Christian Churches of God


No. F026xii






Commentary on Ezekiel

Part 12


(Edition 1.5 20230123-20230910)



Commentary on Chapters 45-48.



Christian Churches of God

PO Box 369,  WODEN  ACT 2606,  AUSTRALIA






(Copyright © 2023 Wade Cox)



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Commentary on Ezekiel Part 12

Chapter 45

1"When you allot the land as a possession, you shall set apart for the LORD a portion of the land as a holy district, twenty-five thousand cubits long and twenty thousand cubits broad; it shall be holy throughout its whole extent. 2Of this a square plot of five hundred by five hundred cubits shall be for the sanctuary, with fifty cubits for an open space around it. 3And in the holy district you shall measure off a section twenty-five thousand cubits long and ten thousand broad, in which shall be the sanctuary, the most holy place. 4It shall be the holy portion of the land; it shall be for the priests, who minister in the sanctuary and approach the LORD to minister to him; and it shall be a place for their houses and a holy place for the sanctuary. 5Another section, twenty-five thousand cubits long and ten thousand cubits broad, shall be for the Levites who minister at the temple, as their possession for cities to live in. 6"Alongside the portion set apart as the holy district you shall assign for the possession of the city an area five thousand cubits broad, and twenty-five thousand cubits long; it shall belong to the whole house of Israel. 7"And to the prince shall belong the land on both sides of the holy district and the property of the city, alongside the holy district and the property of the city, on the west and on the east, corresponding in length to one of the tribal portions, and extending from the western to the eastern boundary of the land. 8It is to be his property in Israel. And my princes shall no more oppress my people; but they shall let the house of Israel have the land according to their tribes. 9"Thus says the Lord GOD: Enough, O princes of Israel! Put away violence and oppression, and execute justice and righteousness; cease your evictions of my people, says the Lord GOD. 10"You shall have just balances, a just ephah, and a just bath. 11The ephah and the bath shall be of the same measure, the bath containing one tenth of a homer, and the ephah one tenth of a homer; the homer shall be the standard measure. 12The shekel shall be twenty gerahs; five shekels shall be five shekels, and ten shekels shall be ten shekels, and your mina shall be fifty shekels. 13"This is the offering which you shall make: one sixth of an ephah from each homer of wheat, and one sixth of an ephah from each homer of barley, 14and as the fixed portion of oil, one tenth of a bath from each cor (the cor, like the homer, contains ten baths); 15and one sheep from every flock of two hundred, from the families of Israel. This is the offering for cereal offerings, burnt offerings, and peace offerings, to make atonement for them, says the Lord GOD. 16All the people of the land shall give this offering to the prince in Israel. 17It shall be the prince's duty to furnish the burnt offerings, cereal offerings, and drink offerings, at the feasts, the new moons, and the sabbaths, all the appointed feasts of the house of Israel: he shall provide the sin offerings, cereal offerings, burnt offerings, and peace offerings, to make atonement for the house of Israel. 18"Thus says the Lord GOD: In the first month, on the first day of the month, you shall take a young bull without blemish, and cleanse the sanctuary. 19The priest shall take some of the blood of the sin offering and put it on the doorposts of the temple, the four corners of the ledge of the altar, and the posts of  the gate of the inner court. 20You shall do the same on the seventh day of the month for any one who has sinned through error or ignorance; so you shall make atonement for the temple. 21"In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month, you shall celebrate the feast of the passover, and for seven days unleavened bread shall be eaten. 22On that day the prince shall provide for himself and all the people of the land a young bull for a sin offering. 23And on the seven days of the festival he shall provide as a burnt offering to the LORD seven young bulls and seven rams without blemish, on each of the seven days; and a he-goat daily for a sin offering. 24And he shall provide as a cereal offering an ephah for each bull, an ephah for each ram, and a hin of oil to each ephah. 25In the seventh month, on the fifteenth day of the month and for the seven days of the feast, he shall make the same provision for sin offerings, burnt offerings, and cereal offerings, and for the oil.


Intent of Chapter 45

Ezekiel 45 deals with the restoration of Israel.

This is also explained in the Prince’s Levy in chapter 45. The Prince’s levy is examined in the paper Tithing (No. 161).

45:1-9 Distribution of the Land 

This section is continued in 47:13-48:35.

The Holy Section is divided into two sections each of 25,000 x 10,000 cubits. The Northern section is for the Levites, (now the Temple workers, due to their continuous apostasy), and the Southern section for the Zadokite Priests. Note also that this allocation is made after the great Earthquake at Messiah’s arrival on the Mount of Olives (Zech. 14:4) at which time it splits in two and leaves a massive valley (seemingly approx. 66 kms long, pushing Sinai south and sealing the Tongue of the Red Sea) (Isa. 11:15); with Jerusalem elevated around the Temple Mount and two rivers emanating from under the city; and the 500 square cubits for the Temple area, plus a 50 cubit enclosure not mentioned previously in ch. 40. The trees on either side of the rivers were used for the healing of the nations (Zech. 10:11; 14:8; Rev. 22:2) (See also 47:12.)

v. 6 The area of 25,000 cubits x 5000 cubits area south of the Holy District was reserved as land for the whole of Israel and combined with the Holy District (v. 1) made an area of 25,000 cubits  (8.3 miles (cf. OARSV n.) square. The size of elevated Jerusalem may well exceed these dimensions to house the administration.


45:10-12 Weights and Measures

See appendix on weights and measures.

The mark of a holy people is to have just and uniform weights and measures.

vv. 13-17  This offering was a tithe of a tithe of oil and a half tithe of the tithe for the meat offerings. The Prince collected this during the weeks and months for the sacrifices on Sabbaths, New Moons, Holy Days and offerings. Thus it is incorrect to claim that the tithe was eliminated with the sacrifices because they were obviously provided for separately. The tithes are collected by the Church administration under Messiah.  This text also concerns the first-fruits from Ezekiel 44:29-30 and the orders are made for the restoration of Israel in its lands. Messiah will thus set up the system that the Antinomian Gnostics allege he has done away from his crucifixion; and Scripture cannot be broken (Jn 10:34-36). This will also be for the mental healing of the nations but this matter will be examined separately.

45:18-25 Festival Regulations

It is obvious from Ezekiel, and the other prophets, that the Temple Calendar will be reintroduced under the Messiah. That will also be on pain of death as we see from Isa. 66:23-24 and Zechariah 14:16-21. Those not keeping the Temple Calendar will simply die by drought and famine and the plagues of Egypt. The whole nation will enforce the calendar and their National representatives will go to Jerusalem each year, or face the consequences. All other religions and views contrary to the Bible and the Temple Calendar (see No. 156) will be eradicated by Messiah and the Host. The Demons will go to the pit of Tartaros (Rev. 20:2-3 F066v) (See also Judgement of the Demons (No. 080).) The Sun and Mystery Cults and the Sun festivals of Sunday, Christmas and Easter (see No. 235) will be eradicated (Rev. chs 18, 19, 20, (F066v)). Sunday will continue to be a work day, except when it is a New Moon or a Holy or Feast Day.


Passover and Unleavened Bread (Ex. 23:15; Deut 16:1-8; Lev. 23:4-8).

The Passover is to be kept out of our gates (Deut 16:5-8) and is an eight day feast kept in temporary accommodation. Those returning to work at any time, except in declared occupations, will be punished.  See: The Passover (No. 098).

The 14 of Abib was set aside for the Sacrament of the Lord’s Supper on the night that he was betrayed. See Sacraments of the Church (No. 150) 

Significance of the Foot Washing (No. 099)

Significance of the Bread and Wine (No. 100). The Night of the Passover is the Night of Observation and commences the Feast of Unleavened Bread (see Passover above).

Wave Sheaf Offering (106B) of the Barley Harvest, used to represent Christ, occurs on the first Sunday in Passover on the day of Christ’s acceptance as the Wave Sheaf Offering at the Throne of God and commences The Omer Count to Pentecost (No. 173).



The Feast of Pentecost, or Feast of Weeks, which is sometimes referred to as the festival of First Fruits, as the wheat harvest (Ex. 23:16; Deut. 16:9-12; Lev. 23:15-21) representing the First Resurrection (No. 143A) occurs over two days on the Sabbath Day and the Day of Pentecost which always falls on the First Day of the week (Sunday) in the Temple Calendar on the Fiftieth Day from the Wave Sheaf over seven perfect or complete Sabbaths. (Hillel uses Six Sivan and as a result never keeps Pentecost.) (See also Pentecost at Sinai (No. 115).)


Feast of Tabernacles (Ex. 23:16; Deut. 16:13-15; Lev. 23:33-36); (see also ##049; 056). These are the three feast seasons. The Last Feast of Tabernacles here is the General Harvest that is used to represent the Second Resurrection and the Great White Throne Judgment (No. 143B).


The section does not mention the Day of Trumpets (see No. 136) (Lev. 23:24; Num. 29:1); nor does it refer to the Day of Atonement (Lev. 23:26-32) (see Atonement (No. 138) and Azazel and Atonement (No. 214)). Nor does this section refer to the New Moons which are mandatory Sabbaths. These days are not feasts but are singular Holy Days as Sabbaths under the Fourth Commandment (No. 256). They are not harvests and not times of Offerings. The offerings are three times a year on the Feasts. (See Offerings Nos. 275; 278; 139);

The New Moons (No. 125);

Sanctification of the Simple and Erroneous (No. 291).)


In the year 358 CE Rabbi Hillel II issued a false calendar based on the Babylonian Intercalations brought from Babylon in 344 CE by two rabbis. This was offered to the churches but never accepted by the Churches of God (or the Roman and Greek systems either). In 1942 the Hillel system entered the Churches of God for the first time. As a result anyone keeping Hillel does not keep the Temple Calendar on the correct days and for approx one third of the time, not even in the correct months (see ## 195; 195C). This heresy will be corrected by the Witnesses for the arrival of Messiah (see ## 135; 141D).


Chapter 46

1"Thus says the Lord GOD: The gate of the inner court that faces east shall be shut on the six working days; but on the sabbath day it shall be opened and on the day of the new moon it shall be opened. 2The prince shall enter by the vestibule of the gate from without, and shall take his stand by the post of the gate. The priests shall offer his burnt offering and his peace offerings, and he shall worship at the threshold of the gate. Then he shall go out, but the gate shall not be shut until evening. 3The people of the land shall worship at the entrance of that gate before the LORD on the sabbaths and on the new moons. 4The burnt offering that the prince offers to the LORD on the sabbath day shall be six lambs without blemish and a ram without blemish; 5and the cereal offering with the ram shall be an ephah, and the cereal offering with the lambs shall be as much as he is able, together with a hin of oil to each ephah. 6On the day of the new moon he shall offer a young bull without blemish, and six lambs and a ram, which shall be without blemish; 7as a cereal offering he shall provide an ephah with the bull and an ephah with the ram, and with the lambs as much as he is able, together with a hin of oil to each ephah. 8When the prince enters, he shall go in by the vestibule of the gate, and he shall go out by the same way. 9"When the people of the land come before the LORD at the appointed feasts, he who enters by the north gate to worship shall go out by the south gate; and he who enters by the south gate shall go out by the north gate: no one shall return by way of the gate by which he entered, but each shall go out straight ahead. 10When they go in, the prince shall go in with them; and when they go out, he shall go out. 11"At the feasts and the appointed seasons the cereal offering with a young bull shall be an ephah, and with a ram an ephah, and with the lambs as much as one is able to give, together with a hin of oil to an ephah. 12When the prince provides a freewill offering, either a burnt offering or peace offerings as a freewill offering to the LORD, the gate facing east shall be opened for him; and he shall offer his burnt offering or his peace offerings as he does on the sabbath day. Then he shall go out, and after he has gone out the gate shall be shut. 13"He shall provide a lamb a year old without blemish for a burnt offering to the LORD daily; morning by morning he shall provide it. 14And he shall provide a cereal offering with it morning by morning, one sixth of an ephah, and one third of a hin of oil to moisten the flour, as a cereal offering to the LORD; this is the ordinance for the continual burnt offering. 15Thus the lamb and the meal offering and the oil shall be provided, morning by morning, for a continual burnt offering. 16"Thus says the Lord GOD: If the prince makes a gift to any of his sons out of his inheritance, it shall belong to his sons, it is their property by inheritance. 17But if he makes a gift out of his inheritance to one of his servants, it shall be his to the year of liberty; then it shall revert to the prince; only his sons may keep a gift from his inheritance. 18The prince shall not take any of the inheritance of the people, thrusting them out of their property; he shall give his sons their inheritance out of his own property, so that none of my people shall be dispossessed of his property." 19Then he brought me through the entrance, which was at the side of the gate, to the north row of the holy chambers for the priests; and there I saw a place at the extreme western end of them. 20And he said to me, "This is the place where the priests shall boil the guilt offering and the sin offering, and where they shall bake the cereal offering, in order not to bring them out into the outer court and so communicate holiness to the people." 21Then he brought me forth to the outer court, and led me to the four corners of the court; and in each corner of the court there was a court-- 22in the four corners of the court were small courts, forty cubits long and thirty broad; the four were of the same size. 23On the inside, around each of the four courts was a row of masonry, with hearths made at the bottom of the rows round about. 24Then he said to me, "These are the kitchens where those who minister at the temple shall boil the sacrifices of the people."


Intent of Chapter 46

Ezekiel 46 deals with the entry of the Prince on the Sabbaths and New Moons, and the sacrifices on those days. These are Sabbaths on which the High Priest (now Messiah) robed for entry to the Temple.

The Harvests of God, New Moon Services and the 144,000 (No. 120)

46:1-18 Regulations regarding the prince

46:1-8 The prince (the nasi) shall bring his offerings (45:13-16) through the east gate of the inner court to its inner vestibule where he will stand (2Kgs. 11:14). He will stand by the ritually cleansed doorway (45:18-19). The priests will offer the sacrifices on the altar directly ahead. The people will stand in the Outer Court. The sacrifices are explained in Ex. 29:38-42; Num. 28:3-15.

New Moon First Day of the Month. It is a Sabbath and the High Priest robes as for the Sabbath.

46:9-10 The people are under control for the egress over the ceremonies.

46:11-15 The offerings for the feasts and the appointed seasons have specified offerings and also the prince may make offerings at any time or occasion. (Lev. 22:18-23). The east gate (v. 1) is then also opened. The prince must also provide for the daily sacrifices (Ex. 29:38-42; 1Kgs. 18:29; 2Kgs. 16:15) and for the New Moons, Feasts and Holy Days from the Terumah levy (see #161; Zech. 14:16-21).

46:16-18  Crown property is retained in the line of the prince’s family but all other property is retained only until the year of the Jubilee and reverts to the crown and is redistributed under the law by tribes (Lev. 25:8-17).

46:19-20 The Priest’s Quarters (see also 42:1-14). Communicating holiness The priests are not to communicate in their Holy Garments with the people but are to change into other clothing in their chambers (see also 42:14; 44:19).

46:21-24 The Temple has four kitchens in the corners of the Outer Court for the sacrifice meals for the common people.


Chapter 47

1Then he brought me back to the door of the temple; and behold, water was issuing from below the threshold of the temple toward the east (for the temple faced east); and the water was flowing down from below the south end of the threshold of the temple, south of the altar. 2Then he brought me out by way of the north gate, and led me round on the outside to the outer gate, that faces toward the east; and the water was coming out on the south side. 3Going on eastward with a line in his hand, the man measured a thousand cubits, and then led me through the water; and it was ankle-deep. 4Again he measured a thousand, and led me through the water; and it was knee-deep. Again he measured a thousand, and led me through the water; and it was up to the loins. 5Again he measured a thousand, and it was a river that I could not pass through, for the water had risen; it was deep enough to swim in, a river that could not be passed through. 6And he said to me, "Son of man, have you seen this?" Then he led me back along the bank of the river. 7As I went back, I saw upon the bank of the river very many trees on the one side and on the other. 8And he said to me, "This water flows toward the eastern region and goes down into the Arabah; and when it enters the stagnant waters of the sea, the water will become fresh. 9And wherever the river goes every living creature which swarms will live, and there will be very many fish; for this water goes there, that the waters of the sea may become fresh; so everything will live where the river goes. 10Fishermen will stand beside the sea; from En-ge'di to En-eg'laim it will be a place for the spreading of nets; its fish will be of very many kinds, like the fish of the Great Sea. 11But its swamps and marshes will not become fresh; they are to be left for salt. 12And on the banks, on both sides of the river, there will grow all kinds of trees for food. Their leaves will not wither nor their fruit fail, but they will bear fresh fruit every month, because the water for them flows from the sanctuary. Their fruit will be for food, and their leaves for healing." 13Thus says the Lord GOD: "These are the boundaries by which you shall divide the land for inheritance among the twelve tribes of Israel. Joseph shall have two portions. 14And you shall divide it equally; I swore to give it to your fathers, and this land shall fall to you as your inheritance. 15"This shall be the boundary of the land: On the north side, from the Great Sea by way of Hethlon to the entrance of Hamath, and on to Zedad, 16Bero'thah, Sib'raim (which lies on the border between Damascus and Hamath), as far as Hazer-hatticon, which is on the border of Hauran. 17So the boundary shall run from the sea to Hazar-e'non, which is on the northern border of Damascus, with the border of Hamath to the north. This shall be the north side. 18"On the east side, the boundary shall run from Hazar-e'non between Hauran and Damascus; along the Jordan between Gilead and the land of Israel; to the eastern sea and as far as Tamar. This shall be the east side. 19"On the south side, it shall run from Tamar as far as the waters of Meribath-ka'desh, thence along the Brook of Egypt to the Great Sea. This shall be the south side. 20"On the west side, the Great Sea shall be the boundary to a point opposite the entrance of Hamath. This shall be the west side. 21"So you shall divide this land among you according to the tribes of Israel. 22You shall allot it as an inheritance for yourselves and for the aliens who reside among you and have begotten children among you. They shall be to you as native-born sons of Israel; with you they shall be allotted an inheritance among the tribes of Israel. 23In whatever tribe the alien resides, there you shall assign him his inheritance, says the Lord GOD.


Intent of Chapter 47

The restoration of the planet is mentioned in Ezekiel chapter 47. The spiritual power that emanates from Christ in the Temple of God will heal the nations and the land and the seas.

The Golden Jubilee and the Millennium (No. 300)

47:1-12 The Sacred River

vv. 1-3 The sacred river or rivers proceed from the threshhold below the Temple on either side (Jl. 3:18; Zech. 14:8; Rev. 22:2). The prophecy was not derived from Ugaritic Canaanite or Mesopotamian sources even though they symbolically mention the river. The symbolism is that the waters of life emanate from below the throne of God, as the Temple, and by which the waters of the Eastern and Western seas recover their capacity to sustain life and the fruit trees flourish in the deserts, which benefits both Israel and all mankind with a new paradise.

v. 8 Arabah The valley south of the Salt Sea.

v. 10 En-gedi to En-eglaim (‘Ain Feshka, about 1.5 miles south of Kirbet Qumran on the northwest coast of the Salt Sea.

v. 12 On the banks on both sides of the rivers there will grow all types of trees for food and for the healing of the nations. All nations will be required to report to Jersualem at the Feast of Tabernacles each year for directions (see also Zech. 14:16-19). If they do not send their representatives they will suffer drought and no rain in due season and the plagues of Egypt.

47:13-20 Israel’s Boundaries (Num. 34:1-12)

North: approximating the boundaries of David’s empire in North Syria and as given by God to Moses (2Sam. 8:5-12, Num. 34:7-9) The final boundary will be the Euphrates River system.

East: The East boundary runs from the sea to Hazar–enon, between Damascus and Palmyra to the Salt Sea (Num. 34:10-12).

South: along the Southern Negeb to the River of Egypt (Num 34:3-5).

West: The Mediterranean Sea (Num. 34:6), Sibraim (same as Sepharvaim) (see Isa. 36:19 n.).

v. 23 it shall come to pass that in whatever tribe the stranger settles, there Israel is to give him his inheritance. This is an important Scripture (Num. 15:29; Lev. 19:33-34).


Chapter 48

1"These are the names of the tribes: Beginning at the northern border, from the sea by way of Hethlon to the entrance of Hamath, as far as Hazar-e'non (which is on the northern border of Damascus over against Hamath), and extending from the east side to the west, Dan, one portion. 2Adjoining the territory of Dan, from the east side to the west, Asher, one portion. 3Adjoining the territory of Asher, from the east side to the west, Naph'tali, one portion. 4Adjoining the territory of Naph'tali, from the east side to the west, Manas'seh, one portion. 5Adjoining the territory of Manas'seh, from the east side to the west, E'phraim, one portion. 6Adjoining the territory of E'phraim, from the east side to the west, Reuben, one portion. 7Adjoining the territory of Reuben, from the east side to the west, Judah, one portion. 8"Adjoining the territory of Judah, from the east side to the west, shall be the portion which you shall set apart, twenty-five thousand cubits in breadth, and in length equal to one of the tribal portions, from the east side to the west, with the sanctuary in the midst of it. 9The portion which you shall set apart for the LORD shall be twenty-five thousand cubits in length, and twenty thousand in breadth. 10These shall be the allotments of the holy portion: the priests shall have an allotment measuring twenty-five thousand cubits on the northern side, ten thousand cubits in breadth on the western side, ten thousand in breadth on the eastern side, and twenty-five thousand in length on the southern side, with the sanctuary of the LORD in the midst of it. 11This shall be for the consecrated priests, the sons of Zadok, who kept my charge, who did not go astray when the people of Israel went astray, as the Levites did. 12And it shall belong to them as a special portion from the holy portion of the land, a most holy place, adjoining the territory of the Levites. 13And alongside the territory of the priests, the Levites shall have an allotment twenty-five thousand cubits in length and ten thousand in breadth. The whole length shall be twenty-five thousand cubits and the breadth twenty thousand. 14They shall not sell or exchange any of it; they shall not alienate this choice portion of the land, for it is holy to the LORD. 15"The remainder, five thousand cubits in breadth and twenty-five thousand in length, shall be for ordinary use for the city, for dwellings and for open country. In the midst of it shall be the city; 16and these shall be its dimensions: the north side four thousand five hundred cubits, the south side four thousand five hundred, the east side four thousand five hundred, and the west side four thousand and five hundred. 17And the city shall have open land: on the north two hundred and fifty cubits, on the south two hundred and fifty, on the east two hundred and fifty, and on the west two hundred and fifty. 18The remainder of the length alongside the holy portion shall be ten thousand cubits to the east, and ten thousand to the west, and it shall be alongside the holy portion. Its produce shall be food for the workers of the city. 19And the workers of the city, from all the tribes of Israel, shall till it. 20The whole portion which you shall set apart shall be twenty-five thousand cubits square, that is, the holy portion together with the property of the city. 21"What remains on both sides of the holy portion and of the property of the city shall belong to the prince. Extending from the twenty-five thousand cubits of the holy portion to the east border, and westward from the twenty-five thousand cubits to the west border, parallel to the tribal portions, it shall belong to the prince. The holy portion with the sanctuary of the temple in its midst, 22and the property of the Levites and the property of the city, shall be in the midst of that which belongs to the prince. The portion of the prince shall lie between the territory of Judah and the territory of Benjamin. 23"As for the rest of the tribes: from the east side to the west, Benjamin, one portion. 24Adjoining the territory of Benjamin, from the east side to the west, Simeon, one portion. 25Adjoining the territory of Simeon, from the east side to the west, Is'sachar, one portion. 26Adjoining the territory of Is'sachar, from the east side to the west, Zeb'ulun, one portion. 27Adjoining the territory of Zeb'ulun, from the east side to the west, Gad, one portion. 28And adjoining the territory of Gad to the south, the boundary shall run from Tamar to the waters of Meribath-ka'desh, thence along the Brook of Egypt to the Great Sea. 29This is the land which you shall allot as an inheritance among the tribes of Israel, and these are their several portions, says the Lord GOD. 30"These shall be the exits of the city: On the north side, which is to be four thousand five hundred cubits by measure, 31three gates, the gate of Reuben, the gate of Judah, and the gate of Levi, the gates of the city being named after the tribes of Israel. 32On the east side, which is to be four thousand five hundred cubits, three gates, the gate of Joseph, the gate of Benjamin, and the gate of Dan. 33On the south side, which is to be four thousand five hundred cubits by measure, three gates, the gate of Simeon, the gate of Is'sachar, and the gate of Zeb'ulun. 34On the west side, which is to be four thousand five hundred cubits, three gates, the gate of Gad, the gate of Asher, and the gate of Naph'tali. 35The circumference of the city shall be eighteen thousand cubits. And the name of the city henceforth shall be, The LORD is there."


Intent of Chapter 48

The inheritance of the tribes of Israel in the restoration for the Millennium is listed in chapter 48.

The Golden Jubilee and the Millennium (No. 300)

48:1-29 All tribes are given equal allottments west of the Jordan. Ephraim and Manasseh are each given a portion and Levi omitted due to the priestly duties (Josh. 14:3-4 F006iii). These allocations are post the Messianic earthquake alterations which are much different to modern geographical limitations.

48:1-7 There are seven tribes north of the Holy District and Judah is contiguous to it.

v. 1 Hethlon, Heitala east of Tripoli (47:15) Entrance to Hamath area betwen Riblah and Kadesh on the Orontes River.

48:8-22 The properties of the Zadokite Priests and the Levites like that of the prince on either side were to be held in perpetuity (45:1-9). The size of Jerusalem, with the surrounding open area was exactly ten times that of the Temple (42:20) some 5,000 cubits square (1.6 miles) (see also OARSV n.).  

v. 15 Ordinary use see 22.26; 42:20; 44:23.

48:23-29 There were five tribes South of Jerusalem and the Holy District, beginning with the tribe of Benjamin.

48:30-35 Note the relocation of the tribes to the four gate systems that place the tribes in new arrangements. The significance may well relate to the placement of Inheritance also external to Jerusalem and Israel.

Note that Dan is allocated a gate and Ephraim and Manasseh are combined again in Joseph.



Ezekiel was sent into captivity after Daniel was sent with the Noble’s sons as captives (or hostages under arrangment) during the First year of the rule of Nebuchadrezzar known also in the name Nebuchadnezzar when he acted as God’s Agent. Daniel was made Administrator of the province of Babylon and prefect of the Wise Men of the king in 604 BCE (see Commentary on Daniel (F027, i, and ii). The corruption and idolatry of Judah were very serious and Jehoiakin did not contain the factions and he was removed and Zedekiah appointed in his place by Nebuchadnezzar. Ezekiel was then sent on to the Babylonian captivity to the Hill of the Storm God on the Chebar canal (see Introduction) with the captives on the replacement of Jehoiakin by Zedekiah. Ezekiel was called by God in the Thirtieth Year of the sacred calendar (No. 156) and the Fifth year of Jehoiakin’s captivity. God had established three major prophets following on from the rejection of God’s message and the cruel death of Isaiah (the administration sawed him in half). The three prophets were to deal with Judah, Benjamin, Simeon, and Levi and their rampant corruption and idolatry. These were Jeremiah, Daniel and finally the Zadokite Priest Ezekiel.

Jeremiah was established to remain with Zedekiah and was commissioned to deal with Judah and then remove the offspring of Zedekiah to a location in the Lost Ten Tribes. He also acted as supporting prophetic record to the events in Ezekiel (see Commentary on Jeremiah Introduction and Part I (F024)).

Daniel was to establish the sequence of the Empires of the Beasts from the Babylonians to the final wars of the empire of the Ten Toes in Daniel Chapter 2 and the Return of the Messiah for the millennial system (Dan. Ch 11 and Ch. 12. (See F027xi, xii, xiii)

Ezekiel was to deal with the Babylonian Captivity and return and then the final captivity and dispersion after Judah and Levi’s complete failure to repent after the forty year trial for repentance at the end of the Sign of Jonah... (No. 013) in its first phase in 70 CE. He was then given the prophecies concerning the Fall of Satan and the Host (chs. 25-28 Part VII) and the Prophecy of Pharoah’s Broken Arms detailing the two phases of the Fall of Egypt (chs. 29-32 Part VIII) and the Wars of the Twentieth Century. He was then given the prophecies over the period of the Watchmen (ch. 33) and Shepherds of Israel both as in Judah and the churches of the Fourth Cherubim (Part IX). Two of the last three Churches of God are declared dead and spewed from the mouth of God (see Rev. Ch. 3, F066). He was then tasked on detailing the reconstruction of the Temple at the return of the Messiah for the Completion of the Sign of Jonah (No. 013B) in the Twenty-first Century. That was also for the First Resurrection (No. 143A), The millennial system and the Second Resurrection (No. 143B). (ca. 3027 CE). Ezekiel also explained the history of the religious structure to the time of the end in the structure of the Four Cherubim which went to the end of the Seven Churches and the coming of the City of God (No. 180). Ezekiel also represented the loyal Zadokite Priesthood who were the Levites permitted to remain to preach the Law in the final Temple structure as part of the Kingdom of God and the priesthood of Melchisedek under Messiah as High Priest (see also F058).  


Judah and the Levites continued persecuting and killing the true prophets of God on through Zechariah and the minor prophets and then began again in earnest killing John the Baptist and then the Messiah and the Apostles and Saints as we see in Death of the Prophets and Saints (No. 122C). The murders escalated under the demons controlling the False Churches, as we see in Acts part VII (F044vii) up until the Twentieth, and finally in the Twenty-first century. The final prophets to be killed are the Two Witnesses Enoch and Elijah, four days before the arrival of Messiah and the Host (see No. 141D). The demons finally will have the Beast (No. 299A) kill the leaders of the Whore (No. 299B). The false religions will disperse under the final destruction for the Millennium under Messiah (see ## 141E; 141E_2; 141F).  





Weights and Measures in the Bible (


It should be first noted that the maintenance of honest weights and measures was an important principle in Biblical times. God himself directly commanded his people to be honest when they traded and not attempt to cheat each other (especially those who were strangers, see Leviticus 19:34 - 36).


Below is a list of the King James Bible words that refer to the most commonly used weights and measures found in the Old and New Testaments.



1 ephah = 22 liters = 5.8 Gallons

Used in the Bible for liquids (1Kings 7:26, Isaiah 5:10).


44.5 to 52 centimeters = 17.5 to 20.4 inches

The length of a cubit is based on the distance between the tip of the middle finger and the elbow (Genesis 6:13 - 16, Matthew 6:27, Luke 12:25).


There were at least two sizes of cubits used in the Old Testament. The first or ordinary cubit was about 17.5 inches (44.5 centimeters) long. The second, known as the long or "royal" (sacred) cubit, was a hand-breadth longer (see Ezekiel 40:5, 43:13) or about 20.4 inches (51.8 centimeters) long. The royal cubit was likely used by Solomon to build Jerusalem's temple (2Chronicles 3:3) and possibly utilized to construct Noah's Ark.


Day's Journey

32 kilometers = roughly 20 miles

This distance is used only once in the New Testament (Luke 2:44).


10 omers = .62 bushels = 22 liters = 20 dry quarts

Used in the Bible for a dry measure (Exodus 16:36, 1Samuel 17:17).


2 mites = 1/4th of a cent

Used only three times in the New Testament as a measure of money (Matthew 5:26, 10:29, Mark 12:42).


34 liters = 9 gallons

Used only once in the New Testament in reference to Jesus' miracle of turning water into wine (John 2:6).


1/8th of a mile = 201.2 meters

Translated from the Greek word stadion and used as a measure of distance (Luke 24:13, John 6:19, 11;18, Revelation 14:20, 21:16).


1/20th of a Shekel = .57 grams = .02 ounces

The smallest weight and piece of money used in Israel (Exodus 30:13, Leviticus 27:25, Numbers 3:47).

Hand breadth

7.6 centimeters = 3 inches

Used for lengths (1Kings 7:26, Psalm 39:5).


1/6th of a Bath = 3.7 liters = 1 Gallon

Used as a measurement of liquids (Exodus 29:40, 30:24, Numbers 15:4).

Homer (Cor)

Dry Measure: 10 Ephahs = 211 liters = 6.2 bushels

Liquid: 10 Baths = 220 liters = 58 Gallons

Can be used to measure volume of dry commodities like barley or liquids (Numbers 11:32, Hosea 3:2, Ezekiel 45:11, 13 - 14).


1/72 of a bath = .3 liter = 1/3 of a quart

Used as a measure of liquid (Leviticus 14:10, 12, 15, 21, 24).


50 Shekels

Translated from the Hebrew maneh as "pound." Used as a measure of currency (1Kings 10:17, Ezra 2:69, Ezekiel 45:12).


1/2 Roman quadran = 1/2 farthing = 1/8th of a cent

Translated from the Greek word lepton, it was the smallest coin used (Mark 12:42, Luke 12:59, 21:2).


1/10 ephah = 2.2 dry liters = 2 dry quarts

The Hebrew word omer is also sometimes translated as "sheaf" or "sheaves" (Leviticus 23:10 - 12, Ruth 2:7). A sheaf was considered a quantity of grain big enough to bundle (Exodus 16:22, 32 - 33, 36).

Penny (KJV Bible)

1 Penny = 1 Roman Denarius = 1 Greek Drachma

In the KJV New Testament, the same Greek word denarion (denarius) is translated as "penny" (Matthew 20:2 - 13, 22:19, Revelation 6:6), "pennyworth" (Mark 6:37, John 6:7) and "pence" (Matthew 18:28, Mark 14:5, Luke 7:41). Jesus used a denarius to teach that it was lawful to pay Roman taxes (Matthew 22:19, Luke 20:22 - 25). One denarius was considered a single day's wages.


Used as Weight: 100 shekels

Used for Money: 100 Roman denarii = 100 Greek drachmas = $16.00 U.S.

Another common weight also used for the value of money (1Kings 10:17, Ezra 2:29, Luke 19:13, 16, 18).


3 meters = 10 feet

Used for length measurements (Ezekiel 42:16, Revelation 21:15).

Sabbath's day journey

2,000 cubits = .91 kilometers = 1/2 of a mile

According to Jewish tradition (not the Bible) this was the maximum allowable distance a person could travel on the Seventh-day Sabbath and not violate the law (Acts 1:12, Joshua 3:4).


20 gerahs = 11.4 grams = .4 ounces

A common weight also used for money (Genesis 23:15 - 16, Exodus 21:32, 30:13, 1Samuel 17:5, Ezekiel 45:12).


1/2 cubit = 22.8 centimeters = 9 inches

A span is the width of a spread out human hand from the tip of the thumb to the tip of the pinky finger (Exodus 28:16, 1Samuel 17:4, Ezekiel 43:13).


3,000 shekels = 60 minas = 34.3 kilograms = 75 U.S. pounds

One of the common Biblical weights also used to value money (Exodus 38:24 - 29, 1Kings 9:14, Matthew 18:24, Revelation 16:21).


A talent of gold weighs, using a modern weight, 1,094 troy ounces. Assuming one troy ounce is worth $1,700 U.S., a talent is worth about $1.86 million dollars! If we assume silver at $20 per troy ounce, a talent is worth $21,880 today.



Biblical commentaries vary regarding what they believe to be the modern equivalents of various weights and measures. The ancient shekel, for example, when used as a weight, is usually quoted as between .25 (or 1/4) ounces (U.S.) and .5 (or 1/2) ounces (U.S.), with .4 (or 2/5) ounces the most commonly believed equivalent. What is listed on this page is a consensus of our research and should therefore be taken only as an approximation.



Bullinger’s Notes on Chapters 45-48 (for KJV)


Chapter 45

Verse 1

offer = heave up, See next note.

oblation = a heave offering. See note on Ezekiel 44:30 .

the LORD . Hebrew. Jehovah . App-4 . Ih

holy . See note on Exodus 3:5 .

ten. The Septuagint reads twenty. Compare Numbers 35:2 .Joshua 21:2 .


Verse 2

for the sanctuary : i.e. the outer court (Ezekiel 42:15-20 ). cubits. See App-51 .

suburbs = void ground outside the outer court, to prevent contact.


Verse 3

five and twenty thousand = about sixty or seventy miles, according to the length of the cubit.

most holy place = holy of holies.


Verse 4

shall be = it [shall be].

the LORD . Hebrew. Jehovah. with ' eth = Jehovah Himself. App-4 .I.


Verse 5

for = as.

for twenty chambers : or, of cities to dwell in.


Verse 6

the whole house of Israel . Compare Ezekiel 48:19 .


Verse 7

before = in front of.


Verse 9

Thus saith , &c. See note on Ezekiel 44:9 .

the Lord GOD . Hebrew. Adonai Jehovah . See note on Ezekiel 2:4 ,

and . Some codices, with five early printed editions, omit this "and".

exactions = evictions. saith

the Lord GOD = [is] Adonai Jehovah's oracle.


Verse 10

Ye shall have , &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 19:36 ). ephah. See App-51 ., bath. See App-51 .


Verse 11

the tenth part . See the next note. homer. Hebrew. chomer : not to be confounded with ' omer . The former contained ten ephahs; the latter was one-tenth of an ephah. Compare Exodus 16:16 .


Verse 12

And the shekel , &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 30:13 , Leviticus 27:25 .Numbers 3:47; Numbers 3:47 ). App-92 .

shekel. See App-51 .

gerahs . See App-51 .

maneh. See App-51 .


Verse 13

offer = offer up.


Verse 14

cor . See App-51 .


Verse 15

fat pastures = well = watered land (Singular.) Compare Genesis 13:10 .

meat offering = gift offering. See App-43 . burnt offering. See App-43 .

peace offerings . See App-43 .

to make reconciliation. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 1:4 ). The same expression. App-92 .

reconciliation = atonement.


Verse 16

All the People of the land shall give this = All the People of the land shall be for, &c. The People will not offer individually. The prince will make the national offering for the People or nation as a whole. See note an "ordinances", Ezekiel 43:18 . There is no Hebrew for "give" here.


Verse 17

And it shall be the prince's part = But on the prince himself shall rest, &c. in all. Some codices, with one early printed edition (Rabbinic), Aramaean, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "and in all", thus completing the Figure of speech Polysyndeton ( App-6 ).

solemnities = appointed seasons.

he. The emphasis is thus marked,

sin offering. See App-43 .

for the house of Israel. The People will thus offer through the prince. They are summed up in him.


Verse 18

In the first month, in the first day of the month. See note on Genesis 8:13 .

bullock. Reil to Pentateuch (Exodus 29:1-14 ). App-92 .


Verse 19

settle = ledge. See note on Ezekiel 43:14 .


Verse 20

month. The Septuagint adds "on the first day of the month".

for every one, &c. They do not offer themselves. The sacrifices here are national, not individual. See note on Ezekiel 45:17 above, and on "ordinances", Ezekiel 43:18 .

simple = artless, undesigning.

reconcile = make atonement for.


Verse 21

In the first month, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 12:19 ). App-92 . This is the Feast of the Passover.


Verse 22

for all the People . The People will not do it by families as heretofore, but the prince does it for the whole nation. See notes on verses: Ezekiel 45:17 , Ezekiel 45:20 , above, and Ezekiel 43:18 .


Verse 24

hin . See App-61 .


Verse 26

In the seventh month, &c. This is the Feast of Tabernacles. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 23:34 ). App-92 .


Chapter 46

Verse 1

Thus saith, &c. See note on Ezekiel 44:9 .

the Lord God . Hebrew. Adonai Jehovah . See note on Ezekiel 2:4 .


Verse 2

his : i.e. the prince, who offers for the nation. See notes above, on Ezekiel 45:16 , Ezekiel 45:17 , Ezekiel 45:20 , Ezekiel 45:22 .

burnt offering . App-43 .

peace offerings . App-43 .


Verse 3

the People of the land . They worship only; they do not offer. Compare Ezekiel 45:16 .

door = entrance.

the LORD . Hebrew. Jehovah . App-4 .


Verse 4

offer = bring near. App-43 .


Verse 5

meat offering = meal, or gift, offering. App-43 . ephah. App-51 .

hin . App-51 .


Verse 9

solemn feasts = appointed times,


Verse 10

the prince , &c, As for the prince, when they come in, ho shall come in in the midst of them; and when they go forth, he shall go forth.

shall go forth . Heb, text reads "shall they go forth". Some codices read in margin "he"; other codices, with Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "he


Verse 11

solemnities = appointed seasons.


Verse 12

one. Supply the Ellipsis, "[the gatekeeper] shall".

he shall prepare , &c. It will be the prince's duty to offer for the nation. See notes on Ezekiel 45:16 , Ezekiel 45:17 , Ezekiel 45:20 , Ezekiel 45:22 .

as = according as.


Verse 13

daily prepare , &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Ex, Eze 29:38 . Numbers 28:3 ). App-92 .


Verse 14

for it = thereupon.

temper = mix.


Verse 16

sons. The Septuagint and Syriac read "son's


Verse 17

the year of liberty = the year of jubilee. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 25:10 ). App-92 . This shows that this prophecy will, and must yet, be literally fulfilled. Moreover, the jubilee occurred only twice in a century.

but, &c. = truly, it is his own inheritance; as to his sons, to them it shall go.


Verse 18

every man. Heb, 'ish . App-14 .


Verse 19

holy . See note on Exodus 3:2 .

chambers = storerooms. Heb, lishkah . See note on Ezekiel 40:17 .

behold . Figure of speech Asterismos . App-6 .

on the two sides = on the farthest side.


Verse 20

to sanctify the People . Compare Ezekiel 44:19 .


Verse 21

utter = outer. The boiling places.


Verse 22

courts joined = courts covered over, or closed courts, cloisters.

corners. Hebrew. m hukzaoth , This hybrid word has the extraordinary points ( App-31 ) or dots on the top, denoting that it does not properly belong to the primitive text. It is omitted in Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate. The clause should therefore read: "these four were of the some measure" (see Ginsburg's Introduction, pp. 382-3).


Verse 23

And there was a. row of building = And there was an enclosure. The 1611 edition of the Authorized Version reads "And there was a now building".


Chapter 47

Verse 1

door = entrance.

behold . Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6 .

came down = were coming down. Compare Joel 3:18 ; and see Isaiah 12:3 ; Isaiah 44:3 .Zechariah 14:8 . Revelation 22:1 .

from under = from beneath. Referring to the perennial source which has supplied the fountain of Gihon. See App-68 . right side : i.e. the south side. Compare Ezekiel 47:2 .


Verse 2

utter = is outer.


Verse 3

man . Hebrew 'ash. App-14 .

the line = a measuring line, Hebrew. kav . Only here in Ezekiel. Not the same word as in Ezekiel 40:3 , which is pathil .

cubits. See App-51 , (1).

the waters , &c. = waters [reaching] to the ankle, No Art. Hebrew "of the ankles". Genitive of Relation. App-17 .


Verse 6

Son of man . See note on Ezekiel 2:1 .


Verse 7

trees . See the Structure above.


Verse 8

east country = the eastern Allah i.e. circular border-land. Used of the Jordan in Joshua 22:11 .

desert = plain. Hebrew 'arabah. See Deuteronomy 3:17 ; Deuteronomy 4:49 . the sea.

The sea = called Salt, or Dead Sea.


Verse 9

things = soul. Hebrew. nephesh . App-13 .

moveth = swarmeth.


Verse 10

En-gedi. Now the well-known spring, Ain Jidy, on the west shore. The original name was Hazazon-tamar (2 Chronicles 20:2 ).

En-eglaim. Not yet identified. Eusebius places it eight miles south of ' Ar of Moab. This would probably be ' Ain Hajla , the ancient Beth Hogla.

the great sea. The Mediterranean.


Verse 11

miry places = swamps.

marishes = marshes. Hebrew = pools.


Verse 12

trees for meat . Hebrew "trees of meat". Genitive of Relation. App-17 . Compare Genesis 2:9 .

consumed = fail.

new = ripe.

medicine = healing. The Divine provision for preserving and restoring health in that future day, when this prophecy shall be literally fulfilled. Compare Revelation 22:2 .


Verse 13

Thus saith, &c. See note on Ezekiel 44:9 .

the Lord GOD . Hebrew Adonai Jehovah. See note on Ezekiel 2:4 .

Joseph. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 48:5-22 ). App-92 .

shall have , Supply this Ellipsis ( App-6 ), by "shall inherit".


Verse 14

to give it , &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 12:7 ; Genesis 12:17 , Genesis 12:8 ; Genesis 26:3 ; Genesis 28:13 ; Genesis 50:24 ). App-92 .


Verse 16

coast = border, or boundary.


Verse 18

the land of Israel. One of the three passages in Ezekiel where 'eretz (land) is used, instead of ' adamah (soil), See note on Ezekiel 27:17 ; and op note on Ezekiel 11:17


Verse 19

strife. Hebrew. Meribah . Reference to Pentateuch (Numbers 20:1-13 ). Kadesh. Now ' Ain Kades .

river = torrent.


Verse 22

strangers = foreign sojourners.

children = sons.


Verse 23

saith the Lord GOD = [is] Adonai Jehovah's oracle.


Chapter 48

Verse 1

these are the names. For the various orderings and groupings of the twelve tribes, see App-45 . Compare Exodus 1:1 .

Dan. Note the different positions, by which the wives' offspring are placed in thecentre, nearest to the oblation; while the slave offspring are placed at the extremities farthest from the oblation.


Verse 8

offering = heave offering. Hebrew. terumah . ( App-43 .) See note on Exodus 29:27 . The same word as "oblation", Ezekiel 48:9 ; the whole area of which is to be considered as the heave offering offered to Jehovah.

ye . The 1611 edition of the Authorized Version reads "they".

offer = offer up.

and the sanctuary. Note the Alternation in on. sew.

it = him: i.e. Judah.


Verse 9

oblation = heave offering. See note on Ezekiel 48:8

the LORD . Hebrew. Jehovah . App-4 .


Verse 10

holy. See note on Exodus 3:5 .


Verse 11

that are . . . Zadok = the consecrated body of Zadok's sons.

charge = ordinance.

children = sons.

as = according as.


Verse 12

offered = offered up, or heaved. App-49 . is.

by = reaching to.


Verse 15

shall be = it [shall be].

profane = common.


Verse 23

Benjamin. Note the positions of these five tribes in the south. See the Structure (F2), p. 1175.

a = one.


Verse 28

strife. Bob. Meribah . See note on Ezekiel 47:19 . toward, Septuagint reads as far as".


Verse 29

saith the Lord GOD = [is] Adonai Jehovah's oracle. See note on Ezekiel 2:4 .


Verse 30

goings out = outlets.


Verse 32

and one . Some codices, with Aramaean, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, omit "and".


Verse 35

The LORD [is] there : denoting the fact that Jehovah has gone thither and rests There, with all the blessing, peace, security, and glory of His abiding presence. Hebrew. Jehovah Shammah . See App-4 .