gen. 1:1; Prov. 8:27-30; Col. 1:16-17; Heb. 1:2. He thus created the aion or age or kosmos, as is referred to elsewhere in the NT texts, and translated world. There are many mistranslations/forgeries regarding this matter (Nos. 164F and 164G).

v. 4 Apart from the Christ all creation, both physical (Col. 1:17) and spiritual would recede (or diminish) (5:39-40; 8:12). Here, in v. 5, the text refers to Messiah as the life and light of men and the darkness has not overcome it. This is the conflict between total evil and total good.


vv. 6-13 John the Baptist was sent by God to bear witness to the light.

vv. 6-8 This text says that John was a man sent from God. He was not the light but came to bear witness to the light. He was commissioned by God as promised under Mal. 3:1 but was not the Elijah promised under Mal. 4:5. However, Christ said he was in the Spirit of Elijah. He was sent to point to Christ in this critical period.

v. 9 The true light is real underived light contrasted with John who was a lamp (5:35).

v. 11 His own people (Judah) received him not.


1:14-18 God’s glory tabernacled in the flesh (in the human nature of the Messiah; as did His Grace (through redeeming love) and Truth (through faithfulness to His promises).  He made them available to all, and exhaustless grace upon grace, which was a fulfilment of the Law of God, as given to Moses, and did not in any way repudiate or do away with that Law of God that Christ gave to Moses.


The texts in 1-5 and 14-18 demand the Pre-existence of Jesus Christ (No. 243) and that was a basis of the First Century Faith, and this gospel.

v. 14 became Indicates the Word as Oracle of God, existed before he became man. John’s declaration in v. 15 shows he was pre-existent, as Christ was born six months later than John so he can have been before John, only if he were pre-existent (see the Age of Jesus Christ at his Baptism and the Duration of His Ministry (No. 019)). v. 17 The Law was given through Moses (by the Elohim of Israel of Deut. 32:8; Ps. 45:6-7; Heb. 1:8-9) who was appointed by Eloah the One True God. This Elohim or Theos was Jesus Christ, the Angel of the Presence that gave the Law to Moses (Acts 7:30-53) and who was with Israel in the wilderness (1Cor. 10:1-4). Grace and Truth came then through Jesus Christ.


v. 18 No one has ever seen God. The text says that God, no man has seen, never (see also 1Tim. 6:16). The Monogenes Theos, he being in the bosom of the father (meaning in complete communion), that one spoke.  The text says “only born god” and there is no doubt whatsoever in the Greek texts that Monogenes Theos is used, and meant. He was the only one of the Sons of God to be born in the flesh. He was the Oracle of God to Israel (see On the Words Monogenese Theos in Scripture and Tradition (B4)). 


The First and Second Century Church understood the Early Theology of the Godhead (No. 127). However, from the Third Century it began to be corrupted.  The priests of the Mystery and Sun cults introduced the Theology of the Binitarian structure of Baal Worship from the worship of Attis into the church in Rome in the Second and Third Centuries enforcing it in the end of the Fourth Century from 381 under Theodosius. (See Binitarian and Trinitarian Misrepresentation of the Early Theology of the Godhead (No. 127B).) The result was the Quartodeciman Disputes (No. 277) and the Unitarian/Trinitarian Wars (No. 268). See also The Origins of Christmas and Easter (No. 235).


vv. 19-28 John the Baptist declares his mission (Mat 3:1-12; Mk. 1:1-8; Lk. 3:1-18).

1:19-23 The Jews (Religious authorities) sent priests and Levites to John to determine who he was. He stated to them that he was not the Christ.  They knew that there was to be a messianic figure along the lines of the Priest Messiah of Aaron as portrayed by the Atonement figures of the Messiah of Aaron and the King Messiah of Israel (Atonement (No. 138) and Azazel and  Atonement (No. 214)). When he denied being the Messiah they then asked him if he were the other expected figures associated with the coming of the Messiah in the last days. They knew that God had told them that He would send them the prophet Elijah in the last days before the great and terrible Day of the Lord to turn the hearts of the fathers to the sons and the sons to the fathers lest He strike the earth with a curse (Mal. 4:5) (see also 2Kgs. 2:11). When John denied being Elijah (although Jesus later ascribed this role to him in a spiritual sense (Mat. 11:14 n; Mk. 9:13 n), they turned to the other expected prophet, and asked him: Are you the prophet then? This was not the second witness with Elijah we see in Revelation 11:3ff. That came to be associated with Enoch as the Second  Witness (F066iii)  (see No. 135 and No. 141D). He was also taken (Gen. 5:24), as was Elijah, by the chariot of God. The prophet to whom the priests and Levites were referring was the prophet to be sent as the last voice of the Elect of the Israel of God, before the Witnesses at the advent of the King Messiah (No. 210A and 210B).  This was the prophet of Dan in Ephraim foretold by God in Jeremiah 4:15-27 who was to warn the Nations of the Advent of the Messiah and the Wars of the Last Days (see the Warning of the Last Days (No. 044)). Based on the prophecy in Jeremiah, this prophet was the prophet expected before Elijah, but was to warn of the coming of the Messiah, the “he” of Jeremiah 4:16 (RSV). The Roman Catholic prophets foretold this figure, in the 13th to 15th Centuries, as an iconoclast of the tribe of Dan. They said that he came from an Israelite country to the east of Jerusalem between two seas. He was stated to be a soldier in his youth who was wounded in the head. The prophecies appear to have been removed from general promulgation in the late 20th Century, for obvious reasons, especially in view of the texts of Revelation chs. 6-20 (see F066ii, F066iii, F066iv, F066v). Their prophets have also foretold the end of their system under the papacy in the immediate future, at the Return of the Messiah (see The Last Pope No. 288)). The sequence of Bible prophecies are all given in the text Completion of the Sign of Jonah (No. 013B). The world then begins the Millennial Re-education under the Messiah for the Twenty Jubilees from the First Resurrection (No. 143A) to the Second Resurrection (No. 143B) and then until mankind is completed, and its purpose ended, and the Elect are all Elohim (No. 001) or have faced The Second Death (No. 143C).


vv. 24-28 They then asked John: Then why are you baptising if you are neither Christ, nor Elijah nor the prophet (of Dan). In other words: why are you performing an official rite without any official status as a prophet or authority?

John then answered them and told them of the Messiah, and said: “the thong of whose sandal I am not worthy to untie.” This took place in Bethany beyond the Jordan where John was baptising.

vv. 29-34 Baptism with  water; v. 33 Baptism of Jesus (Mat. 3:13-17; Mk. 1:9-11; Lk. 3:21-22).

The next day John saw the Christ and declared him to be the Lamb of God. He was identified by the Spirit as he who baptises with the Holy Spirit.  John testified that he has seen and bore witness that he was the son of God.


vv. 35-51 The first disciples follow Jesus

Here John identifies Jesus as the Lamb of God and two of his disciples then followed the Messiah. One of the two was Andrew, Simon Peter’s brother. v. 39 The Tenth Hour ca 4PM. v.41 Andrew then went to Peter and said we have found the Messiah (Christ). v. 42 He then brought him to Jesus. Christ identified him and named him Cephas (Peter). Cephas (Gk. Peter) in Aramaic means Stone, (or also rockhead cf. Lamsa n. re The Peshitta).

vv. 43-51 Philip & Nathanael 

The next day Jesus decided to go to Galilee and found Philip, who was from Bethsaida, the same village as Andrew and Peter were from. Philip then found Nathanael.  He said: “we have found him of whom Moses in the Law and of whom the prophets wrote: Jesus of Nazareth the son of Joseph.” Nathanael said: “Can anything good come out of Nazareth?” Christ then met him and spoke to him of things of which he should have had no knowledge. Nathanael was, by that, convinced he was the son of God and the King of Israel. Christ then told him that he would see heaven opened and angels ascending and descending on the Son of Man.

v. 45 The OT points to Christ in its prophetic structure and purpose. v. 46 Nathanael – Probably the same person as Bartholomew (Mat. 10:3; Mk. 3:18; Lk. 6:14), lived in Cana near Nazareth (21:2). v. 47 No guile No qualities of Jacob before he became Israel (Gen. 27:35; 32:28).

v. 51 What Jacob saw in vision (Gen. 28:12) is now reality in Jesus. Son of man - a messenger from heaven to make God known (3:13); and to be the final judge (5:27; Mk. 2:10 n). 


(See The Pre-Existence of Jesus Christ (No. 243))


Chapter 2

1On the third day there was a marriage at Cana in Galilee, and the mother of Jesus was there; 2Jesus also was invited to the marriage, with his disciples. 3When the wine failed, the mother of Jesus said to him, "They have no wine." 4And Jesus said to her, "O woman, what have you to do with me? My hour has not yet come." 5His mother said to the servants, "Do whatever he tells you." 6Now six stone jars were standing there, for the Jewish rites of purification, each holding twenty or thirty gallons. 7Jesus said to them, "Fill the jars with water." And they filled them up to the brim. 8He said to them, "Now draw some out, and take it to the steward of the feast." So they took it. 9When the steward of the feast tasted the water now become wine, and did not know where it came from (though the servants who had drawn the water knew), the steward of the feast called the bridegroom 10and said to him, "Every man serves the good wine first; and when men have drunk freely, then the poor wine; but you have kept the good wine until now." 11This, the first of his signs, Jesus did at Cana in Galilee, and manifested his glory; and his disciples believed in him. 12After this he went down to Caper'na-um, with his mother and his brothers and his disciples; and there they stayed for a few days. 13The Passover of the Jews was at hand, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem. 14In the temple he found those who were selling oxen and sheep and pigeons, and the money-changers at their business. 15And making a whip of cords, he drove them all, with the sheep and oxen, out of the temple; and he poured out the coins of the money-changers and overturned their tables. 16And he told those who sold the pigeons, "Take these things away; you shall not make my Father's house a house of trade." 17His disciples remembered that it was written, "Zeal for thy house will consume me." 18The Jews then said to him, "What sign have you to show us for doing this?" 19Jesus answered them, "Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up." 20The Jews then said, "It has taken forty-six years to build this temple, and will you raise it up in three days?" 21But he spoke of the temple of his body. 22When therefore he was raised from the dead, his disciples remembered that he had said this; and they believed the scripture and the word which Jesus had spoken. 23Now when he was in Jerusalem at the Passover feast, many believed in his name when they saw the signs which he did; 24but Jesus did not trust himself to them, 25because he knew all men and needed no one to bear witness of man; for he himself knew what was in man.


Intent of Chapter 2

vv. 1-11 Marriage in Cana of Galilee; Jesus turns water into wine

The Wedding at Cana is explained in the paper Significance of the Wedding at Cana in Galilee (No. 050).

Much has been made of this event and many comments made re the wine produced. The significance is also examined in the text Wine in the Bible (No. 188).  

Other aspects are examined in the texts: Vegetarianism and the Bible (No. 183) for other pagan Gnostic elements intruding into Judah. For God’s Law on food see the Food Laws (No. 015).

Note that here he was asked to perform a miracle and it was not yet his time, as he said to his mother (O woman 19:26). His manifestation was determined by God, not Maryam’s desires. His final manifestation was on the stauros (7:30; 8:20; 12:23, 27; 13:1; 17:1

v. 6 Rites of Purification were ceremonial (see Purification and Circumcision (No. 251)).

v. 8 Steward – head waiter or toast master.

v. 11 The miracles were signs pointing to his glory with God’s power in him through the Holy Spirit (No. 117). The first sign The second sign was at 4:46-54.

v. 12 Brothers see also the notes Mat. 13:55 n. See also the text The Virgin Maryam and the Family of Jesus Christ (No. 232).


2:13-25 Jesus clears the temple

(compare Mat. 21:12-17; Mk. 11:15-19; Lk. 19:45-48).

v. 14 Animals were sold for sacrifice. Roman money was changed into Jewish money to pay the Temple tax.

vv. 15-16 The reaction was not an outburst of temper but of righteous anger at religious leaders to whom the faith had become a business.

My father’s house is a claim to his lordship.

v. 17 Ps. 69:9.

2:23-25 Faith which rests on such a fickle basis is unstable and the Christ did not trust himself to them.


The Cleansing of the Temple (No. 241B) is part of the Sanctification process and Christ and the Apostles and the church undertook this Sanctification for centuries. See the papers Sanctification of the Nations (No. 077); Sanctification of the Temple of God (No. 241); Sanctification of the Simple and Erroneous (No. 291) (see also Annex A to No. 291 for the Fast of 7 Abib kept by the church). The Sardis system over the last few centuries lost sight of the Sanctification process and especially under the Idol Shepherd (Zech. 11:17) in the Twentieth Century.


Chapter 3

1Now there was a man of the Pharisees, named Nicode'mus, a ruler of the Jews. 2This man came to Jesus by night and said to him, "Rabbi, we know that you are a teacher come from God; for no one can do these signs that you do, unless God is with him." 3Jesus answered him, "Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born anew, he cannot see the kingdom of God." 4Nicode'mus said to him, "How can a man be born when he is old? Can he enter a second time into his mother's womb and be born?" 5Jesus answered, "Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter the kingdom of God. 6That which is born of the flesh is flesh, and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit. 7Do not marvel that I said to you, 'You must be born anew.' 8The wind blows where it wills, and you hear the sound of it, but you do not know whence it comes or whither it goes; so it is with every one who is born of the Spirit." 9Nicode'mus said to him, "How can this be?" 10Jesus answered him, "Are you a teacher of Israel, and yet you do not understand this? 11Truly, truly, I say to you, we speak of what we know, and bear witness to what we have seen; but you do not receive our testimony. 12If I have told you earthly things and you do not believe, how can you believe if I tell you heavenly things? 13No one has ascended into heaven but he who descended from heaven, the Son of man. 14And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, so must the Son of man be lifted up, 15that whoever believes in him may have eternal life." 16For God so loved the world that he gave his only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish but have eternal life. 17For God sent the Son into the world, not to condemn the world, but that the world might be saved through him. 18He who believes in him is not condemned; he who does not believe is condemned already, because he has not believed in the name of the only Son of God. 19And this is the judgment, that the light has come into the world, and men loved darkness rather than light, because their deeds were evil. 20For every one who does evil hates the light, and does not come to the light, lest his deeds should be exposed. 21But he who does what is true comes to the light, that it may be clearly seen that his deeds have been wrought in God. 22After this Jesus and his disciples went into the land of Judea; there he remained with them and baptized. 23John also was baptizing at Ae'non near Salim, because there was much water there; and people came and were baptized. 24For John had not yet been put in prison. 25Now a discussion arose between John's disciples and a Jew over purifying. 26And they came to John, and said to him, "Rabbi, he who was with you beyond the Jordan, to whom you bore witness, here he is, baptizing, and all are going to him." 27John answered, "No one can receive anything except what is given him from heaven. 28You yourselves bear me witness, that I said, I am not the Christ, but I have been sent before him. 29He who has the bride is the bridegroom; the friend of the bridegroom, who stands and hears him, rejoices greatly at the bridegroom's voice; therefore this joy of mine is now full. 30He must increase, but I must decrease." 31He who comes from above is above all; he who is of the earth belongs to the earth, and of the earth he speaks; he who comes from heaven is above all. 32He bears witness to what he has seen and heard, yet no one receives his testimony; 33he who receives his testimony sets his seal to this, that God is true. 34For he whom God has sent utters the words of God, for it is not by measure that he gives the Spirit; 35the Father loves the Son, and has given all things into his hand. 36He who believes in the Son has eternal life; he who does not obey the Son shall not see life, but the wrath of God rests upon him.


Intent of Chapter 3

3:1-21 Nicodemus visits Jesus at night

v. 1 The Pharisees as a sect believed in the Resurrection, the Sadducees did not believe so. A ruler – a member of the Sanhedrin (see 11:47 n).

v. 3 The Kingdom of God is entered not by moral achievement but by the Predestination (No. 296) and transformation of God (Rom. 8:29-30).

v. 5 Birth into the New Order of the Kingdom of God is by water through baptism (1:33; Eph. 5:26) and through the Holy Spirit (No. 117) by the laying on of hands. See Repentance and Baptism (No. 052).

v. 6 that which is born of the Spirit is Spirit.

vv. 8-9 The wind blows where it will. The Greek word for wind and spirit is the same and that is the significance being developed here with Nicodemus (see also Ezek. 37:5-10) (perhaps through the Aramaic also, but the text is in Greek).

v. 12 Earthly things such as the parable of the wind, heavenly things such as spiritual realities.

vv. 13-15 Jesus Descended from Heaven to bring Eternal Life (No. 133) and participation in God’s Being through his being lifted up on the stauros or stake (as in the wilderness Num. 21:9).

Note that here Christ said that no person has ever ascended into heaven save Christ who came down from heaven.

3:16 Luther called this verse the gospel in miniature. It extends service through sacrifice in love to all the creation.

3:17-21 God’s purpose was to create man and save him. Men judge themselves by hiding their evil deeds from the Holiness and Justice of Christ.

He who does what is true comes to the light that it may be clearly seen that his deeds have been wrought in God. These are then clear evidence of  Repentance and Baptism in the Holy Spirit, and the fact that God puts the sins of men as far as the east is from the west (Ps. 103:12).

3:22-36 Further testimony of John the Baptist re Jesus (compare 1:19-34).

vv. 22; 26 Jesus did not directly baptise anyone;

cf. also 4:1-2 .... (although Jesus himself did not baptize, but only his disciples).

v. 24 John the Baptist in prison Mat. 4:12, 14:3; Mk. 1:14, 6:17; Lk. 3:19-20.

Eternal Life (No.133)

v. 25 Purifying - Ceremonies (see also Purification and Circumcision (No. 251)).

vv. 27-29 John was the Friend of the bridegroom, bringing Israel the bride, to Christ the bridegroom.

See also Israel as the Plan of God (No. 001B) and Israel as the Vineyard of God (No. 001C).



v. 32 The Son comes from above and bears witness to the truth but No one believes his testimony.  No one  - A castigation of the Jews and their corrupted religious system. v. 34 He whom God has sent utters the words of God. (This was a testimony of the author and those with him that they truly believed the words of the Christ.) For God does not give the Spirit by measure. He loves the son and has given all things into his hand (v. 35). v. 36 He who believes in the Son has Eternal life (No. 133). He who does not obey the son shall not see life, but the Wrath of God rests on him.


Chapter 4

1Now when the Lord knew that the Pharisees had heard that Jesus was making and baptizing more disciples than John 2(although Jesus himself did not baptize, but only his disciples), 3he left Judea and departed again to Galilee. 4He had to pass through Samar'ia. 5So he came to a city of Samar'ia, called Sy'char, near the field that Jacob gave to his son Joseph. 6Jacob's well was there, and so Jesus, wearied as he was with his journey, sat down beside the well. It was about the sixth hour. 7There came a woman of Samar'ia to draw water. Jesus said to her, "Give me a drink." 8For his disciples had gone away into the city to buy food. 9The Samaritan woman said to him, "How is it that you, a Jew, ask a drink of me, a woman of Samar'ia?" For Jews have no dealings with Samaritans. 10Jesus answered her, "If you knew the gift of God, and who it is that is saying to you, 'Give me a drink,' you would have asked him, and he would have given you living water." 11The woman said to him, "Sir, you have nothing to draw with, and the well is deep; where do you get that living water? 12Are you greater than our father Jacob, who gave us the well, and drank from it himself, and his sons, and his cattle?" 13Jesus said to her, "Every one who drinks of this water will thirst again, 14but whoever drinks of the water that I shall give him will never thirst; the water that I shall give him will become in him a spring of water welling up to eternal life." 15The woman said to him, "Sir, give me this water, that I may not thirst, nor come here to draw." 16Jesus said to her, "Go, call your husband, and come here." 17The woman answered him, "I have no husband." Jesus said to her, "You are right in saying, 'I have no husband'; 18for you have had five husbands, and he whom you now have is not your husband; this you said truly." 19The woman said to him, "Sir, I perceive that you are a prophet. 20Our fathers worshiped on this mountain; and you say that in Jerusalem is the place where men ought to worship." 21Jesus said to her, "Woman, believe me, the hour is coming when neither on this mountain nor in Jerusalem will you worship the Father. 22You worship what you do not know; we worship what we know, for salvation is from the Jews. 23But the hour is coming, and now is, when the true worshipers will worship the Father in spirit and truth, for such the Father seeks to worship him. 24God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth." 25The woman said to him, "I know that Messiah is coming (he who is called Christ); when he comes, he will show us all things." 26Jesus said to her, "I who speak to you am he." 27Just then his disciples came. They marvelled that he was talking with a woman, but none said, "What do you wish?" or, "Why are you talking with her?" 28So the woman left her water jar, and went away into the city, and said to the people, 29"Come, see a man who told me all that I ever did. Can this be the Christ?" 30They went out of the city and were coming to him. 31Meanwhile the disciples besought him, saying, "Rabbi, eat." 32But he said to them, "I have food to eat of which you do not know." 33So the disciples said to one another, "Has any one brought him food?" 34Jesus said to them, "My food is to do the will of him who sent me, and to accomplish his work. 35Do you not say, 'There are yet four months, then comes the harvest'? I tell you, lift up your eyes, and see how the fields are already white for harvest. 36He who reaps receives wages, and gathers fruit for eternal life, so that sower and reaper may rejoice together. 37For here the saying holds true, 'One sows and another reaps.' 38I sent you to reap that for which you did not labor; others have labored, and you have entered into their labor." 39Many Samaritans from that city believed in him because of the woman's testimony, "He told me all that I ever did." 40So when the Samaritans came to him, they asked him to stay with them; and he stayed there two days. 41And many more believed because of his word. 42They said to the woman, "It is no longer because of your words that we believe, for we have heard for ourselves, and we know that this is indeed the Savior of the world." 43After the two days he departed to Galilee. 44For Jesus himself testified that a prophet has no honor in his own country. 45So when he came to Galilee, the Galileans welcomed him, having seen all that he had done in Jerusalem at the feast, for they too had gone to the feast. 46So he came again to Cana in Galilee, where he had made the water wine. And at Caper'na-um there was an official whose son was ill. 47When he heard that Jesus had come from Judea to Galilee, he went and begged him to come down and heal his son, for he was at the point of death. 48Jesus therefore said to him, "Unless you see signs and wonders you will not believe." 49The official said to him, "Sir, come down before my child dies." 50Jesus said to him, "Go; your son will live." The man believed the word that Jesus spoke to him and went his way. 51As he was going down, his servants met him and told him that his son was living. 52So he asked them the hour when he began to mend, and they said to him, "Yesterday at the seventh hour the fever left him." 53The father knew that was the hour when Jesus had said to him, "Your son will live"; and he himself believed, and all his household. 54This was now the second sign that Jesus did when he had come from Judea to Galilee.


Intent of Chapter 4

vv. 1-26 Jesus talks to a woman at the well.

vv. 1-3  The Pharisees hostile to John now turn on Jesus, so he departed for Galilee.

v. 4 Samaria was north of Judea and separated Judea from Galilee, the kingdom of Herod Antipas. It had a mixed people (Acts 8:5 n) including Cutheans and Medes brought in by the northern powers of Assyria. The woman claims descent from Jacob but Christ seems to concentrate on the claims of Judah. The well of Jacob gives them a commonality and is an appropriate place for him to open up a dialogue concerning his message of salvation and it being the step forward to salvation being extended to the gentiles as Jacob stated was the purpose of Ephraim at Gen. 48:15-19 when he blessed Joseph (see also Gen. 33:19; 48:22; Josh. 24:32). It was about midday.

vv. 7-9 Jesus asked her to give him a drink. She was surprised he would do that as Jews normally had no dealings at all with Samaritans. Rabbis also avoided speaking to women in public. Jews also held Samaritans in contempt as religious apostates (2Kgs. 24:17-34).

v. 10 He then began a discussion of if she had known who he was she would have asked for living waters implying the power of the Holy Spirit and Salvation thus being open to the Gentiles.  Living water Jer. 2:13; 17:13

v. 11 She did not understand and saw he had nothing with which to draw water. v. 12 She asked if he was greater that their father Jacob. That was exactly what Jacob had blessed Joseph in invoking the very elohim and angel of Redemption that he had invoked at Gen. 48:15ff. 

v. 14 Christ continues on with his gift, the water of life and the source of eternal life. v. 15 She then asked for the water so she did not have to come there to draw, not understanding the import.

v. 16 Jesus then asked her a test question and said go and call your husband and tell him to come here. v. 17 She said: “I have no husband”, being in a defacto relationship. Christ was not fooled.  He said you spoke correctly saying you have had five husbands and the one you are living with is not your husband. He thus effectively defined the laws on marriage and remarriage in one sentence (Marriage (No. 289)).

v. 19 The woman then turned the subject to the place of worship as the differences were a matter of conjecture but he said that the time would come when they would not be able to worship on either mountain (Mt Gerizim was where the Samaritans had a Temple). Note he said in v. 22 that salvation was from the Jews rather than with the Jews and thus was extending salvation to the Gentiles. He then turned the worship of the Father to be in Spirit and in truth. Place was unimportant. v. 25 She said that she knew the Messiah was coming and he will show us all things. v. 26 He then said to her that he was the Messiah (I who speak to you am he).   


vv. 27-38 Jesus tells about the spiritual harvest

At this time his disciples came and marvelled that he was speaking with a woman. They made no comment being puzzled and the woman left the water jar (no doubt to help them) and went away into the city telling them of the actions of what might possibly be the Messiah, and called them to come and see him.  v. 30 they then went out of the city and came to see him. This was undoubtedly his purpose in initiating the conversation with salvation extended to the Gentiles as the text goes on to develop.

vv. 31-38 In this text Christ speaks parabolically and then tells the apostles that the fields are white to  harvest. Salvation is of the Gentiles. He who reaps receives wages and gathers fruit for eternal life. He tells them that he sent them to reap that for which they did not labour. Others laboured and they have entered into that labour.

vv. 39-42 Many Samaritans believed based on the woman’s testimony. They asked him to stay with them and he stayed for two days and because of his testimony they were convinced and proclaimed him the saviour of the world and thus of the gentiles and all men.

vv. 43-45 Jesus preaches in Galilee and to the gentiles  (Mat. 4:12-17; Mk. 1:14-15; Lk. 4:14-15) (illustrating v. 42 compare Isa. 43:3,11; 45:22).

He then went on into Galilee. He had testified that a Prophet has no honour in his own country (v. 44). v. 45 The Galileans welcomed him based on what they had seen him do in Jerusalem.

vv. 46-54 Jesus heals a Government official’s son.

Jesus then went to Cana and then on to Capernaum where an official’s son was ill (probably a gentile military officer (v. 46). When he heard that he had come from Judea to Galilee he went and begged Christ to heal the lad as he was near death. Christ said to them unless you see signs and wonders you will not believe (the you is plural here addressed to the audience and all who base faith on mere signs (comp. v. 45). The official said: “Sir, come down before my child dies.” (He was anxious for the life of his child, not in a display.) Having tested his faith, Christ then said: Go! Your son will live. His faith was rewarded. On his way home his servants met him and told him that his son had began to mend. He asked them when it had begun to mend and they told him it was the previous day at the Seventh hour (1 p.m.). This was the time in which Messiah had said his son would live. Thus testing his faith and acting on that faith, he remained with the Messiah, as his home was only 18 miles away but he did not return until the next day (comp. v. 52) believing he was healed. By that act, and his faith in Christ, his entire household was converted and Salvation was extended to the Gentiles (v. 53). He believed whole heartedly).

v. 54 This was the Second Sign he had done when he came from Judea to Galilee (see 2:1-11).


Bullinger’s Notes on John Chs. 1-4 (for KJV)

Chapter 1

Verse 1

In the beginning. Greek. en ( App-104 .) arche. Occurs four times in the N.T. (Compare Genesis 1:1 ). The context will always supply the dependent word (where it is not expressed). Here, and in John 1:2 , supply "[of the aions = ages "]; for the Logos then "was", and the aims were prepared by Him (Hebrews 1:2 ; Hebrews 11:3 ). In Acts 11:15 supply "[of our ministry" (John 2:4 )]. In Philippians 4:15 supply "[the proclamation of] the Gospel". For the combination of arche, with other prepositions, see notes on John 6:64 ("ex arches"); on John 8:44 (" ap' arches"); on Hebrews 1:10 ("kat' arches").

was = was [already pre-existent]. Creation is not mentioned till John 1:3 . "The Word had no beginning". See John 1:3 ; John 17:5 . 1 John 1:1 .Ephesians 1:4 .Proverbs 8:23. Psalms 90:2 . Compare John 8:58 . Not the same "was "as in John 1:14 .

the Word . Greek. Logos. As the spoken word reveals the invisible thought, so the Living Word reveals the invisible God. Compare John 1:18 .

and . Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton. App-6 . with. Greek. pros. App-104 . Implying personal presence and relation. Compare John 1:18 .

God. With the Art. = the revealed God of the Bible. App-98 .

the Word was God . This is correct. The Art. designates "the Word" as the subject. The order of the words has to do only with the emphasis, which is thus placed on the predicate, while "the Word "is the subject.

was God . Here "God "is without the Art., because it denotes the conception of God as Infinite, Eternal, Perfect, Almighty, &c. Contrast John 4:24 .

[See the notes on chapter 1 Above that deals with this error of Bullinger’s.  The indefinite article should be inferred here as the word is the only born God of v. 18 – ed].


Verse 2

The same = This [Word], or He.


Verse 3

All things. Referring to the infinite detail of creation. '

were made = came into being. Not the same word as in John 1:1 .

by = through. Greek. dia. App-104 .John 1:1 . As in Romans 11:36 . Colossians 1:16 . Hebrews 1:2 .

and without , &c. Note the Figure of speech Pleonasm. App-6 .

without = apart from.

was = came into being. Not the same word as in John 1:1 .

not any thing = not even one thing. Greek oude, compound of ou. App-105 .

was made = hath come into being.


Verse 4

life . Greek. zoe. App-170 .: i.e. the fountain of life. Hence 1Jn 5:11 , 1 John 5:12 , and Psalms 36:8 , manifested (John 1:4 ); obtained (John 3:16 ); possessed (John 4:14 ); sustained (John 6:35 ); ministered (John 7:38 ); abounding (John 10:10 ); resurrection (John 11:24 , John 11:25 ). A characteristic word of this Gospel. See note on p. 1511.

the light. Not a light. Compare John 8:12 . Greek phos. App-130 . A characteristic word of this Gospel. See note on p. 1511.

men . Greek. Plural of anthropos. App-123 .


Verse 5

shineth . Greek. phaino. App-106 .

darkness = the darkness. Pre supposing the Fall. Genesis 3:18 .

comprehended it . This is direct from the Vulgate. The Greek kata is so rendered only here. It means, overcame or overpowered Him not. See 1 Thessalonians 5:4 (overtake). Mark 9:18 . Mark 8:3 , Mark 8:4 (take); John 12:35 (come upon hostilely).

it. Referring grammatically to phos, the light (neuter); but logically to the Word. Quoted by Tatian (AD 150-170), Greek t. ad Graecos, xiii. Note the Figure of speech Parechesis ( App-6 ) in the Aramaic (not in the Greek or English), "darkness comprehended". Aramaean. k'bel kabel.

not . Greek. ou. App-105 .


Verse 6

There was = There arose. Not the same word as in John 1:1 .

sent. Compare Malachi 3:1 . Greek apostello ( App-174 .), whence we have our "Apostle" = one sent. John not only came, but was "sent".

from = from beside. Greek para. App-104 . Not "by", but from. Compare John 15:26 .

God . No Art. Compare John 1:1 . App-98 .

John : i.e. John the Baptist; the John of the narrative, not of the Gospel. Occurs twenty times, and is never distinguished by the title "Baptist", as in Matthew, Mark, and Luke.


Verse 7

for a witness : i.e. with a view to bearing witness; not merely to be a witness. That would be martur (mart us, as in Acts 1:8 , Acts 1:22 , &c.) This is marturia = a bearing witness. Greek. eis. App-104 . Not the same word as in John 1:16 .

to bear witness = in order that (Greek. hina) he might bear witness. Greek martureo, a characteristic word of this Gospel. See note on p. 1611,

witness . Greek marturia, a characteristic word of this Gospel.

of = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104 .

that = in order that. Greek hina. Often found in John.

all : i.e. all, without distinction.

through . Greek dia. App-104 .John 1:1 .

him . John the Baptist. Compare John 5:33 .Acts 10:37 ; Acts 13:24 .

believe. See App-150 . A characteristic word of this Gospel. See note on p. 1611.


Verse 8

he = That one. Compare John 2:21 .

that Light = the Light. Compare John 9:5 ; John 12:35 .

was sent. Supply "came" from John 1:7 .


Verse 9

That, &c. Render: [He] was the true (or very) Light, that which, coming into the world, lighteneth every man (without distinction). We should connect this "coming" with "the Light "(with Revised Version): because "coming into the world" is continually associated with the Lord. See John 3:19 ; John 6:14 ; John 9:39 ; John 11:27 ; John 12:46 ; John 16:28 ; John 18:37 . Note esp. John 3:19 and John 12:46 . Many lamps found in the tombs at Gezer (1 Kings 9:15-17 ) have inscribed on them "The light of Messiah shines for all".

true = very. Greek alethinos. App-175 . A characteristic word of this Gospel. See note on p. 1511.

every man: i, e. without distinction, as the sun shines on all (Matthew 5:45 , &c.) Greek. panta anthropon. Not collectively, but individually and personally. For centuries Israel only had this light, and Gentiles were the exception. Henceforth there was to be no dis tinction. Gentiles were to be blessed with Abraham's seed in the days of Messiah. Compare Genesis 12:3 .Romans 15:8-12 .

into . Greek. eis. App-104 .

world . Greek. kosmos. App-129 . A characteristic word in this Gospel. See note on p. 1511.


Verse 10

was made = came into being.

knew. Greek. ginosko. App-132 . One of the characteristic words of this Gospel. See p. 1511.


Verse 11

He came. Denoting the definite historical fact. unto. Greek. eis. App-104 .

His own. Neut. plural: i.e. His own things, or posses sions. Supply ktemata (possessions), as in Matthew 19:22 . Compare Matthew 21:33-41 . What these "possessions" were must be supplied from Matthew 1:1 , viz, the land of Abraham, and the throne of David.

His own. Masculine plural: i.e. His own People (Israel).

received = received (to themselves).


Verse 12

as many as : John 1:9 is collective; John 1:12 is individual.

received = accepted (from a giver). Not the same word as in John 1:11 .

power = authority. App-172 .

the sons = children. Greek. Plural of teknon. Not "sons". In John the word huios = son, is mostly reserved for the Lord Himself. See note 2, p. 1511. In John teknon Occurs only here, John 8:39 , and John 11:52 . App-108 . Paul uses both "children "and "sons, "of believers, but John uses the former only. See note 2 in the book comments for John.

believe = [are] believing. App-150 . See note on John 1:7 .

on . Greek. eis. App-104 .

His name : i.e. Himself. See note on Psalms 20:1 .


Verse 13

Which = Who: i.e. those who believe on His name. But antecedent to any ancient MSS., Irenaeus (A.D. 178), Tertullian (A. n. 208), Augustine (A.D. 395), and other Fathers, read "Who was begotten" (Singular, not Plural) The "hos" (= Who) agreeing with "autou" (His name. Greek. onoma autou, name of Him). John 1:14 goes on to speak of the incarnation of Him Who was not begotten by human generation. The Latin Codex Veronensis (before Jerome's Vulgate) reads, " Qui . . . natus est". Tertullian (De carne Christi, c. 19) says that "believers" could not be intended in this verse, "since all who believe are born of blood", &c. He ascribes the reading of the Received text to the artifice of the Valentinian Gnostics of the second and third cents.) See Encyl. Brit., eleventh (Camb.) edn., vol. 27, pp. 852-7.

born = begotten. See note on Matthew 1:2 , and App-179 .

of = out of, or from. Greek ek. App-104 . Not the same word as in verses: John 7:8 , John 7:14 , John 7:15 , John 7:22 , John 7:44 , John 7:47 .

blood . It is plural (bloods) for emphasis, ace. to Hebrew idiom, as in 2 Samuel 16:7 , 2 Samuel 16:8 . Psalms 26:9 .

nor = nor yet. Greek. oude.

will . Greek. thelema. App-102 .

flesh. A characteristic word of this Gospel. See p. 1511.

man. Greek. aner. App-123 .


Verse 14

And, &c. Continuing John 1:13 , and showing that John 1:13 also relates to the Word.

was made = became, as in John 1:3 .

flesh. See note on John 1:13 . The new mode of His being. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the Part), App-6 , for His humanity.

dwelt = tabernacled. Occurs only here, Revelation 7:15 ; Revelation 12:12 ; Revelation 13:6 ; Revelation 21:3 . See App-179 .

among . Greek. en. App-104 .

and we, &c. For other similar parenthetical remarks characteristic of this Gospel, See verses: John 1:38 , John 1:41 , John 1:42 , Joh 38:44 ; John 2:9 ; John 2:8 , John 2:9 , Joh 2:44 , Joh 2:45 ; John 5:2 ; John 6:10 , John 6:23 ; John 7:2 , John 7:39 , John 7:50 ; John 9:7 ; John 11:2 ; John 19:31 ; John 21:7 , John 21:8 .

beheld. Greek. theaomai. App-133 . Not the same word as in verses: John 1:29 , John 1:36 , John 1:42 , Joh 29:47 . Compare Luke 9:32 . 2Pe 1:16 . 1 John 1:1 ; 1 John 4:14 .

glory. The Shekinah. See Luke 9:32 . 2 Peter 1:17 . Greek. doxa. One of the characteristic words of this Gospel.

the glory = glory. No Art. Note the Figure of speech Anadiplosis, App-6 .

as of = exactly like.

the only begotten = an only begotten [Son]. As applied to Christ it Occurs only here, John 1:18 ; John 3:16 , John 3:18 ; 1 John 4:9 . But it is used of an earthly relationship in Luke 7:12 ; Luke 8:42 ; Luke 9:38 . Hebrews 11:17 . Septuagint for "only One", Psalms 25:16 . See note there.

of = from beside: i.e. (sent) from beside. Greek. para. App-104 . Not the same word as in verses: John 1:13 , John 1:15 , John 1:16 , John 13:22 , John 13:34 , John 13:35 , Joh 13:40 , Joh 13:44 , Joh 13:47 .

Father. See App-98 . A characteristic word of this Gospel. Occurs 121 times.

full = abounding in.

grace and truth . A Hebraism for the sum of Divine revelation. Hebrew. chesed vehemeth. See Genesis 24:27 ; Genesis 32:10 . Exodus 34:6 . Psalms 40:10 , Psalms 40:11 ; Psalms 61:7 .

truth. A characteristic word of this Gospel.


Verse 15

cried = hath cried aloud. was. As in John 1:1 .

after me . In the order of ministry.

is preferred before me = had being before me (as to time).

for = because.

before me = first: i.e. (already) before me.


Verse 16

And. The texts read "For", but not the Syriac.

fulness . Greek pleroma.

all the. The Evangelist speaks here, not the Baptist.

grace for grace = grace in place of grace; new grace, continuous, and unintermitted. Ever fresh grace according to the need.

for = over against. Greek anti. App-104 .


Verse 17

Moses. The first of 13 occurances in John (John 1:17 , John 1:45 ; John 3:14 ; John 5:45 , John 5:46 ; John 6:32 ; John 7:19 , John 7:22 , John 7:22 , John 7:23 ; John 8:5 ; John 9:28 , John 9:29 ). grace and truth. In the days of Moses there was grace (Ex. Joh 34:6 , Joh 34:7 ), and the law itself was an exhibition of truth; but when Jesus Christ came, He was Himself the Truth, i.e. the very personification of truth (14. 6), and His life and death were the supreme manifestation of grace.

Jesus Christ. See App-98 . d


Verse 18

No man : i.e. no human eye. Greek. oudeis. Compound of ou. App-105 .

hath seen . Greek horao. App-133 .

the only begotten Son . Lm. Tr. WI. Rm., with the Syriac, read "God (i.e. Christ) only begotten". The readings vary between YC and OC.

Which is = He Who is: like "was" in John 1:1 .

in = into. Greek. eis. App-104 . This expresses a continued relationship.

bosom. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. App-6 . Compare John 13:23 ; John 21:20 .

he = That One.

hath declared = revealed. Greek exegeomai = to lead the way, make known by expounding. Hence Eng. "exegesis". Only here, Luke 24:35 .Acts 10:8 ;.


Verse 19

record witness . Greek. marturia. See note on John 1:7 ,

the Jews . A characteristic expression of this Gospel see note on p. 1511), pointing to the consequences of their rejection of Messiah, when they would be Lo Ammi (= not My People): no longer regarded as "Israel", but as "Jews", the name given them by Gentiles.

sent = deputed. App-174 .

from = out of. Greek. ek. App-104 .

ask. Greek. erotao. App-134 .


Verse 20

and denied not. Figure of speech Pleonasm ( App-6 ), for emphasis.

denied. Greek arneomai. In John only here, and John 18:25 , John 18:27 .

but = and.

the Christ = the Messiah. App-98 .


Verse 21

What then? = What then [are we to say]?

Elias = Elijah. Referring to Malachi 4:5 .

that prophet = the prophet. Referring to Deuteronomy 18:18 , Compare Acts 3:22 , Acts 3:23 .

No . Greek. ou. App-105 .


Verse 22

sent. Greek. pempo. See App-174 . A characteristic word in this Gospel. See note on p. 1511.


Verse 23

I am, &c. Quoting from Isaiah 40:3 . See App-107 .

the = a.

the LORD. App-98 .

Esaias = Isaiah. The first of four occurances of his name in John; and this from the latter part of Isaiah, which modern critics say Isaiah did not write. But see the Structure in the Isaiah book comments, and App-79 .


Verse 24

were = had been.

Pharisees . App-120 .


Verse 25

baptizest . . . ? App-115 . They expected baptism, from Eze 86:25 .

if. App-118 .


Verse 26

baptize with . App-115 .

know. Greek. oida. App-132 . A characteristic

word of this Gospel . See p. 1511.


Verse 27

Whose shoe's latchet = the thong of whose sandal.

latchet = a little lace, or thong. O. Fr, lacet, a lace; dim. of lags, from Latin. laqueus.


Verse 28

Bethabara . All the texts read Bethania (with the Syriac) Identified by Conder and Wilson with Makht-Ababarah, near Jericho. Not uncommon then or now for two or more places to have the same name. See on John 11:3 .


Verse 29

seeth . Greek. blepo. App-133 .

Jesus . App-98 .

unto . Greek. pros. App-104 .

Behold. Greek. ide. App-133 . Sing Addressed to the whole company. the Lamb of God. Referring to "the Lamb" spoken of in Isaiah 53:7 , with possible reference to the approaching Passover. This was the title of our Lord for that dispensation.

Lamb. Greek amnos. Occurs only here, John 1:36 ; Act 8:32 ; 1 Peter 1:19 . See John 21:15 , where it is arnion, which occurs in Revelation twenty-eight times of the Lord, once of the false prophet (John 13:11 ).

of = provided by. See Genesis 22:8 and App-17 .

taketh away = taketh [on Himself to bear] away. Greek airo. Compare Matthew 4:6 (first occurance)

sin. Singular. App-128 .


Verse 30

of. All the texts read huper ( App-104 ), instead of peri ( App-104 ).

I said . See verses: John 1:15 , John 1:27 .


Verse 31

made manifest. Greek. phaneroo. App-106 .

therefore = on account of this Greek. dia ( App-104 .John 1:1John 1:1 ). The purpose should be well noted. Compare Romans 15:8 .


Verse 32

bare record = bare witness. Compare John 1:19 , and see note on John 1:7 .

saw = have beheld. Greek. theaomai. App-133 .

the Spirit . See App-101 .

heaves. Singular, without Art. See note on Matthew 6:9 , Matthew 6:10 .

like = as it were.

abode. One of the characteristic words of John's Gospel and Epistles. See list and note 1 in the book comments for John. upon. Greek. epi. App-104 .


Verse 33

see . Greek. eidon. App-133 .

remaining. Greek. meno, John 1:32 .

on = upon, as in John 1:32 .

the Holy Ghost = holy spirit. Greek. pneuma hagion. No articles. See App-101 .


Verse 34

I saw = I have seen. Greek. horao. App-133 .

bare record = have borne witness.

the Son of God. App-98 .


Verse 35

stood = was standing.

two . One being Andrew (John 1:40 ), the other probably John (the Evangelist), as he never mentions himself.


Verse 36

looking upon = having fixed his gaze on. Greek. emblepo. App-133 . Occurs in John only here, and John 1:42 .

walked = was walking about.


Verse 37

speak = speaking. Greek. laleo.


Verse 38

turned and = having turned.

Rabbi. App-98 .

interpreted. Greek. herreneuo. Occurs only here, John 1:42 ; John 9:7 . Hebrews 7:2 .

Master = Teacher. App-98 . John 1:1 .

dwellest = abidest. Greek. meno, as in John 1:32 .


Verse 39

see . Greek eidon. App-133 ., but all the texts read "Ye shall see". Greek. horao. App-133 .

with . Greek. para. App-104 .

the tenth hour : i.e. of the day, according to Hebrew reckoning. The context must decide whether of the night or day. Here, therefore, 4pm. (Compare the other hours in John: here: John 4:6 , John 4:52 ; John 11:9 ; John 19:14 . See App-165 ).


Verse 40

heard John speak = heard (this) from (Greek. pare. App-104 .) John.

Andrew, Simon. See App-141 .


Verse 41

he = This one.

first findeth . Andrew is the first to find his brother, and afterwards John finds his. The Latin Version (Cod. Vercellensis, Cent. 4) must have read Greek. prof = early [in the morning]; not protos, as in the Rec. text. Not primum = first, as in the Vulgate.

the Messias = the Messiah. App-98 . Occurs only here, and John 4:25 .


Verse 42

brought = led. Greek. apo to. Greek. pros. App-104 .

Jona. Aramaic for John. App-94 . Cephas. Aramaic. Occurs only in 1 Corinthians 1:12 ; 1 Corinthians 3:22 ; 1Co 9:5 ; 1 Corinthians 15:5 .Galatians 1:2 , Galatians 1:9 .

A stone = Peter = Greek. Petros. See note on Matthew 16:18 .


Verse 43

The day following. The last of these four days of John's ministry. (Compare verses: John 1:19 , John 1:29 , John 1:35 , Joh 19:43 .)

would = desired to. Greek. thelo. App-102 .

Galilee. See App-169 .

Philip . App-141 .


Verse 44

of = from. Greek. apo. App-104 .

the city. Greek. out of (Greek. ek. App-104 .) the city.


Verse 45

Nathanael = the gift of God. Hebrew. Nethane'el

; as in Num 1:8 . 1 Chronicles 2:14 . Generally identified with Bartholomew (Aramaic. App-94 .)

Law . . . Prophets. See notes on Luke 24:44 .

did write = wrote. See App-47 . Nazareth. App-169 .

the son of Joseph. The words are Philip's, and expressed the popular belief. Compare App-99 .


Verse 46

Can there any, &c. Figure of speech Parcemia.

out of. Greek. ek. App-104 .


Verse 47

Israelite : i.e. not a "Jacob". See notes on Genesis 32:28 .

indeed = truly. Greek alethos. Adverb of No. 1, App-175 .


Verse 48

answered and said . Hebrew idiom. See Deuteronomy 1:41 . App-122 .

Before . Greek. pro. App-104 .

under . Greek. hupo. App-104 .


Verse 49

the King of Israel. Thus proclaiming the Person of the Lord, in connexion with the Kingdom.


Verse 50

under = down beneath. Not the same word as in John 1:48 .

believest. App-160 . See John 1:7 .

see. App-133 .


Verse 51

Verily, verily. See note on Matthew 5:18 . In John always double. Figure of speech Epizeuxis ( App-6 ), for emphasis, twenty-five times (here, John 3:3 , John 3:5 , John 3:11 ; John 5:19 , John 5:24 , John 5:25 ; John 6:26 , John 6:32 , John 6:47 , John 6:53 ; John 8:34 , John 8:51 , John 8:58 ; John 10:1 , John 10:7 ; John 12:24 ; John 13:16 , John 13:20 , John 13:21 , John 13:38 ; John 14:12 ; John 16:20 , John 16:23 ; John 21:18 ). See note 3 in the book comments for John.

Hereafter = From henceforth. But omitted by all the texts (not the Syriac) It was conditional on the repentance of the nation, and will yet be seen.

heaven = the heaven. Singular, with Art. See note on Matthew 6:9 , Matthew 6:10 .

the Son of man. The first occurance in John. App-98 and App-99 .


Chapter 2

Verse 1

the third day . Of this first week: i.e. the third day after the last event (John 1:4-51 ), i.e. the seventh day. Compare the 1st (John 1:19-28 ); 2nd (29-34); 3rd (John 1:35-42 ); 4th (John 1:43-51 ). In Genesis, after six days there comes a marriage.

was = took place.

marriage = marriage feast, as in Matthew 22:2 , &c. Sometimes lasting a week.

in . Greek en. App-104 .

Cana of Galilee . Now Kefr Kenna, on the road from Nazareth to Tiberias. So called to distinguish it from Cana in Asher.

Jesus. App-98 .

was there : i.e. was already there when the Lord arrived.


Verse 2

called = invited.

disciples . Probably six in number: viz. Andrew, Simon, Philip, Nathanael (John 1:40-51 ), with James and John (Mark 1:16-20 ). See App-141 .

to . Greek. eis. App-104 .


Verse 3

when , &c. = when wine failed. Quite a serious calamity.

wine . Greek. oinos. The only word for wine in the N.T. Septuagint for Hebrew. yayin. App-27 . (Also for Tirash ( App-27 ) in Genesis 27:28 . Judges 9:13 .Joel 1:10Joel 1:10 ).

the mother of Jesus . Never called Mary in this Gospel. She became John's "mother" (John 19:26 , John 19:27 ),

unto . Greek. pros. App-104 .


Verse 4

Woman. Quite a respectful form of address. Not as in Eng. In Greek authors = Madam. what, &c. A Hebraism (2 Samuel 16:10 ).

Mine hour, &c. Marking a crisis, which is noted in John 2:11 . A characteristic expression in this Gospel. See note on John 7:6 .


Verse 5

servants = free servants. Greek. diakonos. Compare Matthew 20:26 . Mark 9:35 .

Whatsoever, &c. Mary's last-recorded words.


Verse 6

six waterpots . See App-176 .

waterpots = jars. Occurs only here, John 2:7 , and John 4:28 .

after the manner, &c. Proportioned to the number of the guests.

after = according to. Greek kata. App-104 . the Jews. See note on John 1:19 .

firkins . See App-51 .


Verse 7

Fill. The first sign. Note "Cast", John 21:6 , and see the

Structure in App-176 .

with. Greek. idiom. See note, on App-101 .


Verse 8

Draw out. Greek. antleo. Occurs only here, John 2:9 ; John 4:7 , John 4:15 .

governor, &c. Occurs only here, and John 2:9 . See Genesis 24:13 , Genesis 24:20 .


Verse 9

ruler, &c. Same word as "governor", &c.

was made = had become.

knew. Greek. oida. App-132 . See note on John 1:26 . Not the same word as in verses: John 2:24 , John 2:25 .

not . Greek. ou. App-105 .

but , &c. See note on "and we", &c., John 1:14 .

drew = had drawn.


Verse 10

Every man , &c. This is man's way: i.e. to give the good thing first, and the worse thing after. God's way is always the opposite. See note on Exodus 15:2 .

man. Greek. anthropos. App-123 .

well drunk = drunk freely.

worse = inferior.


Verse 11

beginning, &c. Our attention is thus called to the order.

miracles = the signs. A characteristic word in this Gospel. See p. 1511, and App-176 .

manifested forth . See App-106 . Compare John 21:1 , John 21:14 .

His glory. This is the key to the signification of the eight signs of this Gospel ( App-176 ). See note on John 1:14 .

disciples believed , &c. Compare verses: John 2:17 , John 2:22 . Four hundred and fifty years since the Jews had seen a miracle. The last was in Daniel 6:0 .

believed on . See App-150 . See note on John 1:7 .


Verse 12

After . Greek. meta. App-104 .

down. True geographically. Compare "up", John 2:13 .

Capernaum. Now Tell Hum.

and. Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton. App-6 .

continued. Greek. meno. See note on John 1:32 , and p. 1511.


Verse 13

the Jews' passover . After the revival under Ezra and Nehemiah corruption proceeded apace (see notes on p. 1296), and the Lord found the nation as described in Malachi. Hence, what were once "the feasts of Jehovah" are spoken of as what they had then become, "feasts of the Jews" (John 5:1 ; John 6:4 ; John 7:2 ; John 11:55 ; John 19:42 ). See note on John 1:19 ,

passover . Greek. pascha, Aramaic. See App-94 .

went up. Greek. anabaino, same word as "ascending", John 1:51 Compare "down", John 2:12 .


Verse 14

temple. Greek. hieron. See note on Matthew 23:16 . those. Denoting a class.

changers of money . Greek. Plural of kermatistes. Occurs only here.


Verse 15

made a scourge = plaited a whip. Occurs only here.

of = from. Greek. ek. App-104 . Not the same word as in verses: John 21:25 .

small cords = rush-ropes. Greek. schoinion. Only here and in Acts 27:32 .

drove . . . out = cast out. Not the same event as in Matthew 21:12 , Matthew 21:13 .Mark 11:15 , Mark 11:16 . Luke 19:45 , Luke 19:46 .

them all = all: i.e. the animals, both the sheep and the oxen and the sellers.

and = both,

changers . Greek. kollubistes (from kollubes, a small coin). Occurs only here.

money = small coin. Greek. Plural of kerma. Occurs only here.


Verse 16

not . Greek. me. App-105 . Not the same word as in verses: John 2:2 , John 2:9 , John 2:12 , John 2:24 , John 2:25 .

My Father's house . This was at the beginning of His ministry. At the end He called it "your house" (Matthew 23:38 ).

My Father's. A characteristic expression in this gospel. Occurs thirty-five times. See p. 1511.

merchandise. Greek. emporion = market-place (not emporia, which = the traffic itself). On the later occasion the words naturally differ. Compare Matthew 22:5 .


Verse 17

it was written = it is (or standeth) written. Compare John 6:31 , John 6:45 ; John 8:17 ; John 10:34 ; John 12:14 . The zeal, &c. Quoted from Psalms 69:9 . See the rest of the verse in Romans 15:3 , and other parts of the Psa. in John 15:25 (John 2:4 ); John 19:28 (John 2:21 ). Romans 11:9 , Romans 11:10 (John 2:22 ). Acts 1:20 (John 2:25 ). See App-107 . of. Genitive of' Relation. App-17 . Compare John 3:3 .


Verse 18

answered . . . said . See note on Deuteronomy 1:41 and App-122 .

sign . Same as "miracle", John 2:11 .

seeing, &c. Supply the Ellipsis ( App-6 ) = "What sign shewest thou to us [that Thou art the Messiah], seeing that Thou doest these things? "


Verse 19

Destroy, &c. The Lord's enemies remembered His words, and perverted them: saying, "I will destroy", &c. See Matthew 26:61 ; Mark 14:58 .

this. See on Matthew 16:18 .

Temple . Greek. naos. See note on Matthew 23:16 .

raise . . . up . Greek. egeiro. App-178 .


Verse 20

Forty and six years . Begun B.C. 20. See Josephus, Wars, I. xxi. 1.

rear = raise.


Verse 21

But He spake, &c. Figure of speech Epitrechon ( App-6 ). For other examples, See John 7:39 ; John 12:33 ; John 21:19 .

he . Greek. ekeinos. Emph. in contrast with "thou" in John 2:20 . See note on John 1:18 .

spake = was speaking. Greek. lego of -se concerning. Greek. peri. App-104 .

of = that is to say. Genitive of Apposition. App-17 .


Verse 22

from = out from. Greek. ek. App-104 .

the dead. No Article = dead people. See note on Matthew 17:9 , and App-139 .

remembered. Compare John 2:17 . They remembered it after His resurrection, and believed it. Contrast His enemies. See note on John 2:19 .

said = spake. Greek. lego, as in John 2:21 .

believed. App-150 . See note on John 1:7 .

the scripture: i.e. that the scripture was true. Here, probably, Psalms 16:10 . The word graphe Occurs twelve times in John: here; John 5:39 ; John 7:38 , John 7:42 ; John 10:35 ; John 13:18 ; John 17:12 ; John 19:24 , John 19:28 , John 19:36 , John 19:37 ; John 20:9 .

word . Greek. logos. See on Mark 9:32 .

said. Greek. epo.


Verse 23

Now when, &c. Note the Figure of speech Pleonasm ( App-6 ) in the triple definitions (for emph.)

at = in. Greek. en. App-104 .

believed in . See App-150 . Same as John 2:11 , denoting a definite act.

in. Greek. eis. App-104 .

His name = Him (emph.) See note on Psalms 20:1 .

when they saw = beholding. Greek theoreo. App-133 .

did = was doing.


Verse 24

But Jesus : i.e. But Jesus [for His part].

commit = trust. Same word as "believed "in John 2:23 , but not the same tense. Here it denotes a continual action or habit. Greek pisteuo. App-150 . See note on John 1:7 .

because . Greek. dia. App-104 .John 2:2 .

He = He Himself.

knew. Greek. ginosko. App-182 . See note on John 1:10 .


Verse 25

testify = bear witness. See note on John 1:7 .

what was in man . This attribute elsewhere attributed only to Jehovah (Jeremiah 17:10 ; Jeremiah 20:12 ). Here this knowledge was universal ("all", John 2:24 ), and individual ("man ").


Chapter 3

Verse 1

There was = Now there was.

a man . With special reference to the last word of John 2:0 .

man. Greek. anthropos. App-123 .

of. Greek. ek. App-104 .

Pharisees . App-120 .

Nicodemus . Mentioned three times (here, 1, 4, 9; John 7:50 ; John 19:39 ). Rabbinical tradition makes him one of the three richest men in Jerusalem. See Lightfoot, vol. xii, p. 252.

ruler. A member of the Sanhedrin, or National Council. See on Matthew 5:22 .


Verse 2

to. Greek. pros. App-104 .

Jesus. App-98 .

by night . See John 7:50 ; John 19:39 .

Rabbi . App-98 .

know. Greek. oida. App-132 .

teacher. Compare John 3:10 . Greek. didaskalos. App-98 . John 3:4 .

come from God . Render: "Thou art come from God as Teacher".

from . Greek. apo. App-104 .

God. App-98 .

no man = no one. Compound of ou. App-105 .

miracles = signs. See note on John 2:11 .

doest = art doing.

except = if . . . not. Greek. ean me. App-118 and App-105 .

with . Greek. meta. App-104 .


Verse 3

answered and said . A Hebraism. See note on Deuteronomy 1:41 . App-122 .

Verily, verily . See note on John 1:51 .

a man = any one.

born = begotten. See note on Matthew 1:2 .

again = from above. Greek. anothen = from above: i.e. by Divine power, as in John 3:31 ; John 19:11 , John 19:23 .Matthew 27:51 .Mark 15:38 . Luke 1:3 .James 1:17 ; James 3:15 , James 3:17 . The Talmud uses this figure, as applied to proselytes.

cannot = is not (Greek. ou. App-105 ) able to.

see . Greek. eidon. App-133 .

the kingdom of God. App-114 . Occurs in John only here and in John 3:5 .


Verse 4

unto . Greek. pros. App-104 .

How . . . ? Note other such questions, John 4:9 . 1 Corinthians 15:35 . All answered by "the gift of God "(John 3:16 ; John 4:10 . 1 Corinthians 15:38 ). The question implies a negative answer,

be born . Nicodemus misunderstands, and uses the Verb gennao of the mother. The Lord uses it of the Father, as meaning begetting.

old . Applying it to his own case.

into. Greek. eis. App-104 .


Verse 5

of water, &c. = of water and spirit. No Art. Figure of speech Hendiadys ( App-6 ). Not two things, but one, by which the latter Noun becomes a superlative and emphatic Adjective, determining the meaning and nature of the former Noun, showing that one to be spiritual water: i.e. not water but spirit. It is to be rendered "of water-yea, spiritual water". Compare Ephesians 5:26 , and See John 7:38 , John 7:39 and Ezekiel 36:25-27 for the "earthly things" of John 3:12 .

enter . Showing what the Lord meant by "see", in John 3:3 .


Verse 6

That which is born = That (Neuter) which has been begotten. Note the difference between this Perfect here and in John 3:8 and the Aorists in verses: John 3:3 , John 3:3 , John 3:4 , John 3:5 , John 3:7 .

flesh. See note on John 1:13 .

the Spirit : the Holy Spirit (with Art.) See App-101 .

is spirit. This is a fundamental law, both in nature and grace.


Verse 7

not. Greek. me App-105 .


Verse 8

The wind = The Spirit. The word pneuma, Occurs 385 times, and is rendered "wind" only here. It should be translated Spirit, as at end of verse. "Wind" is anemos. Occurs 31 times, and is always so rendered.

bloweth = breatheth.

it listeth = He willeth. App-102 . The

Eng. "listeth" is Old Eng. for Anglo-Saxon lusteth; i.e. pleaseth or desireth.

the sound thereof = His voice.

canst not tell = knowest not. Greek. oida. App-132 .

not. Greek. ou. App-105 .

is born = has been begotten, as in John 3:6 .

the Spirit : completing the Figure of speech Epanadiplosis ( App-6 ),

converting this verse into a most solemn and independent statement of facts.


Verse 9

these things . See Jeremiah 31:33 ; Jeremiah 32:39 . Ezekiel 11:19 ; Ezekiel 18:31 ; Ezekiel 36:25-27 . Psalms 51:10 .

be = come to pass. Reference to John 3:4 .


Verse 10

Art thou . . . ? or Thou art, &c. Not irony.

a master = the (famous) teacher; referring to his official position. Greek. didaskalos. See App-98 . John 3:4 .

knowest not = hast not got to know; or perceivest not. Greek. ginosko. App-132 . See note on John 1:10 .


Verse 11

testify = bear witness to. Greek. martureo. See notes on John 1:7 and p. 1511.

seen. Greek horao. App-133 . Compare John 1:18 ; John 14:7 , John 14:9 .

ye : i.e. ye teachers of Israel. witness. See note on John 1:7 .


Verse 12

If Ihave. Assuming it as a fact. App-118 .

earthly things . Eze 36:25-27 . 1 Corinthians 15:40 . Colossians 3:2 . 2 Corinthians 5:1 .Philippians 1:2 , Philippians 1:10 ; Philippians 3:19 .

believe. App-150 . i. See note on John 1:7 .

if I tell. Supposing I tell. App-118 .

heavenly = Plural of epouranios. Occurs only here and Matthew 18:35 in the Gospels. See Ephesians 1:3 , Ephesians 1:20 ; Ephesians 2:6 ; Ephesians 3:10 ; Ephesians 6:12 .Philippians 2:10 , &c.


Verse 13

And , &c. The kai (= And) here is a Hebraism, and does not mark the actual transition. There is nothing whatever in the context to show where the Paragraph breaks should be in this chapter; either in the MSS., or in the Versions. The Authorized Version varies in its different editions. The Authorized Version text in the Revised Version Parallel Bible has a at John 3:14 and John 3:16 . The Camb. Paragraph Bible (Dr. Scrivener) has no break either at verses: John 3:3 , John 3:14 or 16. The Revised Version has a break only at John 3:16 , with WI and Scrivener's Greek Text. The Companion Bible makes the important break at John 3:13 , (1) because the Past Tenses which follow indicate completed events; (2) because the expression "only begotten Son "is not used b y the Lord of Himself; but only by the Evangelist (John 1:14 , John 1:18 ; John 3:16 , John 3:18 ; 1 John 4:9 ); (3) because "in the name of" (John 3:18 ) is not used by the Lord, but by the Evangelist (John 1:12 ; John 2:23 . 1 John 5:13 ); (4) because to do the truth (John 3:21 ) Occurs elsewhere only in 1 John 1:6 ; (5) because "Who is in heaven "(John 3:13 ) points to the fact that the Lord had already ascended at the time John wrote; (6) because the word "lifted up" refers both to the "sufferings ' (John 3:14 ; John 8:28 ; John 12:32 , John 12:34 ) and to "the glory which should follow" (John 8:28 ; John 12:32 .Acts 2:33 ; Acts 5:31 ); and (7) because the break at John 3:13 accords best with the context, as shown by the Structure B, above.

hath ascended = hath gone up (of himself). It does not say: "hath been taken up by God, "as Enoch and Elijah. But Christ had "gone up" when the Evangelist wrote these words. ascended. Greek. anabaino. As in John 1:51 , John 2:13 ; John 5:1 ; John 7:8 , &c. Matthew 20:17 . Mark 6:51 .Romans 10:6 .

to = into. Greek. eis. App-104 . Compare Deuteronomy 30:12 .Proverbs 30:4 .Acts 2:34 .Romans 10:6 . Ephesians 4:10 .

heaven = the heaven. See note on Matthew 6:9 , Matthew 6:10 .

but = except, literal. if not. Greek. ei me.

came down . Greek katabaino. The opposite of "gone up".

from = out of. Greek. ek. App-104 . Not the same word as in John 3:2 .

the Son of Man . See App-98 .

Which is , &c = Who is, &c., and was there when John wrote. This clause is in the Syriac, but is omitted by WI, and put by Revised Version in the margin. Omit "even".

in . Greek. en. App-104 .


Verse 14

as = even as. Reference to Numbers 21:9 .

Moses . See note on John 1:17 and Matthew 8:4 .

must = it behoved to, in order to fulfil the prophetic Scripture. See Luke 24:26 , Luke 24:46 . Acts 3:18 ; Acts 17:3 , and compare Hebrews 2:9 , Hebrews 2:10 .

be lifted up. See note on John 3:13 .


Verse 15

whosoever = every one who. As here defined. believeth in. See App-150 . (See note on John 1:7 .) L reads epi; Lm T Tr. A WI and R read en. but have. Figure of speech Pleonasm ( App-6 ), for emph. The phrases "bath", "have eternal life", are the usual expressions in this Gospel for "live for ever "( App-151 . a). Compare verses: John 3:16 , John 3:36 ; John 5:24 ; John 6:40 , John 6:47 , Joh 6:54 ; 1 John 3:15 ; 1 John 3:5 , 1 John 3:11 .

eternal . Greek. aionios. App-151 . i: i.e. in Him. Compare 1 John 5:12 .

life . See note on John 1:4 . App-170 .


Verse 16

loved. Greek agapao. App-135 . A word characteristic of this Gospel. See p. 1511.

world . Greek. kosmos. App-129 . See note on John 1:9 . only, &c. See John 1:14 .

Son . App-108 .

everlasting . Same as "eternal" in John 3:15 . See App-151 .


Verse 17

sent. Greek. apostello. App-174 .

to condemn = to judge. Greek krino. App-122 . A characteristic word of this Gospel. See note on p. 1511.

through. Greek. dia. App-104 .John 3:1 .


Verse 18

the name : i.e. Him. See note on Psalms 20:1 .

Son of God . See App-98 .


Verse 19

this is = this is what it consists in; viz:

condemnation = judging: i.e. the process rather than the result. Greek. krisis. App-177 .

light = the light. App-130 . See note on John 1:4 .

men = the men. As a class. App-123 .

darkness = the darkness.

deeds = works. Plural of ergon. A characteristic word of this Gospel. See note on p. 1511.

evil. Greek. poneros = active evil. App-128 .


Verse 20

doeth = practises, or (habitually) does. Greek. prasso

evil. Greek. phaulos = worthless, base. Occurs only here; John 5:29 . Titus 2:8 . James 3:16 , in Rec. Text, but in Romans 9:11 . 2 Corinthians 5:10 , in most texts for kakos. Here, plural worthless things.

neither = and . . . not. Greek. ou. App-105 .

reproved = brought home to him. Compare John 16:8 (convince).


Verse 21

doeth . Actively produces, having regard to the object and end of the action. Greek. poieo. Compare the two verbs, prasso and poieo, in a similar connexion in John 6:29 .

truth = the truth. Greek aletheia. App-175 . A characteristic word of this Gospel. See note on John 1:14 .

made manifest. Greek phaneroo. App-106 .

are = have been, and still continue to be.

wrought in God : i.e. in His fear, or in His strength.


Verse 22

After = After (Greek. meta. App-104 .) these things. A note of time, frequent in John. See John 21:1 .

the land of Judaea : literally the Judan land. Phrase here.

land. Greek. ge . App-129 .

baptized = was (engaged in) baptizing. See John 4:2 and App-115 .


Verse 23

AEnon = Springs. Now Farah. The springs near Umm al `Amdan, 7.5 miles below Beisan.

Salim . Still so called; east of Shechem.

much water = many waters (i.e. springs).


Verse 24

was = had been.

not yet . Greek. oupo, compound of ou.

prison = the prison. Compare Matthew 4:12 .


Verse 25

Then = Therefore: i.e. on account of the facts stated in verses: John 3:22-24 .

question = questioning.

between some of = [on the part] of. Greek ek. App-104 .

and = with. Greek. meta. App-104 . the Jews. All the texts read "a Jew". Greek. Ioudaion, with Syriac. But it has been suggested that Iou was the primitive abbreviation for Iesou (= of Jesus), and being repeated (by inadvertence) led to the reading Iou[daion] (= a Jew). This would agree better with verses: John 3:22-24 ; with "Therefore" in John 3:26 , and with the action of John's disciples, and John's answer. See the Structure H2 above.

about = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104 .

purifying = purification. Compare John 2:6 . Luke 2:22 ; Luke 5:14 .


Verse 26

barest witness = hast borne witness. See note on John 1:7 .

behold . Greek ide. App-133 . Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6 .

all. This was the gravamen.


Verse 27

receive = take [upon himself].

nothing. Greek. ou ouden. A double negative.

be given = have been given.


Verse 28

the Christ = the Messiah. App-98 .

sent . App-174 .


Verse 29

the friend , &c. He played a very important part in the wedding ceremonies.

rejoiceth greatly . Figure of speech Polyptoton ( App-6 ). Greek. chara chairei = joyeth with joy.

because of. Greek. dia. App-104 .John 3:2 .


Verse 31

from above . Greek anothen, same as "again" in John 3:3 . earth. Greek. ge. App-129 .

earthly = of the earth.


Verse 32

heard . Not "hath heard".

testimony. Greek. marturia. See note on "witness", John 1:7 .


Verse 33

true . App-175 . A characteristic word of this Gospel. See p. 1611.


Verse 34

words . Greek. Plural of rhema. See note on Mark 9:32 .

for God , &c. Greek."for the Spirit giveth not [the words of God] by measure [unto Him]".

God . [L] T [Tr. ] A WH R., not Syriac, omit "God" here.

the Spirit . With Art. the Giver, not the gift. App-101 . This was by measure unto John, but not unto the Lord. Compare John 15:26 ; Matthew 11:27 . What John saw and heard was limited (verses: John 3:27-30 ).

by . Greek. ek. App-104 .


Verse 35

The Father . See note on John 1:14 ,

into . Greek en. App-104 .


Verse 36

believeth not = obeyeth not. Greek. apeitheo. Compare App-150 . See note on John 1:7 . Only here in John.

shall not see = will not see. Note the future here, in contrast with "hath".

see . App-183 .

wrath = [permanent] wrath. Greek orge; as in Matthew 3:7 . Luke 3:7 ; 1 Thessalonians 2:16 , &c. Not thumos, which = [temporary] wrath.

abideth . Present tense. See note on John 1:32 .

on = upon. Greek. epi. App-104 .


Chapter 4

Verse 1

therefore . See John 3:22 .

the Lord . App-98 . B.C. For the occurances of this absolute title in John, see John 6:23 ; John 11:2 ; John 20:20 ; and Compare John 20:2 , John 20:13 , John 20:18 , John 20:25 ; John 21:7 .

knew = came to know. Greek ginosko. App-132 . See note on John 1:10 . Compare John 2:24 .

Pharisees . App-120 . (John never refers to the Sadducees by name).

Jesus . App-98 .

made , &c. = is making and baptizing.

baptized . App-115 .


Verse 2

Though = And yet.

baptized. It was not the practice of Jesus to baptize. Imperf. Tense.

not . Greek. ou . App-105 . Compare John 3:22 .


Verse 3

again . See John 1:43 .

into . Greek. eis. App-104 .

Galilee . See App-169 .


Verse 4

He must needs = it was necessary [for] Him. See Josephus, Life, 52. Antiquities xx. vi. 1. A necessity not only geographical, but including the Divine counsels.

go = pass. Greek. dierchomai. Compare John 8:59 .

through. Greek dia. App-104 .John 4:1 .


Verse 5

Then = Therefore.

to. Greek. eis. App-104 .

Sychar . Now 'Askar. A village on the slope of Mount Ebal and north of Jacob's well.

parcel of ground = field or land.

that Jacob gave. Compare Genesis 33:19 ; Genesis 48:22 .Joshua 24:32 .


Verse 6

Jacob's well . Compare Genesis 49:22 .

well = spring. Greek. pege. Not the same word as in verses: John 4:11 , John 4:12 , but as in John 4:14 .

with = from. Greek. ek. App-104 .

sat = was sitting.

on : or by. Greek. epi. App-104 . Compare John 5:2 .

the sixth hour . Of the day, i.e. noon. See on John 1:39 , and App-165 .


Verse 7

of = out of. Greek. ek. App-104 .

Give Me, &c. The first word. Note the seven ( App-10 ) times the Lord spoke to the woman, and the gradual ascent to the final declaration in John 4:26 .


Verse 8

For , &c. See note on John 4:34 .

unto . Greek. eis. App-104 .

to = in order that (Greek. hina) they might.

meat. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the Species), App-6 for all kinds of food.


Verse 9

How, &c. See note on John 3:4 .

askest. Greek. aiteo. App-134 . 4, as in John 4:10 .

of = from. Greek. para. App-104 .

which am = being.

the Jews . . . the . No articles.

have . . . dealings = have . . . familiar intercourse. Greek. sunchraomai. Occurs only here.

no. Greek. ou. App-105 .


Verse 10

answered and said . A Hebraism. See Deuteronomy 1:41 and App-122 .

If thou, &c. Assuming the hypothesis as a fact. App-118 .

knewest = hadst known. Greek. oida. App-132 . See note on John 1:26 .

the gift. See note on "How", John 3:4 . Greek. dorea. Occurs only here in the Gospels, elsewhere only in Acts 2:38 ; Acts 8:20 ; Acts 10:45 ; Acts 11:17 . Romans 5:15 , Rom 5:17 . 2 Corinthians 9:15 .Ephesians 3:7 ; Ephesians 4:7 . Hebrews 6:4 . Note the eight gifts in this Gospel (John 4:10 ; John 10:11 ; John 13:15 ; John 14:16 , John 14:27 ; John 17:8 , John 17:14 , John 17:22 ).

living : i.e. perennial, unfailing. Understood by all Jews, from Jeremiah 2:13 ; Jeremiah 17:13 .Zechariah 14:8 . Greek. zao, a word characteristic of this Gospel. See note on p. 1511.


Verse 11

Sir . App-98 .

well = a well dug out. Not the same word as in verses: John 4:6 , John 4:14 . deep. In 1869 it was 105 feet, and had 15 feet of water.


Verse 12

Art thou , &c., or Surely Thou art not ( App-105 ).

thereof = out of (Greek. ek. App-104 .) it.

and. Figure of speech Polysyndeton. App-6 .

children = sons. App-108 .

cattle . Greek. Plural of thremma. Occurs only here.


Verse 13

Whosoever drinketh = Every one who is in the habit of drinking.

shall = will.


Verse 14

whosoever drinketh = he who may have drunk (Greek. an, with Subjunctive Aor.)

never thirst = by no means (Greek. ou me. App-105 ) thirst for ever ( App-151 ).

be = become. in. Greek en. App-104 .

well = fountain, as in John 4:6 . Not as in verses: John 4:11 , John 4:12 .

springing up = welling up.

everlasting . App-161 .

life . See note on John 1:4 , and App-170 .


Verse 15

unto. Greek pros. App-104 .

that. Greek. hina. See John 1:7 .

not. Greek me. App-106 .

come hither. Some texts read dierchomai (as in John 4:4 ) = come all the way hither (through, or across the plain).


Verse 16

husband . Greek. aner. App-123 .


Verse 17

well. Compare John 8:48 ; John 13:13 .Matthew 15:7 . Mark 12:32 .Luke 20:39 .


Verse 18

in . Omit.

truly = true. See note on John 8:33 and App-175 .


Verse 19

I perceive. Greek. thebreo. App-133 . See The Didache xi. John 4:5 ; and Compare John 4:42 here.

prophet. See App-49 .


Verse 20

worshipped. App-137 .

this mountain . Gerizim. The well was at its foot. (See Deuteronomy 27:12 .)

men ought = it is necessary.


Verse 21

Woman. See on John 2:4 .

believe Me. App-150 . See note on John 1:7 . This formula occurs only here and 14. 11.

neither . . . nor . Greek. oute . . . oute.

at. Greek. en. App-104 .

the Father. See App-98 , and note on John 1:14 .


Verse 22

Ye worship . . . what. See 2 Kings 17:24-34 , esp. John 4:33 .

salvation = the salvation [which the prophets foretold]. Compare Luke 2:30 .


Verse 23

cometh, and now is = is coming, and is now on its way. Its coming depended on the repentance of the nation, when all the prophecies would have been fulfilled. See Acts 3:18-26 .

true = real. See note on John 1:9 . App-175 .

worshippers. Greek. proskunetes. Only here.

spirit. App-101 .

in . No Preposition with the second "in". truth. App-175 . See note on John 1:14 .


Verse 24

God. See App-98 ., with Art. Contrast John 1:1 .

a Spirit = spirit: i.e. not flesh, or material substance. Not "a" Spirit.

must . Note this absolute condition. Compare John 4:4 ; John 3:7 , John 3:14 , John 3:30 ; John 9:4 ; John 10:16 ; John 12:34 ; John 20:9 , &c.


Verse 25

Messias = Messiah. App-98 .

Christ . See App-98 .

is come = comes, or shall have come.

tell. Greek. anangello. See John 5:15 ; John 16:13 , John 16:14 , John 16:15 , John 16:25 (shew). Compare App-121 John 5:6 .


Verse 26

That speak, &c. = I am [He) Who am speaking, &c. This is the seventh and last of the Lord's seven utterances, and marks the climax. See note on John 4:7 , and App-176 .

speak = am talking.


Verse 27

upon . Greek. epi. App-104 .

marvelled. All the texts read "were wondering". Greek. thaumazo. First occurance Matthew 8:10 .

talked = was talking.

with. Greek. meta. App-104 .

the woman = a woman. One of six things forbidden to a Rabbi by the Talmud; and she being a Samaritan caused the greater wonder.


Verse 28

men . Greek. Plural of anthropos. App-123 .


Verse 29

see. App-133 .

that ever = whatsoever.

is not this? = can this be?


Verse 30

Then. All the texts omit.

out of . Greek. ek. App-104 .

came = were coming.


Verse 31

prayed = were asking. Greek. erotao. App-134 .

Master. Greek. Rabbi. App-98 .


Verse 32

meat . Greek. brosis = eating. Not the same word as in John 4:34 .

of . Omit "of".


Verse 33

to. Greek. pros. App-104 .


Verse 34

meat. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Species), App-6 , for all kinds of food. Greek. broma. Not the same word as in John 4:33 .

to do = in order to do. Emphasizing the object and end, not the act. Compare Luke 2:49 ; Luke 4:4 .

will. App-102 .

sent. Greek. pempo. App-174 . See note on John 1:22 .

finish . Greek. teleioo. A characteristic word of this Gospel; here, John 5:36 ; John 17:4 , John 17:23 ; John 19:28 . See p. 1511.

work. A characteristic word of this Gospel, most frequently in plural. See p. 1511.


Verse 35

Say not ye. Figure of speech Paroemia. App-6 .

behold. Greek. idou. App-133 . Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6 .

look on. Greek. theaomai. App-133 .

already. This does not refer to the present mission field, but to the then present expectation of national re pentance (on which the glorious harvest was conditional; by the proclamation of the kingdom. See App-119 .


Verse 36

eternal. App-151 .


Verse 37

herein = in (Greek. en) this.

is = i.e. is [exemplified] the true saying.

saying . Greek. logos. See note on Mark 9:32 .

One . . . another . Greek. allos. App-124 .


Verse 38

sent. App-174 .

other men. Greek. Plural of allos.

laboured = have laboured.

are entered = have entered.

their : i.e. John the Baptist and the Lord.


Verse 39

believed on . App-150 . See note on John 1:7 .

for = on account of. Greek. dia. App-104 .John 4:2 .

testified = bore witness. See note on John 1:7 .


Verse 40

besought = asked. Greek. erotao. App-134 .

tarry. Greek. meno. See note on "abode", John 1:32 .

with. Greek. para. App-104 .

abode . Greek. meno, as above.

two days. See note on John 4:43 .


Verse 41

believed. App-150 .

because of . Greek dia. App-104 .John 4:2 . word. Greek. logos. See note on Mark 9:32 .


Verse 42

said = were saying: i.e. as one and another spoke.

not = no longer. Greek. ouketi.

indeed = truly. Compare App-175 ., and p. 1511.

Christ = All the texts omit "the Christ", but not the Syriac. See App-94 , note 3.

Saviour. In John only here, and 1 John 4:14 . See note on Matthew 1:21 .

the world. Greek. kosmos. App-129 ., i.e. of the Gentiles as well as the Jews. See note on John 1:9 .


Verse 43

after two days. See John 11:6 , and compare with the Seventh Sign. App-176 .

after . Greek. meta. App-104 .

two = the two; viz, those mentioned in John 4:40 .


Verse 44

For Jesus , &c. Note the parenthetical explanation, and see note on "and we beheld", John 1:14 .

a prophet. Figure of speech Parcemia. App-169 .

his own country = h is native place. See John 7:41 , John 7:42 . Which was Galilee ( App-169 ). The Lord had proved the truth of this proverb before He went to Cana (from Nazareth), as recorded in Luke 4:16-30 . See App-97 . The Lord went and returned thither, notwithstanding that experience.


Verse 45

received . Greek. dechgmai. Only occurance here in John.

seen. Greek. horao. App-183 .


Verse 46

again . . . Cana, &c. Referring to John 2:1 . made. Not the same word as "made" in John 2:9 .

nobleman = a royal officer. Probably belonging to the court of Herod Antipas ( App-109 ). Greek. basilikos. Occurs only here; John 4:49 . Acts 12:20 , Acts 12:21 ; and James 2:8 .

Capernaum . App-169 .


Verse 47

at the point of death = about to die. Not the same miracle as that of the centurion's servant recorded in Matthew 8:5-12 and Luke 7:1-10 . The two miracles differ as to time, place, person, pleading, plea, disease, the Lord's answer, and the man's faith, as may be easily seen by comparing the two as to these details.


Verse 48

Except = If not. Greek ean me. App-118 and App-105 .

signs . See note on John 2:11 . signs and wonders. See App-176 .

not = in no wise. Greek. ou me. App-105 .


Verse 49

ere = before. See note on Matthew 1:18 .

child . Greek. paidion. App-108 .


Verse 50

liveth . Greek. zao. A word characteristic of this Gospel. See p. 1511, and compare App-170 .


Verse 51

And = But already.

servants = bond-servants.

met. Greek apantao, but all the texts read hupantao.

son = boy. Greek. pais. App-108 .


Verse 52

Then = Therefore.

when = in (Greek. en. App-104 .) which.

amend = get better. Greek. kompsoteron echo. Occurs only here in N.T.

the seventh hour = 1 o'clock p.m. Compare App-165 .


Verse 54

the second miracle = a second sign. Having thus begun to number the signs in this Gospel, we may continue to do so, and complete the whole (eight). See App-176 . See note on John 2:11 .