Christian Churches of God

No. F043v





Commentary on John

Part 5

(Edition 1.0 20220909-20220909)

Commentary on Chapters 17-21.


Christian Churches of God

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Commentary on John Part 5


John Chapters 17-21 (RSV)

After Jesus had spoken the words in the education of the elect from the summary of chapters on the Nature of God and the elect to Chapter 12 ending in the summary at end chapter 12 in Parts 1 (F043), 2 (F043ii) and 3 (F043iii), he then prepared the elect for the end and his death and resurrection in Part 4 (F043iv). We now see he acts as High Priest designate of the Order of Melchisedek, and Morning Star designate of the planet, and declares his position as being sent by the One True God and that knowing the One True God and Christ whom he sent (17:3) is Eternal Life (No. 133). See also Commentary on Hebrews (F058) (see below).


“In Job 1:6, 2:1 and 38:4-7 we are told there are multiple sons of God before the creation and Satan was among them. Job indentifies the saviour as one of the (governing) thousand of the Angelic Host (Job 33:23). This work shows that there were multiple sons of God and multiple Morning Stars from before the foundation of the earth. The Psalms show conclusively that the sons of God were the Angelic Host and this Host was referred to as elohim and that Christ confesses the saints before the council of the elohim (cf. Ps. 82:1). The psalm says that some have fallen and will die like any man (Ps. 82:6). This text refers to the entire Host both spiritual and physical. Proverbs 30:4 asks the specific questions concerning the activities of God and 30:5 provides the answer of the name of the One True God and the name of His son. The word is provided in the first line that says: every word of ELOAH is pure. From Ezra chapters 4 to 7 we know that Eloah is the God of the Temple and it is His Law and His Temple and we know that He has a son. Eloah is singular and admits of no plurality whatsoever. It is the basis of the Western Aramaic and the Chaldean Elahh equivalent of the Hebrew Eloah and is also used in the OT in Daniel. This word formed the basis of the Eastern Aramaic which became the Arabic Allah’. The elahhin and the elohim were synonymous and were understood anciently to refer to the sons of God. Daniel reflects that understanding in the text” (see Ditheism (No. 076B); Names of God (No. 116); and Names of God in Islam (No. 054)). We will now deal with the Eight Signs of the Gospel of John.


Dealing with the Eight Signs of John

Further information: Prologue to JohnBook of Signs, and John 21


“The majority of scholars see four sections in the Gospel of John: a prologue (1:1–18); an account of the ministry, often called the "Book of Signs" (1:19–12:50); the account of Jesus' final night with his disciples and the passion and resurrection, sometimes called the Book of Glory (13:1–20:31); and a conclusion (20:30–31); to these is added an epilogue which most scholars believe did not form part of the original text (Chapter 21).[35] Disagreement does exist; some scholars such as Richard Bauckham argue that John 21 was part of the original work, for example.[36]


·         The prologue informs readers of the true identity of Jesus, the Word of God through whom the world was created and who took on human form;[37] he came to the Jews and the Jews rejected him, but "to all who received him (the circle of Christian believers), who believed in his name, he gave power to become children of God."[38]

·         Book of Signs (ministry of Jesus): Jesus calls his disciples and begins his earthly ministry.[39] He travels from place to place informing his hearers about God the Father in long discourses, offering eternal life to all who will believe, and performing miracles which are signs of the authenticity of his teachings, but this creates tensions with the religious authorities (manifested as early as 5:17–18), who decide that he must be eliminated.[39][40]

·         The Book of Glory tells of Jesus's return to his heavenly father: it tells how he prepares his disciples for their coming lives without his physical presence and his prayer for himself and for them, followed by his betrayal, arrest, trial, crucifixion and post-resurrection appearances.[40]

·         The conclusion sets out the purpose of the gospel, which is "that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that believing you may have life in his name."[5]

·         Chapter 21, the addendum, tells of Jesus' post-resurrection appearances in Galilee, the miraculous catch of fish, the prophecy of the crucifixion of Peter, and the fate of the Beloved Disciple.[5]


[See the commentary on Chapter 21 and also the paper on the 153 Great Fish (No.170B) which ties all the Gospels together in relation to the Miracles of all four gospels- ed.]


“The structure is highly schematic: there are seven ‘signs’ culminating in the raising of Lazarus (foreshadowing the resurrection of Jesus), and seven ‘I am’ sayings and discourses, culminating in Thomas's proclamation of the risen Jesus as ‘my Lord and my God’ (the same title, dominus et deus, claimed by the Emperor Domitian, an indication of the date of composition).[4]” (ibid)


It is important that Bullinger’s text is studied regarding the Eight Signs of John’s Gospel. Although, even Bullinger appears to have been taken in by the Easter Mother Goddess cult of the Friday Death and Sunday Resurrection of the god Attis in Rome. It is probable that he had to let the Resurrection after dark beginning the Sunday, slide for the sake of peace. See also Bullinger The Eight Signs in John's Gospel. - Appendix to the Companion Bible (


Bullinger goes into more detail but has the eighth sign as  “…..the Resurrection having taken place on the eighth day” meaning first day of the week. His work is an otherwise good explanation of the signs. The Resurrection actually took place at the end of the Sabbath and not after dark on the Sunday as claimed by the Sunday Baal worshippers (see Timing of the Crucifixion and the Resurrection (No. 159); The Cross Its Origin and Significance No. 039)); Origin of Christmas and Easter (No. 265)).


The outline of the Seven Signs lead up to the Eighth Sign of the Resurrection on the Third day completing that phase of the Sign of Jonah and the History of the Reconstruction of the Temple (No. 013).



    a   The background.  Nathanael's faith (1:49-51).
        b   The Place.  Galilee (v. 1).
            c   "The Third Day" (v. 1).
                d   Wine Provided (vv. 8, 9).
                    e   "Jesus was called, and His disciples" (v. 2).
                        f   Failure confessed.  "They have no wine" (v. 3).
                            g   Numbers. Six waterpots, holding two or three firkins apiece. (v. 6).
                                h   Command.  "Fill the waterpots with water" (v. 7-).
                                    i   Obedience.  "They filled them" (v. -7-).
                                        k   Waterpots filled to the last drop.  "Up to the brim" (v. -7).
                                            l   The servants bare (enenkan, v. 8).
                                                m   Glory manifested (ephanerose, v. 11-).
                                                    n   His disciples' faith (v. -11).

    B    4:46-50. THE RULER'S SON.
        o   The background.  Rejection (vv. 43, 44).
            p   Time.  "After two days" (v. 43).
                q   His son.  "Sick" (esthenei, v. 46).
                    r   Parenthetic explanation re the place (Cana) (v. 46).
                        s   "At the point of death" (v. 47).  "Death" only here, and in "B" below.
                            t   "Ye will not believe" (v. 48).
                                u   "Ere my child die" (v. 49).
                                    v   The servants "met him" (v. 51).
                                        w   "Thy son liveth" (v. 51).
                                            x   "The fever left him" (apheken, v. 52).

        C    5:1-47. THE IMPOTENT MAN.
            a   The Place.  Jerusalem (v. 1).
                b   The Pool.  Bethesda (v. 2).
                    c   The longstanding case, "thirty-eight years" (v. 5).
                        d   "Jesus saw him" (v. 6).
                            e   The Lord takes the initiative (v. 6).
                                f   "The same day was the Sabbath" (v. 9).
                                    g   "Afterward Jesus findeth him" (v. 14).
                                        h.   "Sin no more" (v. 14).  Sin, only here and in "C", below
                                            i   "My Father worketh hitherto, and I work" (v. 17).
                                                k   A double reference to "Moses" (vv. 45, 46).

            D    6:1-14. THE FEEDING OF THE FIVE THOUSAND.
                l   The only "sign" (with D) recorded in the other Gospels (Matt. 14:15.
                     Mark 6:35.  Luke 9:10).
                    m   "Jesus went up to the mountain" (v. 3).
                        n   Followed by a discourse (vv. 26-65). Signification.
                            o   "Many disciples went back" (v. 66).
                                p   The testimony of Peter (vv. 68, 69).

            D    6:15-21. THE WALKING ON THE SEA.
               l   The only "sign" (with D) recorded in the other Gospels (Matt. 14:23.  Mark 6:47).
                   m   "Jesus departed again into the mountain" (v. 15).
                       n   Followed by a discourse (ch. 7).  Signification.
                           o   "Many of the people believed" (7:31).
                                p   The testimony of Nicodemus (7:50).

        C    9:1-41. THE MAN BORN BLIND.
           a   The Place.  Jerusalem (8:59; 9:1).
                b  The Pool. Siloam (vv. 7, 11).
                    c  The longstanding case, "from birth" (v. 1).
                       d   "Jesus saw" him (v. 1).
                           e   The Lord takes the initiative (v. 6).
                               f   "It was the Sabbath day" (v. 14).
                                    g   "When He had found him" (v. 35).
                                       h   "Who did sin?"  (v. 2.  Cp. vv. 24, 25, 31, 34).  Sin, only here,
                                               and in "C", above.
                                           i   "I must work the 1000 works of Him that sent Me" (v. 4).
                                               k   A double reference to "Moses" (vv. 28, 29).

    B    11:1-44. THE SISTER'S BROTHER.
        o   The background.  Rejection (10:31, 39; 11:8).
            p   Time.  "Jesus abode two days where He was" (v. 6).
                q   Lazarus was sick (esthenei, v. 2).
                    r   Parenthetic explanation re the person (Mary) (v. 2).
                        s   "Lazarus is dead" (v. 14).  "Death" only here, and in "B" above.
                            t   "That ye may believe" (v. 15).
                                u   "Our brother had not died" (v. 21, 32).
                                    v   Martha "met Him" (vv. 20, 30).
                                        w   "Lazarus, come forth" (v. 43).
                                            x   "Let him go" (aphete, v. 44).

    a   The background.  Thomas's unbelief (20:24-29).
        b   The Place.  Galilee (v. 1).
            c   "The third time" (v. 14).
                d   A meal provided (v. 9).
                    e   The Lord was the Caller of His disciples (vv. 5, 12).
                        f   Failure confessed.  They had "caught nothing" (v. 3).  Had "no meat" (v. 5).
                            g   Numbers: 200 cubits (v. 8);  153 fishes (v. 11).
                                h   Command.  "Cast the net into the water" (v. 6).
                                    i   Obedience.  "They cast therefore" (v. 6).
                                        k   Net full, to the last fish (vv. 8, 11).
                                            l  "Bring of the fish" (enenkate, v. 10).
                                                m   The Lord manifested (ephanerothe, v. 14).
                                                    n   His disciples' love (vv. 15-17).

Chapter 17

1When Jesus had spoken these words, he lifted up his eyes to heaven and said, "Father, the hour has come; glorify thy Son that the Son may glorify thee, 2since thou hast given him power over all flesh, to give eternal life to all whom thou hast given him. 3And this is eternal life, that they know thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom thou hast sent. 4I glorified thee on earth, having accomplished the work which thou gavest me to do; 5and now, Father, glorify thou me in thy own presence with the glory which I had with thee before the world was made. 6"I have manifested thy name to the men whom thou gavest me out of the world; thine they were, and thou gavest them to me, and they have kept thy word. 7Now they know that everything that thou hast given me is from thee; 8for I have given them the words which thou gavest me, and they have received them and know in truth that I came from thee; and they have believed that thou didst send me. 9I am praying for them; I am not praying for the world but for those whom thou hast given me, for they are thine; 10all mine are thine, and thine are mine, and I am glorified in them. 11And now I am no more in the world, but they are in the world, and I am coming to thee. Holy Father, keep them in thy name, which thou hast given me, that they may be one, even as we are one. 12While I was with them, I kept them in thy name, which thou hast given me; I have guarded them, and none of them is lost but the son of perdition, that the scripture might be fulfilled. 13But now I am coming to thee; and these things I speak in the world, that they may have my joy fulfilled in themselves. 14I have given them thy word; and the world has hated them because they are not of the world, even as I am not of the world. 15I do not pray that thou shouldst take them out of the world, but that thou shouldst keep them from the evil one. 16They are not of the world, even as I am not of the world. 17Sanctify them in the truth; thy word is truth. 18As thou didst send me into the world, so I have sent them into the world. 19And for their sake I consecrate myself, that they also may be consecrated in truth. 20"I do not pray for these only, but also for those who believe in me through their word, 21that they may all be one; even as thou, Father, art in me, and I in thee, that they also may be in us, so that the world may believe that thou hast sent me. 22The glory which thou hast given me I have given to them, that they may be one even as we are one, 23I in them and thou in me, that they may become perfectly one, so that the world may know that thou hast sent me and hast loved them even as thou hast loved me. 24Father, I desire that they also, whom thou hast given me, may be with me where I am, to behold my glory which thou hast given me in thy love for me before the foundation of the world. 25O righteous Father, the world has not known thee, but I have known thee; and these know that thou hast sent me. 26I made known to them thy name, and I will make it known, that the love with which thou hast loved me may be in them, and I in them."


Intent of Chapter 17

Prayer of the High Priest of Melchisedek

vv.  1-5 Jesus prays to the Father for himself as High Priest.

v. 1. Jesus has qualified as the High Priest of the Order of Melchisedek (Heb. 6:19-20; 7:1-28) which is the order of the full priesthood of the entire world from the Salvation of the Gentiles as we see from the Introduction above and the texts below. The priesthood was vested in Shem from the Flood. Christ then proceeds to pray to the Father as High Priest, for himself (see No. 128 below and also F058).

v. 2. God has given Christ power to give Eternal Life (No. 133) to all those that God has Predestined (No. 296) and given to Christ as the elect (see Elect as Elohim (No. 001)).

v. 3 And this is Eternal Life that they know thee the Only True God and Jesus Christ whom Thou hast sent.

In this sentence stands the purpose of the Gospels. There is only One True God, and it is the Father alone, and He sent Christ for the purpose of granting humans eternal life. Christ has been granted that ability and the ability to confer that gift on all mankind that God determines as fit to come into the Kingdom Of God. Christ was granted that capacity above his comrades in Ps. 45:6-7 (177) and Heb. 1:8-9 (F058). Christ was never coeternal and coequal with the Father, and to assert such is polytheism. This assertion attributes the sin of Satan to the Messiah and impugns his capacity as High Priest (see The First Commandment: The Sin of Satan (No. 153)). This error will be corrected under the Witnesses (135, 141D) and stamped out by Messiah and the Host (141E; 141E_2) and will not be allowed to enter the Millennium, on pain of death (141F).


The Gospel of John was the key to understanding the early stages of the Sign of Jonah ... (No. 013) as it applied to all four gospels and explains the sequence of time over the 2.5 years, under the Sign (see also Commentary on Jonah (F032)). The first section applied to the position of Christ in 1:1-18 as the Subordinate God of Israel and as the Only Born God (Monogenes Theos (B4), who was the Memra or Oracle of the Scriptures (see 184). The Second Key was at John 3:16, which was the key to the spiritual purpose of the creation (see also 001, 001A, 001C). The next key was the summary by Christ at Chapter 12 regarding the law as the Commandments of God and the Testimony and Faith of Christ and the Saints (see also Rev. 12:17 and 14:12). The final key to the Theology of the Bible texts is at 17:3. This will also be explained in the Summary and Harmony of the Gospels F043vi.

From chapter 1, Christ was the subordinate God of Israel sent to be born as the Monogenes Theos (B4) and the first begotten or Prototokos from the dead.  See also the Message at the url for further explanation It has always been a matter of amazement that ministers can read this text and try to maintain a Ditheist, Binitarian or Trinitarian explanation of the text which is logically and linguistically impossible. Harnack, Brunner and even Calvin admit that to be the case, (as did Isaac Newton, W. Whiston and J.B. Priestly), in that the Bible (and the Koran) is solely Unitarian with a pre-existent Christ (No. 243). Christ qualified to become the new Morning Star (Rev. 2:28; 22:16) (or Day Star 2Pet. 1:19) of the planet in replacement of Satan as Morning Star and god of this world (2Cor. 4:4), and that authority will be shared by Christ with the Elohim of the First Resurrection (No. 143A) (also Rev. Chs. 2-3; 4-5; F066).

(Isa. 14:12; Ezek. 28:11-19. See Lucifer, Light Bearer and Morning Star (No. 223); and see also Melchisedek (No. 128); Commentary on Hebrews (F058)).

vv. 4-5 Christ then asks for Glorification from the Father as he glorified the Father while on earth.

The hour (see 2:4 n) of Jesus’ obedience unto death has come; in that they secure eternal life through the Knowledge of God and His son.

In this they accomplish his work (19:30). Christ then awaits the restoration of his Pre-incarnate Glory (243). This was the Barley Harvest of the Wave Sheaf Offering  (No. 106B) which represented Christ as the key element in the Plan of Salvation (No. 001A).


vv. 6-19 Jesus prays for His Disciples

This text is the second part of the text as Jesus’ prayer for his disciples. These are they left in the world after his ascension (v. 11) that they may be one as are the Father and Son (v. 11 also). He prays that they have joy (v. 13), and they are victorious over the evil one (v. 15) and that they are able to represent Christ to the world (vv. 16-19). This represents the Wheat harvest at Pentecost (No. 115)  both at Sinai and in 30 CE.

This is the Churches of God to the Return of Messiah (## 122, 170. 283).

vv. 20-26 Jesus prays for future believers

The Third section is prayer for the Church over the world as it is called into the faith so that it may be indwelt by the Father and the Son and deal with each other in love in unity and thus lead the world to believe and become the Elect as the Saints of God in Faith as part of the City of God (No. 180) (see also Eph. 2:19).

The remnant before the Coming of the Messiah goes into the First Resurrection and afterwards they go into the Second Resurrection. This is the General Harvest represented by Tabernacles in the Seventh Month and goes through to the Second Resurrection of the Dead (No. 143B) and to the Great White Throne Judgment where the unrepentant face The Second Death (143C) (F066v). 


Duties of the High Priest of God

What then are the duties of the High Priest of the Order of Melchisedek of the Temple of God as Morning Star of the Planet?  They are:


1.      The Administration and Judgment of the Temple and the Nations of the world/universe according to the Law of God (L1) as given by God to Christ and then to the patriarchs and to Moses and Israel at Sinai (Acts 7:30-53; 1Cor. 10:1-4) (F066v).

2.      Conduct of the Temple according to the Calendar of God (No. 156) as laid down in the Law of God and carried out in the Temple and all nations and entities subject to it. See also The Golden Jubilee and the Millennium (No. 300).

3.      Worship and Adoration of the One True God in accordance with the Law and the Testimony as under the Scriptures and Music under the Psalms, to the exclusion of all idolatrous practices, doctrines and false calendars.


The physical Temple was destroyed by order of God by the Romans under the Sign of Jonah ...(No. 013) in 70 CE, with the Temple at Heliopolis in Egypt also closed by order of Vespasian in 71 CE towards the end of the sacred year of 70/71 CE (see also War with Rome and the Fall of the Temple (No. 298)).

The physical Temple was replaced by the Spiritual Temple which was the Churches of God over the two millennia of the Church in the wilderness (see ##282A, B, C and D) until the Completion of the Sign of Jonah (No. 013B) and the Return of the Messiah (#210A; #210B) on the death of the Witnesses (No. 141D) and over the wars of the end (##141C, 141E, 141E_2) and the total End of False Religion (#141F). See also (F027, i, ii, iii, iv, v, vi, vii, viii, ix, x, xi, xii, xiii)

(F066, ii, iii, iv, v). See also The Last Pope #288.


The Measuring of the Temple (No. 137) of God began in 1987 and will go on to 2027. Over the last four years of the Last Days God will use the Witnesses (135; 141D) to bring Judah to repentance and purge their false doctrines and the Hillel Calendar (No. 195C) from them and expunge the Babylonian Intercalations from them and also the Churches of God that adopted the Hillel Calendar under the Idol (KJV) or Worthless Shepherd (RSV) (Zech. 11:17) of the Sardis system.  Those that do not repent under the Witnesses will not enter the First Resurrection (No. 143A). They will all be forced to keep the Temple Calendar (No. 156) when Christ returns or face death by famine, and the plagues of Egypt (see Isa. 66:23-24; Zech. 14:16-19) (see ## 031; 125; 098; 115; 136; 138; F038); see  also ch. 19 below. 


The world will be purged of sin under the law of God. The world is being purged over the last days now with fires and droughts and floods, volcanic activities and tsunamis and that will increase over the Vials of the Wrath of God at the return of the Messiah and still they will not repent.


Why are these wars coming to us now on what appears to be a developing massive scale? The answer is simply to heal the land under the Laws of God. (L1) and punish those who Sin by transgression of the Laws of God (1Jn. 3:4).

Get this fact clear: Abortion is murder and is a breach of the Sixth Commandment (see Abortion and Infanticide: Law and the Sixth Commandment Part II (No. 259B)). Violence and murder pollute the land and requires those who commit the sins to be likewise killed. They can all argue about their bodies and human rights. God will simply have them killed. So also the Globalists who manufacture poisons and who spread them by tyranny will suffer death, by violence and war, as in these COVID and Marburg and Monkey Pox “vaccines” they inflicted on mankind, and on it goes, with more coming.  Monkey Pox seems only (98%) to affect homosexuals. The other vaccines appear to be sending women sterile in vast numbers (25% drop in the birth rate last year over many nations recorded).  These are sins against the Law of God and will be punished by the deaths of the individuals involved. We are killing millions of our children, and under God’s Law, those who sin will also be killed.

Num. 35:33-34 You shall not thus pollute the land in which you live; for blood pollutes the land, and no expiation can be made for the land, for the blood that is shed in it, except by the blood of him who shed it. 34 You shall not defile the land in which you live, in the midst of which I dwell; for I the LORD dwell in the midst of the people of Israel."


So then: Is a trumpet blown in a city, and the people are not afraid? Surely the Lord does nothing without revealing his secret to his servants the prophets. The Lion has roared, who will not fear? The Lord has spoken, who can but not prophesy? (Amos 3:6-8). See also Genesis 9:5-6 and Exodus 21:12 for the overall effects. 


His servants the prophets in the Body of Christ can do nothing but tell the world of what lies ahead of them. None can stop it, except that the world repents. There is one choice only and that is to obey God and keep the Commandments of God and the Testimony and Faith of Jesus Christ including the Temple Calendar (No. 156). Do this and you will live. Keep Hillel or the pagan calendar of the Romanised and other systems and you will die. When the Messiah and the Loyal Host will be here they will commence to clean the world out of what has been left alive after the demons are finished with the stupidity and gullibility of the sinful disobedient world. Christ will only be sent to save those who eagerly await him, as we are told in Hebrews 9:28. The world can deny God and the Bible texts of the Scriptures, and the Messiah, all they wish, but Scripture cannot be broken (Jn 10:34-36). The Churches of God who do not keep God’s Law and worship two or more Gods and keep the Babylonian system and the Hillel Calendar and engage in the sins of the world and its systems will not live to go in to the millennial system. The ministry who teaches these lies and sin will all die and be sent to the Second Resurrection (No. 143B) at the end of the millennial system. So also the Global Warming scam shows the absurdity of the claims and the appalling dishonesty of the scientists in their failure to expose the scam. The same accusation also holds for the COVID scam and other vaxxes.


The sin of the nations appears simply out of control, but we will all be judged and punished for it.


Christ will return to take over the Elect Elohim (No. 001) (143A) and the nations. He will then rebuild the Temple in Jerusalem (see the Golden Jubilee (No. 300)). He will then rule the world for One thousand years, or a millennium from Jerusalem (Rev. 20:4-15), (see ##143A; 143B; 143C). After the Second resurrection, God the Father will then come to the planet to rule the universe from here, from the City of God (No. 180) (see also F066v).


Chapter 18

1When Jesus had spoken these words, he went forth with his disciples across the Kidron valley, where there was a garden, which he and his disciples entered. 2Now Judas, who betrayed him, also knew the place; for Jesus often met there with his disciples. 3So Judas, procuring a band of soldiers and some officers from the chief priests and the Pharisees, went there with lanterns and torches and weapons. 4Then Jesus, knowing all that was to befall him, came forward and said to them, "Whom do you seek?" 5They answered him, "Jesus of Nazareth." Jesus said to them, "I am he." Judas, who betrayed him, was standing with them. 6When he said to them, "I am he," they drew back and fell to the ground. 7Again he asked them, "Whom do you seek?" And they said, "Jesus of Nazareth." 8Jesus answered, "I told you that I am he; so, if you seek me, let these men go." 9This was to fulfil the word which he had spoken, "Of those whom thou gavest me I lost not one." 10Then Simon Peter, having a sword, drew it and struck the high priest's slave and cut off his right ear. The slave's name was Malchus. 11Jesus said to Peter, "Put your sword into its sheath; shall I not drink the cup which the Father has given me?" 12So the band of soldiers and their captain and the officers of the Jews seized Jesus and bound him. 13First they led him to Annas; for he was the father-in-law of Ca'iaphas, who was high priest that year. 14It was Ca'iaphas who had given counsel to the Jews that it was expedient that one man should die for the people. 15Simon Peter followed Jesus, and so did another disciple. As this disciple was known to the high priest, he entered the court of the high priest along with Jesus, 16while Peter stood outside at the door. So the other disciple, who was known to the high priest, went out and spoke to the maid who kept the door, and brought Peter in. 17The maid who kept the door said to Peter, "Are not you also one of this man's disciples?" He said, "I am not." 18Now the servants and officers had made a charcoal fire, because it was cold, and they were standing and warming themselves; Peter also was with them, standing and warming himself. 19The high priest then questioned Jesus about his disciples and his teaching. 20Jesus answered him, "I have spoken openly to the world; I have always taught in synagogues and in the temple, where all Jews come together; I have said nothing secretly. 21Why do you ask me? Ask those who have heard me, what I said to them; they know what I said." 22When he had said this, one of the officers standing by struck Jesus with his hand, saying, "Is that how you answer the high priest?" 23Jesus answered him, "If I have spoken wrongly, bear witness to the wrong; but if I have spoken rightly, why do you strike me?" 24Annas then sent him bound to Ca'iaphas the high priest. 25Now Simon Peter was standing and warming himself. They said to him, "Are not you also one of his disciples?" He denied it and said, "I am not." 26One of the servants of the high priest, a kinsman of the man whose ear Peter had cut off, asked, "Did I not see you in the garden with him?" 27Peter again denied it; and at once the cock crowed. 28Then they led Jesus from the house of Ca'iaphas to the praetorium. It was early. They themselves did not enter the praetorium, so that they might not be defiled, but might eat the passover. 29So Pilate went out to them and said, "What accusation do you bring against this man?" 

30They answered him, "If this man were not an evildoer, we would not have handed him over." 31Pilate said to them, "Take him yourselves and judge him by your own law." The Jews said to him, "It is not lawful for us to put any man to death." 32This was to fulfil the word which Jesus had spoken to show by what death he was to die. 33Pilate entered the praetorium again and called Jesus, and said to him, "Are you the King of the Jews?" 34Jesus answered, "Do you say this of your own accord, or did others say it to you about me?" 35Pilate answered, "Am I a Jew? Your own nation and the chief priests have handed you over to me; what have you done?" 36Jesus answered, "My kingship is not of this world; if my kingship were of this world, my servants would fight, that I might not be handed over to the Jews; but my kingship is not from the world." 37Pilate said to him, "So you are a king?" Jesus answered, "You say that I am a king. For this I was born, and for this I have come into the world, to bear witness to the truth. Every one who is of the truth hears my voice." 38Pilate said to him, "What is truth?" After he had said this, he went out to the Jews again, and told them, "I find no crime in him. 39But you have a custom that I should release one man for you at the Passover; will you have me release for you the King of the Jews?" 40They cried out again, "Not this man, but Barab'bas!" Now Barab'bas was a robber.


Intent of Chapter 18

18:1-19:42 Arrest, Trial, Execution and Burial of Christ.

vv. 1-11 Jesus is betrayed and arrested (Mat. 26:47-56 (F040vi); Mk. 14:43-52 (F041iv); Lk. 22:47-53) (F042vi).

v. 1 Kidron Valley – between Jerusalem and the Mount of Olives. A garden – Gethsemane

v. 3 Both Roman soldiers and Jewish Temple Police officers made the arrest. v. 4 Christ chose to go to them voluntarily so that the disciples would be free and not one of them would be lost, see v. 9 (6:39; 10:28; 17:12).

v. 10 The Name Malchus in the Bible

The name Malchus occurs only once in the Bible. He was the unfortunate servant of high priest Caiaphas, whose right ear got cut off during the arrest of Jesus in the garden of Gethsemane. Only John adds the detail that this man's name was Malchus and that the sword-wielding person was none other than Simon Peter (JOHN 18:10). Only Luke submits that Jesus healed the ear (LUKE 22:51). The name Malchus comes from the common Hebrew noun מלך (melek), meaning king:

v. 11 cup – Lk. 22:42 n.


18:12-24 Annas questions Jesus

v. 13 Annas was deposed by the Romans in 15 CE, yet through his four sons and son-in-law he maintained influence. In this case he was acting as the Ab Beth Din as Arraigning Magistrate (Although Schurer considers that this role was not operative until later; although it had the same effect.  (see links above)

vv. 15-18 Peter begins the process of denying Christ three times.

vv. 19-39 (19:16) Jesus is arraigned to be tried by the Sanhedrin and then Pilate tries him and hands  Jesus over to be executed (Mat. 27:15-25; Mk. 15:6-15; Lk. 23:13-25).

vv.  19-21 Here Annas was described as the High Priest but he was acting as deputy. He performed the function of arraigning magistrate which became the role of the Ab beth din, if, indeed, he were not in that role here.

v. 24 Annas then had him bound and sent to Caiaphas, his son-in-law, who was the actual High Priest, for formal trial before the Sanhedrin

(Mat. 26:57-75; Mk. 14:53-72; Lk. 22:54-71).

vv. 25-27 Peter denies knowing Jesus the third time and then the cock crowed (Mat. 26:69-75; Mk. 14:66-72; Lk. 22:54-65);  v. 27 13:38.


vv. 28-38 Jesus stands trial before Pilate (Mt. 27:11-14; Mk. 15:2-5; Lk. 23:1-5).

Paetorium –the governor’s residence.

Defiled – entering a gentile’s house would have rendered them ceremonially unclean.

vv. 29-31 The Jews tried religious cases but could not administer the death penalty. That required Pilate’s sentence, which was why they referred him there.

v. 32 This was to show the death, by which Christ would suffer. It was death by Stauros or the stake (3:14; 12:32), rather than the Jewish method, by stoning. It was not by a cross as the cross-bar was not added for many decades after Christ’s death. The Greek is stauros and it is mistranslated as cross (see The Cross: Its Origin and Significance (No. 039)).

vv. 33-37  Pilate re-entered the Praetorium and again questions Jesus if he were king of the Jews, which was the basis of the charge of treason they were bringing against him. It was technically incorrect because he was the subordinate God or elohim (Deut. 32:8) and king of Israel as David said in the Holy Spirit in Ps. 45:6-7 (Heb. 1:8-9) who had the Father as his God, or creator.

He then said he came to teach the truth and Pilate then said what is truth? Yet here he was faced with the Christ. 

vv. 38-40 Pilate then went out to the Jews and said he found no crime in him but offered to release him as was the custom at Passover. They refused and then demanded Pilate release Barabbas, who was a robber. Barabbas means son of the Father. Thus a substitution took place, heavy with symbolism,


Chapter 19

1Then Pilate took Jesus and scourged him. 2And the soldiers plaited a crown of thorns, and put it on his head, and arrayed him in a purple robe; 3they came up to him, saying, "Hail, King of the Jews!" and struck him with their hands. 4Pilate went out again, and said to them, "See, I am bringing him out to you, that you may know that I find no crime in him." 5So Jesus came out, wearing the crown of thorns and the purple robe. Pilate said to them, "Behold the man!" 6When the chief priests and the officers saw him, they cried out, "Crucify him, crucify him!" Pilate said to them, "Take him yourselves and crucify him, for I find no crime in him." 7The Jews answered him, "We have a law, and by that law he ought to die, because he has made himself the Son of God." 8When Pilate heard these words, he was the more afraid; 9he entered the praetorium again and said to Jesus, "Where are you from?" But Jesus gave no answer. 10Pilate therefore said to him, "You will not speak to me? Do you not know that I have power to release you, and power to crucify you?" 11Jesus answered him, "You would have no power over me unless it had been given you from above; therefore he who delivered me to you has the greater sin." 12Upon this Pilate sought to release him, but the Jews cried out, "If you release this man, you are not Caesar's friend; every one who makes himself a king sets himself against Caesar." 13When Pilate heard these words, he brought Jesus out and sat down on the judgment seat at a place called The Pavement, and in Hebrew, Gab'batha. 14Now it was the day of Preparation of the Passover; it was about the sixth hour. He said to the Jews, "Behold your King!" 15They cried out, "Away with him, away with him, crucify him!" Pilate said to them, "Shall I crucify your King?" The chief priests answered, "We have no king but Caesar." 16Then he handed him over to them to be crucified. 17So they took Jesus, and he went out, bearing his own cross, to the place called the place of a skull, which is called in Hebrew Gol'gotha. 18There they crucified him, and with him two others, one on either side, and Jesus between them. 19Pilate also wrote a title and put it on the cross; it read, "Jesus of Nazareth, the King of the Jews." 20Many of the Jews read this title, for the place where Jesus was crucified was near the city; and it was written in Hebrew, in Latin, and in Greek. 21The chief priests of the Jews then said to Pilate, "Do not write, 'The King of the Jews,' but, 'This man said, I am King of the Jews.'" 22Pilate answered, "What I have written I have written." 23When the soldiers had crucified Jesus they took his garments and made four parts, one for each soldier; also his tunic. But the tunic was without seam, woven from top to bottom; 24so they said to one another, "Let us not tear it, but cast lots for it to see whose it shall be." This was to fulfil the scripture, "They parted my garments among them, and for my clothing they cast lots." 25So the soldiers did this. But standing by the cross of Jesus were his mother, and his mother's sister, Mary the wife of Clopas, and Mary Mag'dalene. 26When Jesus saw his mother, and the disciple whom he loved standing near, he said to his mother, "Woman, behold, your son!" 27Then he said to the disciple, "Behold, your mother!" And from that hour the disciple took her to his own home. 28After this Jesus, knowing that all was now finished, said (to fulfil the scripture), "I thirst." 29A bowl full of vinegar stood there; so they put a sponge full of the vinegar on hyssop and held it to his mouth. 30When Jesus had received the vinegar, he said, "It is finished"; and he bowed his head and gave up his spirit. 31Since it was the day of Preparation, in order to prevent the bodies from remaining on the cross on the sabbath (for that sabbath was a high day), the Jews asked Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away. 32So the soldiers came and broke the legs of the first, and of the other who had been crucified with him; 33but when they came to Jesus and saw that he was already dead, they did not break his legs. 34But one of the soldiers pierced his side with a spear, and at once there came out blood and water. 35He who saw it has borne witness--his testimony is true, and he knows that he tells the truth--that you also may believe. 36For these things took place that the scripture might be fulfilled, "Not a bone of him shall be broken." 37And again another scripture says, "They shall look on him whom they have pierced." 38After this Joseph of Arimathe'a, who was a disciple of Jesus, but secretly, for fear of the Jews, asked Pilate that he might take away the body of Jesus, and Pilate gave him leave. So he came and took away his body. 39Nicode'mus also, who had at first come to him by night, came bringing a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about a hundred pounds' weight. 40They took the body of Jesus, and bound it in linen cloths with the spices, as is the burial custom of the Jews. 41Now in the place where he was crucified there was a garden, and in the garden a new tomb where no one had ever been laid. 42So because of the Jewish day of Preparation, as the tomb was close at hand, they laid Jesus there.


Intent of Chapter 19

19:1-16 Jesus scourged and handed over for execution.

19:1-5 Though Pilate found (18:38) Jesus innocent of political insurrection, he was scourged or lashed viciously.

v. 7 Lev. 24:16; Mk. 14:61-64; Jn. 5:18; 10:33.

v. 9 Unable to understand the charge Pilate is inwardly afraid (Mat. 27:19), and this was ultimately to come to his conversion, as tradition claims.

v. 11 God allows evil without abrogating human responsibility (see the Problem of Evil (No. 118)).

It was Caiaphas that bore the greater responsibility and that was to result in their dispersion of 70 CE and the judgment of the Sanhedrin and their loss of the government as we see from Lk. 10:1, 17 with the ordination of the Seventy of the Church of God (Hebdomekonta (Duo)). v. 12 A threat to report him to Caesar and have him removed and worse. v. 14 Sixth Hour about midday.


v. 17 Jesus is led away to be executed (Mat. 27:32-34; Mk. 15:21-24; Lk. 23:26-31).

Christ was carrying his own stauros or stake on which he was to be executed (see The Cross: Its Origin and Significance (No. 039)). He was later given assistance by Simon of Cyrene at Roman direction (Mat. 27:32; Mk. 15:21; Lk. 23:26).

Golgotha – a place that resembled a skull outside Jerusalem (v. 20).

vv. 18-27 Jesus is placed on the stauros (Mat. 27:35-44; Mk. 15:25-32; Lk. 23:32-43).

vv. 19-22 The trilingual caption expressed Pilate’s contempt for the behaviour of the Sanhedrin and the Jews in general (v. 14).

v. 23 A Roman custom

v. 24 Prophecy foretold even the soldier’s behaviour (Ps. 22:18).

vv. 26-27 His concern for his mother and friend indicates his humanity and concern for the others.

Here he is shown to be carrying out the commandments of God. He honoured his Father by carrying out the Fifth Commandment, even to the point of death, and here, just before he died, he took steps to care for his mother by placing her in the hands of John. 

vv. 28-37 Jesus dies on the stauros (Mat. 27:45-56; Mk. 15:33-41; Lk. 23:44-49).

v. 28 I thirst Ps. 69:21

v. 29 vinegar- Sour Wine

v. 30 Finished – All that God had given him to accomplish for the redemption of the world (17:4).

v. 31 High Day The next day was Thursday 6 April 30 CE which began that Wednesday night at Dark or EENT and began the First Holy Day of Unleavened Bread, Christ was killed in Wednesday 5 April 30 CE (see Timing of the Crucifixion and the Resurrection (No.159)).


Christ was placed in the body of the earth (tomb) for three days and three nights in accordance with the Sign of Jonah… (No. 013) and F032). A Friday death and Sunday Resurrection would not have been three days and three nights and would have invalidated the Sign of Jonah and disqualified Christ as the Messiah. On no day in the years that Christ could have been killed did the preparation day of the Passover fall on a Friday (see 159 above). The Friday death and Sunday resurrection of Easter (or Ishtar or Ashtoreth) was the festival of the goddess Easter consort of Baal and commemorated the festival of Attis at Rome and the Middle East and of Adonis among the Greeks and at Thrace. The symbols of eggs and rabbits are fertility symbols of the Babylonian Sun and Mystery Cults associated with the goddess. It has plagued Israel since Egypt to this very day and will be stamped out by the Messiah at the Advent all over the world (see Origins of Christmas and Easter (No. 235)). Trinitarian Scholars have been hamstrung by the Easter festival and the Sun and Mystery Cults for centuries and cannot, or refuse to, make sense of Scripture and the nature of God due to their false doctrines, including Sunday worship which entered the church at Rome in 111CE side by side with the Sabbath, until they managed to do away with the Sabbath over the Second Century into the Third at Rome. So also have the people who keep the Hillel Calendar been unable to deal with the false doctrines of the Jews and the Hillel Calendar (No. 195C) and Distortion of God’s Calendar in Judah (No. 195B) created from the Babylonian Intercalations and released in 358 CE under Hillel II. They will all be forced to keep the Temple Calendar (No. 156) when Christ returns or face death by famine, and the plagues of Egypt (see Isa. 66:23-24; Zech. 14:16-19) (see ## 031; 125; 098; 115; 136; 138; F038).   

v. 33 Jesus was already dead and they did not break his legs. (Psalm 34:20) (Jn. 19:36).

v. 34 Blood and water This was the prophecy of Zech. 12:10 regarding he of the clans of David through Nathan (Lk. Ch. 3 F042) and Levi through Shimei, (see also Q086), looking on he of theirs who was pierced. 


vv. 38-42 Jesus is laid in the tomb (Mat. 27:57-61; Mk. 15:42-47; Lk. 23:50-56).

Joseph of Arimathea went to Pilate secretly for fear of the Jews, as he was Christ’s oldest nearest relative. He was Heli’s brother and uncle of the virgin. His daugther Ana was married to Bran, called the Blessed (because of his wife’s cousin and the Messiah). Bran was king of the Britons. Their daughter (Joseph’s granddaughter) was married to Arviragus king of the Silurians who gave the twelve hides of land to Joseph and Linus ap Caradog, Arviragus’ nephew and first bishop of Rome, for the church at Glastonbury, built under Aristobulus, first bishop of Britain, whose family remained, for a while at Rome (Rom. Ch. 16) (see 122D; 266), F045iii) (see the historical details in Ashley M. Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens, Carroll and Graf, NY, 1999, notes on Bran and also on Joseph).


Chapter 20

1Now on the first day of the week Mary Mag'dalene came to the tomb early, while it was still dark, and saw that the stone had been taken away from the tomb. 2So she ran, and went to Simon Peter and the other disciple, the one whom Jesus loved, and said to them, "They have taken the Lord out of the tomb, and we do not know where they have laid him." 3Peter then came out with the other disciple, and they went toward the tomb. 4They both ran, but the other disciple outran Peter and reached the tomb first; 5and stooping to look in, he saw the linen cloths lying there, but he did not go in. 6Then Simon Peter came, following him, and went into the tomb; he saw the linen cloths lying, 7and the napkin, which had been on his head, not lying with the linen cloths but rolled up in a place by itself. 8Then the other disciple, who reached the tomb first, also went in, and he saw and believed; 9for as yet they did not know the scripture, that he must rise from the dead. 10Then the disciples went back to their homes. 11But Mary stood weeping outside the tomb, and as she wept she stooped to look into the tomb; 12and she saw two angels in white, sitting where the body of Jesus had lain, one at the head and one at the feet. 13They said to her, "Woman, why are you weeping?" She said to them, "Because they have taken away my Lord, and I do not know where they have laid him." 14Saying this, she turned round and saw Jesus standing, but she did not know that it was Jesus. 15Jesus said to her, "Woman, why are you weeping? Whom do you seek?" Supposing him to be the gardener, she said to him, "Sir, if you have carried him away, tell me where you have laid him, and I will take him away." 16Jesus said to her, "Mary." She turned and said to him in Hebrew, "Rab-bo'ni!" (which means Teacher). 17Jesus said to her, "Do not hold me, for I have not yet ascended to the Father; but go to my brethren and say to them, I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God." 18Mary Mag'dalene went and said to the disciples, "I have seen the Lord"; and she told them that he had said these things to her. 19On the evening of that day, the first day of the week, the doors being shut where the disciples were, for fear of the Jews, Jesus came and stood among them and said to them, "Peace be with you." 20When he had said this, he showed them his hands and his side. Then the disciples were glad when they saw the Lord. 21Jesus said to them again, "Peace be with you. As the Father has sent me, even so I send you." 22And when he had said this, he breathed on them, and said to them, "Receive the Holy Spirit. 23If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven; if you retain the sins of any, they are retained." 24Now Thomas, one of the twelve, called the Twin, was not with them when Jesus came. 25So the other disciples told him, "We have seen the Lord." But he said to them, "Unless I see in his hands the print of the nails, and place my finger in the mark of the nails, and place my hand in his side, I will not believe." 26Eight days later, his disciples were again in the house, and Thomas was with them. The doors were shut, but Jesus came and stood among them, and said, "Peace be with you." 27Then he said to Thomas, "Put your finger here, and see my hands; and put out your hand, and place it in my side; do not be faithless, but believing." 28Thomas answered him, "My Lord and my God!" 29Jesus said to him, "Have you believed because you have seen me? Blessed are those who have not seen and yet believe." 30Now Jesus did many other signs in the presence of the disciples, which are not written in this book; 31but these are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that believing you may have life in his name.


Intent of Chapter 20

vv. 1-9 Jesus rises from the dead (Mat. 28:1-7 (F040vi); Mk. 16:1-8 (F041iv); Lk. 24:1-12; (F042vi).

Christ rose from the dead at the end of Sabbath just before Dark at EENT.  He then waited over-night until the time of the Wave Sheaf Offering (No. 106B) at 9AM on the Sunday morning when he went before God, as the Offering, and was accepted and returned that evening to the disciples (Rev. Chs 4 and 5 (F066)); (see the Timing of the Crucifixion and the Resurrection (No. 159); The Sign of Jonah ...(No. 013)).

v. 2-3 The empty tomb shows actual resurrection and not immortality or absence of physical death.

v. 4 The other disciple (John) was younger.

v. 6 Peter shows boldness and leadership.

v. 7 Jesus’ body had escaped without the linen cloths being unwound. The napkin which had been wrapped around his head (comp. 11:44) lay apart still rolled up.

v. 8 Believed – by faith they believed that he had been resurrected and transferred without corruption to his post resurrection body (Acts 2:24-31).

v. 9 The Scripture The Old Testament (Comp. Lk. 24:27, 32, 44-46; Acts 2:24-28).


vv. 10-18 Jesus appears to Mary Magdalene (Mk. 16:9-11).

Christ was resurrected at the end of the Sabbath and then waited all night for the Wave Sheaf on Sunday morning at 9AM. While it was still dark before dawn on the first of the week (Sunday morning) Mary came and discovered the empty tomb and ran to tell Simon Peter and John that they had taken Christ’s body out of the tomb. Mary remained and saw two angels and the Christ who spoke to her. He could not allow her to touch him, as he was waiting to go to the Father at the time of the Wave Sheaf, and had she touched him, he may have been ritually unclean to go before the Throne of God. He said to her that she was to go to the brethren and tell them he was ascending to his Father and their Father and to his God and their God. This theology was perfectly in accord with the theology in 1:1-18 where he was identified as the Subordinate God of Israel of Psalm 45:6-7 (#177) and Hebrew 1:8-9 (F058) and as the High Priest of Melchisedek going to God as the Barley Harvest of the Wave Sheaf.  This was further explained in the prayers of 17:1-5 and the structure of the three prayers representing himself as the Barley Harvest, the Elect of the Church as the Wheat Harvest at Pentecost, which is the First Resurrection (No. 143A), and the General Harvest of the world in the third phase of the salvation process  represented by Tabernacles in the Seventh Month, which will continue on over the Second  Resurrection (No. 143B).


vv. 16-17 She refers to him as teacher but here he was the resurrected lord (compare chs. 14-17 above.

vv. 19-23 Jesus appears to the disciples behind locked doors (Lk. 24:36,43). So this was the evening of the First Day (Sunday) before Dark that night. The disciples were locked in for fear of the Jews. Christ entered the building and spoke to the disciples showing them his hands and side (v. 20). He then said that he was sending them as he had been sent and breathed on them the Holy Spirit which he had obviously been permitted to do (v. 22). He then said that if they forgive the sins of any, they were forgiven, and if they retained the sins of any, they were retained (v. 23).

The church then is handed the mission of forgiveness and the Call of God.

vv. 24-31 Jesus appears to the disciples including Thomas (Mk. 16:14).

vv. 24-25 Thomas was not there and when told of the appearance he refused to believe.

vv. 26-29 Eight days later Christ appeared again in the house (in spite of the locked doors) and Christ invited him to put his fingers into the holes in his hands and his side and Thomas then repented and said: My Lord and my God!

Christ then said: “Blessed are those who have not seen and yet believe.”

v. 28 Climax of the book. Here the Psalm 45:6-7; Heb. 1:8-9 is placed in simple words.

v. 29 Faith now rests on the Apostolic Testimony.


vv. 30-31 There are many other signs that Christ did before the disciples that are not written in the gospel. These are written here so that we may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the son of God and that believing we may have life in his name.

This is in effect the purpose of the Gospel according to John.


The eight days he was absent, for example, probably encompass the days he spent among the fallen sons of God at Tartaros as Peter told us (1Pet. 3:18-22; 2Pet.2:4) (F060) and many other aspects and miracles were provided to encourage the brethren up until Pentecost 30 CE when they were told to remain in Jerusalem and the Holy Spirit was to be sent to them as a body. He then spent forty days in total with them until he went into the heavens to the Throne Room of God (see Forty Days Following Christ’s Resurrection (No. 159B)).  (See also Ch. 21 below.)


Chapter 21

1After this Jesus revealed himself again to the disciples by the Sea of Tibe'ri-as; and he revealed himself in this way. 2Simon Peter, Thomas called the Twin, Nathan'a-el of Cana in Galilee, the sons of Zeb'edee, and two others of his disciples were together. 3Simon Peter said to them, "I am going fishing." They said to him, "We will go with you." They went out and got into the boat; but that night they caught nothing. 4Just as day was breaking, Jesus stood on the beach; yet the disciples did not know that it was Jesus. 5Jesus said to them, "Children, have you any fish?" They answered him, "No." 6He said to them, "Cast the net on the right side of the boat, and you will find some." So they cast it, and now they were not able to haul it in, for the quantity of fish. 7That disciple whom Jesus loved said to Peter, "It is the Lord!" When Simon Peter heard that it was the Lord, he put on his clothes, for he was stripped for work, and sprang into the sea. 8But the other disciples came in the boat, dragging the net full of fish, for they were not far from the land, but about a hundred yards off. 9When they got out on land, they saw a charcoal fire there, with fish lying on it, and bread. 10Jesus said to them, "Bring some of the fish that you have just caught." 11So Simon Peter went aboard and hauled the net ashore, full of large fish, a hundred and fifty-three of them; and although there were so many, the net was not torn. 12Jesus said to them, "Come and have breakfast." Now none of the disciples dared ask him, "Who are you?" They knew it was the Lord. 13Jesus came and took the bread and gave it to them, and so with the fish. 14This was now the third time that Jesus was revealed to the disciples after he was raised from the dead. 15When they had finished breakfast, Jesus said to Simon Peter, "Simon, son of John, do you love me more than these?" He said to him, "Yes, Lord; you know that I love you." He said to him, "Feed my lambs." 16A second time he said to him, "Simon, son of John, do you love me?" He said to him, "Yes, Lord; you know that I love you." He said to him, "Tend my sheep." 17He said to him the third time, "Simon, son of John, do you love me?" Peter was grieved because he said to him the third time, "Do you love me?" And he said to him, "Lord, you know everything; you know that I love you." Jesus said to him, "Feed my sheep. 18Truly, truly, I say to you, when you were young, you girded yourself and walked where you would; but when you are old, you will stretch out your hands, and another will gird you and carry you where you do not wish to go." 19(This he said to show by what death he was to glorify God.) And after this he said to him, "Follow me." 20Peter turned and saw following them the disciple whom Jesus loved, who had lain close to his breast at the supper and had said, "Lord, who is it that is going to betray you?" 21When Peter saw him, he said to Jesus, "Lord, what about this man?" 22Jesus said to him, "If it is my will that he remain until I come, what is that to you? Follow me!" 23The saying spread abroad among the brethren that this disciple was not to die; yet Jesus did not say to him that he was not to die, but, "If it is my will that he remain until I come, what is that to you?" 24This is the disciple who is bearing witness to these things, and who has written these things; and we know that his testimony is true. 25But there are also many other things which Jesus did; were every one of them to be written, I suppose that the world itself could not contain the books that would be written.


Intent of Chapter 21

vv. 1-14 Jesus again appears to the disciples, at the sea of Galilee (Tiberias n. 6:1), while they were fishing. They worked all night but had caught nothing and Jesus appeared on the beach in the morning.  He told them to put the net down on the right side of the boat and immediately they caught a great haul of fish and they then recognised it was the Christ that spoke to them. The significance of the haul is explained in the text 153 Great Fish ((No. 170B) and concerns the activities in all four gospels (see also No. 159B from Chapter 20).

vv. 2-3  Peter was the leader of the group.

vv. 4-6 Obedience to Jesus’ command is rewarded.

vv. 9-14 Jesus feeding his disciples is a prelude to his command to the disciples to feed others.


vv. 15-25 Jesus talks with Peter

vv. 15-17 These  - other disciples (Mk. 14:29).

The triple question is reminiscent of Peter’s triple denials (18:17, 25-27). He is then told to feed the sheep; as are the rest, so commissioned.

vv. 18-19 According to tradition Peter was martyred at the end of his mission to the Hebrews in Parthia, Scythia, Persia and Thrace with Andrew. Contrary to later Roman fiction he was never bishop of Rome. He is reported by Hippolytus bishop of Ostia Attica, to have gone to Italy at the end of his Mission and was martyred in Italy under Nero ca 64-68 CE. There is no evidence that he was actually martyred in Rome, but he may well have been. It is not of importance regarding his mission, which was to Parthia in the East from Babylon (1Pet. 5:13) and Antioch. See Establishment of the Church under the Seventy ( No. 122D).

21:20-22 Each is to follow his Lord regardless of others. If they do not speak according to the Law and the Testimony, there is no light in them (Isa. 8:20). Until I come refers to the Second Coming or advent at the end of the Age at the Completion of the Sign of Jonah (No. 013B) and the fulfilment of prophecy at the end of the last Empire of the Beast of Ten Toes which will be overthrown by Christ and the millennial system and the Body of Christ will be established forever.

The Last Days are explained in the texts Completion of the Sign of Jonah (No. 013B).

The final Wars of Amalek and of the Fifth and Sixth Trumpets are explained in the papers:

Wars of the End Part 1: Wars of Amalek (No. 141C) 

Conduct of the War of the Sixth Trumpet (No. 141C_2)


The Witnesses Enoch and Elijah are allowed to deal with Mankind for 1260 Days under the Last Empire of the Ten Toes.

Wars of the End Part 11: 1260 Days of the Witnesses (No. 141D)


Then Messiah and the Host arrive and the First Resurrection of the Saints occurs (#143A) and we see Armageddon and the Vials of the Wrath of God occur.

Wars of the End Part 111: Armageddon and the Vials of the Wrath of God (No. 141E) and then the war against Christ, Wars of the End Part 111B: War Against Christ (No. 141E_2)


Messiah then ends all False Religion:

Wars of the End Part 1V: The End of False Religion (No. 141F) over the End of this Age. Wars of the End Part IV(b): End of the Age (No. 141F_2). The Millennium is then started:

Wars of the End Part V: Restoration for the Millennium (No. 141G) and the world is then prepared to become Elohim or Gods (Jn. 10:34-36) as sons of God and all mankind is resurrected at the Second Resurrection (No. 143B). The Demons are killed at the end of the Millennium and then resurrected and given another chance, with the rest of mankind, as we see in Judgment of the Demons (No. 080) and the paper regarding  The Prodigal Son (No. 199); Wars of the End Part V(b): Preparing the Elohim (No. 141H).

All become Elohim and are given Eternal Life (No. 133).


At the end of the Judgment the sheer brilliance and perfect justice of God’s Plan of Salvation (No. 001A) will be evident to all.


v. 23 John explains the comments Christ made concerning John remaining until Christ came as false.  Christ told Peter to follow him as were all the disciples to do. 

vv. 24-25 is the end summary of the book regarding the sheer volume of the works Christ did. The words we know is a confirmation by the church that the contents of the gospel of John are true.


The New Oxford Annotated RSV scholars for example do not even canvas the argument that chapter 21 is a later addition to the Gospel and the comments in the chapter ties into the details (e.g. 153 Great Fish) as dealt with elsewhere and ties the Synoptic texts together and the comments at vv. 24-25 shows the church endorsed the contents of the Gospel as true.


Further references

The Bible (No. 164)

Alleged Bible Contradictions (No. 164B)

Antinomian Destruction of Christianity by Misuse of Scripture (No. 164C)

Antinomian Attacks on the Law of God (No. 164D)

Antinomian Denial of Baptism (No. 164E)

Forgeries and Additions/Mistranslations in the Bible (No. 164F)

Forgeries and Mistranslations Relating to the Position of Christ (No. 164G)




Bullinger’s notes on John Chs. 17-21 (for KJV)


Chapter 17

Verse 1

words = things; i.e. from John 13:31 to John 16:33 .

Jesus . App-98 .

to = unto. Greek. eis. App-104 .

heaven = the heaven (singular) See on Matthew 6:9 , Matthew 6:10 .

Father . App-98 . See on John 1:14 .

hour. Compare John 12:23 , John 12:27 ; John 13:1 .

glorify. See on John 12:16 and p. 1511.

Son. App-98 and App-108 .

that = in order that. Greek. hina.

also . All texts omit.


Verse 2

As = Even as.

power = authority. App-172 .

over all flesh. Literally of: i.e. in relation to ( App-17 .) all flesh. Compare Isaiah 40:5 .Luke 3:6 . Acts 2:17 .

eternal. App-151 .

life . App-170 .

to as many , &c. Literally everything that Thou hast given Him, to them. Seven times in this prayer His people are said to have been given Him by the Father, verses: John 17:2 , John 17:6 , John 17:6 , John 2:9 , John 2:11 , John 2:12 , John 2:24 ; but see notes on verses: John 17:11 , John 17:12 .


Verse 3

this , &c. Not a definition of eternal life, but the purpose (Greek. hina, as in John 17:1 ) for which it is given.

know. App-132 .

true . App-175 ., and p. 1511.

God . App-98 .

Jesus Christ . App-98 .

sent. App-174 . Christ said to be the sent One six times in this prayer, forty-three times in John; apostello, 17 times; pempo, 33 times.


Verse 4

on. Greek. epi. App-104 .

earth . App-129 .

I have finished . The texts read "having finished". Compare John 4:34 ; John 5:36 ; John 19:30 .

gavest = hast given.

to do = in order that (Greek. hina, as in John 17:1 ) I should do it.


Verse 5

now. Greek. nun, as in John 13:31 .

with = beside. Greek. para. App-104 .

glory. Greek. doxa. See p. 1511.

before . Greek. pro. App-104 .

world . App-129 .


Verse 6

have manifested = manifested.

name . Compare verses: it, 12, 26. Exodus 34:5 .Psalms 9:10 ; Psalms 20:1 (see note there).

unto = to.

men . App-123 .

gavest . Compare John 17:2 ; John 6:37 ; John 12:32 .

out of . Greek. ek. App-104 . kept. Greek. tereo. This word is used in these chapters twelve times: John 14:15 , John 14:21 , John 14:23 , John 14:24 ; John 15:10 , John 15:10 , John 15:20 , John 15:20 ; John 17:6 , John 17:11 , John 17:12 , John 17:15 ; nine times in reference to the Word, thrice in reference to the disciples. word. Greek. logos. See Mark 9:32 . Three statements are made by the Lord of His disciples, each three times: their relationship to the Word, verses: John 17:6 , John 17:7 , John 17:8 ; relationship to the Sent One, verses: John 17:8 , John 17:18 , John 17:25 ; relationship to the world, verses: John 17:14 , John 17:14 , John 17:16 .


Verse 7

of = from. Greek. para. App-104 .


Verse 8

words. Greek. rhema. See Mark 9:32 .

have received = received.

have known = knew,

surely = truly. Greek. alethos. Compare App-175 .

from . Greek. para, as in John 17:7 .

have believed = believed. App-150 .


Verse 9

pray = ask. Greek. erotao. App-134 . The Lord uses this word eight times in these chapters: John 14:16 ; John 16:5 , John 16:23 , John 16:26 ; John 17:9 , John 17:9 , John 17:15 , John 17:20 . The word aiteo, used of an inferior addressing a superior, Occurs John 14:13 , John 14:14 ; John 15:7 , John 15:16 ; John 16:23 , John 16:24 , John 16:24 , John 16:26 . Compare Mark 15:43 (crave), Luke 23:52 (beg).

for = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104 . not. Greek. ou. App-105 .


Verse 10

all Mine are Thine , &c. = all things that are Mine are Thine, &c. This is a claim of perfect equality. Everything belonging to the Father, from essential being to works, the Son claims as His own. Luther says, "Any man can say ' All mine is Thine', but only the Son can say 'All that is Thine is Mine. ' Compare 1 Corinthians 3:21-23 .

am glorified = have been glorified. See verses: John 17:6-8 .

in . Greek. en. App-104 .


Verse 11

now . . . no more = no longer. Greek. ouketi.

to = unto. Greek. pros. App-104 .

Holy Father . When speaking of Himself, the Lord says, "Father", verses: John 1:5 , John 1:21 , John 1:24 ; when speaking of His disciples, "Holy Father"; when speaking of the world, "Righteous Father", John 17:25 . The holiness of God has separated the disciples from the world. Compare 1 John 2:15 , 1 John 2:16 .

through = in. Greek. en, as in John 17:12 .

whom . All the texts read "which", referring to "name": i.e. "Keep them through Thy name which Thou hast given Me. "Compare Exodus 23:21 .Isaiah 9:6 . Philippians 1:2 , Philippians 1:9 , Philippians 1:10 . Revelation 19:12 .

one. Greek. en. Neut. as in John 10:30 . This request is made five times ( App-6 ) in this chapter: here, verses: John 21:21 , John 21:22 , John 21:23 .


Verse 12

While = When. with. Greek. meta. App-104 .

in the world . All the texts omit.

those that . As in John 17:11 , all the texts put the relative in the singular, and read "in Thy name that Thou gayest Me, and I kept them".

have kept = kept (Greek. phulasso), i.e. guarded. Compare Luke 2:8 (keep watch). 1 John 5:21 . Not the same word as in former clause and John 17:6 .

of = out of. Greek. ek. App-104 .

lost. Greek apollumi. Occurs twelve times in John: John 6:12 , John 6:39 ; John 12:25 ; John 17:12 ; John 18:9 (lose); John 3:15 , John 3:16 ; John 6:27 ; John 10:28 ; John 11:50 (perish); John 10:10 (destroy); John 18:14 (die). Used of the doom of the sinner. One of the strongest words in the Greek language to express final and irretrievable destruction.

but = except. Greek. ei me.

the son , &c. This expression occurs here and 2 Thessalonians 2:3 (the Antichrist). Used in the Septuagint in Isaiah 57:4 , "children of transgression". Compare Matthew 9:16 ; Matthew 13:38 ; Matthew 23:15 .Luke 16:8 . Acts 13:10 . Ephesians 2:2 , in all which passages "child "should be "son".

perdition . Greek. apoleia, a kindred word to apollumi. Occurs twenty times. Only here in John. First occurance. Matthew 7:13 .

the scripture , &c. This expression occurs five times in John, here, John 13:18 ; John 19:24 , John 19:28 , John 19:36 .

might be = may be, expressing certainty.

fulfilled . See on John 15:11 .


Verse 14

Thy word. In John 17:6 the word is "kept", here it is "given"; in John 17:17 its character is stated, "truth".

hath hated = hated.


Verse 15

from = out of. Greek. ek, as in the former clause. the evil = the evil one. See on Matthew 6:13 . Compare 1 John 5:19 . Three things the Lord requested for His disciples: to be kept from the evil one, to be sanctified through the truth (John 17:17 ), and to behold His glory (John 17:24 ).


Verse 17

Sanctify = Hallow. Greek. hagiam. Separation is the idea of the word "holy". See note on Exodus 3:5 .

Thy . All the texts read "the".

truth . The truth is the great separating force. Compare Matthew 10:35 .

Thy word , &c. = The word that is Thine is the truth. The Incarnate and revealed Words alike. Compare John 6:33 ; John 14:6 ; John 16:13 .Matthew 22:16 . 2Co 6:7 ; 2 Corinthians 13:8 . Galatians 1:2 , Galatians 1:5 , Galatians 1:14 .Ephesians 1:13 .


Verse 18

As = Even as.

hast sent = didst send.

into. Greek. eis. App-104 .

have . . . sent = sent.


Verse 19

for their sakes = on behalf of (Greek. huper. App-104 .) them.

I sanctify Myself = I dedicate or consecrate Myself. This shows the meaning of sanctify; not making holy as to moral character, but setting apart for God. The Lord was the antitype of all the offerings, which were holy unto Jehovah.

might be = may be.

the truth . There is no article.


Verse 20

Neither = Not, (Greek. ou . App-105 ).

shall believe . All the texts read "believe".

believe on . App-150 .

through . Greek. dia. App-104 .


Verse 21

hast sent = didst send (Aor.)


Verse 22

gayest . Here the reading should be "hast given".


Verse 23

made perfect = perfected. Greek. teleioo. Same word as "finish" in John 17:4 .

in = into. Greek. eis. App-104 .

and. All omit.

hast sent = didst send.

hast loved = lovedst.

loved . Greek. agapao. See p. 1511.

as = even as.


Verse 24

will . Greek. thelo. App-102 . Compare John 12:21 ; John 15:7 ; John 16:19 .

behold . Greek. theoreo. App-133 . Compare John 2:23 ,

the foundation , &c. See App-146 .


Verse 25

righteous Father . See on John 17:11 .

hath not known Thee = knew Thee not. See John 8:55 .Romans 1:18-32 . 1Co 1:21 ; 1 Corinthians 2:8 .

have known = knew.

hast sent = didst send.


Verse 26

have declared = declared: i.e. made known. Greek. gnorizo. See John 15:15 , the only other occurance in John. Kindred word to ginosko ( App-132 . ) and gnosis, knowledge.

love. Greek. agape. App-136 .

hast loved = lovedst. This whole chapter beautifully illustrates Psalms 119:0 and Psalms 138:2 .


Chapter 18

Verse 1

When Jesus , &c. = Jesus, having spoken.

Jesus . App-98 .

words = things. went forth: i.e. from the place where He had

been speaking . See John 14:31 .

with . Greek. sun. App-104 .

brook . Greek. cheimarros, a winter torrent. Occurs only here.

Cedron. Called Kidron (2 Samuel 15:23 and elsewhere in O.T.) David crossed it, when with a few faithful followers he fled from Absalom. The name seems to have been given both to the valley and to the torrent which, in winter, sometimes ran through it. Now Wady-en-Nar.

garden . Greek. kepos. An orchard or plantation. Compare Luke 13:19 .

into. Greek. eis. App-104 .


Verse 2

knew . Greek. oida. App-132 .

with. Greek meta. App-104 .


Verse 3

a band = the cohort; the word means the tenth part of a legion, therefore 600 men; but the term was probably used with some latitude.

officers. The Temple guard. Compare John 7:32 , John 7:45 , John 7:46 . from. Greek ek, App-104 .

chief priests . These were Sadducees (Acts 5:17 ). So Sadducees and Pharisees sunk their differences in order to destroy Him, just as Herod and Pilate were made friends (Luke 23:12 ) over His condemnation.

lanterns . Greek. phanos. Occurs only here. Compare App-106 .

torches . Greek lampas. Generally rendered "lamp" (Matthew 25:1-8 . Revelation 4:8 ; Revelation 8:10 ), but "light" in Acts 20:8 .

weapons . The swords and staves of Luke 22:52 .


Verse 4

upon . Greek. epi. App-101 .

unto = to.


Verse 5

of Nazareth = the Nazarene. For some reason Nazareth had an evil name (See John 1:46 ), and so Nazarene was a term of reproach. The name has nothing to do with Nazarite (separated) applied to Joseph (Genesis 49:26 ), and those like Samson who took the vow of Numbers 6:0 .

I am. Greek. ego eimi. These words were used nine times in John 4:26 ; John 6:20 ; John 8:24 , John 8:28 , John 8:58 ; John 13:19 , as well as in John 18:5 , John 18:6 , John 18:8 . Whatever may be said of the first two instances, the others are claims to the Divine title of Exodus 3:14 ( App-98 ). See esp. John 8:58 . There are fourteen instances of the metaphorical use of the phrase in connection with "bread", "light", &c.


Verse 6

backward . Greek. eis ( App-104 .) ta opiso .

to the ground . Greek chamai. Only here, and John 9:6 .


Verse 7

asked = demanded. Greek. eperotao. A stronger word than erotao ( App-134 .), which occurs in John 18:19 .


Verse 8

if. App-118 .


Verse 9

That = In order

that . Greek. hina.

saying . Greek. logos. See Mark 9:32 .

fulfilled. See John 17:12 .

Of = Out of. Greek. ek. App-101 .

none = not one (Greek. ouk oudeis), a double negative.


Verse 10

Then Simon , &c. = Simon Peter, therefore. Compare Luke 22:49 .

sword . One of the two of Luke 22:38 .

drew . Greek. helkuo. See John 12:32 .

smote . Greek. paio. Only here, Matthew 26:68 . Mark 14:47 . Luke 22:64 .Revelation 9:5 .

servant = bond-servant. Greek. doulos. See John 13:16 . In all the four Gospels the definite article is used, the servant. Malchus had advanced so as to seize the Lord, and thus became the object of Peter's attack.

ear . Greek. otion. Only used in connexion with this incident, and in all four Gospels, the usual word being ous.


Verse 11

the cup . Compare Matthew 20:22 , Matthew 20:23 ; Matthew 26:3 Matthew 26:9 , Matthew 26:42 .Revelation 14:10 .

My Father . See on John 2:15 .

not = in no wise. Greek. ou me. App-105 .


Verse 12

captain . Greek. chiliarchos = commander of a thousand. One of the six tribunes attached to a legion. His presence shows the importance attached by the Romans to the arrest, the Jews having represented it as a case of dangerous sedition.

took : i.e. surrounded and seized. Compare Acts 26:21 .


Verse 13

to = unto. Greek. pros. App-104 . Annas. He had been deposed in 779 A. u. c., the year our Lord's ministry began ( App-179 ), and three others had been promoted and deposed before Caiaphas was appointed by Valerius Gratus. Our Lord was taken to Annas first, because his experience in the Law would the better enable him to formulate a charge against Him.


Verse 14

Caiaphas . See John 11:49-53 .

for = in behalf of. Greek. huper. App-104 .


Verse 15

followed = was following.

another . Greek. altos. App-124 .

known . Greek. gnostos. Compare ginosko. App-132 . That this was John himself is highly improbable. He always designates himself "the disciple whom Jesus loved" (John 13:23 ; John 19:26 ; John 21:7 , John 21:20 ). It is more probable it was some one of influence, as Nicodemus or Joseph of Arimathtea, both members of the Sanhedrin.

palace = Greek. aide. Originally the court, open to the air, around which the house was built, then the house itself.


Verse 16

stood = was standing.

at. Greek. pros. App-104 .

her that kept the door = doorkeeper. Greek thuroros. Here and in John 18:17 feminine. Occurs elsewhere John 10:3 .Mark 13:34 (masculine) Female porters were not uncommon. Compare Acts 12:13 . The Septuagint reads in 2 Samuel 4:6 , "The porter (feminine) of the house winnowed wheat, and slumbered and slept". Compare Josephus, Antiq., bk. vii, ch. ii. 1.


Verse 17

not . Greek. me. App-105 .

this Man's = this fellow's. Spoken in contempt. Man's. App-123 .

not . Greek ou. App-105 .


Verse 18

officers . The Chiliarch and Roman soldiers had gone back to their barracks (Antonia), leaving the Lord in the hands of the Jews.

stood . . . warmed . All these verbs are in the imperfect.

a fire of coals. Greek anthrakia. Only here and John 21:9 .


Verse 19

asked . Greek. erotao. App-134 .

of = concerning. Greek. pen. App-104 .

doctrine. To elicit something to be used against Him.


Verse 20

spake . The texts read "have spoken".

openly . Greek parrhesia. Compare John 7:4 .

world. Greek. kosmos. App-129 .

in. Greek. en. App-104 .

synagogue . See App-120 . Omit "the". It is general, applying to more than one.

temple = temple courts. Greek. hieron. See Matthew 23:16 .

have I said = I said.

nothing . Greek ouden, neutral of oudeis.


Verse 21

have said = said.

behold. Greek. ide. App-133 .


Verse 22

And when He had thus spoken = But He having said these things.

struck . . . with the palm , . &c. = gave a blow. Greek. rapisma. Only here, John 19:3 .Mark 14:65 . This beginning of indignities may have been with or without a weapon.


Verse 23

have spoken = spoke.

evil = evilly. Greek. kakos, adverb of kakos ( App-128 .) in next clause.

smitest . Greek. dero. Occurs fifteen times. Translated "beat" except here, Luke 22:63 , and 2 Corinthians 11:20 . It has been alleged against the Lord that He did not carry out His own precept in Matthew 5:39 . But those words were spoken during the first part of His ministry, when the kingdom was being proclaimed. See App-119 . This was when the kingdom had been rejected, and the King was about to be crucified. Compare Luke 22:35-38 .


Verse 24

Now . In the Received text, there is no word for "Now", but most of the critical texts insert oun, therefore.

had sent = sent. Greek. apostello. App-174 . This shows that this preliminary inquiry was conducted by Annas. John omits the trial before Caiaphas.

unto . Greek. pros. App-104 .


Verse 25

stood , &c. = was standing, &c., as in John 18:18 .

denied . Greek. arneomai. See note on John 13:38 . See App-160 .


Verse 26

see . Greek. eidon. App-133 .


Verse 27

Peter , &c. = Again therefore Peter denied.

immediately . Greek. eutheos. See John 13:30 .

the = a.

crew = crowed. The first of the two cock-crowings. See App-160 . The word is pkoneo, to make a sound with the voice.


Verse 28

Then = Therefore. This follows the decision of the Sanhedrin recorded in Matthew 26:58 ; Matthew 27:2 and parallel passages. See above, John 18:24 .

from = away from. Greek. ape. App-104 .

unto. Greek. eis. App-104 .

hall of judgment. Greek praitorion. Latin. praetorium, the house of the Praetor. See Mark 15:16 . Probably connected with the castle of Antonia, built by Herod the Great and named after Mark Antony. It was not Herod's palace, as is clear from Luke 23:7 . Compare same word in Acts 23:35 .Philippians 1:1 , Philippians 1:13 .

it was early : i.e. in the early hours of the Preparation between 11pm and midnight.

lest , &c. = in order that they might not. Greek. hina me.

defiled . Greek. miaino. Only here, Titus 1:15 , Titus 1:15 .Hebrews 12:15 .Jude 1:8 . eat the passover. At the close of this Preparation Day, the 14th Nisan, "at even". See App-156 .


Verse 29

went out . Greek. exerchomai. All the texts add exo, outside.

accusation = charge. Greek kategoria. Compare Eng. "category".

against. Greek. kata. App-104 .


Verse 30

malefactor = evildoer. Greek. kakopoios. Only here and 1 Peter 2:12 , 1Pe 2:14 ; 1 Peter 3:16 ; 1 Peter 4:15 . Compare Luke 23:32 . They expected Pilate to take their word for it, and condemn Him unheard. See Acts 25:16 .


Verse 31

Take ye Him = Take Him yourselves.

judge. Greek. krino. App-122 .

according to . Greek. kata. App-104 .

It is not lawful. For violations of their law they seem to have had the power of stoning to death. See John 8:59 ; John 10:31 .Acts 7:59 . But they feared the people, and so had determined to raise the plea of rebellion against Ceasar and throw the odium of the Lord's death upon Pilate.

not . . . any man . Greek. ouk oudeis. A double negative.


Verse 32

signifying , &c. See John 12:33 .

should die = is about to die.


Verse 33

called . Greek. phoneo. See John 18:27 .

the King , &c. This shows the malicious charge the Jews had made.


Verse 34

of = from. Greek. apo. App-104 .

others . Greek. altos. App-124 .


Verse 35

hast Thou done? didst Thou?


Verse 36

servants . Greek huperetes. Same word as "officer", John 18:3 .

now . Greek. nun, as in John 17:5 .


Verse 37

Art thou a king then? = Is it not then (Greek. oukoun. Occurs only here) that Thou art a king? or, So then a king Thou art?

To this end = To (Greek. eis. App-104 .) this, i.e. for this purpose.

for this cause . Exactly the same words, eis touto, as in previous clause.

bear witness = testify. Greek. martureo. See on John 1:7 ,

the truth . See on John 14:6 , and p. 1511.

My voice . See John 8:47 ; John 10:3 , John 10:4 , John 10:16 , John 10:27 .


Verse 38

What is truth? The question of many a man. Pilate was not "jesting", as Lord Bacon says. He was doubtless sick of the various philosophies and religions which contended for acceptance.

no . Greek oudeis. fault. Greek aitia (compare aiteo, App-134 .), a charge, accusation; hence a ground of charge.


Verse 39

custom . Greek sunetheia. Only here and in 1 Corinthians 11:16 .

at. Greek en. App-104 .

will ye . . . ? = do ye wish . ? Greek. boulomai. App-102 . Only occurrence of this word in John.

the King of the Jews. It was this taunt that led them to retort by the threat of Laesa majestatis (high treason) against Pilate himself (John 19:12 ).


Verse 40

cried = cried aloud, shouted. Greek kraugazo. Compare John 19:6 , John 19:15 .Acts 22:23 .

this Man = this fellow. Compare John 7:27 ; John 9:29 .

Barabbas . Aramaic. App-94 .

robber = bandit, highway robber. Greek. Mates. Compare Mark 11:17 ; Mark 14:48 ; Mark 15:27 . Not kleptes. thief. The two words together in John 10:1 , John 10:8 . They chose the robber, and the robber has ruled over them to this day.


Chapter 19

Verse 1

Jesus . App-98 .

scourged . Greek. mastigoo. Not the same word as in Matthew 27:26 . Mark 15:15 , which is phragelloo. Compare John 2:15 . A Florentine Papyrus of A.D. 85 contains the following addressed by a Prefect in Egypt to one Phibion: "Thou wast worthy of scourging . . . but I deliver thee to the people. "Deissmann, Light, &c., p. 267.


Verse 2

of = out of. Greek. ek. App-104 .

thorns . The sign of earth's curse (Genesis 3:18 ).

purple . Greek. porphureos. The adjective occurs only here, John 19:5 , and Revelation 18:16 .


Verse 3

Hail . See on Matthew 27:29 .

smote Him , &c. = gave Him blows. See John 18:22 .


Verse 4

therefore . All the texts omit.

forth = outside. Greek. exo. See John 18:29 .

Behold . Greek. ide. App-133 .

that = in order that. Greek. hina.

know . Greek. ginosko. App-132 .

no. Greek. oudeis.

fault. See John 18:38 .

in. Greek. en. App-104 . And yet he had scourged Him, illegally, hoping thereby to satiate the blood-thirst of the Jews.


Verse 5

Then = Therefore.

crown of thorns ; literally the thorny crown. Not the same expression as in John 19:2 .

the purple robe . To the horrible torture of the flagellum had been added the insults and cruelties of the soldiers. Compare Isaiah 50:6 .

Man . Greek. anthropos. App-123 . Pilate hoped the pitiable spectacle would melt their hearts. It only whetted their appetite.


Verse 6

chief priests . These would, no doubt, include Caiaphas.

officers . See 18. s. These temple guards are con spicuous for their zeal, due perhaps to the Lord's interference with the sellers of Matthew 21:12-15 .

saw . Greek. eidon. App-133 .

cried out . See John 18:40 .

Crucify. See App-162 . Omit "Him" in each case.

Take ye Him = Take Him yourselves.

no = not. Greek. ou. App-105 .


Verse 7

by = according to. Greek. kata. App-104 .

our = the.

ought . Greek opheilo. Elsewhere in John only in John 13:14 .

made Himself, &c. This was the charge on which the Sanhedrin condemned Him. See Matthew 26:65 , Matthew 26:66 . Compare Leviticus 24:16 .

Son of God . App-98 .


Verse 8

saying . Greek. logos. See Mark 9:32 .

the more afraid . A dreadful presentiment was growing in Pilate's mind, due to what he may have heard of the Lord's miracles, to His bearing throughout the trial, and to his wife's message.


Verse 9

into . Greek. eis. App-104 .

judgment hall . See John 18:28 .

Whence art thou? This was Pilate's fifth question of

the Lord. See John 18:33 , John 18:35 , John 18:37 , John 18:38 . It expressed the fear that was growing within him. Pilate may have been a freethinker (as some infer from John 18:38 ), but like free-thinkers of all ages, he was not free from superstition. Was this Man, so different from all others he had ever seen, really a supernatural Being?


Verse 10

not. Greek. ou. App-105 .

knowest . Greek. oida. App-132 .

power = authority. Greek. exousia. App-172 .


Verse 11

no . . . at all. Greek. ouk oudeis. A double negative.

against . Greek. kata. App-104 .

except . Greek. ei me' = if not,

from above . Greek. anothen. See on John 3:3 .

therefore = on account of (Greek. dia. App-104 .John 19:2John 19:2 ) this.

he that , &c. : i.e. Caiaphas. Judas had delivered Him to the Sanhedrin, the Sanhedrin to Pilate.

delivered. See on John 19:30 , "gave up".

the . Omit "the".


Verse 12

from thenceforth = on (Greek. ek. App-104 .) this.

sought = was seeking.

If. App-118 .

Caesar . Greek. Kaisar. This title was adopted by the Roman emperors after Julius Caesar. Frequently found in inscriptions. Deissmann, Light, &c., p. 383. Octavius added the title Augustus (Luke 2:1 ) = Greek. Sebastos (Acts 25:21 , Acts 25:25 ).


Verse 13

When Pilate , &c. = Pilate therefore having heard.

that saying . All the texts read "these words".

in = upon. Greek. epi. App-104 .

judgment seat . Greek. bema: literally a pace, a step, then a platform or raised place. In this case it was a stone platform with a seat in the open court in front of the Praetorium. Occurs only here in John.

in. Greek. eis. App-104 .

the Pavement . Greek. lithostrotos = strewn with stone: i.e. of mosaic or tesselated work.

Gabbatha. Aramaic. App-94 . The meaning of this word is uncertain.


Verse 14

the preparation : i.e. the day before the Passover was eaten "at even" on the 14th Nisan. All four Gospels state that our Lord was entombed on the Preparation Day (verses: John 19:31 , John 19:42 .Matthew 27:62 .Mark 15:42 .Luke 23:54Luke 23:54 ). See App-165 .

the sixth hour : i.e. midnight. The hours in all the Gospels are according to Hebrew reckoning: i.e. from sunset to sunset. See App-156 . Some have thought that the events from John 13:1 could not be crowded into so brief a space, but the Jews were in deadly earnest to get all finished before the Passover, and in such a case events move quickly.

he saith , &c. In irony here, as in pity (John 19:5 ). Some have thought that, in John 19:13 , "sat" should be "set Him". Justin Martyr says, "They set Him on the judgment-seat and said, ' Judge us' " (First Apology, xxxv). But out of forty-eight occurrences of the verb kathiza, only one other (Ephesians 1:20 ) is, without question, used transitively.


Verse 15

Away with. Greek. airo. First occurrence in John 1:29 . The imperative aron is used in exactly the same way in a Papyrus from Oxyrhynchus, in a letter from a boy to his father. Deissmann, Light, p. 187.

Shall I . . . ? = Is it your King I am to crucify?

We have , &c. This was their final and deliberate rejection of their King, and the practical surrender of all their Messianic hopes. Compare 1 Samuel 8:7 .

but. Same as "except" in John 19:11 .


Verse 16

delivered , &c.: i.e. to their will (Luke 23:25 ). Thus the Lord's execution was in Jewish hands (Acts 2:23 ). The centurion and his quaternion of soldiers merely carried out the decision of the chief priests, Pilate having pronounced no sentence, but washed his hands, literally as well as metaphorically, of the matter.

to be = in order that (Greek. hina) He might be.


Verse 17

cross . Greek. stauros. See App-162 .

skull. Greek. kranion. See Matthew 27:33 .

Golgotha . Aramaic. App-94 .


Verse 18

two other = other two. App-164 .

other . Greek. altos. App-124 .

with. Greek. meta. App-104 .

on either side one. Greek. enteuthen kai enteuthen: literally hither and thither, i.e. on this side and on that side. This was before the parting of the garments (John 19:23 ). See App-164 .

and, &c.: literally and the middle one, Jesus.


Verse 19

And = Moreover.

wrote . John alone mentions that Pilate wrote it himself. See App-163 .

on . Greek. epi. App-104 .

the writing was = it was written.

OF NAZARETH = the Nazarene. See John 18:5 .


Verse 20

for = because . Greek. hoti.

nigh. Probably just outside the north wall, between the Damascus Gate and Herod's Gate, and near the so-called grotto of Jeremiah, about half a mile from the Prsetorium. See Conder's Jerusalem, p. 161, &c., and Palestine Exploration Society's maps.


Verse 21

the chief priests of the Jews . This expression occurs only here. They were no longer God's priests.

not . Greek. ou. App-105 .

he = that fellow. Greek. ekeinos. Spoken with contempt.


Verse 22

What , &c. Figure of speech Amphibologia. App-6 .

I have written. It therefore stands written for ever. Caiaphas as representative of the Jews proclaimed the Lord as Saviour for the world, Pilate fastens upon the Jews the hated name of the Nazarene as their King.


Verse 23

the soldiers . These were probably slaves attached to the legion who were employed as executioners.

took = received. The garments were their perquisite.

coat. Greek. chiton. A tunic worn next the body, and reaching to the knees.

without seam . Greek. arraphos. Occurs only here. Josephus says one of the high priest's garments was without seam.

the top = the parts above (Greek. ta anothen). Compare Matthew 27:51 .Mark 15:38 .

throughout = through (Greek. dia. App-104 .John 19:1John 19:1 ) the whole.


Verse 24

among themselves = to (Greek. pros. App-104 .) one another.

for = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104 .

the scripture , &c. See John 13:18 ; John 17:12 ; John 18:9 , John 18:32 . The quotation is from Psalms 22:18 .

raiment . Same word as "garments" in John 19:23 .

for = upon. Greek. epi. App-104 .

These things, &c. = The soldiers therefore indeed did these things. The Greek particle men is ignored both by Authorized Version and by Revised Version It marks a contrast with what follows.


Verse 25

Now = But.

stood = were standing.

by = beside. Greek. para. App-104 .

Mary . See App-100 . John omits the name of his own mother Salome, who was there also (Matthew 27:56 ).


Verse 26

When . &c. Read, "Jesus therefore, seeing".

loved . Greek. agapao. App-135 .

Woman . See on John 2:4 .

behold . Gr idou. App-133 .; but the texts read ide. App-133 .

son . Greek. huios. App-108 . Joseph being evidently dead, and her firstborn son (Matthew 1:25 ) dying, there would be no support for Mary. In view of John 7:3-5 , it was a befitting arrangement.


Verse 27

from . Greek. apo. App-104 .

unto his own . Greek. eis ( App-104 .) ta idia. This expression occurs in John 1:11 ; John 16:32 .Acts 21:6 . A different phrase in John 20:10 .


Verse 28

After . Greek. meta. App-104 .

were now accomplished = have been already finished. Greek. teleo Not the same word as "fulfilled", which is teleioo = consummated. There is a deep sig nificance here. He saw the casting of the lots, and knew that all that the Scripture had foretold of others was finished. There yet remained a prediction for Him to realize, that of Psalms 69:21 . See note on Psalms 69:1 .


Verse 29

Now . All the texts omit.

vinegar . See note


Verse 30

had received = received. [on Mat 27:84 .

It is finished . Greek. teleo, as in John 19:28 . Psalms 22:0 ends with. the word "done". Of the seven sayings from the Cross, Matthew ( Joh 27:46 ) and Mark ( Joh 15:34 ) record one (Psalms 22:1 ); Luke three ( Joh 23:34 , Joh 23:43 , Joh 23:46 ); and John three (verses: John 19:26 , John 19:27 , John 19:28 , Joh 26:30 ). It is clear from Luke 23:44 that the promise to the malefactor was before the darkness. The words of Psalms 22:1 were uttered at thebeginning or during the course of the three hours darkness. Probably the Lord repeated the whole of Psalms 22:0 , which not only sets Him forth as the Sufferer, but also foretells the glory that is to follow. Perhaps other Scriptures also, as a terrible witness against the chief priests, who were present (Mark 15:31 .Luke 23:35Luke 23:35 ), and must have heard.

bowed . This suggests that till then He had kept His head erect. He now lays down His life, as He said (John 10:18 ).

gave up . Greek paradidomi. This word occurs fifteen times in John; translated nine times "betray", of Judas; five times "deliver", of the chief priests and Pilate.

ghost. Greek pneuma. App-101 . Matthew says, apheke to pneuma, sent forth His spirit ( Joh 27:50 ); Mark ( Joh 15:37 ) and Luke ( Joh 23:46 ) say, exepneuse, breathed out, i.e. drew His last breath. Compare Genesis 2:7 . Psalms 104:29 , Psalms 104:30 ; Psalms 146:4 .Ecclesiastes 12:7 .


Verse 31

remain . Greek. mend. See p. 1511. Compare Deuteronomy 21:23 .

upon. Greek. epi. App-104 .

on . Greek en. App-104 .

an high day . It was the first day of the Feast, the 15th Nisan. See Leviticus 23:6 , Leviticus 23:7 . Our Wednesday sunset to Thursday sunset. See App-156 .

besought . Greek erotao. App-134 .

legs . Greek skelos. From the hip downwards. Occurs only in these three verses.

broken. Greek. katagnumi = broken in pieces, shattered. Occurs only in these verses and in Matthew 12:20 .

taken away . Same word as in John 19:15 .


Verse 32

the first , &c. See App-164 .

crucified with . Greek. sustauroo. Only here, Matthew 27:44 .Mark 15:32 .Romans 6:6 . Galatians 1:2 , Galatians 1:20 .


Verse 33

to . Greek. epi. App-104 .


Verse 34

pierced . Greek. nusso . Occurs only here.

side . Greek. pleura, Only here; John 20:20 , John 20:25 , John 20:27 . Acts 12:7 .

forthwith = immediately. Greek euthus.

blood and water. The question of the physical cause of the Lord's death has been much discussed; but we need not seek a natural explanation of what John records as a miraculous sign. The blood and water may have been symbolical of the sprinkling with blood and cleansing with water of the Old Covenant. See Hebrews 9:12-14 , Hebrews 9:19-22 . 1Jn 5:6 , 1 John 5:8 .


Verse 35

saw . Greek. horao. App-133 .

bare record. Greek. martureo.

record . Greek. marturia. Both these are characteristic words in this Gospel. See note on John 1:7 , and p. 1511.

true = reliable, genuine. See App-175 and p. 1511.

true = true to fact. See App-175 and p. 1511.

believe . App-150 .


Verse 36

A. bone , &c. This has reference to Exodus 12:46 . Numbers 9:12 . Thus in all things He was the antitype of the Passover lamb.

broken . Greek suntribo. Not the same word as in verses: John 19:31 , John 19:32 . Compare Psalms 34:20 .


Verse 37

an other . Greek. heteros. App-124 . saith. Note the careful discrimination in the words used. The former Scripture was fulfilled, i.e. filled full. This is not fulfilled, but in order to its fulfilment it was necessary that He should be pierced. See Zechariah 12:10 . It was fulfilled in the case of those who looked upon Him, but waits for its com plete fulfilment when the spirit of grace and supplication is poured out on repentant Israel, look. Greek. opsomai. App-133 .

on . Greek. eis . App-104 .

pierced . Greek. ekkenteo. Only here and Revelation 1:7 = pierced through. Includes therefore the piercing of the hands and feet. Compare Psalms 22:16 .


Verse 38

this = these things.

of = from. Greek. apo. App-104 .

Arimathsea . Probably Ramah, where Samuel was born. 1 Samuel 1:1 , 1 Samuel 1:19 . Called in the Septuagint Armathaim.

a disciple . . . but secretly . Matthew calls him "a rich man" ( Joh 27:57 ); Mark, "an honourable counsellor" ( Joh 15:43 ); Luke, "a good man and a just" ( Joh 23:50 ). See on John 18:16 .

for = because of. Greek. dia. App-104 .John 19:2 .

take away . . . took . Greek. airo. Same word as in verses: Joh 15:31 .

gave him leave . Greek. epitrepo. Generally translated "suffer". Matthew 8:21 , &c. Compare Acts 21:39 , Acts 21:40 .


Verse 39

also Nicodemus . Read, Nicodemus also.

Nicodemus . See John 3:1 , and John 7:50 .

to . Greek. pros. App-104 .

by night. Now he comes openly, as Joseph did,

and brought = bringing.

a mixture . Greek. migma. Occurs only here. Some read heligma = a roll.

myrrh . Greek. smurna. Only here and in Matthew 2:11 ,

aloes . a fragrant aromatic wood. Occurs only here in N.T. Referred to four times in O.T.

pound. Greek. litra. See John 12:3 and App-51 .


Verse 40

wound . Greek. deo. Generally translated "bind". See John 11:44 ; John 18:12 , John 18:24 . The other evangelists use a different word.

linen clothes = linen cloths or bandages. The rolls' used for swathing the bodies of the rich (Isaiah 53:9 ). The Rabbis say criminals were wrapped in old rags.

bury = entomb. Greek. entaphiazo. Only here and Matthew 26:12 . The noun entaphiasmos occurs in John 12:7 and Mark 14:8 .


Verse 41

garden . Greek. kepos. See John 18:1 .

new. Greek. kainos. See on Matthew 9:17 .

sepulchre = tomb. Greek. mnemeion. Before this in John translated "grave", John 5:28 ; John 11:17 , John 11:31 , John 11:38 ; John 12:17 .

wherein = in (Greek. en. App-104 .) which.

never man yet = not yet any one. Greek. oudepo oudeis.


Verse 42

There laid they Jesus . Here the body (John 19:38 ) is called "Jesus". Compare John 20:2 .

because of = on account of. Greek. dia. App-104 .John 19:2 .


Chapter 20

Verse 1

The first day of the week = On the first (day) of the Sabbaths (plural) Greek. Te mia ton sabbaton. The word "day" is rightly supplied, as mia is feminine, and so must agree with a feminine noun understood, while sabbaton is neuter. Luke 24:1 has the same. Matthew reads, "towards dawn on the first (day) of the Sabbaths", and Mark (John 16:2 ), "very early on the first (day) of the Sabbaths". The expression is not a Hebraism, and "Sabbaths" should not be rendered "week", as in Authorized Version and Revised Version. A reference to Lev 28:15-17 shows that this "first day" is the first of the days for reckoning the seven Sabbaths to Pentecost. On this day, therefore, the Lord became the firstfruits (verses: John 20:10 , John 20:11 ) of God's resurrection harvest (1 Corinthians 15:23 ).

Mary . See App-100 .

early : i.e. about the ninth or tenth hour (3 to 4am.) See App-165 .

unto . Greek. eis. App-104 .

sepulchre . See John 19:41 .

taken away = having been taken away. Greek. airo. See John 19:15 ,

from . Greek. ek. App-104 .


Verse 2

Then = Therefore.

to . Greek. pros. App-104 .

other . Greek. altos. App-124 .

Jesus . App-98 .

loved = used to love (imperf.) Greek. phileo. App-135 .

unto = to.

have taken = took.

the Lord . Greek. kurios. App-98 .

out of . Greek. ek. App-104 .

know . Greek. oida. App-132 .

not . Greek. ou . App-105 .

have laid = laid. Same word as in John 11:34 . Implying care and reverence, and so suggesting that Joseph and Nicodemus had removed Him.


Verse 3

comes = were coming.

to = unto. Greek. eis. App-104 .


Verse 4

ran = were running,

did outrun = ran ahead, more quickly than. This affords no ground for the assumption by so many commentators, even Alford, that John was younger than Peter.


Verse 5

stooping down. Greek. parakupto. The word implies bending down to see more clearly. Compare the other occurance: John 20:11 .Luke 24:12 . Jam 1:25 . 1 Peter 1:12 .

saw . Greek. blepo. App-133 .

linen clothes . See John 19:40 .

yet went he = however he went.


Verse 6

into . Greek. eis. App-104 .

seeth = intently beholdeth. Greek. theoreo. App-133 .,

lie = lying.


Verse 7

napkin. See John 11:44 .

about = upon. Greek. epi. App-104 .

with . Greek. meta. App-104 .

wrapped together = rolled, or coiled round and round. Greek. entuliseo. Used elsewhere, only in Matthew 27:59 . Luke 23:53 , of the linen cloth. Here it implies that the cloth had been folded round the head as a turban is folded, and that it lay still in the form of a turban. The linen clothes also lay exactly as they were when swathed round the body. The Lord had passed out of them, not needing, as Lazarus (John 11:44 ), to be loosed. It was this sight that convinced John (John 20:8 ).

in = into. Greek. eis. App-104 .

a place by itself = one place apart.


Verse 8

also, &c. = that other disciple also. which who.

saw . Greek. eidon. App-133 .

believed ( App-150 .): i, e. believed that He was risen. All that He had said about rising again the third day had fallen upon dull ears. The chief priests had taken note of His words (Matthew 27:63 ), but the disciples had not.


Verse 9

as yet . . . not = not yet. Greek. oudepo, as in John 19:41 .

the scripture . Compare Psalms 16:10 , Psalms 16:11 , &c.

must . Compare John 3:14 ; John 12:34 , rise again. Greek. anistemi. App-178 .

from the dead. Greek. ek nekron. App-139 .


Verse 10

unto . Greek. pros. App-104 .

their own home = their lodging. Not the same words as in John 19:27 . Galilean fishermen, constantly moving about with their Rabbi since the Feast of Tabernacles, six months before, could have had no settled home, as we understand it, in Jerusalem. They had not been there since their Master left it (See John 10:40 ), till the last few days.


Verse 11

at. Greek. pros. App-104 .

weeping. Greek. klaio. See on John 11:33 .

and = therefore.


Verse 12

two angels . Probably Michael and Gabriel. Compare Daniel 9:21 ; Daniel 10:21 ; Daniel 12:1 .Luke 1:19 , Luke 1:26 . The supreme importance of the Lord's resurrection in the Divine counsels demanded the presence of the highest angels.

in . Greek. en. App-104 .

sitting : i.e. at either end of the rock-cut ledge whereon the Lord had been laid (as the cherubim at either end of the mercy-seat, Exodus 25:19 ). They sit in the empty tomb who stand in the presence of God (Luke 1:19 . Revelation 8:2 ).

at. Greek. pros. App-104 .


Verse 13

Woman . See on John 2:4 .

have taken = took. Lord. App-98 . A.

have laid = laid.


Verse 14

when, &a. = having said these things.

turned . . . back : i.e. turned half round.

back. Greek. eis ( App-104 .) ta opiso.


Verse 15

gardener . Greek. kepouros. Occurs only here. Sir. Greek. kurios. App-98 . B. b.

if. App-118 .

have borne = didst bear.

hast laid = didst lay.


Verse 16

Rabboni. App-98 . Most of the texts add, before Rabboni, "in Hebrew".

Master . Greek. didaskalos. App-98 . John 20:1 . Compare John 13:13 .


Verse 17

Touch Me not = Do not be holding Me. Greek. hapto. Only here in John; elsewhere, thirty-nine times. See Matthew 8:3 , Matthew 8:18 ; Matthew 9:20 , Matthew 9:21 , Matthew 9:29 .

not . Greek me. App-105 .

for . This gives the reason for the prohibition. He afterwards allowed the women to hold Him by the feet (Matthew 28:9 ). On this day, the morrow after the Sabbath, the high priest would be waving the sheaf of the firstfruits before the Lord (Leviticus 23:10 , Leviticus 23:11 ); while He, the firstfruits from the dead (1 Corinthians 15:23 ), would be ful filling the type by presenting Himself before the Father.

not yet . Greek. oupo ; compound of ou. App-105 .

My Father . See on John 2:16 .

My brethren . Compare Matthew 12:50 ; Matthew 28:1 Matthew 28:0 . Hebrews 2:11 .

ascend = am ascending.

My . . . your . This marks the essential difference in His and their relationship with the Father. But because God is the God and Father of our Lord (Ephesians 1:3 ) He is therefore our God and Father too.

God. Greek. Theos. App-98 .


Verse 18

came = cometh.

and told = telling. Greek. apangello. See John 4:51 .Matthew 2:8 . Compare App-121 .:6.

seen . Greek. horao. App-133 .


Verse 19

where . Probably the upper room. See Mark 14:15 .Luke 22:12 .Acts 1:13 .

assembled . All the texts omit.

for = on account of. Greek. dia. App-104 .John 20:2 .

Peace. Compare John 14:27 ; John 16:33 .


Verse 20

hands . . . side . Luke says hands and feet. All three were pierced. See on John 19:37 .

side . See John 19:34 .

were . . . glad = rejoiced.


Verse 21

My Father = The Father. See John 1:14 .

sent. Greek. apostello. App-174 .

even so = I also.

send. Greek. pempo. App-174 . Note the distinction. The Father sent the Son alone, but the Son sends His disciples with an "escort" or guard, i.e. the Holy Spirit. This is to emphasize the fact that the Lord remains (by the Spirit) with those whom He sends.


Verse 22

breathed on . Greek. emphusao. Only here in N.T., but used in the Septuagint in Genesis 2:7 for the Hebrew word naphah, to breathe, or blow with force. The same Lord who, as Jehovah Elohim, breathed into Adam's nostrils the breath of life so that he became a living soul, here breathes upon the apostles that they may receive Divine power. Satan tries to parody the Lord's words and works. In the "Great" Magical Papyrus of about the third century A.D. occurs the following in a spell for driving out a demon: "When thou adjurest, blow (phusa), sending the breath from above [to the feet], and from the feet to the face". Deissmann, Fresh Light, p. 260.

the Holy Ghost. Greek. pneuma hagion (no art.): i.e. power from on high. See App-101 . The Firstfruits of the resurrection here bestows the firstfruits of the Spirit, not only on the apostles, but on "them that were with them" (Luke 24:33 , and compare Acts 1:14 ; Acts 2:1 ).


Verse 23

sins . App-128 .

remit. Greek. aphiemi. Always translated elsewhere "forgive", when sins or debts are referred to. This authority bestowed upon the apostles and others continued in force with other "gifts" till Acts 28:0 , which records the final rejection of the Kingdom. To suppose that the "Church" of Ephesians 1:0 has any share in them is not rightly to divide the Word of Truth, but to introduce perplexity and confusion. See Mark 16:17 and App-167 .


Verse 24

Thomas . The third mention of him in John. See John 11:16 ; John 14:5 .

of = out of. Greek ek. App-104 .


Verse 25

Except = If . . . not. Greek ean me. App-118 and App-105

print . Greek. tupos, type. Elsewhere translated figure, fashion, example, &c.

put. Greek ballo, generally translated "cast". See John 15:6 ; John 19:24 .

thrust . Greek. ballo, as above.

not = by no means. Greek. ou me. App-105 .


Verse 26

after eight days : i.e. a week later, on the day following the second Sabbath of the seven in the reckoning to Pentecost.

after . Greek meta. App-104 .

the doors being shut . This shows that the Lord had now the spiritual body, soma pneumatikon, of 1 Corinthians 15:44 .


Verse 27

Reach hither = Bring here.

behold . Greek. ide. App-133 .

be = become.

faithless . Greek. apistos = unbelieving.

believing . App-150 .


Verse 28

My Lord and my God . First testimony to the Deity of the risen Lord. Possibly Thomas was using the words of Psalms 86:15 , which in the Septuagint read Kurie ho Theos, and claiming forgiveness for his unbelief on the ground of Exodus 34:6 , to which this verse of the Psalm refers.


Verse 29

Thomas. All the texts omit.

that, &c. = who saw not and believed. See John 4:48 . Mat 16:1 . 1 Corinthians 1:22 . Those who crave for miracles and signs to-day will have them, but they will be Satan's miracles.


Verse 30

And many , &c. Therefore many and other ( App-124 .)

signs. See p. 1511 and App-176 . These were always in relation to and in proof of His Messiahship.

in the presence of = in the sight of. Greek enopion.

which are not written : Here was the opportunity for the writers of the Apocryphal Gospels, &c., of which they were not slow to avail themselves.


Verse 31

these . Emphatic.

are written = have been (and therefore stand) written.

that = in order that. Greek. hina.

might = may.

believe . App-150 .

Christ . App-98 .

Son of God . App-98 .

life. App-170 .

through = in. Greek en. App-104 .

name. Compare John 1:12 .Acts 3:6 ; Acts 3:4 . ] 0, 12; Joh 10:43 . 1 Corinthians 6:11 . 1 John 5:13 .


Chapter 21

Verse 1

After these things. A note of time frequent in John. See John 3:22 ; John 5:1 , John 5:14 ; John 6:1 ; John 7:1 ; John 13:7 ; John 19:38 .

After . Greek. meta. App-104 .

Jesus. App-98 .

shewed = manifested. Greek. phaneroo. App-106 . v; not merely presented Himself, but revealed His power and glory. See John 2:11 . Not the same word as John 14:21 , John 14:22 , which is empitanizo. App-106 .

at = upon. Greek. epi. App-104 .

on this wise = thus.


Verse 2

of = from. Greek. apo. App-104 .

other . Greek allos. App-124 .

of = out of. Greek. ek. App-104 .


Verse 3

unto = to.

I go a fishing = I go forth to fish.

with. Greek. sun. App-104 .

into . Greek eis. App-104 .

a = the; probably that of Matthew 4:21 , belonging to Zebedee and his sons.

immediately . All the texts omit.

that night = in (Greek. en. App-104 .) that night. caught. Greek. piazo. Used in the Gospels by John only, and always, except here and John 21:10 , of "taking" the Lord (John 7:30 , John 7:32 , John 7:44 ; John 8:20 ; John 10:39 ; John 11:57 ).

nothing. Greek. oudeis, compound of ou. App-105 .


Verse 4

now = already.

on . Greek. eis. App-104 .

knew . Greek. oida. App-132 .

not . Greek. ou. App-105 .


Verse 5

Then = Therefore.

Children . Greek. paidion. App-108 .

meat. Greek. prosphagion. Something to eat with (your bread), a relish. Occurs only here.

No . Greek. ou. App-105 .


Verse 6

Cast . Greek. ballo, as in John 20:25 , John 20:27 .

net. A bag or purse net. Greek. diktuon, as in Matthew 4:20 . Mark 1:18 . Luke 5:2 . For other words for "net", see Matthew 4:18 ; Matthew 13:47 .

now they were not = no longer (Greek. ouketi) were they.

draw . Greek. helkuo. See on John 12:32 .

for = from. Greek. apo, App-104 . This was the eighth sign. See App-176 .


Verse 7

loved. Greek. agapao. App-135 .

the Lord. App-98 .

Now when = Therefore.

heard = having heard.

girt . Greek. diazonnumi. Only here and John 13:4 , John 13:5 .

his fisher's coat = the upper garment. Greek. ependutes. Only here in N.T. Used in the Septuagint for the Hebrew meil, robe, in 1 Samuel 18:4 . 2 Samuel 13:18 .

naked. Greek gumnos. This means he had only his tunic or undergarment on. Compare Mark 14:51 .Acts 19:16 .


Verse 8

a little ship = the boat. Greek. ploiarion, dim. of ploion, John 21:3 ; John 21:6 . Elsewhere in John 6:22 , John 6:23 "boat", Mark 3:9 ; Mark 4:36 .

from . Greek. apo. App-104 .

land = the land. Greek. ge. App-129 .

two , &c. = about (Greek. apo. App-104 .) two, &c.: i.e. one hundred yards. See App-51 .

dragging . Greek suro. Only here, Acts 8:3 ; Acts 14:19 ; Acts 17:6 . Revelation 12:4 . Not the same word as in John 21:6 .

the net with fishes = the net of fishes.


Verse 9

were come = went forth,

to = unto. Greek. eis. App-104 .

saw = see. Greek. blepo. App-133 .

fire of coals . Greek. anthrakia. Only here and John 18:18 .

fish . Greek. opsarion, dim. of opson, cooked meat, eaten as a relish. in John 6:9 , John 6:11 , the only other passage where it occurs, it is in the plural as in John 21:10 below. Here it probably means a little fish,

bread = a loaf. One little fish and one loaf to feed eight persons. A beautiful variant of, and supplement to, the widow's handful of meal and cruse of oil (1 Kings 17:0 ). It was a type of the food He would supply them with, in the strength of which they would go "many days".


Verse 10

the fish . Here the word is opsarion in the plural. But they were great fishes (John 21:11 ). So it must be used in a general sense.


Verse 11

went up = went back.

to . Greek. epi. App-104 ., but all the texts read eis.


Verse 12

dine . Greek. aristao. Only here, John 21:15 , and Luke 11:37 . The ariston was the morning meal, as contrasted with the afternoon meal, which was called deipnon, translated "supper". Compare Matthew 22:4 .Luke 11:38 ; Luke 11:14 , Luke 11:12 .

none = no one. Greek. oudeis.

durst = ventured to. Contrast their freedom in questioning Him before. It marks the change in their relationship wrought by the resurrection,

ask = inquire. Only here and Matthew 2:8 ; Matthew 10:11 .


Verse 13

then . All the texts omit.

bread = the loaf.

fish = the fish of John 21:9 .


Verse 14

now = already.

His = the.

risen . Greek. egeiro. App-178 .

from the dead. Greek. ek nekron. See App-139 .


Verse 15

So = Therefore.

Simon . Peter was always addressed by the Lord as Simon except in Luke 22:34 . See App-147 .

more than these : i.e. than these other disciples do. Referring to his words in Matthew 26:33 , Matthew 26:35 .

love . Greek phileo. App-135 . Note the different words used in these verses. The Lord uses agapao twice and phileo once, Peter always phileo.

Feed : i.e. provide pasture for. Greek. bosko. Save in this passage, always of swine.

lambs . Greek. arnion, a diminutive. Only here and in the Revelation, where it occurs twenty-nine times, always of the Lord, except John 13:11 . The other word for "lamb", amnos, only in John 1:29 , John 1:36 . Acts 8:32 . 1 Peter 1:19 .


Verse 16

the = a.

Feed = Shepherd. Greek poimaino. Occurs eleven times, translated "rule "in Matthew 2:6 . Revelation 2:27 ; Revelation 12:5 ; Revelation 19:15 . Compare poimen, John 10:2 , John 10:11 , John 10:12 , John 10:14 , John 10:16 (Shepherd); Ephesians 4:11 (pastors).

sheep . Greek probaton.


Verse 17

grieved . Greek. lupeo . Elsewhere in John 16:20 . Compare 1 Peter 1:6 . The noun lupe occurs in John 16:6 , John 16:20 , John 16:21 , John 16:22 . Compare 1 Peter 2:19 .

knowest. Greek ginosko. App-132 .


Verse 18

Verily, verily . Twenty-fifth and last occurance of this double Amen ( App-10 ). See on John 1:51 and p. 1511.

young . Greek. neoteros, younger. The positive neos applied to any one up to thirty. This and John 20:4 gave rise to the tradition that Peter was a middle-aged man. girdedst. Greek. zonnumi. Only here.

wouldest . Greek. thelo. App-102 .

carry = lead. Greek. phero. Compare Mark 9:17 . Luke 15:23 .Acts 14:13 .


Verse 19

what = what kind of.

glorify. Greek. doxazo. See p. 1511.

God . App-98 .

when He had = having.

Follow . Greek. akoloutheo. Used of soldiers, servants, and pupils. First occurance in John 1:37 .


Verse 20

Then . All the texts omit.

turning about = having turned round.

also leaned = leaned also.

on . Greek. epi. App-104 .

at . Greek. en. App-104 .

which = who. betrayeth. See on John 19:30 , "gave up".


Verse 21

seeing . Greek. eidon. App-133 .

what , &c.: literally ' this one, what?


Verse 22

If. App-118 .

tarry. Greek meno, translated abide, remain, &c. See book comments for John.

what, &c. Peter's curiosity rebuked. Compare Matthew 17:4 .

to = with reference to. Greek. pros. App-104 .


Verse 23

saying . Greek. logos. See on Mark 9:32 .

among = unto. Greek eis. App-104 .

that . Greek. ekeinos.

should not die = is not dying: i.e. is not going to die.


Verse 24

testifieth = beareth witness. Greek. martureo. See See book comments for John, note 4.

of = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104 .

testimony . Greek. marturia. Compare John 19:35 , and see book comments for John.

true. Greek alethes. App-175 .


Verse 25

also many , &c. = many other things also. See John 20:30 .

every one = one by one. Greek. kath' ( App-104 ) en.

I suppose = I think. Greek. oimai, contr. for oiomai, which occurs in Philippians 1:1 , Philippians 1:16 . James 1:7 .

even . . . not. Greek. oude, compound of ou . App-105 .

world . Greek. kosmos. App-129 .

contain . Greek. choreo. Elsewhere in John: John 2:6 ; John 8:37 (hath no place). Compare Matthew 19:12 .

the books, &c. = the written books. Figure of speech Hyperbole. App-6 . Amen. All the texts omit. In that case, only the double "verily" found in John. This chapter is a supplement, of the highest value, to the Gospel formally concluded in John 20:31 .

The use of the first person singular in John 21:25 , contrasted with the Evangelist's modest self-effacement elsewhere, has led some to doubt the Johannine authorship of this chapter. But the evidence of the MSS. and Versions, and the attestation clause at John 21:24 is so closely allied to that in John 19:35 as to leave little room for doubt. Note further, the use of many characteristic words (see p. 1511), the expression noted in John 21:1 , the double "verily" (John 21:18 ), and, above all, the eight signs with their wonderful structure and correspondence (see App-176 ).