Christian Churches of God


No. F019_2






Commentary on The Psalms

Part 2

The Exodus Book


(Edition 1.0 20230701-20230701)


Commentary on Psalms 42 to 72 relating to Israel.


Christian Churches of God

PO Box 369,  WODEN  ACT 2606,  AUSTRALIA






(Copyright © 2023 Wade Cox; Leslie Hilburn; Diane Flannagan)



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Psalms Part 2: The Exodus Book


The Second Book of Psalms.

Containing Select Songs By Various

Choristers And Poets.


Psalms (




Psalms 42:9; Psalms 43:2). NO HELP FROM MAN. IT OPENS WITH CRYING AND TEARS AS EXODUS DOES. (Cp. Exodus 2:23; Exodus 3:7-9; Exodus 6:9.)
Psalms 42:23-26).
Psalms 48:8)
Psalms 48:8 with Psalms 44:1.)
Psalms 42:15).

Exodus 3:4. Cp. Hebrews 12:25, Hebrews 12:26.
56 57 58 59 60 GOD

Psalms 64:9).
Psalms 66:10-12).
Psalms 42:22-24). THE




WAS ALL HIS DESIRE (2 Samuel 23:5).


Notes on the Structure, Page 759

EXODUS is the Greek ἔξοδος  and is the name given to the book by the Septuagint Translators as descriptive of its chief event - the going out of Israel from Egypt. But the Hebrew title for it is (veelleh shemoth), "AND THESE ARE THE NAMES." The Book is thus called because it begins with the names of those who came into the place whence they were redeemed and delivered from their ruin and oppression.

It is indeed the book of  “the NAMES"; for not only does the Lord speak so pointedly of knowing Moses "by name" [
Ex. 33:12, Ex. 33:17], but Moses asks by what Name he is to speak of the God of their fathers to the Israelites [Ex. 3:13], and the Lord reveals His Name [Ex. 3:14, Ex. 3:15]; while in Ex. 6:3; Ex. 33:19; Ex. 34:5-7, He further proclaims it. So, again, of the "Angel" that was sent before the People [Ex. 23:20], Jehovah said, "My Name is in Him" [Ex. 23:21]. Moses speaks to Pharaoh in the Name of Jehovah [Ex. 5:23]; and Pharaoh is raised up "that My Name may be declared throughout all the earth" [Ex. 9:16]. It is in this book that we first have the third Commandment concerning the Name of the Lord [Ex. 20:7]. Bezaleel is said to have been "called" by name [Ex. 31:2], whereas a different phrase is used of Aholiab [Ex. 31:6] both here and in [Ex. 35:30,34].  It is in Exodus also that we have the particular instructions as to the engraving of the names on the shoulder-stones of the ephod [Ex. 28:9-12], and on the breastplate stones (15-21), which were strictly carried out [Ex. 39:6-14]. Thus "the names of the sons of Israel" were borne before the Lord with the Redeeming Blood in the Holy of Holies. Moreover, these names appear at the beginning of Exodus, in connection with the RUIN and at the end in connection with the REDEMPTION "before God in the Sanctuary"; while we have the Name of the REDEEMER proclaimed and celebrated throughout, "The LORD is His name" (Exodus 15:3).

Exodus is therefore the Book of REDEMPTION: and Redemption is individual and by name. It is the book in which the REDEMPTION of the People is first mentioned: "Thou in Thy mercy hast led forth the People which Thou hast REDEEMED:Thou hast guided them in Thy strength unto Thy holy habitation." (
Exodus 15:13).

The Title "Exodus" also occurs in
Luke 9:31 (rendered "decease " in A. V. and R.V.), where it is the subject of which Messiah spake with Moses and Elijah on "the holy mount". This subject was His REDEMPTION work, viz. the "exodus which He should accomplish at Jerusalem", which was the great Antitype of that accomplished by Moses.

The types of Exodus are also types of Redemption. The Divine title JAH (see Appdx-4. III), the. concentrated form of Jehovah, occurs for the first time in the Book of Exodus [
Ex. 15:3]; and it occurs also for the first time in the Psalms in this second or Exodus Book (Psalms 68:4).

In this second Book of the Psalms we find the subject-matter corresponding with that of Exodus. Like the other books, its teaching is dispensational. In the Genesis Book, Man is the central thought; in this Exodus Book, it is the Nation of Israel around which the counsels and purposes of God are centered. It opens with the " cry " from the depth of the Ruin and Oppression, as Exodus does; and it ends with the King reigning over the redeemed Nation (Ps. 72), brought "again the second time" from the four corners of the earth (
Isaiah 11:11); as it was brought the first time from Egypt; and, at length, made a blessing to all the families of the earth.

Of the Divine names and titles: Elohim occurs 262 times (two of them with Jehovah), El 14 times, and Jehovah only 37 times. Note the references to Sinai, Miriam, and other events in Exodus in this second Book.

Psalms 42 and 43 are linked together by a recurring question and answer. See the Structure (p. 759).


As Ps. 32 is the Sin Offering and Ps. 40 the Burnt Offering, so Ps. 69 is the Trespass Offering.



Note also that the shortened name is actually Yaho as determined from the Elephantine texts as translated by Ginsberg and the extended name as Yahovah and Yahovah of Hosts (see The Names of God (No. 116).


Psalm 42

42:1  To the choirmaster. A Maskil of the Sons of Korah. As a hart longs for flowing streams, so longs my soul for thee, O God. 2My soul thirsts for God, for the living God. When shall I come and behold the face of God? 3My tears have been my food day and night, while men say to me continually, "Where is your God?"  4These things I remember, as I pour out my soul: how I went with the throng, and led them in procession to the house of God, with glad shouts and songs of thanksgiving, a multitude keeping festival.  5Why are you cast down, O my soul, and why are you disquieted within me? Hope in God; for I shall again praise him, my help 6and my God. My soul is cast down within me, therefore I remember thee from the land of Jordan and of Hermon, from Mount Mizar. 7Deep calls to deep at the thunder of thy cataracts; all thy waves and thy billows have gone over me. 8By day the LORD commands his steadfast love; and at night his song is with me, a prayer to the God of my life. 9I say to God, my rock: "Why hast thou forgotten me? Why go I mourning because of the oppression of the enemy?" 10As with a deadly wound in my body, my adversaries taunt me, while they say to me continually, "Where is your God?" 11Why are you cast down, O my soul, and why are you disquieted within me? Hope in God; for I shall again praise him, my help and my God.


Intent of Psalm 42

Psalms 42-43 Prayers for healing in preparation for a pilgrimage. The subject matter for this and the next psalm is the same (Soncino; Kimchi Ps. 43:5). They are a single lyric of three stanzas with a refrain (42:5,11; 43:5).

42:1-4  Psalmist’s deep desire to be near to God, longing to serve in the Temple during the annual Feasts of God.

42:5-8  Challenging the thoughts of despair with hope in God. Reminds himself of God’s steadfast love. (The Psalm places the writer far north of Jerusalem in Hermon on Mount Mizar.)

42:9-10 Continued feelings of despair and oppression by the enemies.

42:11 Psalmist ends with a statement of hope and praise.


Psalm 42 is one of eleven psalms attributed to the sons of Korah (although some scholars believe the Psalm was written by David when he was exiled from Jerusalem and intended for the sons of Korah to sing). The other psalms attributed to the sons of Korah are 44-49, 84, 85, 87 and 88. Korah led a rebellion against Moses following the Exodus when the Israelites were in the wilderness. God judged Korah and he and his leaders were all killed, but the descendants of Korah were spared and eventually they served in the Temple as gatekeepers and musicians (Num. 26:11, 1Chr. 9:17-32).


These psalms of Korah are all concerned with prophecy and the power of God determining the future of Israel right through until the Last Days and the establishment of Messiah and the Church as the Bride of Christ (Psalm. 45). The reference to future wars has been used by revisionist scholars to insinuate that some were written after the events that are linked to them by prophecy. For example, Pss. 46 onwards are used to imply that the psalms were written after the events to which they are linked and not as prophecy. The Psalms are the most powerful prophetic vehicle in the Bible texts and were written at the time of David and Solomon and cover the entire period of the Nation of Israel including Judah to the millennial system ahead of us.


The Psalm begins with great sorrow and distress and a longing to serve God. The psalmist is being oppressed by his enemies and calling out to God.  Although the psalmist is mocked by unbelievers, the psalm ends with hope and praise for God.


Psalm 43

43:1 Vindicate me, O God, and defend my cause against an ungodly people; from deceitful and unjust men deliver me! 2For thou art the God in whom I take refuge; why hast thou cast me off? Why go I mourning because of the oppression of the enemy?  3Oh send out thy light and thy truth; let them lead me, let them bring me to thy holy hill and to thy dwelling! 4Then I will go to the altar of God, to God my exceeding joy; and I will praise thee with the lyre, O God, my God. 5Why are you cast down, O my soul, and why are you disquieted within me? Hope in God; for I shall again praise him, my help and my God.


Intent of Psalm 43

43:1-2 Continued prayers for deliverance

43:3-4 Cry to God

43:5 Hope and praise for God


Psalm 42 and Psalm 43 are linked together as Psalm 43 has no title. The psalmist’s despair continues and again, the psalm ends with a statement of hope in God.


Psalm 44

44:1  To the choirmaster. A Maskil of the Sons of Korah. We have heard with our ears, O God, our fathers have told us, what deeds thou didst perform in their days, in the days of old: 2thou with thy own hand didst drive out the nations, but them thou didst plant; thou didst afflict the peoples, but them thou didst set free;  3for not by their own sword did they win the land, nor did their own arm give them victory; but thy right hand, and thy arm, and the light of thy countenance; for thou didst delight in them. 4Thou art my King and my God, who ordainest victories for Jacob. 5Through thee we push down our foes; through thy name we tread down our assailants.  6For not in my bow do I trust, nor can my sword save me. 7But thou hast saved us from our foes, and hast put to confusion those who hate us. 8In God we have boasted continually, and we will give thanks to thy name for ever. Selah

9Yet thou hast cast us off and abased us, and hast not gone out with our armies. 10Thou hast made us turn back from the foe; and our enemies have gotten spoil. 11Thou hast made us like sheep for slaughter, and hast scattered us among the nations. 12Thou hast sold thy people for a trifle, demanding no high price for them. 13Thou hast made us the taunt of our neighbors, the derision and scorn of those about us. 14Thou hast made us a byword among the nations, a laughingstock among the peoples. 15All day long my disgrace is before me, and shame has covered my face, 16at the words of the taunters and revilers, at the sight of the enemy and the avenger. 17All this has come upon us, though we have not forgotten thee, or been false to thy covenant. 18Our heart has not turned back, nor have our steps departed from thy way, 19that thou shouldst have broken us in the place of jackals, and covered us with deep darkness. 20If we had forgotten the name of our God, or spread forth our hands to a strange god,  21would not God discover this? For he knows the secrets of the heart. 22Nay, for thy sake we are slain all the day long, and accounted as sheep for the slaughter. 23Rouse thyself! Why sleepest thou, O Lord? Awake! Do not cast us off for ever!  24Why dost thou hide thy face? Why dost thou forget our affliction and oppression? 25For our soul is bowed down to the dust; our body cleaves to the ground. 26Rise up, come to our help! Deliver us for the sake of thy steadfast love!


Intent of Psalm 44

44:1-3 God’s victory for Israel in the days of Joshua through Jesus Christ

44:4-8 Psalmist’s prayer for victory

44:9-16 Israel’s defeat and disappointment

44:17-18 Psalmist describing Judah’s return to God

44: 20-22 God knows the secrets of the heart

44:23-26 Plea for redemption.

This is the 2nd psalm in the set of eleven songs attributed to the sons of Korah. When the Korahite rebellion occurred, we see that some of the sons of Korah remained loyal and faithful to the One True God and were actually used to write psalms.

44:3 is reference to Joshua the Messiah being the right arm of God. Proverbs 31:17 indicates that she girds herself in the strength of God. "Making strong her arms" refers to the right arm of God and the right hand, which is Jesus Christ (Psa. 44:3). The saints are also the arms of God, and do His work. For more information see Proverbs 31 (No. 114).

See note in verse 1 regarding we heard this is only likely in the reference to Hezekiah and Sennacherib. See 2Kgs. 18:13 – 20:37, as well as in Isa. 36-37, and 2Chr. See Ch. 32 for the details of the account. We will see this event referred to also in Pss. 46, 47, and 48.

Psalm 45

45:1  To the choirmaster: according to Lilies. A Maskil of the Sons of Korah; a love song. My heart overflows with a goodly theme; I address my verses to the king; my tongue is like the pen of a ready scribe. 2You are the fairest of the sons of men; grace is poured upon your lips; therefore God has blessed you for ever.  3Gird your sword upon your thigh, O mighty one, in your glory and majesty!  4In your majesty ride forth victoriously for the cause of truth and to defend the right; let your right hand teach you dread deeds!  5Your arrows are sharp in the heart of the king's enemies; the peoples fall under you.  6Your divine throne endures for ever and ever. Your royal scepter is a scepter of equity; 7you love righteousness and hate wickedness. Therefore God, your God, has anointed you with the oil of gladness above your fellows; 8your robes are all fragrant with myrrh and aloes and cassia. From ivory palaces stringed instruments make you glad; 9daughters of kings are among your ladies of honor; at your right hand stands the queen in gold of Ophir. 10Hear, O daughter, consider, and incline your ear; forget your people and your father's house; 11and the king will desire your beauty. Since he is your lord, bow to him; 12the people of Tyre will sue your favor with gifts, the richest of the people 13with all kinds of wealth. The princess is decked in her chamber with gold-woven robes; 14in many-colored robes she is led to the king, with her virgin companions, her escort, in her train. 15With joy and gladness they are led along as they enter the palace of the king.  16Instead of your fathers shall be your sons; you will make them princes in all the earth. 17I will cause your name to be celebrated in all generations; therefore the peoples will praise you forever and ever.


Intent of Psalm 45

Psalm 45 is a prophetic depiction of Jesus Christ as royal bridegroom and his church as the royal bride. Eloah is the Father of the bride and the power that elevates Messiah. He is Ha Elohim as the Most High God of both Messiah and the bride (see also Psalm 45 No. 177). This Psalm also depicts or describes the relationship of Jesus Christ and God the Father. Not only has the Father anointed Jesus Christ to a special position, i.e. to become the royal bridegroom to His people, but also as elohim proceeding from His authority.


The rabbinical authorities have mixed reactions to the Psalm. Ibn Ezra understood the king as being David. However, the Targum and Kimchi understood this Psalm to refer to Messiah and the marriage referred to his redemption of Israel. The distinction between physical and spiritual Israel is not understood by them. Rashi tries to explain the Psalm in terms of Torah scholars who are acclaimed as kings (cf. Prov. 8:15). Thus Rashi views wisdom as Torah – the scholars are the true spiritual leaders of Israel who must heed them to survive. This explanation is entirely inadequate given the entities described. Malbim internalises the allegory to the body and mind which is again unsatisfactory, if not blasphemous.


This text is referred to in Heb. 1:8-9 as referring specifically to Jesus Christ as Messiah here. This psalm is also the key reference in the Gospel of John 1:1-18 (F043).


Divisions of the Psalm

The Psalm has three parts or distinct sections.

Section 1.  Verse 1 To Jesus Christ, as Elohim of Israel (see Deut. 32:8, appointed by Eloah). The text depicts the emotion that the singer of the Psalm, under the inspiration of God’s Holy Spirit, portrays in the singing of this beautiful “song of love.” (The Shoshannim are literally roses. These are specific instruments.)

The other translations can read My heart is overflowing with a good theme. I recite my composition concerning the king etc. The word overflowing is used only here. As a noun it can mean a reptile and the root meaning is to move or stir (Hirsch). Compare this with the context of Isaiah 6:5-7 regarding the meaning of seraphim.


Section 2. Verses 2-9

45:2-5 Here we are pointed to the royal bridegroom. It is a prophetic address to Jesus Christ. Note the key words of great power in this section from verse 2: God has blessed you forever. This statement is a direct refutation of the Binitarian position. God would not do this if Christ was already co-eternal and co-existent with the Father on a dual basis from eternity.

v. 3 To defend truth and uprightness.

Note in verse 4 that the bridegroom is contrasted to his adversary Satan who has disqualified himself from his position because of pride and arrogance.


The pouring of grace upon the lips of the Messiah is as a function of salvation. This is done through the Holy Spirit. The favour is to rest upon him eternally. The call to gird on the sword, according to Rashi, is a call to defend Torah or the Law of God. Real glory is obtained not by might and the sword but by defending truth and uprightness (Metsudath David and Malbim) which he has the duty to defend (cf. Hirsch). The right hand is an emblem of power with him as with God (cf. Ps. 44:4). His arrows penetrate the heart.

45:6-7 Here we note some very important facts about the position that Christ is to occupy as the royal bridegroom. Namely that because he abhors evil and loves righteousness, God the father, His God, elevates him above his peers, these are the elohim or sons of God (Psa. 82). The rabbinical authorities attempt to limit the application to Messiah as elohim. Rashi and Hirsch render elohim here as judge. The literal text thy throne of God is held not to suit the context. Ibn Ezra renders the text as Thy throne is [the throne of] God (cf. 1Chr. 29:23 “and Solomon sat on the throne of the Lord”). Here we see the concept of delegated authority and power as God’s power for ever (cf. 2Sam. 7:16).


v. 7 Oil is the symbol of joy (Isa. 61:3). Kimchi says that the Psalmist intends that God, by anointing the Messiah as His king, will elevate him above others and generate universal joy (cf. n. to v. 8, Soncino).


The text is repeated in Hebrews 1:8-9 which shows absolutely that this text refers to Jesus Christ as Messiah. This text clearly proves that:

a.    The God of Jesus Christ is God the Father; and

b.    That he is one of many beings who are his peers and he has qualified to do a special job, namely to become royal bridegroom to the church as high priest (cf. Ps. 110:1-7) in the defence of truth and righteousness.

v. 8 Spices denote good character traits.

45:8-9 Here the Queen is the church at his right hand as he is at the right hand of the Father. The spices have symbolism referred to in the paper Commentary on Esther (No. 063). The spices refer to the good character traits (Kimchi) obtained through the Spirit. The ivory palaces are rendered palaces inlaid with ivory by Malbim from which he will go forth to meet his “bride” (Soncino, n. 9). Rashi holds that the correct rendering should be more than palaces of ivory, will those who come from Me gladden you. The word minni is a shortened form of mimenni from me, although some hold it is an emphatic form of that, hence verily (Soncino, ibid.).


The term honourable women is perhaps rendered thy precious ones following Ibn Ezra and Kimchi. The Soncino has the main text as thy favourites. Rashi holds the term to mean visit. Hence, the daughters of kings come to visit. The Targum renders the text come to visit and show you honour (n. 10, Soncino).


Section 3. Verses 10-17

Here we have an address (vv. 11-13) to the royal bride which describes the qualities that God has bestowed upon her as a fit and ready bride for Jesus Christ. The daughter is held by the rabbis to refer to the nation of Israel and then they narrow it again to daughter of Judah by comparison with Lamentations 2:6 (Soncino, n. 11).


v. 10 Calls her out of her own people. This is developed in the paper Song of Songs (No. 145). The Soncino says: The bride comes from a foreign nation where idols are worshipped. Ibn Ezra therefore suggests the wife of David. Others even try to include Solomon who married Maacha of Geshur and Pharaoh’s daughter. The meaning is clearly that the Gentiles are included here as being in Israel. The identification with Israel can only refer to Gentile converts, not of Judaism. Metsudath David says:

Read in its Messianic context, it is a call to the nations to identify with the cause of the Messiah and not with the intrigues of his opponents (Soncino, n. 11).


Verse 11[12] refers to the beauty of the church that is greatly desired by the king. God Most High (Elyon) is the Lord of the church and the object of its worship. The daughter of Tyre refers to the religious systems of the world (cf. Ezek. 28). Kimchi holds that not only Tyre but the affluent of the other nations will bring their gifts (Soncino). Here the church becomes the king’s daughter in readiness to be given to the bridegroom Messiah who has been anointed as king. The virgins are those who follow the church as her companions. This division is a representation of the 144,000 and the great multitude referred to in Revelation 7:1-17.


v. 13 The status of the church upon marriage

The clothing being of gold is a reference to the status that is given to the church on marriage; the purity of the church symbolised by the white robes are changed for cloth of gold as refined in the fire and as a symbol of the royal rank of the church. A bizarre by-product of the misinterpretation of this text by some rabbinical authorities was that they then taught that the true glory for a modest woman is within the privacy of her own home (Shavuoth 30a; see also Maimonides Mishneh Torah, Laws Pertaining to Women 13:11; and also cf. Hirsch, Soncino). In a desire to deny Messiah and the church they imprisoned their own women.


v. 14 is also rendered as she shall be brought to the king with robes of many colours. The virgins her companions who follow her shall be brought to you. There is a rendering of the word riqmâh (SHD 7553) meaning variegation thus coloured and connected with a weaver in colours (Ex. 26:36), used specifically of embroidery which Green (The Interlinear Bible) renders as embroidered work. She does not need this finery to satisfy her vanity but to enhance the honour of the king (cf. Hirsch). Her companions are the bridesmaids who follow her in the procession.


v. 16 The reference to the fathers and the sons shows that the Messianic dynasty is not concerned with lineage backwards but with the descendants. Kimchi holds these offspring will assure him of a distinguished future (Soncino). Thus the priesthood of Melchisedek is not concerned with genealogy, as was the Aaronic, but with eternal descent based on righteousness (Ps. 110:1-7; Heb. 5:6). See also the paper Melchisedek (No. 128)).


The Kingdom of God will extend by the subjugation, by conversion, of other peoples over whom his sons, as Messiah’s children, will rule (cf. Soncino). It is God who will make Messiah’s name to be remembered in all generations and therefore the people will praise him for ever and ever.



Here we have a beautiful Psalm which is Messianic. In the address it describes the royal bridegroom in terms of:

·      the beauty of his person

·      the valour of his conquests

·      the stability of his kingdom

·      the gladness of his marriage

·      the relationship of the groom to the Father.

In the address to the royal bride we have an insight to:

·      the complete devotion of the bride to the royal bridegroom

·      the wonderful promise of high honour

·      a eulogy of the bride’s charms or virtues

·      the pledging of increasing Divine favour.


The Psalm ends on verse 17 with I will make your name to be remembered in all generations. Therefore your people will praise you for ever and ever. God has exalted Christ and from this anointing people praise him. The Psalm is a song of the marriage of the bridegroom Messiah to the bride who is the church (inclusive of Gentiles). God is the father of the bride and the power that elevates Messiah. He is king and elohim or God of both Messiah and the bride. God is praised through the beauty of this psalm and this union (see also Pss. 82, 110). This psalm is also tied to the theology in Psalm 8 and the place of Messiah among the elohim translated as angels. However, they are all elohim and stated to be so as sons of God. Psalm 8 also has Messiah as the son of man which is his place as the Monogenes theos (B4) or Only Born God of John 1:18 (F043). This text, (incl. Jn. 3:16, may be one of the most important texts in Scripture. Psalm 45 (No. 177).


Psalm 46

46:1  To the choirmaster. A Psalm of the Sons of Korah. According to Alamoth. A Song. God is our refuge and strength, a very present help in trouble. 2Therefore we will not fear though the earth should change, though the mountains shake in the heart of the sea; 3though its waters roar and foam, though the mountains tremble with its tumult. Selah

4There is a river whose streams make glad the city of God, the holy habitation of the Most High. 5God is in the midst of her, she shall not be moved; God will help her right early. 6The nations rage, the kingdoms totter; he utters his voice, the earth melts. 7The LORD of hosts is with us; the God of Jacob is our refuge. Selah

8Come, behold the works of the LORD, how he has wrought desolations in the earth.  9He makes wars cease to the end of the earth; he breaks the bow, and shatters the spear, he burns the chariots with fire! 10"Be still, and know that I am God. I am exalted among the nations, I am exalted in the earth!"  11The LORD of hosts is with us; the God of Jacob is our refuge. Selah


Intent of Psalm 46

46: 1-3 God will preserve his people, even in the great tumult of the Latter Days (see also Jl. 3:16).  Jerusalem, as God's dwelling place on earth, will stand secure.  The emphasis on the Holy City has lead to its classification as a song of Zion (see 137:3).

46:4-6 God’s peaceful provisions. Elyon refers to the One True God Most High, who created all and reigns over all.

v. 4 A river – comp. Isa 33:21; Ezek. 47:1-12; Zech. 14:8; Rev. 22:1-2.

46:7 A refrain (comp. v. 11), perhaps omitted by accident after v. 3). God is with us and our refuge. He is Yahovah Sabaioth.

46:8-9 see the works of God as the God of Peace and His Kingdom will bring peace to the earth.

46:10-11 Be still and know that I am God. The Lord of Hosts will be with us as we see in Rev. Chs. 21-22 (F066v).


There are numerous scriptures that talk of God being our refuge and strength and He blesses those that obey Him. We see Him being referred to as a refuge ( Psa. 62:7).


We saw in Psalm 44 and now continuing on in Pss. 46,47, and 48  the events of Hezekiah and Sennacherib being referred to in 2Kgs. 18:13, 20:37, as well as in Isa. Chs. 36-37, and 2Chr. Ch. 32, where Sennacherib attacked Judah and devastated it. Then Sennacherib continues on towards Jerusalem yet Hezekiah continues to stand fast in his loyalty to God. It is also thought that Hezekiah prepared for the siege by having a tunnel dug in both directions from the fresh water of the Gihon Spring with Siloam pool, thus giving Jerusalem a source of water during the siege. (See 2Chr. 32:2–4 and 2Kgs. 20:20 for more details on the tunnel.)  The angel of the Lord striking down 185,000 Assyrians is described in 2Kgs. 19:34-35. Sennacherib returns to Assyria and only refers to Hezekiah as a bird in the cage where he describes his other conquests in great detail. See Bullinger’s App. 67.  

Psalm 47

47:1  To the choirmaster. A Psalm of the Sons of Korah. Clap your hands, all peoples! Shout to God with loud songs of joy! 2For the LORD, the Most High, is terrible, a great king over all the earth.3He subdued the peoples under us, and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    nations under our feet.  4He chose our heritage for us, the pride of Jacob whom he loves. Selah

5God has gone up with a shout, the LORD with the sound of a trumpet. 6Sing praises to God, sing praises! Sing praises to our King, sing praises! 7For God is the king of all the earth; sing praises with a psalm!  8God reigns over the nations; God sits on his holy throne. 9The princes of the peoples gather as the people of the God of Abraham. For the shields of the earth belong to God; he is highly exalted!


Intent of Psalm 47

A hymn celebrating God's enthronement as king of all nations

47:1  Command to the world to praise the God of Israel as king.

47:2 who we praise and worship.

47:3-4 God cares for His people, Selah see 3:2 and the n.

47:5-9 It is considered that these words were composed to accompany a religious ceremony, perhaps connected to the ark (see OARSV n.) emphasising the Lord's kingship (comp. 24:7-10; 68:17-18). 

47:5-7 a call to praise God. The word translated psalm is Maskil (see also Introduction and OARSV n.). 

47:8 God is on His throne (cf. Isa. 6:1)

47:9 People gather and God is exalted. Shields – rulers (comp. 89:18 n.). 


As stated earlier this is another psalm reflecting Hezekiah’s and Sennacharib’s interactions.


Clapping hands - draws attention to something usually an outward expression of joy (Pss. 47:1, 98:8; Isa. 55:12). Clapping used in a negative sense (Job 27:23; Lam. 2:15; Nah. 3:19).


O Lord God tr.  Yahovah Elyon means Yahovah Most High. Here we are clearly talking about the One True God, who is creator and sustainer of all things. (See Com. Bible App. 4 Divine Names and Titles and The Names of God (No. 116).)


References to singing and songs are listed below. It is very logical that in times of great success or happiness people sing (Gen. 31:27; Exo. 15:1; 2Chr. 20:19; Psa. 33:3; 1Cor. 14:15; Eph. 5:19).


Rev. 5:6-10 describes God’s thrones with 24 elders with singing. Singing  praises to God is another way we worship God; see Psalms from the Temple Worship (No. 087) and The Song of Moses in Exodus 15 (No. 179).


God’s Throne will ultimately be permanently in Jerusalem (Rev. Ch. 22; F066v).


Psalm 48

8:1  A Song. A Psalm of the Sons of Korah. Great is the LORD and greatly to be praised in the city of our God! His holy mountain, 2beautiful in elevation, is the joy of all the earth, Mount Zion, in the far north, the city of the great King. 3Within her citadels God has shown himself a sure defense. 4For lo, the kings assembled, they came on together.  5As soon as they saw it, they were astounded, they were in panic, they took to flight; 6trembling took hold of them there, anguish as of a woman in travail. 7By the east wind thou didst shatter the ships of Tarshish. 8As we have heard, so have we seen in the city of the LORD of hosts, in the city of our God, which God establishes for ever. Selah

9We have thought on thy steadfast love, O God, in the midst of thy temple.10As thy name, O God, so thy praise reaches to the ends of the earth. Thy right hand is filled with victory; 11let Mount Zion be glad! Let the daughters of Judah rejoice because of thy judgments!  12Walk about Zion, go round about her, number her towers, 13consider well her ramparts, go through her citadels; that you may tell the next generation 14that this is God, our God for ever and ever. He will be our guide for ever.


Intent of Psalm 48

A song celebrating the beauty and security of Zion.

48:1-3 the Great King and His city as God of Jerusalem. The phrase In the far north is thought by some scholars as identifying the Israelite Holy mountain with the Canaanite mountain of the gods named Zephon or North in the Ras Shamra texts (hence Baal Zephon) (OARSV n.).   

48:4-7 When the nations assemble in the Last Days to attack the Holy City they will be routed (comp. Ezek.  Chs. 38-39; Zech. Chs. 12,14; Rev. 20:9-10). Ships of Tarshish – see 1Kgs. 10:22 n.)

48:8 the established city of God.  Selah see 3:2 n.

48:9-11 All of this is considered to have caused anticipatory rejoicing in the Temple ceremonies.

48:12-14 the city represents God’s faithfulness and the people call for a procession around the walls of Zion (Ps. 24:7-10). God is God forever through the Last Days.


This is the 6th psalm in the set of 11 songs by the sons of Korah that were free from the rebellion and used for music in the Temple. Psalm 48 is the psalm used in temple worship on the second day of the week. For more information see Psalms from the Temple Worship (No. 087).

Psa. 48 is the last psalm attributed by some as concerning the victory of Hezekiah over Sennacharib. It is more correctly regarded as prophecy to the Last Days as in the OARSV notes. The psalm reflects the Greatness of God and how He protects and delivers His people (see Job 33:12; Pss. 95:3, 145:3).


Psalm 49

49:1  To the choirmaster. A Psalm of the Sons of Korah. Hear this, all peoples! Give ear, all inhabitants of the world, 2both low and high, rich and poor together! 3My mouth shall speak wisdom; the meditation of my heart shall be understanding. 4I will incline my ear to a proverb; I will solve my riddle to the music of the lyre.  5Why should I fear in times of trouble, when the iniquity of my persecutors surrounds me, 6men who trust in their wealth and boast of the abundance of their riches? 7Truly no man can ransom himself, or give to God the price of his life, 8for the ransom of his life is costly, and can never suffice, 9that he should continue to live on for ever, and never see the Pit. 10Yea, he shall see that even the wise die, the fool and the stupid alike must perish and leave their wealth to others.  11Their graves are their homes for ever, their dwelling places to all generations, though they named lands their own. 12Man cannot abide in his pomp, he is like the beasts that perish. 13This is the fate of those who have foolish confidence, the end of those who are pleased with their portion. Selah

14Like sheep they are appointed for Sheol; Death shall be their shepherd; straight to the grave they descend, and their form shall waste away; Sheol shall be their home. 15But God will ransom my soul from the power of Sheol, for he will receive me. Selah

16Be not afraid when one becomes rich, when the glory of his house increases. 17For when he dies he will carry nothing away; his glory will not go down after him.18Though, while he lives, he counts himself happy, and though a man gets praise when he does well for himself, 19he will go to the generation of his fathers, who will never more see the light. 20Man cannot abide in his pomp, he is like the beasts that perish.


Intent of Psalm 49

49:1-4 introduction

49:5-9  redemption

49:10-12 unreliable wealth and limited honor

49:13  the way of the foolish

49:14-15 the way of the upright

49:16-20 practical application of this wisdom


The Psalm is similar to the rich person in Luke 12:15-21. So is he who lays up treasure for himself and is not rich toward God. Psalm 49 has in mind just that kind of foolish man. See Commentary on Luke Part 3 (No. F042iii).


Psalm 50

Psa. 50:1  A Psalm of Asaph. The Mighty One, God the LORD, speaks and summons the earth from the rising of the sun to its setting. 2Out of Zion, the perfection of beauty, God shines forth. 3Our God comes, he does not keep silence, before him is a devouring fire, round about him a mighty tempest. 4He calls to the heavens above and to the earth, that he may judge his people: 5"Gather to me my faithful ones, who made a covenant with me by sacrifice!" 6The heavens declare his righteousness, for God himself is judge! Selah

7"Hear, O my people, and I will speak, O Israel, I will testify against you. I am God, your God. 8I do not reprove you for your sacrifices; your burnt offerings are continually before me. 9I will accept no bull from your house, nor he-goat from your folds. 10For every beast of the forest is mine, the cattle on a thousand hills. 11I know all the birds of the air, and all that moves in the field is mine. 12"If I were hungry, I would not tell you; for the world and all that is in it is mine. 13Do I eat the flesh of bulls, or drink the blood of goats?  14Offer to God a sacrifice of thanksgiving, and pay your vows to the Most High; 15and call upon me in the day of trouble; I will deliver you, and you shall glorify me." 16But to the wicked God says: "What right have you to recite my statutes, or take my covenant on your lips? 17For you hate discipline, and you cast my words behind you. 18If you see a thief, you are a friend of his; and you keep company with adulterers. 19"You give your mouth free rein for evil, and your tongue frames deceit. 20You sit and speak against your brother; you slander your own mother's son. 21These things you have done and I have been silent; you thought that I was one like yourself. But now I rebuke you, and lay the charge before you. 22"Mark this, then, you who forget God, lest I rend, and there be none to deliver! 23He who brings thanksgiving as his sacrifice honors me; to him who orders his way aright I will show the salvation of God!"


Intent of Psalm 50

A Liturgy of Divine Judgment

50:1-3 God comes to judge His people.

v. 3 Compare 18:8; Hab. 3:4.

50:4-6 Focus on God’s people

v. 6 Selah 3:2 n

50:7:23 The Lord's Arrangement of the Nation

50:7-13 Rebuking false religious practices

They brought sacrifices in abundance but that was not what God desired (see 40:6 n.).

50:14-15 God's desire was for thanksgiving and prayer.

50:16-21 The people violated God's Law by tolerating evil (v. 18) and indulging in slander (vv. 19-20). This is the modern church and social system exactly.

v. 16 is thought to be an editorial addition modifying the sweeping condemnation of the nation as a whole (OARSV n.).

50:22-23 The concluding warning stressing the urgency to be at one with God and to bring thanksgiving in order to receive the salvation of God as the final and ultimate reward.


The Mighty God is El Elohim, Yahovah (of Hosts) = the God of Gods; occurs only here and twice in Joshua 22:22.


The title of this psalm (A Psalm of Asaph) tells us that it is the first of Asaph’s psalms in the order of the psalter. Asaph was the great singer and musician of David and Solomon’s era (1Chr. 15:17-19, 16:5-7, 16:7, 25:1, 6, 25:1 and 2Chr. 29:30 add that Asaph was a prophet in his musical compositions). Asaph begins the psalm using the names to explain God above all gods and is only used here and Joshua 22:22.


When the Bible refers to saints it is those who believe and keep the commandments of the One True God and hold to the testimony and faith of Jesus (Rev. 12:17, 14:12, 22:14). Clearly, we are not talking about deceased people of a church using false doctrine.


Psalm 51

51:1 To the choirmaster. A Psalm of David, when Nathan the prophet came to him, after he had gone in to Bathsheba. Have mercy on me, O God, according to thy steadfast love; according to thy abundant mercy blot out my transgressions. 2Wash me thoroughly from my iniquity, and cleanse me from my sin! 3For I know my transgressions, and my sin is ever before me. 4Against thee, thee only, have I sinned, and done that which is evil in thy sight, so that thou art justified in thy sentence and blameless in thy judgment. 5Behold, I was brought forth in iniquity, and in sin did my mother conceive me. 6Behold, thou desirest truth in the inward being; therefore teach me wisdom in my secret heart. 7Purge me with hyssop, and I shall be clean; wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow. 8Fill me with joy and gladness; let the bones which thou hast broken rejoice. 9Hide thy face from my sins, and blot out all my iniquities. 10Create in me a clean heart, O God, and put a new and right spirit within me. 11Cast me not away from thy presence, and take not thy holy Spirit from me.12Restore to me the joy of thy salvation, and uphold me with a willing spirit. 13Then I will teach transgressors thy ways, and sinners will return to thee. 14Deliver me from bloodguiltiness, O God, thou God of my salvation, and my tongue will sing aloud of thy deliverance. 15O Lord, open thou my lips, and my mouth shall show forth thy praise. 16For thou hast no delight in sacrifice; were I to give a burnt offering, thou wouldst not be pleased. 17The sacrifice acceptable to God is a broken spirit; a broken and contrite heart, O God, thou wilt not despise. 18Do good to Zion in thy good pleasure; rebuild the walls of Jerusalem, 19then wilt thou delight in right sacrifices, in burnt offerings and whole burnt offerings; then bulls will be offered on thy altar.


Intent of Psalm 51

A plea for healing and moral renewal.

(A Lament)

51:1-2 David confesses his sin and pleads for mercy and deliverance.

51:3-4 Open confession of his sins down to the moment of his conception.

51:5-6 David’s needs arising from sin even at his birth.

51:6-12 Renewed prayer for deliverance.

51:7-9 God’s action through His Plan of Salvation (No. 001A). God may have broken his bones to emphasise his unrighteousness in sin (v. 8). Hyssop was a powerful purgative (see also Exo. 12:22; Lev. 14:51) and may have been used ceremonially.

51:10-11 Restoration of the heart and closeness to God and a renewal of His Holy Spirit (No. 117).

51:12-13 Restoration to salvation - David's vow to instruct others rather than to offer sacrifice (40:6 n.).

51:14-17 Sacrifice of broken spirit and contrite heart (see 7:17 n.). Bloodguitiness = Death for sin which is transgression of the Law of God (L1) (1Jn. 3:4)

51:18-19 Re: Restoration.  This text is considered by some a later addition to the anti-sacrificial note of the psalm and to adapt it to liturgical use (see OARSV n.).  


This psalm is titled To the Chief Musician. A Psalm of David when Nathan the Prophet went to him, after he had gone in to Bathsheba. The events are plainly and painfully described in 2Sam. Chs.11-12. David was a man after God's own heart (Acts 13:22). David has truly done amazing and wonderful things in his life some of which he described in all the psalms he had written. Through the psalms we see the true love David had for God’s law (Psa. 119:47-48). In the case of Bathsheba there was adultery, lying and murder and ultimately repentance. One of David’s qualities is that whatever he did from protecting the sheep as a young lad, to fighting Goliath to serving Saul as king he did it wholeheartedly. Psa. 51 is focused on him confessing his sin and asking for forgiveness. It was actually by Nathan posing a question to David for David to see his sin. When David asked for his sin to be blotted out it is similar to Psa. 103:12 which states: as far as east from west, so far hath He removed our transgressions from us.


David had personal experience with Saul when the Spirit of the Lord had departed from Saul (1Sam. 16:14).


For more information see Law and the Seventh Commandment (No. 260); Forgiveness (No. 112); and Reconciliation through Forgiveness in the Temple of God (No. 112B).

For more information on repentance see Repentance and Baptism (No. 052).


Psalm 52

52:1  To the choirmaster. A Maskil of David, when Doeg, the Edomite, came and told Saul, "David has come to the house of Ahimelech." Why do you boast, O mighty man, of mischief done against the godly? All the day 2you are plotting destruction. Your tongue is like a sharp razor, you worker of treachery. 3You love evil more than good, and lying more than speaking the truth. Selah

4You love all words that devour, O deceitful tongue.  5But God will break you down for ever; he will snatch and tear you from your tent; he will uproot you from the land of the living. Selah

6The righteous shall see, and fear, and shall laugh at him, saying, 7"See the man who would not make God his refuge, but trusted in the abundance of his riches, and sought refuge in his wealth!" 8But I am like a green olive tree in the house of God. I trust in the steadfast love of God for ever and ever. 9I will thank thee for ever, because thou hast done it. I will proclaim thy name, for it is good, in the presence of the godly.


Intent of Psalm 52

God's judgment against a tyrant

This psalm (a lament) is titled To the Chief Musician. A Contemplation of David when Doeg the Edomite went and told Saul, and said to him, “David has gone to the house of Ahimelech.” The terrible events that prompted this chapter are recorded in 1Sam. 21-22. Doeg informed Saul regarding David’s presence at the tabernacle of God and regarding the help he received from the priest there. In an evil and paranoid response, Saul had Doeg kill the priests and others at the tabernacle (1Sam. 22:18-19). This is a prayer for denunciation of David's enemy.

52:1-4 Character of David's enemy.

v. 3 Selah see 3:2 n.

52:5 God’s anticipated response. (Selah ibid).

52:6-7 The righteous versus the wicked response in retribution against the wicked.

52:8-9 David’s response in confidence of deliverance (comp. 1:3).

v. 9 The vow (see 7:17 n.; Godly see 16:10 n.) See also Psa. 92 re the prosperity of the righteous.

Psalm 53

53:1 To the choirmaster: according to Mahalath. A Maskil of David. The fool says in his heart, "There is no God." They are corrupt, doing abominable iniquity; there is none that does good. 2God looks down from heaven upon the sons of men to see if there are any that are wise, that seek after God. 3They have all fallen away; they are all alike depraved; there is none that does good, no, not one. 4Have those who work evil no understanding, who eat up my people as they eat bread, and do not call upon God? 5There they are, in great terror, in terror such as has not been! For God will scatter the bones of the ungodly; they will be put to shame, for God has rejected them. 6O that deliverance for Israel would come from Zion! When God restores the fortunes of his people, Jacob will rejoice and Israel be glad.


Intent of Psalm 53

Condemnation of a cynical and unrighteous age.

53:1 Corruption of a man that rejects God

53:2-3 Assessment of mankind by God

53:4-5 God defends people that obey Him

53:6 Longing for God’s salvation. 


Psalm 53 is essentially a repetition of Psalm 14, with a few small modifications. The divine name was changed from Yahovah (the lord) to Elohim (God). God the Father (as Ha Elohim) is Creator, and all human life depends on God (Acts 17:28; Mat. 5:45). We see the foolishness and rebellion of man in many places, such as in the tower of Babel (Gen. 11:5).


At v. 6 we see deliverance comes from Zion for Israel, and Jacob and Israel rejoice. The text is prophecy of a time in the future after the Witnesses when Messiah returns to the earth and Satan is bound for the Millennium.


Psalm 54

54:1 To the choirmaster: with stringed instruments. A Maskil of David, when the Ziphites went and told Saul, "David is in hiding among us." Save me, O God, by thy name, and vindicate me by thy might. 2Hear my prayer, O God; give ear to the words of my mouth. 3For insolent men have risen against me, ruthless men seek my life; they do not set God before them. Selah

4Behold, God is my helper; the Lord is the upholder of my life. 5He will requite my enemies with evil; in thy faithfulness put an end to them. 6With a freewill offering I will sacrifice to thee; I will give thanks to thy name, O LORD, for it is good. 7For thou hast delivered me from every trouble, and my eye has looked in triumph on my enemies.


Intent of Psalm 54

54:1-2 David looking to the name and strength of God

54:3 David’s great need (Selah 3:2 n.)

54:4-6 David declares God is his Helper and will take care of his enemies in prayer. Freewill Offering see Num. 15:3.

54:7 Faith made manifest; The Vow 7:17 n.


There were actually two occasions when the Ziphites betrayed David unto King Saul: first in 1Samuel 23 and the second in 1Samuel 26. David escaped both times, but the circumstances of this psalm seem to best fit the circumstances of 1Samuel 23, when David learned of the Ziphite betrayal but before the deliverance of God was displayed (1Samuel 23:26-29).


Psalm 55

55:1 To the choirmaster: with stringed instruments. A Maskil of David. Give ear to my prayer, O God; and hide not thyself from my supplication!  2Attend to me, and answer me; I am overcome by my trouble. I am distraught  3by the noise of the enemy, because of the oppression of the wicked. For they bring trouble upon me, and in anger they cherish enmity against me. 4My heart is in anguish within me, the terrors of death have fallen upon me. 5Fear and trembling come upon me, and horror overwhelms me. 6And I say, "O that I had wings like a dove! I would fly away and be at rest; 7yea, I would wander afar, I would lodge in the wilderness, Selah

8I would haste to find me a shelter from the raging wind and tempest." 9Destroy their plans, O Lord, confuse their tongues; for I see violence and strife in the city. 10Day and night they go around it on its walls; and mischief and trouble are within it, 11ruin is in its midst; oppression and fraud do not depart from its market place. 12It is not an enemy who taunts me--then I could bear it; it is not an adversary who deals insolently with me--then I could hide from him. 13But it is you, my equal, my companion, my familiar friend. 14We used to hold sweet converse together; within God's house we walked in fellowship. 15Let death come upon them; let them go down to Sheol alive; let them go away in terror into their graves. 16But I call upon God; and the LORD will save me. 17Evening and morning and at noon I utter my complaint and moan, and he will hear my voice. 18He will deliver my soul in safety from the battle that I wage, for many are arrayed against me. 19God will give ear, and humble them, he who is enthroned from of old; because they keep no law, and do not fear God. Selah

20My companion stretched out his hand against his friends, he violated his covenant. 21His speech was smoother than butter, yet war was in his heart; his words were softer than oil, yet they were drawn swords. 22Cast your burden on the LORD, and he will sustain you; he will never permit the righteous to be moved.  23But thou, O God, wilt cast them down into the lowest pit; men of blood and treachery shall not live out half their days. But I will trust in thee.


Intent of Psalm 55

Prayer for Deliverance (A Lament)

55:1-3 David cries out due to his oppression. His enemy is a former friend (vv. 12-14, 20-21).

55:4-8 fighting fear; v. 7 Selah (3:2 n.).

55:9-11 David asks God to intervene with his enemies

55:12-14 reflection of betrayal,

55:15 asking for God’s vengeance, he curses his enemies. Perhaps to counter the curse put upon him (see Psa. 58).

55:16-19 Confidence in God despite the attacks of the enemy.

55:20-21 treachery of David’s enemy,

55:22-23 Faith and Trust in God.


Psalms 7, 35, 55, 58, 59, 69 79, 83, 109 and 137 are generally considered to be imprecatory psalms in the sense that a major part of each psalm contains imprecations, which is a curse that invokes misfortune upon someone, by prayer.  It really communicates a deep desire for justice for those that have been greatly oppressed. God’s people have the promise of divine vengeance.


Some versions based on the Receptus and others (e.g. KJV) use hell in verse 15 in translation of Sheol, (or the grave) in the Hebrew. The RSV leaves it untranslated, which is what we are using here. It means and always has meant the grave or pit of the dead. For more information see The Plan of Salvation (No. 001A); The Soul (No. 092) and The Resurrection of the Dead (No. 143).


Psalm 56

56:1  To the choirmaster: according to The Dove on Far-off Terebinths. A Miktam of David, when the Philistines seized him in Gath. Be gracious to me, O God, for men trample upon me; all day long foemen oppress me; 2my enemies trample upon me all day long, for many fight against me proudly. 3When I am afraid, I put my trust in thee. 4In God, whose word I praise, in God I trust without a fear. What can flesh do to me?  5All day long they seek to injure my cause; all their thoughts are against me for evil. 6They band themselves together, they lurk, they watch my steps. As they have waited for my life, 7so recompense them for their crime; in wrath cast down the peoples, O God!  8Thou hast kept count of my tossings; put thou my tears in thy bottle! Are they not in thy book?  9Then my enemies will be turned back in the day when I call. This I know, that God is for me. 10In God, whose word I praise, in the LORD, whose word I praise, 11in God I trust without a fear. What can man do to me?  12My vows to thee I must perform, O God; I will render thank offerings to thee. 13For thou hast delivered my soul from death, yea, my feet from falling, that I may walk before God in the light of life.


Intent of Psalm 56

Psalms 56,57,58,59 and 60 are referred to as the cluster of Messianic psalms referred to as the Golden psalms. Some also refer to psalm 55 as a

Golden psalm. They refer to the Messiah as redeemer and his work. It talks of his death, burial and resurrection. Ps. 53 is also essentially Messianic at v. 6 (above).


Psalms 56 and 57 are sometimes referred to as the twin psalms since they both start with complaint and end with deep prayer for deliverance.

The text follows the theme of: if God is for us who can be against (Rom. 8:31).

The fact that Jesus seems to have used the last words of Psalm 56:13 in John 8:12 (in anticipation of delivering him from death (13a)) refers to his gift of salvation with the Holy Spirit.

56:1-4 David’s fear and faith while looking to God for mercy and deliverance.

56:5-7 The continuing challenges and trials.

v. 7 The peoples the nations that would destroy David (and the Messiah) as king and anointed ruler of Israel.

56:8-11 Faith and trust in God.

56:12-13 Fulfilling the vow.


This psalm reflects the time when the Philistines captured David in Gath and is recorded in 1Samuel 21:10-15. It deals with the period between the visit to the tabernacle at Nob and David’s arrival at Adullam. David was alone, desperate, afraid – and not thinking too clearly.


Psalm 57

57:1 To the choirmaster: according to Do Not Destroy. A Miktam of David, when he fled from Saul, in the cave. Be merciful to me, O God, be merciful to me, for in thee my soul takes refuge; in the shadow of thy wings I will take refuge, till the storms of destruction pass by. 2I cry to God Most High, to God who fulfils his purpose for me. 3He will send from heaven and save me, he will put to shame those who trample upon me. Selah God will send forth his steadfast love and his faithfulness!  4I lie in the midst of lions that greedily devour the sons of men; their teeth are spears and arrows, their tongues sharp swords. 5Be exalted, O God, above the heavens! Let thy glory be over all the earth!  6They set a net for my steps; my soul was bowed down. They dug a pit in my way, but they have fallen into it themselves. Selah

7My heart is steadfast, O God, my heart is steadfast! I will sing and make melody!  8Awake, my soul! Awake, O harp and lyre! I will awake the dawn!  9I will give thanks to thee, O Lord, among the peoples; I will sing praises to thee among the nations. 10For thy steadfast love is great to the heavens, thy faithfulness to the clouds. 11Be exalted, O God, above the heavens! Let thy glory be over all the earth!


Intent of Psalm 57

57:1-3 Trust in God for help

57:4 Surrounded by dangerous enemies.

57:5 God is above all.

57:6 Enemies set traps/pit and fall into it themselves (see Pss. 7:15, 9:15, 57:6; Prov. 22:14, 26:27, 28:10; Eccl. 10:8). 

57:7-10 Steadfast heart of David. The vow (see 7:17 n.) as thanksgiving sung in anticipation of deliverance (comp. 22:22-31) (almost identical with 108:1-5). 

57:11 God is above all and repeated again (from v. 5).


Psalm 57 is another Miktam. The cave was probably at Adullam, mentioned in 1Samuel 22:1, though the caves of En Gedi (1Samuel 24:1) are also a possibility. Adullam seems to be more probable, therefore we can say that Psalm 34 is also associated with this period of David’s life.


Lion is also used to describe Satan as a roaring lion seeking who he can.


Psalm 58

58:1 To the choirmaster: according to Do Not Destroy. A Miktam of David. Do you indeed decree what is right, you gods? Do you judge the sons of men uprightly? 2Nay, in your hearts you devise wrongs; your hands deal out violence on earth. 3The wicked go astray from the womb, they err from their birth, speaking lies. 4They have venom like the venom of a serpent, like the deaf adder that stops its ear, 5so that it does not hear the voice of charmers or of the cunning enchanter. 6O God, break the teeth in their mouths; tear out the fangs of the young lions, O LORD! 7Let them vanish like water that runs away; like grass let them be trodden down and wither. 8Let them be like the snail which dissolves into slime, like the untimely birth that never sees the sun. 9Sooner than your pots can feel the heat of thorns, whether green or ablaze, may he sweep them away! 10The righteous will rejoice when he sees the vengeance; he will bathe his feet in the blood of the wicked. 11Men will say, "Surely there is a reward for the righteous; surely there is a God who judges on earth."


Intent of Psalm 58

Psalm 58 is a challenge to the council of the elohim (see also Psalm 82) the sons of God given control over the nations by Eloah in Deut. 32:8. Devotees of the triune God render the text as judges rather than gods to avoid the concept of multiple elohim over the nations (see also the forgery in the MT of Deut. 32:8).

58:1-2 challenge to the elohim,

58:3-5 description of the wicked rulers,

58:6-8 David petitions God to ruin the evil and wicked,

58:9-10 David’s confidence in God’s judgment.


The meaning of Miktam is explained in 16:1 (in Bk 1).


The Plan of God is to take on the image of God in the Holy Spirit, and become holy, righteous, good, perfect and true, as He and His law are. The law of God will be engraved on our hearts (see No. 001A and 117).


  Psalm 59

59:1 To the choirmaster: according to Do Not Destroy. A Miktam of David, when Saul sent men to watch his house in order to kill him. Deliver me from my enemies, O my God, protect me from those who rise up against me, 2deliver me from those who work evil, and save me from bloodthirsty men.  3For lo, they lie in wait for my life; fierce men band themselves against me. For no transgression or sin of mine, O LORD, 4for no fault of mine, they run and make ready. Rouse thyself, come to my help, and see! 5Thou, LORD God of hosts, art God of Israel. Awake to punish all the nations; spare none of those who treacherously plot evil. Selah

6Each evening they come back, howling like dogs and prowling about the city. 7There they are, bellowing with their mouths, and snarling with their lips--for "Who," they think, "will hear us?" 8But thou, O LORD, dost laugh at them; thou dost hold all the nations in derision. 9O my Strength, I will sing praises to thee; for thou, O God, art my fortress. 10My God in his steadfast love will meet me; my God will let me look in triumph on my enemies. 11Slay them not, lest my people forget; make them totter by thy power, and bring them down, O Lord, our shield! 12For the sin of their mouths, the words of their lips, let them be trapped in their pride. For the cursing and lies which they utter, 13consume them in wrath, consume them till they are no more, that men may know that God rules over Jacob to the ends of the earth. Selah

14Each evening they come back, howling like dogs and prowling about the city. 15They roam about for food, and growl if they do not get their fill. 16But I will sing of thy might; I will sing aloud of thy steadfast love in the morning. For thou hast been to me a fortress and a refuge in the day of my distress.  17O my Strength, I will sing praises to thee, for thou, O God, art my fortress, the God who shows me steadfast love.


Intent of Psalm 59

59:1-2 David’s prayer for deliverance and protection.

59:3-5 description of the problem. Here David uses the phrase ‘LORD God of hosts, art God of Israel.’ The Lord God of hosts is the Hebrew phrase Yahovah Elohim Sabaoth which is one of the 10 Yahovah titles and shows the Lord of all the hosts of heaven and earth (see Bullinger’s App. 4. II). The psalm goes on further to state ‘the God of Israel’, which in Hebrew is Elohim of Israel. We are aware Israel is selected for specific purpose in the Plan of Salvation (see ## 001A, 001B and 001C). The distinction is in the Most High as the Supreme God of Israel and the Messiah as the subordinate God of Israel as Messiah (Jesus Christ) is seen at Psalm 45 above and at Hebrew 1:8-9 from John 1:1-18 (F043). 

For more information see:

The Names of God (No. 116)

Dialogue on the Name and Nature of God (No. 116A)

v. 5 Nations see 56:7 n. Selah 3:2 n.

59:6-7 The arrogance and defiance of God by the enemies of David.

59:8-10 David’s faith and trust in God and on God’s mercy, defence and strength.

59:11-13 David asks that his enemies see the power and glory of God.

v. 12 Cursing - see Psa. 58 n.

59:14-17 The Vow (see 7:17 n.)  Here singing praise even when in danger. Here there are two different Hebrew words for sing, the first time sing is used it means to sing, the second occurrence means to shout for joy, to overcome. David could cry out and sing in times of distress or great joy. David clearly demonstrated throughout his life his trust, faith and confidence in his God the God of the universe.


This psalm refers to 1Samuel 19:11-12, which was when King Saul’s intent to murder David was revealed, and David began living as a fugitive. David was not saying he was sinless in this psalm yet explaining he saw no reason that Saul should be trying to kill him.


David cried to God in many ways: David understood the One True God aims to ultimately be in all humans as power and love. He cries to Him as:

· My God (Psalm 59:1).

· My Defence (Psalm 59:9, 17)

· My God of Mercy (Psalm 59:10, 17).

  and My Strength (Psalm 59:9,17)


Psalm 60

60:1  To the choirmaster: according to Shushan Eduth. A Miktam of David; for instruction; when he strove with Aram-naharaim and with Aram-zobah, and when Joab on his return killed twelve thousand of Edom in the Valley of Salt. O God, thou hast rejected us, broken our defenses; thou hast been angry; oh, restore us. 2Thou hast made the land to quake, thou hast rent it open; repair its breaches, for it totters. 3Thou hast made thy people suffer hard things; thou hast given us wine to drink that made us reel. 4Thou hast set up a banner for those who fear thee, to rally to it from the bow. Selah

5That thy beloved may be delivered, give victory by thy right hand and answer us!  6God has spoken in his sanctuary: "With exultation I will divide up Shechem and portion out the Vale of Succoth. 7Gilead is mine; Manasseh is mine; Ephraim is my helmet; Judah is my scepter. 8Moab is my washbasin; upon Edom I cast my shoe; over Philistia I shout in triumph." 9Who will bring me to the fortified city? Who will lead me to Edom?  10Hast thou not rejected us, O God? Thou dost not go forth, O God, with our armies. 11O grant us help against the foe, for vain is the help of man! 12With God we shall do valiantly; it is he who will tread down our foes.


Intent of Psalm 60

Prayer for deliverance from national enemies (a group lament).

Bullinger's notes to Psalm 60 below are important to understanding the text.

The victories described in 2Samuel and 1Chronicles do not mention the kind of setbacks lamented in this psalm. It reminds us that the historical record often condenses events, and that the successes were real, yet not always immediate.

60:1-3 The people’s situation. They have suffered a humiliating defeat, probably by the Edomites (see v. 9). Awareness of God’s displeasure.

60:4-5 Prayer for deliverance. Hope of deliverance; the concept of the banner was first seen after the battle of Amalek where Hur and Aaron held up Moses’ arms. After the victory Moses built an altar and called it ‘Jehovah Nissi,’ that is, Jehovah our Banner.” See Bullinger’s App. 4.

60:6-8 God’s victory over nations 

v. 4 Selah, see 3:2 n.

v. 5 Thy beloved, either the nation or its king or both.

60:6-8 God’s victory over nations The answer prayed for in v. 5 - a divine oracle, probably delivered by a priest or temple prophet. The places referred to are either Hebrew territories or parts of the one-time Hebrew empire under the United Monarchy. The God of Israel lays claim to them all.

60:9-12 Prayer for victory; with God all things are possible; trust in God.

v. 9 Me, probably the king. The fortified city, perhaps Sela (Petra) (or heavily fortified Bosrah).

Both Moab and Edom were noted for their pride (Isaiah 16:6, Obadiah 1:3). Here God gives them places of humble service.


For additional biblical insight refer to CCG Papers:

The Blessings and the Curses (No. 075)

The Covenant of God (No. 152)

Descendants of Abraham Part II: Lot, Moab, Ammon and Esau (No. 212B)


Psalm 61

61:1 To the choirmaster: with stringed instruments. A Psalm of David. Hear my cry, O God, listen to my prayer;  2from the end of the earth I call to thee, when my heart is faint. Lead thou me to the rock that is higher than I; 3for thou art my refuge, a strong tower against the enemy.  4Let me dwell in thy tent for ever! Oh to be safe under the shelter of thy wings! Selah

5For thou, O God, hast heard my vows, thou hast given me the heritage of those who fear thy name.  6Prolong the life of the king; may his years endure to all generations! 7May he be enthroned for ever before God; bid steadfast love and faithfulness watch over him! 8So will I ever sing praises to thy name, as I pay my vows day after day.


Intent of Psalm 61

Prayer for Protection (a lament).


61:1-2 Cry for help.

v. 2 From the end of the earth is argued to show that the psalmist may not have been living in Palestine. David most probably was on operations in the north. This text is used by textual critics to negate the fact that David wrote it.

61:3-5 Expression of trust.

v. 4 Thy tent, see 27:6 n. David is perhaps preparing to make a pilgrimage to the Temple for one of the feasts. Selah, see 3:2 n.

61:6-7 Prayer for the king, the guarantor of safety for pilgrims and others.

v. 8 The vow (see 7:17 n.).


For additional biblical insight refer to CCG Papers:

The Wave Sheaf Offering (No. 106B)

Teach Us to Pray (No.111)

Offering (No. 275)


Psalm 62

62:1  To the choirmaster: according to Jeduthun. A Psalm of David. For God alone my soul waits in silence; from him comes my salvation. 2He only is my rock and my salvation, my fortress; I shall not be greatly moved.  3How long will you set upon a man to shatter him, all of you, like a leaning wall, a tottering fence?  4They only plan to thrust him down from his eminence. They take pleasure in falsehood. They bless with their mouths, but inwardly they curse. Selah

5For God alone my soul waits in silence, for my hope is from him. 6He only is my rock and my salvation, my fortress; I shall not be shaken. 7On God rests my deliverance and my honor; my mighty rock, my refuge is God. 8Trust in him at all times, O people; pour out your heart before him; God is a refuge for us. Selah

9Men of low estate are but a breath, men of high estate are a delusion; in the balances they go up; they are together lighter than a breath. 10Put no confidence in extortion, set no vain hopes on robbery; if riches increase, set not your heart on them. 11Once God has spoken; twice have I heard this: that power belongs to God; 12and that to thee, O Lord, belongs steadfast love. For thou dost requite a man according to his work.


Intent of Psalm 62

Confidence in God’s protection (a song of trust: see Psa. 11 n.)

62:1-2, 5-7 God is the psalmist’s only help.

3-4 The psalmist’s situation: he is cursed by enemies.

8-12 He instructs his compatriots to trust in God also.


For additional biblical insight refer to CCG Papers:

God Our Saviour (No. 198)

Place of Safety (No. 194)


Psalm 63

63:1 A Psalm of David, when he was in the Wilderness of Judah. O God, thou art my God, I seek thee, my soul thirsts for thee; my flesh faints for thee, as in a dry and weary land where no water is. 2So I have looked upon thee in the sanctuary, beholding thy power and glory. 3Because thy steadfast love is better than life, my lips will praise thee. 4So I will bless thee as long as I live; I will lift up my hands and call on thy name.  5My soul is feasted as with marrow and fat, and my mouth praises thee with joyful lips, 6when I think of thee upon my bed, and meditate on thee in the watches of the night; 7for thou hast been my help, and in the shadow of thy wings I sing for joy.  8My soul clings to thee; thy right hand upholds me. 9But those who seek to destroy my life shall go down into the depths of the earth;  10they shall be given over to the power of the sword, they shall be prey for jackals.  11But the king shall rejoice in God; all who swear by him shall glory; for the mouths of liars will be stopped.


Intent of Psalm 63

Prayer for deliverance from personal enemies (a lament; though this psalm may also be classified as a song of trust, see vv. 9-10). David's almost mystical delight in God’s presence almost overrides his sense of need of personal security (compare 73:23-28).

v. 1 Compare 42:1-2.

v. 6 See 4-6 n. The night was divided into three watches.

v. 11 The king, see 61:6-7 n.


For additional biblical insight refer to CCG Papers:

I Thirst (No.102)

Bible Study Program (B1)


Psalm 64

64:1  To the choirmaster. A Psalm of David. Hear my voice, O God, in my complaint; preserve my life from dread of the enemy, 2hide me from the secret plots of the wicked, from the scheming of evildoers,  3who whet their tongues like swords, who aim bitter words like arrows, 4shooting from ambush at the blameless, shooting at him suddenly and without fear. 5They hold fast to their evil purpose; they talk of laying snares secretly, thinking, "Who can see us?  6Who can search out our crimes? We have thought out a cunningly conceived plot." For the inward mind and heart of a man are deep! 7But God will shoot his arrow at them; they will be wounded suddenly. 8Because of their tongue he will bring them to ruin; all who see them will wag their heads. 9Then all men will fear; they will tell what God has wrought, and ponder what he has done. 10Let the righteous rejoice in the LORD, and take refuge in him! Let all the upright in heart glory!


Intent of Psalm: 64

Prayer for deliverance from personal enemies (a lament).

64:1-2 Cry for help.

64:3-6 The psalmist’s situation.

v. 3 Bitter words, perhaps magical curses (compare Psa. 58 n.).

64:7-9 Expression of confidence.

v. 10 Concluding prayer.


For additional biblical insight refer to CCG Papers:

Teach us to Pray (No. 111)

The Power of Prayer (No. 111C)

The First Commandment: The Sin of Satan (No.153)

The First Great Commandment (No. 252)

Law and The First Commandment (No. 253)

The Place of Safety (No. 194)

God Our Saviour (No. 198)


Psalm 65

65:1 To the choirmaster. A Psalm of David. A Song. Praise is due to thee, O God, in Zion; and to thee shall vows be performed, 2O thou who hearest prayer! To thee shall all flesh come 3on account of sins. When our transgressions prevail over us, thou dost forgive them. 4Blessed is he whom thou dost choose and bring near, to dwell in thy courts! We shall be satisfied with the goodness of thy house, thy holy temple! 5By dread deeds thou dost answer us with deliverance, O God of our salvation, who art the hope of all the ends of the earth, and of the farthest seas;  6who by thy strength hast established the mountains, being girded with might; 7who dost still the roaring of the seas, the roaring of their waves, the tumult of the peoples;  8so that those who dwell at earth's farthest bounds are afraid at thy signs; thou makest the outgoings of the morning and the evening to shout for joy. 9Thou visitest the earth and waterest it, thou greatly enrichest it; the river of God is full of water; thou providest their grain, for so thou hast prepared it. 10Thou waterest its furrows abundantly, settling its ridges, softening it with showers, and blessing its growth. 11Thou crownest the year with thy bounty; the tracks of thy chariot drip with fatness. 12The pastures of the wilderness drip, the hills gird themselves with joy, 13the meadows clothe themselves with flocks, the valleys deck themselves with grain, they shout and sing together for joy.


Intent of Psalm 65

Thanksgiving for forgiveness and a good harvest.

65:1-5 It is good to gather at the temple to sing God’s praises.

65:6-8 It was He who created the world.

65:9-13 It is He who makes the earth fertile.

v. 9 see 104:13 

River of God, see Psa.46.4 n.


For additional biblical insight refer to CCG Papers:

Seven Days of the Feast (No. 049)

The Blessings and the Curses (No. 075)

Encouragement and Discouragement (No. 130)


Psalm 66

66:1  To the choirmaster. A Song. A Psalm. Make a joyful noise to God, all the earth; 2sing the glory of his name; give to him glorious praise! 3Say to God, "How terrible are thy deeds! So great is thy power that thy enemies cringe before thee.  4All the earth worships thee; they sing praises to thee, sing praises to thy name." Selah

5Come and see what God has done: he is terrible in his deeds among men. 6He turned the sea into dry land; men passed through the river on foot. There did we rejoice in him, 7who rules by his might for ever, whose eyes keep watch on the nations--let not the rebellious exalt themselves. Selah

8Bless our God, O peoples, let the sound of his praise be heard, 9who has kept us among the living, and has not let our feet slip. 10For thou, O God, hast tested us; thou hast tried us as silver is tried. 11Thou didst bring us into the net; thou didst lay affliction on our loins; 12thou didst let men ride over our heads; we went through fire and through water; yet thou hast brought us forth to a spacious place. 13I will come into thy house with burnt offerings; I will pay thee my vows, 14that which my lips uttered and my mouth promised when I was in trouble. 15I will offer to thee burnt offerings of fatlings, with the smoke of the sacrifice of rams; I will make an offering of bulls and goats. Selah

16Come and hear, all you who fear God, and I will tell what he has done for me. 17I cried aloud to him, and he was extolled with my tongue. 18If I had cherished iniquity in my heart, the Lord would not have listened. 19But truly God has listened; he has given heed to the voice of my prayer. 20Blessed be God, because he has not rejected my prayer or removed his steadfast love from me!


Intent of Psalm 66

Liturgy of praise and thanksgiving.

66:1-12 Hymn in praise of God’s might and his care for his people.

v. 4 Selah, see 3:2 n.

66:13-20 The psalmist presents a thanksgiving sacrifice in fulfilment of a vow (7:17).

66:13-15 Announcement of the worshipper’s purpose.

66:16-19 The story of his experience (see 18:4-6 n.).

66:20: The Concluding Act of Praise.


For additional biblical insight refer to CCG Papers:

Commentary on Jonah (F032)

Offering (No. 275)

The Place of Safety (No.194)

God Our Saviour (No.198)


Psalm 67

67:1 To the choirmaster: with stringed instruments. A Psalm. A Song. May God be gracious to us and bless us and make his face to shine upon us, Selah

2that thy way may be known upon earth, thy saving power among all nations. 3Let the peoples praise thee, O God; let all the peoples praise thee!

4Let the nations be glad and sing for joy, for thou dost judge the peoples with equity and guide the nations upon earth. Selah

5Let the peoples praise thee, O God; let all the peoples praise thee! 6The earth has yielded its increase; God, our God, has blessed us. 7God has blessed us; let all the ends of the earth fear him!


Intent of Psalm 67

Thanksgiving for a good harvest (see v.6).

67:1-2 Prayer that the blessing may continue (compare Num. 6.25). Selah, see 3:2 n.

67:3-5 May other nations know that Israel’s God is Lord of all! v. 4 Selah See 3:2 n.

67:6-7 The occasion of the psalm.


For additional biblical insight refer to CCG Papers:

The Blessings and the Curses (No. 075)

The Power of Prayer (No.111C)


Psalm 68

68:1 To the choirmaster. A Psalm of David. A Song. Let God arise, let his enemies be scattered; let those who hate him flee before him! 2As smoke is driven away, so drive them away; as wax melts before fire, let the wicked perish before God! 3But let the righteous be joyful; let them exult before God; let them be jubilant with joy! 4Sing to God, sing praises to his name; lift up a song to him who rides upon the clouds; his name is the LORD, exult before him! 5Father of the fatherless and protector of widows is God in his holy habitation. 6God gives the desolate a home to dwell in; he leads out the prisoners to prosperity; but the rebellious dwell in a parched land. 7O God, when thou didst go forth before thy people, when thou didst march through the wilderness, Selah

8the earth quaked, the heavens poured down rain, at the presence of God; yon Sinai quaked at the presence of God, the God of Israel. 9Rain in abundance, O God, thou didst shed abroad; thou didst restore thy heritage as it languished; 10thy flock found a dwelling in it; in thy goodness, O God, thou didst provide for the needy. 11The Lord gives the command; great is the host of those who bore the tidings: 12"The kings of the armies, they flee, they flee!" The women at home divide the spoil, 13though they stay among the sheepfolds--the wings of a dove covered with silver, its pinions with green gold. 14When the Almighty scattered kings there, snow fell on Zalmon. 15O mighty mountain, mountain of Bashan; O many-peaked mountain, mountain of Bashan! 16Why look you with envy, O many-peaked mountain, at the mount which God desired for his abode, yea, where the LORD will dwell for ever? 17With mighty chariotry, twice ten thousand, thousands upon thousands, the Lord came from Sinai into the holy place. 18Thou didst ascend the high mount, leading captives in thy train, and receiving gifts among men, even among the rebellious, that the LORD God may dwell there. 19Blessed be the Lord, who daily bears us up; God is our salvation. Selah

20Our God is a God of salvation; and to GOD, the Lord, belongs escape from death. 21But God will shatter the heads of his enemies, the hairy crown of him who walks in his guilty ways. 22The Lord said, "I will bring them back from Bashan, I will bring them back from the depths of the sea, 23that you may bathe your feet in blood, that the tongues of your dogs may have their portion from the foe." 24Thy solemn processions are seen, O God, the processions of my God, my King, into the sanctuary-- 25the singers in front, the minstrels last, between them maidens playing timbrels: 26"Bless God in the great congregation, the LORD, O you who are of Israel's fountain!"  27There is Benjamin, the least of them, in the lead, the princes of Judah in their throng, the princes of Zebulun, the princes of Naphtali. 28Summon thy might, O God; show thy strength, O God, thou who hast wrought for us.  29Because of thy temple at Jerusalem kings bear gifts to thee. 30Rebuke the beasts that dwell among the reeds, the herd of bulls with the calves of the peoples. Trample under foot those who lust after tribute; scatter the peoples who delight in war. 31Let bronze be brought from Egypt; let Ethiopia hasten to stretch out her hands to God. 32Sing to God, O kingdoms of the earth; sing praises to the Lord, Selah

33to him who rides in the heavens, the ancient heavens; lo, he sends forth his voice, his mighty voice.  34Ascribe power to God, whose majesty is over Israel, and his power is in the skies. 35Terrible is God in his sanctuary, the God of Israel, he gives power and strength to his people. Blessed be God!


Intent of Psalm 68

Liturgy for a festival celebration in the temple.

This is considered the most difficult of the psalms to interpret, and there is no general agreement either as to its meaning as a whole or in many of its details. Some scholars regard it as merely a collection of unrelated fragments (see OARSV n.).


The reality is that it is a prophecy for the restoration of Israel and Judah at the Last Days with the Lord in Zion and Judah restored with Zebulun and Napthali. The armies resemble those in Rev. 9:16 for the destruction of a third of mankind. This is the restoration of the Messiah of Psalm 45 (Heb. 1:8-9) to Zion and the restoration of Israel and Assyria to their lands, in union with Egypt (Isa. 11:11, 16; Jer. 3:18).


68:1-3 Prayer for God to manifest himself in battle (compare v. 1 with Num. 10:35).

68:4-6 Praise to God as helper of the helpless.

68:7-10 God’s care for his people in time past (compare vv. 7-8 with Jdg. 5:4-5).

v. 7 Selah, see 3:2 n.

68:11-14 Announcement of the great victory.

v. 13 The wings of a dove..., presumably describing the peace of the prince of peace restoring the treasure and wealth found among the spoil and the fortunes of Israel (Ezek. 39:9-16).

v. 14 An incident otherwise unknown.

68:15-16 Praise of the mount of God (Zion).

v. 15 Bashan, a region east of the Sea of Galilee.

68:17-18 God ascends His throne in the temple (compare 47:5).

68:19-20 Praise of the God who daily delivers his people.

v. 21 Expression of certainty that God will give victory to his people.

68:24-27 A procession enters the temple (see 24:7-10 n.). The text refers to the restoration of the Temple under Messiah in the Millennium (see Ezek. Chs. 40-48), also the paper Golden Jubilee (No. 300).

v. 27 The reason for the mention of just these four tribes–the first two from the south, the other two from Galilee-is uncertain. Benjamin was the tribe of Saul, Judah, of David.

68:28-31 Prayer for victory against the beasts... among the reeds, (v. 30). Assumed to be Egypt (OARSV n.) but referring to the Beast power of Daniel Ch. 2 in the Last Days (see Rev. Chs. 18-22 (F066iv & F066v).

68:32-35 Hymn to the God of heaven in worship at the Temple.

v. 33 18:10-13.


For additional biblical insight refer to CCG Papers:

The Blessings and the Curses (No. 075)

Forgiveness (No.112)

Heaven, Hell or the First Resurrection (No. 143A)

The Second Resurrection and the Great White Throne Judgement (No. 143B)

How God Became a Family (No. 187)

Arche of the Creation of God as Alpha and Omega (No. 229)

Rule of Kings Part 1: Saul (No. 282A)


Psalm 69

69:1  To the choirmaster: according to Lilies. A Psalm of David. Save me, O God! For the waters have come up to my neck.  2I sink in deep mire, where there is no foothold; I have come into deep waters, and the flood sweeps over me. 3I am weary with my crying; my throat is parched. My eyes grow dim with waiting for my God. 4More in number than the hairs of my head are those who hate me without cause; mighty are those who would destroy me, those who attack me with lies. What I did not steal must I now restore?  5O God, thou knowest my folly; the wrongs I have done are not hidden from thee. 6Let not those who hope in thee be put to shame through me, O Lord GOD of hosts; let not those who seek thee be brought to dishonor through me, O God of Israel. 7For it is for thy sake that I have borne reproach, that shame has covered my face. 8I have become a stranger to my brethren, an alien to my mother's sons. 9For zeal for thy house has consumed me, and the insults of those who insult thee have fallen on me. 10When I humbled my soul with fasting, it became my reproach.  11When I made sackcloth my clothing, I became a byword to them. 12I am the talk of those who sit in the gate, and the drunkards make songs about me. 13But as for me, my prayer is to thee, O LORD. At an acceptable time, O God, in the abundance of thy steadfast love answer me. With thy faithful help 14rescue me from sinking in the mire; let me be delivered from my enemies and from the deep waters.  15Let not the flood sweep over me, or the deep swallow me up, or the pit close its mouth over me. 16Answer me, O LORD, for thy steadfast love is good; according to thy abundant mercy, turn to me. 17Hide not thy face from thy servant; for I am in distress, make haste to answer me.  18Draw near to me, redeem me, set me free because of my enemies! 19Thou knowest my reproach, and my shame and my dishonor; my foes are all known to thee.  20Insults have broken my heart, so that I am in despair. I looked for pity, but there was none; and for comforters, but I found none.  21They gave me poison for food, and for my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink. 22Let their own table before them become a snare; let their sacrificial feasts be a trap. 23Let their eyes be darkened, so that they cannot see; and make their loins tremble continually. 24Pour out thy indignation upon them, and let thy burning anger overtake them. 25May their camp be a desolation, let no one dwell in their tents. 26For they persecute him whom thou hast smitten, and him whom thou hast wounded, they afflict still more. 27Add to them punishment upon punishment; may they have no acquittal from thee.  28Let them be blotted out of the book of the living; let them not be enrolled among the righteous. 29But I am afflicted and in pain; let thy salvation, O God, set me on high! 30I will praise the name of God with a song; I will magnify him with thanksgiving. 31This will please the LORD more than an ox or a bull with horns and hoofs. 32Let the oppressed see it and be glad; you who seek God, let your hearts revive. 33For the LORD hears the needy, and does not despise his own that are in bonds. 34Let heaven and earth praise him, the seas and everything that moves therein. 35For God will save Zion and rebuild the cities of Judah; and his servants shall dwell there and possess it; 36the children of his servants shall inherit it, and those who love his name shall dwell in it.


Intent of Psalm 69

Prayer for deliverance from personal enemies (a lament).

69:1-4 Cry for help. The language in vv. 2-3 is metaphorical.

v. 5 Confession of sin (cp. 32:3-5; 51:3-5).

v. 6 The prayer continued.

69:7-21 The psalmist’s situation. He may have been, like Haggai and Zechariah, a zealot for the rebuilding of the temple after the Exile (compare v. 9 with vv. 35-36; see also Ezra 4:1-5, 23-24, 5:2-3), and thus have aroused opposition.

v. 9 Quoted in Jn. 2.27.

69:13-18 David’s deep emotions force him to interrupt the narrative with a prayer.

v. 21 Quoted in all the gospels (Mt. 27:34,48; Mk. 15:36; Lk.23:36; Jn.19:29).

69:22-28 Curse upon his enemies (see Ps. 58 n.).

Rom. 11:9-10 and Isa. 29:10.

v. 25 Acts 1.20.

v. 29 Exclamatory prayer.

69:30-36 Thanksgiving for a favourable answer. A priest or temple prophet may have delivered an oracle of assurance between v. 29 and v. 30 (see 12:5 n. and 20:5 n. and OARSV n.

69:30-31 As in Pss. 40:6-8, 50:8-13 and 51:16-17), the psalmist prefers to offer a hymn of thanksgiving.

69:35-36 Some scholars assert that: If these verses are not a later addition, they are alleged to show the psalm to be post-exile (compare 51:18-19) (see OARSV n.). The fact is that they are a prophecy by David for the reconstruction of the Temple in the Last Days under Messiah as later prophesied by Ezekiel (see above). Modern academics have great difficulty dealing with the concepts of prophecy and prophets, preferring a posteriori explanations and dates.


For additional biblical insight refer to CCG Papers:

Teach us to Pray (No. 111)

The Power of Prayer (No.111C)

The Place of Safety (No. 194)

God Our Saviour (No. 198)

I Thirst (No. 102)


Psalm 70

70:1  To the choirmaster. A Psalm of David, for the memorial offering. Be pleased, O God, to deliver me! O LORD, make haste to help me!  2Let them be put to shame and confusion who seek my life! Let them be turned back and brought to dishonor who desire my hurt! 3Let them be appalled because of their shame who say, "Aha, Aha!"  4May all who seek thee rejoice and be glad in thee! May those who love thy salvation say evermore, "God is great!" 5But I am poor and needy; hasten to me, O God! Thou art my help and my deliverer; O LORD, do not tarry!


Intent of Psalm 70

Prayer for deliverance from personal enemies (a lament).

This psalm is practically identical with 40:13-17.


For additional biblical insight refer to CCG Papers:

God Our Saviour (No. 198)

Forgiveness (No. 112)


Psalm 71

71:1  In thee, O LORD, do I take refuge; let me never be put to shame!  2In thy righteousness deliver me and rescue me; incline thy ear to me, and save me!  3Be thou to me a rock of refuge, a strong fortress, to save me, for thou art my rock and my fortress. 4Rescue me, O my God, from the hand of the wicked, from the grasp of the unjust and cruel man.  5For thou, O Lord, art my hope, my trust, O LORD, from my youth.  6Upon thee I have leaned from my birth; thou art he who took me from my mother's womb. My praise is continually of thee. 7I have been as a portent to many; but thou art my strong refuge. 8My mouth is filled with thy praise, and with thy glory all the day.  9Do not cast me off in the time of old age; forsake me not when my strength is spent. 10For my enemies speak concerning me, those who watch for my life consult together, 11and say, "God has forsaken him; pursue and seize him, for there is none to deliver him." 12O God, be not far from me; O my God, make haste to help me! 13May my accusers be put to shame and consumed; with scorn and disgrace may they be covered who seek my hurt. 14But I will hope continually, and will praise thee yet more and more. 15My mouth will tell of thy righteous acts, of thy deeds of salvation all the day, for their number is past my knowledge. 16With the mighty deeds of the Lord GOD I will come, I will praise thy righteousness, thine alone. 17O God, from my youth thou hast taught me, and I still proclaim thy wondrous deeds. 18So even to old age and gray hairs, O God, do not forsake me, till I proclaim thy might to all the generations to come. Thy power 19and thy righteousness, O God, reach the high heavens. Thou who hast done great things, O God, who is like thee?  20Thou who hast made me see many sore troubles wilt revive me again; from the depths of the earth thou wilt bring me up again. 21Thou wilt increase my honor, and comfort me again. 22I will also praise thee with the harp for thy faithfulness, O my God; I will sing praises to thee with the lyre, O Holy One of Israel. 23My lips will shout for joy, when I sing praises to thee; my soul also, which thou hast rescued. 24And my tongue will talk of thy righteous help all the day long, for they have been put to shame and disgraced who sought to do me hurt.


Intent of Psalm 71

An old man’s prayer for deliverance from personal enemies (a lament).

71:1-8: Cry for help, mingled with expressions of trust.

vv. 5-6 In all his previous life, God has never failed him.

vv. 9-11 The psalmist’s situation: he has violent enemies, and his age is a disadvantage to him (compare v. 18).

vv. 12-13 Prayer for vindication.

vv. 14-24 The vow (see 7:17 n.). If the prayer is answered, he will use his musical talents (v. 22) to celebrate God’s saving acts (vv.15-16) so that future generations will know of them (v. 18).

v. 20 From the depths of the earth, compare 9:13; 30:3. David has faith in the Resurrection of the Dead (No. 143A) when he is to be restored to Israel as an elohim (see Zech. 12:8; (F038) and Rev. Ch. 20 (F066v).


For additional biblical insight refer to CCG Papers:

The Power of Prayer (No.111C)

The Place of Safety (No. 194)

God Our Saviour (No. 198)

First Resurrection of the Dead (No. 143A)

Second Resurrection and the Great White Throne Judgment (No. 143B)

The Covenant of God (No. 152)


Psalm 72

72:1  A Psalm of Solomon. Give the king thy justice, O God, and thy righteousness to the royal son! 2May he judge thy people with righteousness, and thy poor with justice!  3Let the mountains bear prosperity for the people, and the hills, in righteousness! 4May he defend the cause of the poor of the people, give deliverance to the needy, and crush the oppressor! 5May he live while the sun endures, and as long as the moon, throughout all generations! 6May he be like rain that falls on the mown grass, like showers that water the earth!  7In his days may righteousness flourish, and peace abound, till the moon be no more!  8May he have dominion from sea to sea, and from the River to the ends of the earth! 9May his foes bow down before him, and his enemies lick the dust!  10May the kings of Tarshish and of the isles render him tribute, may the kings of Sheba and Seba bring gifts! 11May all kings fall down before him, all nations serve him! 12For he delivers the needy when he calls, the poor and him who has no helper. 13He has pity on the weak and the needy, and saves the lives of the needy. 14From oppression and violence he redeems their life; and precious is their blood in his sight. 15Long may he live, may gold of Sheba be given to him! May prayer be made for him continually, and blessings invoked for him all the day!  16May there be abundance of grain in the land; on the tops of the mountains may it wave; may its fruit be like Lebanon; and may men blossom forth from the cities like the grass of the field!  17May his name endure for ever, his fame continue as long as the sun! May men bless themselves by him, all nations call him blessed! 18Blessed be the LORD, the God of Israel, who alone does wondrous things. 19Blessed be his glorious name for ever; may his glory fill the whole earth! Amen and Amen!  20The prayers of David, the son of Jesse, are ended.


Intent of Psalm 72

Prayer for God’s blessing on the king. A Psalm of Solomon

The occasion for the psalm may have been the coronation of Solomon or its annual commemoration.

72:1-4 The king is to be the guarantor of justice for the helpless (vv. 12-15).

vv. 5-6 These verses suggest the supernatural aura which were attached to and surrounded the person of the king in the thought of the people of the ancient Near East, where “even in Israel he could be called God’s son, (see 2:7). The health, fertility, and success of the nation were bound up inextricably in those of its monarch” (see also OARSV n.).

v. 7 Righteousness and peace, as frequently elsewhere, mean “right conditions” and “prosperity.”

vv. 8-11 The king’s ideal universal empire. These verses suggested the ascription of the psalm to Solomon.

v. 8 The River, the Euphrates (1Kgs. 4.21).

v. 10 Tarshish, in the western Mediterranean. Sheba and Seba, in south Arabia.

72:12-14 The character of the king.

vv. 15-17 The prayer concluded.

18-19 A doxology (no part of the psalm) marking an end of Book II of the Psalter (see 41:13 n.).

v. 20 Considered to be an editorial colophon to one of the collections of psalms now included in the Psalter (see OARSV n.).

Of v. 20 Bullinger says:

are ended = are accomplished. When this Psalm is realized, all prophecy concerning Israel will be fulfilled: according to Daniel 9:24, and see 2Samuel 23:1, where compare the title, "son of Jesse".

(see F027ix).


For additional biblical insight refer to CCG Papers:

Sign of Jonah and the History of the Reconstruction of the Temple (No 013)

Completion of the Sign of Jonah (No. 013B)

The Golden Jubilee (No. 300)  


The Third Book following has to do with the Sanctuary; as the First Book (1-41) had to do with Man and the Creation; and the Second Book (42-72) had to do with Israel.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 42

Verse 1

Psalms 42-72, The Exodus Book, has to do with Israel; as the first book (1-41) had to do with Man. Psalm 42 and Psalm 43 are linked together, because (1) Psalm 43 has no title; (2) the Structure shows the correspondence of the repeated appeal.

Title. Maschil = Instruction. The second of thirteen so named. See note on Psalm 32, Title, and App-65

for = by.

the sons of Korah. The first of the eleven Psalms so distinguished (Psalms 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 84, 85, 87, 88). Korah died by Divine judgment (Numbers 16:31-35), but his sons were spared in grace (Numbers 26:11). The men of Numbers 16:32 did not include the "sons". See notes, and App-63.

son = descendants.

panteth = crieth, or longeth. Compare Joel 1:20. The cry of Israel in Egypt.

after = for.

brooks = channels: water in gorges or pipes, difficult of approach. Hebrew. "aphikim. See note on 2 Samuel 22:16.

my soul = I myself. Hebrew. nephesh.

after = upon.

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4. The Creator, not yet revealed as Jehovah to Israel in the Egyptian oppression.

Verse 2

GOD. Hebrew El. App-4. Because "the living", in contrast with idols.

When shall I come, &c. Figures of speech Interjectio, Erotesis, and Apostrophe. App-6.

appear before God = see the face of God. So it is in some codices, with one early printed edition, Aramaean, and Syriac. See notes on Exodus 23:15; Exodus 34:20.

Verse 3

continually = all the day.

Verse 4

had gone = shall go.

went = shall go.

holy day = feast day.

Verse 5

Why . . . ? Figure of speech Cycloides. The question repeated in Psalms 42:11 and Psalms 43:5. See the Structure, above.

And why . . . ? This second "why" is in the text of some codices, with Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, as in Psalms 42:11 and Psalms 43:5.

help. Hebrew, plural salvations. Plural of majesty = great help, or great salvation.

His. Hebrew text reads "my", so that, where I go I am delivered.

countenance. Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Part), put for the whole person.

Verse 6

O my God. In some codices this is joined on to the end of Psalms 42:5 = "the great deliverance of me, and [praise]my God". Compare Psalms 42:11 with Psalms 43:5.

Jordan. The reference is to 2 Samuel 17:22.

the Hermonites = the Hermons. Refers to the two peaks.

hill = mountain.

Verse 8

Yet. Omit this.

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

His lovingkindness . . . His song. Figure of speech Ellipsis (Complex), App-6, by which each is to be repeated in the other = "His lovingkindness [and His song] in the daytime; and in the night His song [and His lovingkindness] shall be with me".

GOD of my life. Some codices, with Syriac, read "the living GOD" (App-4. IV).

Verse 9

GOD. Hebrew El. App-4. In edition of 1611 this was printed "My God".

rock = mountain crag, or fortress. Hebrew. sela". See note on Deuteronomy 32:13. Deuteronomy 18:1, Deuteronomy 18:2.

forgotten. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. App-6.

Verse 10

As with. Some codices read "Like".

enemies = adversaries. The second Psalm of each book has for its subject the enemy. See App-10.

Verse 11

health = salvation.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 43

Verse 1

Judge = Vindicate.

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

ungodly = graceless. Figure of speech Tapeinosis. App-6.

man. Hebrew. "ish.

Verse 2

my strength = my refuge, or my defending God.

dost = didst.

cast. off. See Psalms 44:8.

the enemy = an enemy.

Verse 3

light . . . truth. Probably an allusion to the Urim and Thummim (see notes on Exodus 28:30), from which the Psalmist was now absent, in flight from Absalom.

lead = gently lead, or comfort.

bring: i.e. by their guiding counsel.

Thy holy hill: i.e. Zion. Therefore refers to times of David.

holy. See note on Exodus 3:5.

tabernacles = habitations. Plural of majesty = thy great habitation. Hebrew, plural of mishkan. App-40.

Verse 4

GOD. Hebrew El. App-4.

Verse 5

Why . . . ? See notes on Psalms 42:5 for the whole of this verse.

health = salvation. See note on Psalms 42:5.

To the chief Musician. See App-64.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 44

Verse 1

Title. For the sons of Korah. The second of eleven so ascribed. See note on Title, Psalm 42, App-63. Maschil = Instruction. The third of thirteen Psalms so named. See note on Psalm 32, Title, and App-65. See note on Psalm 42, Title.

We have heard. Refers to the exodus. No time in reigns of David or Solomon to suit this Psalm. Temple-worship carried on. People in the land. Israel gone astray. Judah had turned away, but had returned (Psalms 44:17-18). The Psalm suits Hezekiah only. Sennacherib and Rab-shakeh referred to in Psalms 44:16. See the cylinder of Sennacherib (App-67.)

God. Hebrew Elohim. App-4.

told us = rehearsed. Compare Exodus 12:26; Exodus 13:14; Joshua 4:6-7.

Verse 2

heathen = nations: i.e. the Canaanites.

them: thy People Israel.

people = peoples: i.e. the Canaanites.

cast them out = spread them about (as a vine, Isa 5); "them" referring to Israel in both clauses.

Verse 3

But = For; giving the reason. See Structure above. Hebrew. ki, "for".

a favour. Compare Deuteronomy 4:37; Deuteronomy 7:7-8.

Verse 4

Thou = Thou Thyself.

art my King = art He my King.

deliverances. Plural of majesty = a great deliverance.

Verse 5

enemies = adversaries.

Thy name. See note on Psalms 20:1.

Verse 6

trust = confide. Hebrew. batah. App-69.

bow . . . sword. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), for military science. Compare 2 Kings 19:32.

Verse 7

But = For, as in Psalms 44:3.

hast saved = didst save. Referring to verses: Psalms 44:1-4.

hast put = didst put. Referring to verses: Psalms 44:1-4.

Verse 8

boast = have boasted.

Selah. Connecting the wondrous past with the distressing present, introducing the reason which called forth the Psalm itself, and marking the important break determining the Structure. See App-66.

Verse 9

But = But now. Hebrew. "aph (not ki, as in Psalms 44:3 and Psalms 44:7). Very emphatic, marking great contrast, as in Psalms 68:16 ("Yea"). Some codices, with Aramaean, read "Howbeit".

cast off (as with contempt). Compare Psalms 43:2. Some codices, with Syriac, read "cast us off".

Verse 10

spoil for themselves = have plundered at their will; first occurrence Judges 2:14. See Sennacherib"s boast on his cylinder. App-67. Some codices, with Aram, and Syriac, read "plundered us", &c.

Verse 11

sheep appointed for meat. Hebrew sheep of devouring. Genitive of Relation (App-17). Compare Romans 8:36.

scattered us. Israel had already been removed. Sennacherib says he had taken away 200,150 (App-67).

Verse 13

a reproach. Compare Rab-shakeh"s harangue (2 Kings 18:27-35) with verses: Psalms 44:13, Psalms 44:14. See App-67.

Verse 16

avenger = him that taketh vengeance. Compare Psalms 8:2. Here = Sennacherib.

Verse 18

steps = goings. Plural in many codices, with one early printed edition, Aramaean, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate; but some codices, with nine early printed editions, read singular.

Verse 19

place of dragons = place of jackals. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6, for a desert place.

Verse 20

name. See note on Psalms 20:1.

GOD. Hebrew El. Quoted in App-4.

Verse 22

Yea = Surely. Quoted in Romans 8:36.

LORD *. Primitive text read "Jehovah". Altered by the Sopherim to "Adonai". See App-32. Some codices, with two early printed editions, read "Jehovah".

Verse 25

our soul is = we ourselves are. Hebrew. nephesh.

Verse 26

Arise. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia.

redeem = deliver. Hebrew. padah, See notes on Exodus 6:6; Exodus 13:13.

mercies" = mercy"s, or lovingkindness.

To the chief Musician. See App-64. Written by Hezekiah for his special circumstances; but on account of verses: Psalms 44:1-8 was handed over for general use at the Feast of the Passover. See note below.

upon = relating to, or concerning.

Shoshannim = Lilies. Put by Figure of speech Metalepsis for "Spring", and "Spring" put for the great spring festival, the Passover. See App-65.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 45

Verse 1

Title. For the sons of Korah = By, &c. The third of nine so ascribed. See Title, Psalm 42, and App-63.

Maschil = giving instruction. The fourth of thirteen so named. See Title, Psalm 32, and App-65.

A Song. Hebrew shir, as in Psalm 18. See App-65.loves. Probably plural of majesty = significant love. If in connection with the marriage of Hezekiah (2 Kings 21:1 and Isaiah 62:4), its place here is accounted for between Psalms 44

Verse 2

fairer: i.e. in His glory which follows the suffering described in Isaiah 52:14; Isaiah 53:2.

children = sons.

men. Hebrew. "adam. App-14.

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

Verse 3

most mighty = mighty One. Hebrew gibbor. With thy glory. Supply Ellipsis (App-6), by repeating "[Gird thee] with Thy glory".

Verse 4

Because = On behalf.

Verse 5

heart. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), for "in the midst".

people = peoples.

Verse 6

Thy throne, O God. Quoted in Hebrews 1:8, Hebrews 1:9. Several attempts are made by certain commentators to get rid of this reference to Christ"s Godhead; but not only would Hebrews 1:8, Hebrews 1:9 have to go, but Isaiah 9:6, and Jeremiah 23:6; Jeremiah 33:16 as well.

kingdom. Compare Psalms 20:21, Psalms 20:24. Luke 1:31-33, &c.

Verse 7

wickedness = lawlessness. Hebrew. rasha". App-44.

anointed. Hence His name Messiah (Greek. Christ) = the anointed one.

fellows = companions.

Verse 8

All. Supply Ellipsis : "[So that] all".

myrrh, and aloes. Compare Exodus 30:23, Exodus 30:24. John 12:3; John 19:39.

Verse 9

honourable women. Courtladies. English = maids of honour.

did = doth.

the queen. Type, Past, Hephzi-bah (2 Kings 21:1. Isaiah 62:4); antitype, future, Israel, the bride of Messiah (Isaiah 54:5-8; Isaiah 62:45). Compare Revelation 19:7.

Verse 10

consider = see plainly, or observe.

Forget also thine own people. As did Rebekah (Genesis 24:58), and Rachel (Genesis 31:14), and Asenath (Genesis 41:45), and Ruth (Psalms 1:16).

Verse 12

daughter of Tyre. Either the queen of Tyre, or the people of Tyre personified.

shall be there. Figure of speech Ellipsis (Complex), Supply both clauses, repeating the verbs thus: "the daughter of Tyre [shall entreat thy favour] with a gift; even the rich among the people shall [come] and entreat thy favour". See note on 2 Chronicles 32:23.

Verse 13

is. The Ellipsis better supplied thus: "all glorious [sitteth enthroned] within". These Ellipses are caused by the bubbling over of the inditing heart, which is too quick for the pen.

all glorious = nothing but glory. Compare Isaiah 4:5.

within: i.e. in the inner palace; not internally.

Verse 14

raiment of needlework = embroidered robes.

Verse 15

gladness. Hebrew, plural of majesty = with great gladness.

Verse 16

thy . . . thy. Hebrew text, these pronouns are masculine; but the Syriac reads them feminine. In this case they agree with and perfect the Structure above.

Verse 17

people = peoples, or nations.

To the chief Musician. See App-64. Having been written for the marriage of Hezekiah, the Psalm was handed over for public use, as the glorious antitype of the marriage of Messiah in a yet future day (Revelation 19:7-9)

for the sons, &c. See note on Title, above. This and Psalm 87 are the only two Psalms where the Title is given at the beginning as well as the end. These two Psalms are for a good reason thus discriminated.

upon: i.e. relating to.

Alamoth. App-65.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 46

Verse 1

Title. A Song. Hebrew. shir. One of the "Songs" referred to in Isaiah 38:20 (though not the same word). See App-65. Doubtless Hezekiah"s during Sennacherib"s siege. No other period of Israel"s history suits it. Not celebrating a victorious campaign, but a successful defense. See notes below. Psalms 46:47, Psalms 46:48 a Trilogy referring to the same event. See note on "Selah", Psalms 46:11.

our refuge. Figure of speech Cycloides (App-6), because repeated in Psalms 46:7 and Psalms 46:11. See Structure above.

refuge: to which one flees. Hebrew. hasah. App-69. Not the same word as verses: Psalms 46:7, Psalms 46:11.

very present = found (near); masculine refers to God (help is feminine)

Verse 2

be removed = quake. Same as "moved", Psalms 46:6.

carried = moved.

midst = Hebrew heart. Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct). App-6.

Verse 3

waters thereof roar. Figure of speech Hypocatastasis (App-6), implying the raging of the Assyrian host without.

roar. Same word as "raged" (Psalms 46:6).

Selah. Connecting the roaring of the waters without with the silent flowing river in the rock-cut channel beneath Zion, and contrasting the boastings of the enemy with the secret purposes of God. No refrain "dropped out" here, as some suggest. See the Structure above, and App-68.

Verse 4

river. Hebrew. nahar. a constantly flowing river (not nahal, a summer wady). It flows beneath Zion, filling En Rogel and supplying Siloam. See App-68.

streams = channels. Hebrew. palag. See note on Genesis 10:25. Genesis 1:3, i.e. the rock-cut channels beneath Zion. See App-68. All other water-supplies cut off. Compare 2 Chronicles 32:30. 2 Kings 20:20. See App-68, and Ecclesiastes 48:17.

The holy place of the tabernacles of the MOST HIGH. Septuagint and Vulg, render this "The Most High hath hallowed His habitation". See note on Exodus 3:5.

tabernacles = the great habitation. Plural of majesty, implying greatness of glory, not of size. Hebrew. mishkan. App-40.

MOST HIGH. Hebrew. Elyon. App-4.

Verse 5

in the midst = in the middle, not the same as Psalms 46:2.

moved. Same word as "carried", in Psalms 46:2.

and that right early. Hebrew at the turning of the morning: i.e. when the morning dawns. See 2 Kings 19:31-35. Isaiah 37:35, Isaiah 37:36. Compare Exodus 14:27.

Verse 6

heathen = nations.

raged. Same word as "roar", Psalms 46:3.

were moved = moved. Same word as in Psalms 46:5.

Verse 7

The LORD of hosts. See note on 1 Samuel 1:3.

refuge = an impregnable place. Hebrew. misgab. Not the same word as in Psalms 46:1.

Selah. Connecting this assured confidence in God"s promise with its fulfilment in the deliverance of Zion from Sennacherib (App-66.).

Verse 8

behold = gaze on.

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4. But some codices, with first printed edition and Syriac, read "Elohim", God. Compare Psalms 66:5.

Verse 9

bow . . . spear . . . chariot. The weapons of war, corresponding with the preceding line war. See the Structure above.

Verse 10

Be still = Desist; cease your efforts. Hebrew. rapha.

exalted. Hebrew. rum, so most frequently rendered.

Verse 11

The God of Jacob. See notes on Psalms 146:5; and compare Genesis 32:28; Genesis 43:6; Genesis 45:26.

Selah. Connecting Psalm 46 with Psalms 47 and 48, all three referring to the same events. See App-66. To the chief Musician. See App-64.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 47

Verse 1

Title. A Psalm. Hebrew. mizmor. See App-65. Referring to the time of Hezekiah. One of three Psalms (46, 47, 48) in praise of Zion, delivered from Sennacherib"s siege.

for the sons of Korah. The fourth of nine so ascribed. See note on 42, and App-65.

people = peoples.

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

Verse 2

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

MOST HIGH. Hebrew. Elyon. App-4.

terrible = to be reverenced.

a great King. This in special contrast with Sennacherib (Isaiah 36:4).

Verse 3

He shall subdue = may He subdue.

nations = tribes of men.

Verse 4

shall choose = chooseth: referring to Israel"s inheritance. Repeat this verb at the beginning of the next line.

Selah. Connecting the consideration of what God had done for Hezekiah and Zion and the exaltation claimed in Psalms 46:10 with the exaltation given in Psalms 47:5, Psalms 47:9 (App-66.).

Verse 5

gone up = exalted, as in Psalms 47:9 (same word).

Verse 6

Sing praises. Figure of speech Epanadiplosis, the verse beginning and ending with the same word.

praises. Pl of majesty = great praise. Note the Figure of speech Repetitio, for emphasis.

to God. Some codices, with Septuagint and Vulgate, read "to our God".

Verse 7

of. Some codices, with two early printed editions, read "over", as in Psalms 47:8.

with understanding. Compare Psalms 49:3 and 1 Corinthians 14:15, 1 Corinthians 14:16.

Verse 8

reigneth = hath become king.

heathen = nations.

throne of His holiness = His holy Throne. Genitive of Character.

Verse 9

Even. Perhaps better to supply Ellipsis (App-6): "[unto] the People", or "[to be] a People". See the Structure, and Compare Psalms 47:4.

shields. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Effect), for princes (in preceding line), or, for defenses in general Compare Psalms 89:18 (margin) and Hosea 4:18 (margin)

exalted. Compare Psalms 47:5. This is the object of the Psalm connected with 46 by the Selah in Psalms 46:11.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 48

Verse 1

Title. A Song. Hebrew. Shir. See App-65.

Psalm. Hebrew. mizmor. See App-65.

for the sons of Korah. See App-63. The fifth of nine so ascribed; and the last of the four Psalms celebrating the deliverance of Zion and Hezekiah (44, 46-48).

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

the city: i.e. Zion, recently delivered from Sennacherib.

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

the mountain of His holiness, or of His Sanctuary. Genitive of Character.

Verse 2

situation = elevation.

earth: or land.

mount Zion. Immediately south of Moriah. See App-68.

the sides of the north: i.e. with Moriah and the Temple immediately on the north side.

The city of the great King = [is] Jerusalem as a whole. Note the three points of view: (1) the elevated mount; (2) the south side of Moriah; (3) Jerusalem proper. Compare Matthew 5:35.

Verse 3

is known = hath made Himself known.

Verse 4

lo. Figure of speech Asterismos.

the kings: i.e. the vassal kings of Sennacherib.

Verse 7

wind. Hebrew. ruach. App-9.

Verse 8

As we have heard. Thus linking on Psalms 44:1.

the LORD of hosts. Compare Psalms 46:7, Psalms 46:11.

Selah. Connecting the demand of Psalms 46:10, to "be still" and exalt Jehovah, with the "rest" in the thought of His lovingkindness.

Verse 9

thought = been silent (Hebrew. damah), or stood still (Psalms 46:10) and rested in thought. midst. Same word as in Psalms 46:5.

Verse 10

name. See note on Psalms 20:1.

Verse 11

daughters = cities. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Subject), for cities (compare Numbers 21:25. Joshua 17:11, Joshua 17:16). These cities of Judah had cause for rejoicing, for they were now free from Sennacherib, who had captured them (Isaiah 36:1). See Sennacherib"s cylinder. App-67.

judgments: on the Assyrian host.

Verse 12

Walk about. They were now free to do this.

towers. Many discovered on the east side of Ophel in recent excavations.

Verse 13

bulwarks = outer walls or ramparts.

Consider = single out. Occurs only here.

Verse 14

this God: or, such a God.

even unto death = for evermore, according to some codices, five early printed editions, Aramaean, Septuagint, and Vulgate The Massorites divided the one word ("almuth) into two ("al moth), making it = "over death". But the correspondence is with the preceding line, and with Psalms 48:8, as shown in the Structure.

To the chief Musician. Though written (probably by Hezekiah, Isaiah 38:20) for this special occasion, it was handed over for public use in the Temple worship. couplets in one being answered by quatrains in the other. If written by Hezekiah after his recovery the date would be about 602 B.C.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm49

Verse 1

Title. A Psalm. The sixth of nine so ascribed. Hebrew. mizmor. See App-65.

Korah. See App-63.

people = peoples.

world = age = transitoriness. Hebrew. heled = the world as transitory, as in Psalms 17:14. Compare Psalms 39:5, "age"; Psalms 89:47, "time". Job 11:17. These are all the occurrences.

Verse 2

low = sons of "adam. App-14.

high = sons of ish. App-14.

poor = helpless. Hebrew. "ebyon. See note on Proverbs 6:11,

together = alike.

Verse 4

dark = deep.

Verse 5

days of evil. His were in Matthew 26:38. Luke 22:44, Luke 22:53. John 12:27. Hebrews 5:7.

evil. Hebrew. ra"a". App-44.

iniquity = perverseness. Hebrew "avah. App-41.

of my heels: or, my footsteps. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Part), for the whole person, in order to call attention to, and thus emphasize, the reference to Genesis 3:15. When our iniquities were laid upon Christ, then He was vulnerable and was wounded for our transgressions.

Verse 6

trust. Hebrew. batah. See App-69.

Verse 7

None = no man. Hebrew. "ish. App-14.

by any means redeem. Hebrew Figure of speech Polyptoton (App-6) = "redeeming will redeem".

redeem = deliver by power. Hebrew. padah. See notes on Exodus 6:6 with Exodus 13:13.

his brother. Some codices read "surely" instead of "a brother". In this case the two lines read, "Surely no man (Hebrew. "ish) can redeem, nor give to God atonement for himself".

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

a ransom = atonement. Hebrew. kapher. See Genesis 6:14 ("pitch"). Exodus 29:33.

him = himself.

Verse 8

redemption = Hebrew. padah, as "redeem", in Psalms 49:7.

their soul = them. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.

precious = costly, or, so costly is it that, &c.

it = the redemption of themselves.

Verse 9

That, &c. Connect this with the end of Psalms 49:7.

still live for ever = live on continually.

corruption. Hebrew. sahath = destruction (with Art.): i.e. in the grave.

Verse 10

he seeth = it must be seen.

And leave = They leave. Homonym: "azab. See note on Exodus 23:5; or, fortify, or strengthen by increasing or laying them up.

Verse 12

man. Hebrew. "adam. App-14. This corresponds with Psalms 49:20. See the Structure, above.

Verse 13

Selah. Connecting the fact of Psalms 49:14 with their thought of verses: Psalms 49:11, Psalms 49:12, and explaining the folly of Psalms 49:13. See App-66.

Verse 14

the grave. Hebrew. Sheol. App-35. Occurs three times in this Psalm, verses: Psalms 49:14, Psalms 49:15.

feed on them = shepherd them. Figure of speech Prosopopoeia.

the morning: i.e. the resurrection morning = the "first" resurrection of Revelation 20:6; resurrection of "life" (John 5:29); "the just" (Acts 24:15). Luke 14:14. Daniel 12:2. &c.

from their dwelling: i.e. [far] from their [former] lofty house. Hebrew. zabal, from similar Assyrian root = lofty [house], in contrast with "the grave". See note on 1 Kings 8:13.

Verse 15

my soul = me, myself. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.

the power of the grave = the hand of Sheol; "hand" being put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause).

receive me = take me out of [Sheol]; same word as "carry away" in Psalms 49:17. Compare Psalms 50:9; Psalms 73:24; Psalms 78:70.

Selah. Connecting the fear and the folly of the hopeless man with the true hope and wisdom which takes away fear. See App-66.

Verse 16

Be not thou afraid. This, with Psalms 49:5, gives the scope of the Psalm. See the Structure (p. 767).

one = a man. Hebrew. "ish.

Verse 17

carry . . . away. See note on "receive", Psalms 49:15.

Verse 18

Though = For.

his soul = himself. Hebrew. nephesh.

And men will praise = And [though] men praise thee when, &c.

Verse 19

He shall = [Yet] he shall, &c, continuing from Psalms 49:18.

his: i.e. the man"s.

They: i.e. those fathers.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 50

Verse 1

Title. of Asaph = of, or for Asaph. The only Psalm of Asaph in Book II, the others being in Book III of the Psalms.

The mighty God, even the LORD. Hebrew "El, Elohim, Jehovah" = The God of Gods, even Jehovah. Occurs only here and Joshua 22:22 (twice). See App-4.

Verse 2

Zion. See App-68.

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

Verse 3

shall come. The promise of Exodus 3:7, Exodus 3:8 turned into a prayer. Compare Isaiah 11:11.

not keep silence. Now He is keeping silence. But He will speak again, and here we are told what He will say.

Verse 5

Gather = Gather in.

saints = those who have found favour with God. Compare Matthew 24:29-31.

by sacrifice. Compare Exodus 24:8.

Verse 6

Selah. Connecting the "call" to "hear" what true worship is (verses: Psalms 50:7-15), and to "consider" what true service is (verses: Psalms 50:16-22) when these things come into judgment (Psalms 50:6). Both are summed up in Psalms 50:23. (App-66.)

Verse 12

world. Hebrew. tebel = the habitable world (Greek. oikoumene).

Verse 14

Offer. Hebrew. zabach. App-43. Here is true worship. See Psalms 50:23; Psalms 40:6; Psalms 51:17. Hebrews 13:15. Compare Isaiah 1:11-14. Jeremiah 7:22, Jeremiah 7:23. Hosea 6:6. Amos 5:21. This is the opposite of "unthankful" (2 Timothy 3:2).

MOST HIGH. Hebrew Elyon. App-4.

Verse 16

wicked. Hebrew rasha. App-44.

saith = hath said.

What. ? Figures of speech Erotesis and Apodioxis. App-6. See Romans 2:21, Romans 2:22.

Verse 18

consentedst with = foundest pleasure with. Aramaean, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulg, read "rannest".

Verse 19

evil. Hebrew. raa. App-44.

frameth = weaveth.

Verse 20

thine own mother"s son. Figure of speech Periphrasis, for emphasis.

Verse 21

I kept silence; Thou thoughtest. Compare Ecclesiastes 8:11-13. Isaiah 3:11; Isaiah 26:10.

Verse 22

GOD. Hebrew Eloah. App-4.

deliver = rescue.

Verse 23

conversation = way. Some codices, with five early printed editions, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "And there [will be] a way by which I will show to him", &c.

To the chief Musician. See App-64.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 51

Verse 1

Title. A Psalm. Hebrew. mizmor. See App-65.

when Nathan, &c. See 2 Samuel 11:2; 2 Samuel 12:1. David"s utterance when he lay all night upon the earth as a penitent (2 Samuel 12:16). Compare his utterance when he "sat before the LORD "as a worshipper (2 Samuel 7:18-29), and when he "stood upon his feet" as a servant (1 Chronicles 28:2-10).

Have mercy upon me = Be gracious or favourable unto me.

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

lovingkindness: or, grace.

blot out = erase, as a debt from a book (Exodus 32:32, Exodus 32:33. Numbers 5:23. Numbers 69:28), or wipe out so as to remove (2 Kings 21:13. Isaiah 44:22).

transgressions. Hebrew. pasha". App-44.

Verse 2

Wash: as a garment, Hebrew. kabas. Heb form = multiply to wash = wash thoroughly.

iniquity. Hebrew. "avah. App-44.

cleanse: i.e. pronounce ceremonially clean.

sin. Hebrew. chata". App-44,

Verse 3

acknowledge. Confession is ever the condition of forgiveness. See notes on Psalms 32:5.

Verse 4

only = alone. This is primary, and contains the secondary.

evil. Hebrew. ra"a".

That, &c. Quoted in Romans 3:4.

when Thou speakest: i.e. in Thy word. Some codices, with three early printed editions, Septuagint, and Vulgate, read "in Thy words" (plural) Compare Romans 3:4.

clear = pure; such moral purity as belongs not to man, only to God (Job 15:14; Job 25:4. Proverbs 20:9). Hebrew. zakak.

Verse 5

Behold. Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6.

Verse 6

in the inward parts. More than the external acts. Hebrew. tuchoth. Only here and Job 38:36.

make me, &c. See note on Job 28:28. We need this making, for this wisdom is from above. Compare 2 Timothy 3:15.

Verse 7

Purge me = Thou wilt sin-cleanse me, or un-sin me: i.e. expiate by the blood of a sin offering.

hyssop. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), for the atoning blood sprinkled by it. Compare Numbers 14:18; Numbers 19:6, Numbers 19:18.

Verse 8

Make me = Thou wilt make me.

Verse 10

Create. Hebrew. bara", as in Genesis 1:1. The new heart is not the old one changed, but newly created: i.e. "begotten" by God, as in John 3:6-8.

right = steadfast. Compare Psalms 78:37; Psalms 112:7.

spirit. Hebrew. ruach. App-9. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Part), for whole character.

Verse 11

take not. Not a proper prayer for those now "in Christ": for, see John 14:16.

Holy Spirit. See the only other O.T. occurrences of the expression (Isaiah 63:10, Isaiah 63:11). Hebrew. ruach. App-9.

Verse 12

with Thy free spirit: i.e. with a spirit of willing and unforced obedience. Hebrew. ruach. App-9. Compare Exodus 35:5, Exodus 35:22.

Verse 14

Deliver = Rescue.

bloodguiltiness = bloods, plural of majesty; put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Species), for the great murder of Uriah (2 Samuel 11:14-21). Compare Genesis 4:10.

Verse 15

LORD * = Jehovah. App-4. One of the 134 alterations of the Sopherim. App-32.

Verse 16

desirest not. Because death was the penalty. Was the child"s life the substitute?

Verse 17

sacrifices. Plural of majesty = the great sacrifice. Compare Isaiah 57:16; Isaiah 66:2.

not despise. Figure of speech Tapeinosis, meaning that God will do infinitely more than words can express.

Verse 18

Zion. See App-68. If verses: Psalms 51:18, Psalms 51:19 are a later addition, then they were probably the work of Hezekiah in his editing the Psalms as well as the Proverbs, when the Psalm was handed over for public use. See App-67. But David was "a prophet" (Acts 2:30, Acts 2:31).


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 52

Verse 1

Title. Maschil= Instruction. The fifth of thirteen so named. See note on Title, Psalm 32, and App-65.

when Doeg, &c. See notes on 1 Samuel 21:7; 1 Samuel 22:18. See note on Mahalath, in sub-scription at end of Psalms 52:9.

Why boastest . . . ? Relating to Doeg"s treachery.

mighty man. Hebrew. gibbor. App-14. = tyrant; Septuagint = mighty lawless one. It is prophetic, and a type of Antichrist.

goodness = lovingkindness, or grace.

GOD. Hebrew El. App-4.

continually = all the day.

Verse 2

mischiefs = malignity. Plural for singular = a great malignity.

Verse 3

evil. Hebrew. ra"a. App-44.

Selah. Connecting the deceitful tongue of Doeg (Psalms 52:4) with the imprecation on it. See App-66.

Verse 4

devouring words. Hebrew words of swallowing up. Compare 1 Samuel 22:18.

Verse 5

destroy . . . take away. . . pluck out . . . root out. Note the Figure of speech Anabasis. App-6.

Selah. Connecting God"s judgment with the righteous onlookers. See App-66.

Verse 6

righteous = righteous ones (plural)

Verse 7

the man = the strong man (Hebrew. geber. App-14. IV) that made not God his strength. The Gematria of this sentence = 2,197 (= 133). See App-10.

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

trusted = confided. Hebrew. batah. App-69.

wickedness. Aram, and Syriac read "wealth". Compare Psalms 112:3.

Verse 8

mercy = lovingkindness, or grace.

Verse 9

Thou hast done it. David ascribes all the glory to his God.

Thy name = Thyself. See note on Psalms 20:1.

Thy saints. Some codices read singular = Thy beloved (One).


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 53

Verse 1

Title. Maschil = Instruction (the sixth of thirteen Psalms so named. See note on Title, Psalm 32, and App-65, as to the faction of the Tyrant of Psalm 52. This Psalm for public use. See note at end. Hence Elohim (App-4), the Creator in relation to His creatures. A partial repetition of Psalm 14, which was not for public use (as Psalm 53 was); therefore Jehovah (David"s God) there, and Elohim (the creature"s Creator) here.

fool. May not this refer to Nabal? God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4. I. Seven times in this Psalm. In Psalm 14 three times Elohim, and four timesJehovah. Elohim more characteristic of the second (or Exodus) book.

iniquity. In Psalm 14, Hebrew "alilah = doing; here, "aval= deceit. App-44. There is none, &c. Quoted in Romans 3:1-12.

Verse 3

God. Hebrew "eth "Elohim (Objective). App-4. Note the Figure of speech Epanadiplosis (App-6), by which this verse is marked off as containing universal instruction, beginning and ending with the same word "God".

children of men = sons of Adam. App-14.

that did understand. Hebrew. Maschil. See note on Title.

Verse 4

the workers. Some codices, with two early printed editions, Aramaean, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "all the workers".

iniquity. Hebrew. "avah. App-44.

Verse 5

For God hath scattered. This is an addition to Psalm 14.

despised them. Here, the wicked are in question. In Psalms 14:5, the righteous.

Verse 6

Oh. Figure of speech Ecphonesis. App-6.

salvation = great salvation, plural of majesty. But some codices, with Septuagint and Syriac, read singular.

Zion. See App-68.

God. Some codices, with Aramaean, Septuagint, and Syriac, read "Jehovah".

Jacob . . . Israel: i.e. both natural and spiritual seed. See notes on Genesis 32:28; Genesis 43:6; Genesis 45:26, Genesis 45:28. To the chief Musician. This Psalm was edited for public use; hence the title Elohim. See notes above.

on = relating to.

Neginoth = smitings: referring to God"s smitings with words and acts. See Psalms 53:5, which differs from Psalms 14:5-6. See App-65.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 54

Verse 1

Title. Maschil = Instruction. The seventh of thirteen Psalms so named. See note on Title, Psalm 32, and App-65.

when, &c Compare 1 Samuel 23:19; 1 Samuel 26:1.

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

Thy name = Thine own self. See note on Psalms 20:1.

judge = vindicate.

Verse 3

strangers = aliens: the Ziphites, or the men of Keilah (1 Samuel 23:12). Some codices, with two early printed editions and Arm., read "insolent men". Compare Psalms 86:14.

my soul = me, or my life. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.

Selah. Connecting David"s danger with David"s true and only source ofhelp (App-66).

Verse 4

LORD *. One of the 134 alterations of Jehovah to Adonai by the Sopherim. App-32.

Verse 5

evil = the evil. Hebrew. ra"a" (with Art.) App-44.

Verse 6

freely sacrifice: Hebrew with a freewill offering will I sacrifice. Compare Numbers 15:3.

LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

Verse 7

delivered = rescued.

seen his desire: or, looked upon, and thus seen Jehovah"s deliverance. To the chief Musician. See App-64.

on = relating to.

Neginoth = smitings : i.e. the great smitings of my enemies by Jehovah. App-65.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 55

Verse 1

Title. Maschil = Instruction. The eighth of thirteen so named. See note on Title, Psalms 32:1, and App-65. The occasion of this Psalm is seen in 2Sam. 15. Hence 934BC.

God. Hebrew Elohim. App-4.

Verse 2

hear = answer. make a noise = moan.

Verse 3

oppression: or outcry. The Hebrew word "akah occurs only here.

iniquity = iniquitous words or devices. Hebrew. "aven. App-44. Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6.

Verse 4

sore pained . . . unto death. Compare the words ot the true David (John 13:21) in reference to the Antitype (Psalms 55:18. Matthew 26:38).

Verse 7

remain = lodge. The Septuagint renders it by aulizomai, the word used in Matthew 21:17. Compare Luke 21:37. See also Jeremiah 9:2.

wilderness. Compare 2 Samuel 15:28; 2 Samuel 17:16.

Selah. Connecting his despondency with his escape from the cause of it. It was not merely comfort he desired, but deliverance. See App-66.

Verse 8

hasten my escape. Compare 2 Samuel 15:14.

windy storm = wind (Hebrew. ruach. App-9.) of storm.

Verse 9

LORD *. One of the 134 alterations of Jehovah to Adonai by the Sopherim. App-32.

divide their tongues = cleave (as in Genesis 10:25; Genesis 11:1-9) their counsels; "tongues" being put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), App-6, for counsels given by them. This prayer was literally answered (2 Samuel 17:1-14).

tongues. Hebrew singular.

Verse 10

Mischief. Hebrew. "aven. App-44.

Verse 11

Wickedness = pravities (plural) Hebrew. havah = cupidity.

Deceit = Oppression, or violence.

Verse 13

a man = a mortal. Hebrew. "enosh. App-14.

mine equal = as mine equal: i.e. esteemed by David as such; refers to Ahithophel.

My guide: or counselor. Compare 2 Samuel 16:23 and Acts 1:17.

Verse 14

in company = with the multitude. Hebrew. regesh. Occurs only here.

Verse 15

quick = alive. Compare Numbers 16:30-33.

hell. Hebrew. Sheol. App-35. wickedness. Hebrew. raa (plural)

Verse 16

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

Verse 17

pray = meditate.

cry aloud. Hebrew. hamah = to make a noise. Onomatopoetic, like bees, or the cooing of a dove in Ezekiel 7:16. See note on sub-scription.

Verse 18

delivered = plucked (with power). Hebrew. padah. See notes on Exodus 6:6; Exodus 13:13.

my soul = me (emphatic). Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.

in peace. Note Ellipsis: "[and set it] in peace".

many with me = many [in conflict] with me. Figure of speech Ellipsis. App-6.

Verse 19

GOD. Hebrew El. App-4. The mighty Creator. because in conflict with His creatures.

hear = hear me.

afflict them = answer them.

Even, &c. Figure of speech Parenthesis. App-6.

Selah. Connecting the true confidence of David with the false confidence of the ungodly. David"s true confidence was based on the fact that His GOD was the mighty One enduring for ever. "El" here is emphasized by the double accent Pasek, or "note line" each side of it. (App-66.)

Because . . . no changes = With whom are no changes (for the better): i.e. no improvement. See note on "alter" (Leviticus 27:10). Hebrew. halaph. Compare Genesis 35:2.

Verse 20

He: i.e. Ahithophel.

broken his covenant: by his disloyalty.

Verse 21

war was in his heart. Compare 2 Samuel 14:33 with 2 Samuel 15:5, 2 Samuel 15:6. Referring to Psalms 55:19.

Verse 22

Cast, &c. = Commit unto. Quoted in 1 Peter 5:7.

burden = gift, or lot. Here = those very words of Psalms 55:21.

sustain thee = hold thee up.

the righteous = the righteous one (singular)

Verse 23

Bloody and deceitful men = men of bloods and deceit. Genitive of Character. Hebrew bloods = great bloodshed.

half their days. Referring to Absalom"s untimely death.

trust = confide. Hebrew. batah. App-69.

To the chief Musician. See App-64.

upon = relating to.

Jonath-elem-rechokim = The dove of the distant Terebinths. App-65. A pictorial description of David in the wilderness, fleeing from Absalom. Compare verses: Psalms 55:6-8; and the word hamah = to coo (as a dove). See note on "cry aloud" in Psalms 55:17.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 56

Verse 1

Title. Michtam: i.e. Resurgam. See Psalms 56:13. One of six Psalms so called. The first is Psalm 16. App-65.and sub-scription, v. m.

when, &c. See 1 Samuel 21:10; 1 Samuel 27:4; 1 Samuel 29:2-11.

Be merciful = Be gracious, or favourable.

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

man. Hebrew. "enosh. App-14.

would swallow me up = thirst for my blood. Heb, sha"aph, used of wild beasts.

daily = all the day. See Psalms 56:5.

Verse 2

enemies = watchers, or observers.

O Thou Most High. Hebrew. marom, lofty, or exalted (not Elyon).

Verse 3

trust = confide. Hebrew. batah. App-69.

Verse 4

In God. Figure of speech Cycloides. App-6. Compare Psalms 56:10.

flesh. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Part), App-6, for man.

Verse 5

Every day = all the day. See Psalms 56:5.

evil. App-44.

Verse 6

my soul = me. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.

Verse 7

iniquity. Hebrew. "aven.

people = peoples. (No Art.)

Verse 8

tellest = recordest.

wanderings . . . bottle. Figure of speech Paronomasia. App-6. Hebrew. nodi. . . ben"odeka.

Thy bottle. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. App-6. Tears of mourners were thus collected and buried with the dead. Hence often found in ancient tombs.

Thy book. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. App-6.

Verse 9

When I cry unto Thee = In the day of my cry.

for = that.

for me = mine.

Verse 10

In God, &c. Figure of speech Cycloides. App-6. See Psalms 56:4.

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

Verse 11

put my trust = confided. Compare Psalms 56:3.

man = a man. (No Art.) Hebrew. "adam. App-14.

Verse 13

delivered = plucked.

"Wilt not thou . . . ? Figure of Speech. Erotesis. App-6.

In the light of the living = in resurrection life. Hence the title "Michtam". Compare Psalm 16, and other Michtam Psalms. See also: Job 33:30; and Psalms 116:8, Psalms 116:9; where it is "land of the living".

To the chief Musician. See App-64.

Al-taschith = Destroy not. See App-65. The words of David in 1 Samuel 26:9. 2 Samuel 24:16, 2 Samuel 24:17. Same word as in 2 Samuel 1:14. Isaiah 65:8. Compare 1 Chronicles 21:12, 1 Chronicles 21:15.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 57

Verse 1

Title. Michtam = Resurgam. One of the six Psalms so called. See App-65.

when, &c. Compare 1 Samuel 22:1.

the cave. Probably at En-gedi (1 Samuel 24:7, 1 Samuel 24:8), where David probably used the words "Al-taschith". See the sub-scription.

Be merciful = Be gracious, or favourable. Compare Psalms 56:1.

God. Hebrew. Elohim.

be merciful. Figure of speech Epizeuxis, for emphasis.

soul. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.

trusteth in = hath fled for refuge to. Hebrew. hasah. App-69. Same word as "make my refuge" in next line.

Thy wings. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia.

Until, &c.: or, Until one shall have overpast these calamities.

Verse 2

MOST HIGH. See note on Psalms 56:2.

GOD. Hebrew El. App-4.

performeth = bringeth to pass, and perfecteth, or completeth.

all things. Figure of speech Ellipsis (Absolute). Nothing particularized, that we may supply everything. To name one thing might seem to exclude all others. Compare Psalms 138:8.

for me = on my behalf.

Verse 3

swallow me up. See note on Psalms 56:1.

Selah. Connecting and emphasizing by repetition David"s confidence (that God would assuredly send deliverance), with and because of His lovingkindness and truth. See App-66.

mercy = lovingkindness, or grace. Note the Structure "-3. "and "10", above.

Verse 4

men. Hebrew. "adam. App-14.

Verse 5

Be Thou exalted. See the Structure. Figure of speech Cycloides. App-6. See Psalms 57:11. Compare similar Cycloides in Psalms 56:4, Psalms 56:11.

Verse 6

They have digged, &c. Compare Psalms 7:15.

Selah. Connecting the bitterness of his enemies with his assured confidence in God. (App-66.)

Verse 7

My heart. my heart. Figure of speech Epizeuxis (App-6), as in Psalms 57:1. (See the Structure, above; also the Figure of speech Ecphonesis. )

fixed = steadfast. Contrast Psalms 78:37.

Verse 8

Awake. Figure of speech Poeanismos. App-6.

glory. Figure of speech Metonymy (of Effect), put for the tongue or the heart which gives the glory.

will awake early = will awake the dawn.

Verse 9

LORD *. One of the 134 places where the Sopherim altered Jehovah, of the primitive text, to Adonai. See App-32.

people = peoples.

sing = sing praise.

Verse 10

mercy . . . truth. See note on Psalms 57:3.

clouds = skies.

Verse 11

To the chief Musician. See App-64.

Al-taschith = Destroy not. See notes on Title, and Psalms 56:13; also App-65.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 58

Verse 1

Title. Michtam. See App-65.

Do ye indeed . . . ? Figure of Speech. Erotesis. App-6. Render:

When ye should judge with equity, O ye sons of men?"

O congregation: or, O faction. Hebrew. "elem. Occurs only here and in the subscription of Psalm 55 = silent. So human judges are dumb when they ought to speak, and deaf when they ought to hear (Psalms 58:4).

men. Hebrew. "adam. App-14.

Verse 2

wickedness. Hebrew. "avval. Compare App-44.

Ye weigh = Ye weigh out, or, dispense.

Verse 3

wicked = lawless. Hebrew. rasha". App-44.

Verse 6

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

Verse 7

cut in pieces = cut down [like grass].

Verse 9

the thorns. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), App-6, for the fire caused by them (Ecclesiastes 7:6).

Verse 11

the righteous = the righteous one.

He is a God: or, There is a God, judges in the earth [will say]. Note the Introversion in this verse.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 59

Verse 1

To the chief Musician. See App-64.

Al-taschith = Destroy not. See App-65.

Title. Michtam. See App-65.

when, &c. Compare 1 Samuel 19:11.

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

Defend me = set me on high.

Verse 2

iniquity. Hebrew. "aven. App-44.

men. Hebrew, plural of "enosh.

Verse 3

soul. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.

transgression = rebellion. Hebrew. pasha".

sin. Hebrew. chata".

LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

Verse 5

LORD God of hosts = Jehovah Elohim Sabaoth. See note on 1 Samuel 1:3.

heathen = nations.

wicked. Hebrew. "aven. App-44.

transgressors = hypocrites. Hebrew. bagad.

Selah. Connecting the wicked transgressors with their true character as dogs of the Gentiles; and marking off and connecting the two prayers in verses: Psalms 59:1-5, and verses: Psalms 59:11-13. See App-66.

Verse 8

laugh. Compare Psalms 2:4.

Verse 9

Because of his strength: or, O my strength, as in Psalms 59:17.

Verse 10

mercy = lovingkindness, or grace.

prevent = anticipate.

Verse 11

LORD*. One of the 134 places where the Sopherim altered "Jehovah" to "Adonai". App-32.

Verse 12

sin. Hebrew. chata". App-44.

Verse 13

Selah. See note on Psalms 59:5.

Verse 15

wander = prowl about.

grudge: or, stay all night.

Verse 16

power = strength, as in Psalms 59:9.

been = proved.

defence = high tower.

Verse 17

sing = sing praise.

To the chief Musician. See App-64.

upon = relating to.

Shushan-eduth. It is "testimony" relating to the second Passover provided for in Numbers 9:5-14 and acted on in 2 Chronicles, chapter 30. See App-65.) The other of the two Psalms thus used is Psalm 79.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 60

Verse 1

Title. Michtam. App-65.

when, &c. See 2 Samuel 8:13-14.

Aram-naharaim, &c. = Mesopotamia or Syria. See 1 Chronicles 18:5, and note below on "twelve thousand".

twelve thousand. In 2 Samuel 8:13, and 1 Chronicles 18:12, it is David"s and Abishai"s exploit, which was 18,000. Here, it is Joab"s exploit, and his share was 12,000, but he took six months longer in finishing up his task (1 Kings 11:15, 1 Kings 11:16). David"s 22,000 in 1 Chronicles 18:5 were in a Syrian campaign. See notes on 2 Samuel 8:12, 2 Samuel 8:13.

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

Verse 2

broken = made fissures. Occurs only here.

Verse 3

shewed = suffered . . . to see. astonishment: or confusion, or trembling.

Verse 4

the truth here in Psalms. Compare Proverbs 22:21 = certainty, or exact, precise truth. (No Art.)

Selah. Connecting the gift, with the great and important object of it. (App-66.)

Verse 5

hear = answer.

me. Hebrew text reads "us"; but some codices, with four early printed editions, Aramaean, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "me".

Verse 6

hath spoken. Verses 6-9 refer to the promise of the possession of the whole of Canaan, confirmed in 2 Samuel 7:10. David here encourages himself by it.

Shechem . . . Succoth. West and east of Jordan.

Verse 7

Gilead . . . Manasseh. Eastern side.

Ephraim . . . Judah. Western side.

lawgiver. Compare Genesis 49:10. Numbers 21:18. Deuteronomy 33:21.

Verse 8

Moab . . . Edom. Spoken of as the chattels of a conqueror (2 Samuel 8:12-14).

washpot = footbath: i.e. an ignominious vessel.

cast out my shoe. Idiom for taking possession.

Philistia. Syriac reads "over Philistia".

Verse 9

the strong city. Probably Sela or Petra, corresponding with Edom (compare 2 Kings 14:7). David claims the promise of Numbers 24:18.

Verse 10

O God. Some codices omit "O God".

Verse 11

help from trouble = succor out of trouble.

help of man = salvation or deliverance of man. Compare "save", Psalms 60:5.

Verse 12

To the chief Musician. See App-64.

upon = relating to.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 61

Verse 1

Neginah = smitings. App-65.

Title. of David: i.e. relating to David and to the true David.

Verse 2

the earth: or, the land.

that is higher than I = which will prove higher.

Verse 3

shelter = refuge.

Verse 4

tabernacle. Hebrew. "ohel, tent (App-40.), i.e. David"s tent on Mount Zion. The Psalm probably refers to Absalom"s rebellion.

trust = flee for refuge. Hebrew. hasah. App-69.

covert = secret place.

wings. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. App-6.

Selah. Connecting the confidence with the only true ground of it. This is the central member of the Psalm. See the Structure above.

Verse 5

fear = revere.

Thy name = Thee. See note on Psalms 20:1.

Verse 6

many generations = from generation to generation.

Verse 7

abide = remain [enthroned].

prepare = number, or appoint, as in Jonah 1:17.

mercy = lovingkindness, or grace.

Verse 8

To the chief Musician. See App-64.

to = for.

Jeduthun. A precentor appointed by David, by name Ethan (see App-65), afterward called Jeduthun = confession (1 Chronicles 15:17-19; 1 Chronicles 16:41; 1 Chronicles 25:1-6). Other Jeduthun Psalms are Psalm 38 and Psalm 76; in all three "vows" find a place.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 62

Verse 1

Title. A Psalm. Hebrew mizmor, See App-65. A sequel to Psalm 61.

Truly = Only, or surely. Occurs six times in thisPsalm: "truly" in Psalms 62:1; "only " in Psalms 62:2, Psalms 62:4, Psalms 62:5, Psalms 62:6; "surely" in Psalms 62:9. Occurs four times in Psalm 38, another Jeduthun. my soul = I myself (emph.). Hebrew nephesh. App-13.

waiteth = [waiteth in] silence; or, is become silent. See Psalms 37:7.

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4. I.

From. Some codices, with Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "For from".

Verse 2

only = same word as "truly", Psalms 62:1.

salvation. Repeated for emphasis.

defence = high tower.

Verse 3

imagine mischief. Occurs only here. Probably = assault, or rise against.

man. Hebrew. "ish. App-14.

Verse 4

from his excellency = from his dignity or high rank. Royal rank is implied.

Selah. Connecting the enmity of his foes with his trust in God. See App-66.

Verse 7

In God is = Upon God [depends] my salvation.

Verse 8

Trust = Confide. Hebrew. batah. App-69.

at all times, Septuagint and Vulg, read "all ye assembly of the People".

Selah. Connecting his trust in God with the nothingness of man. See App-66.

Verse 9

Surely. Same word as "truly", Psalms 62:1.

men of low degree = sons of "adam. App-14.

vanity = a breath.

men of high degree = sons of "Ish. App-14.

altogether = together.

Verse 10

heart. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Subject), for the affections connected with it.

Verse 11

once; Twice. Compare Job 33:14; Job 40:5. Put for many times.

power = strength.

Verse 12

LORD*. One of the 134 alterations of Jehovah to Adonai by the Sopherim. App-32.

mercy = grace.

Thou renderest, &c. Quoted in Matthew 16:27. Romans 2:6. 1 Corinthians 3:8. 2 Timothy 4:14. Revelation 2:23; Revelation 20:12, Revelation 20:13; Revelation 22:12.

every man. Hebrew. "ish. App-14.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 63

Verse 1

Title. A Psalm. Hebrew. mizmor. App-65.

when, &c. See 1 Samuel 22:5; 1 Samuel 23:14-16.

My soul = I myself. Hebrew. nephesh.

longeth = fainteth. Occurs nowhere else.

In. Some codices, with Syriac, read "like".

thirsty = weary.

Verse 3

lovingkindness = grace.

praise = commend, or extol. Hebrew. ahabah; used only by David and Solomon.

Verse 6

And. Supply Ellipsis by reading "[I will] meditate".

Verse 7

wings. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. App-6.

rejoice: or, rest.

Verse 8

followeth. Supply Ellipsis by reading "[cleaveth to and] followeth".

hard = close.

hand. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia.

Verse 9

to destroy it. As Ahithophel did (2 Samuel 17:1-3).

the lower parts: i.e. to Sheol.

Verse 10

foxes = jackals.

Verse 11

To the chief Musician. See App-64.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 64

Verse 1

Title. A Psalm. Hebrew. mizmor. App-65.

of David = relating to David and the true David.

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

prayer = musing.

Verse 2

Hide. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), for protect.

secret counsel = conspiracy (2 Samuel 16:20-22; 2 Samuel 17:1-4).

wicked. Hebrew. ra"a".

insurrection. The former, secret; this, open.

iniquity. Hebrew. "avah.

Verse 4

shoot. fear. Figure of speech Paronomasia. Hebrew. yoruhu. . yira"u.

Verse 5

evil. Hebrew. ra"a". App-44.

Verse 6

iniquities. Hebrew. "aval. App-44.

Verse 7

shoot. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. App-6.

Verse 8

men. Hebrew. "adam. App-14.

shall fear. Some codices, with six early printed editions, read "will see".

Verse 10

The righteous = A righteous one.

trust = make his refuge. Hebrew. hasah. App-69.

To the chief Musician. See App-64.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 65

Verse 1

Title. A Psalm. Hebrew. mizmor. App-65.

Song. Hebrew. shir. App-65.

of David = by, or relating to David and the true David.

waiteth. As in Psalms 62:1. Israel"s silent waiting is now passed on to Zion. All is silent there as yet.

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

Sion. See App-68. David"s tabernacle was there. This spelling with "S" comes through the Septuagint and Vulgate Hebrew is always "Z".

Verse 2

flesh. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Part), for all mankind: i.e. the people.

Verse 3

Iniquities = iniquitous words. Hebrew. "avah. App-44.

transgressions. Hebrew. pasha". App-44.

purge them away = cover them by atonement.

Verse 4

Blessed = Happy. Figure of speech Beatitudo. App-63.

Thou choosest. Only those whom He calls can truly worship. See Leviticus 1:1, Leviticus 1:2.

courts. Not the temple courts, but David"s tabernacle on Zion.

holy. See note on Exodus 3:5.

temple. Hebrew. heykal = palace.

Verse 5

confidence. Hebrew. batah. See App-69.

Verse 6

Which = Who.

Verse 7

the people = peoples.

Verse 8

and evening. Supply Ellipsis from preceding clause: "and [the incomings of the] evening".

to rejoice = to shout for joy.

Verse 9

river. Hebrew. peleg. Always plural, except here; and always connected with a garden. See notes on Psalms 1:3 and Proverbs 21:1. Compare Revelation 22:1, Revelation 22:2.

Verse 10

makest it soft = dissolvest it. Until the early rains fall, the ground is as hard as a rock.

Verse 13

To the chief Musician. See App-64.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 66

Verse 1

Title. Song. Hebrew. shir. See App-65.

Psalm. Hebrew. mizmor. See App-65.

ye lands = the earth; earth being put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Subject), for its inhabitants.

Verse 2

Make His praise glorious. Aram, and Syriac read "Celebrate the glory of His praise".

Verse 4

the earth. See note on "ye lands", Psalms 66:1.

sing = sing psalms.

Selah. Marking the Structure by showing that (verses: Psalms 66:5-7) corresponds with (Psalms 66:16); and connecting the exhortation of verses: Psalms 66:1-4 with the reason for it in Psalms 66:5. See App-66.

Verse 5

Come and see. Note the correspondence of Psalms 66:16, "Come and hear".

children = sons.

men. Hebrew. "adam. App-14.

Verse 6

the sea: i.e. the Red Sea.

the flood: i.e. the river Jordan.

Verse 7

Selah. Repeating the exhortation to praise, and connecting the two halves of the Psalm. (App-66.)

Verse 8

our God. Some codices, with one early printed edition, Aramaean, and Syriac, omit "our".

people = peoples.

Verse 9

our soul. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13. Some codices, with seven early printed editions, read plural

feet. So some codices, with three early printed editions; others read "foot".

Verse 11

affliction = a heavy burden: i.e. in Egypt. Hebrew. mu"akah. Occurs only here.

Verse 12

hast caused = didst cause.

men. Hebrew. "enosh. App-14.

our heads = us. Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Part).

heads. So some codices, with three early printed editions, Septuagint, and Vulgate; other codices read "head".

wealthy place. Aramaean, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulg, read "freedom". Compare Psalms 18:19.

Verse 14

Which. Figure of speech Ellipsis (App-6) = "which [vows]".

uttered = opened. Figure of speech Ellipsis (App-6) = "opened [and vowed]".

Verse 15

offer = prepare. Hebrew. "asah. App-43.

Selah. Connecting verses: Psalms 66:5-7 and Psalms 66:16. See note on Psalms 66:4, and App-66.

Verse 16

my soul = me (emph.) Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.

Verse 18

iniquity. Hebrew. "aven. App-44.

The LORD*. One of the 134 places where the Sopherim say they altered Jehovah to Adonai. App-32.

hear = answer.

Verse 20

turned away = turned away [from Himself]. Figure of speech Ellipsis. App-6.

mercy = lovingkindness, or grace.

To the chief Musician. See App-64.

on = relating to.

Neginoth = smitings: i.e. the smitings of Israel"s enemies by God. See App-65.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 67

Verse 1

Title. Psalm. Hebrew. mizmor. App-65.

Song. Hebrew. shir. App-65. Some codices, with Septuagint and Vulgate, add "of David".

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

merciful = favourable, or gracious.

Selah. Connecting the prayer (Psalms 67:1) with the object of it (Psalms 67:2). See App-66.

Verse 2

way = dealings. See note on Psalms 103:7.

saving health = salvation, or saving help.

Verse 3

the people = peoples. (No Art.)

Verse 4

the nations. (No Art.)

govern = gently lead.

Selah. Connecting the righteous rule of God of Psalms 67:4 with renewed praise for it in Psalms 67:5. See App-66.

Verse 6

God . . . God. Figure of speech Epizeuxis. App-6.

Verse 7

God shall bless us. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

the earth. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), for its inhabitants. (No Art.)

To the chief Musician. See App-64.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 68

Verse 1

Title. Psalm. Hebrew. mizmor. App-65.

Song. Hebrew. shir. It was written originally for use at the going up of the Ark to Zion 951, BC, a Sabbatical year (2Sa 6and 1Ch 15; see note on Title of Psa 24); but, as it celebrates, among other things, the deliverance from Egypt, it was afterward appointed for public use at the Feast of the Passover. See notes on the sub-scription, and compare Psalms 68:1 and Psalms 68:4.

Let God arise. The Divine formula at the setting forth of the Ark. In the prayer (Numbers 10:35), "Rise up Jehovah"; but here, God (Elohim.), because in connection with enemies.

Let. Some codices, with one early printed edition, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "And let".

Verse 2

driven away = driven about.

wicked = lawless. Hebrew. rasha". App-44.

Verse 3

let. Some codices, with five early printed editions, Aramaean, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "and let".

Verse 4

JAH. See App-4. Compare Exodus 15:2. The Divine Titles enrich this Psalm: Elohim occurs twenty-six times, because the Psalm has to do with the scattering of His enemies. The first occurrence of JAH is in Exodus 15:2, and in the Psalms this first occurrence is in the second, or Exodus book.

Verse 5

holy habitation: i.e. which David had prepared for the Ark on Zion.

Verse 6

setteth the solitary in families = bringeth absent ones home.

the rebellious = rebellious ones.

dwell = have [ever] dwelt.

Verse 7

when Thou wentest forth: i.e. from Egypt. The whole deliverance of Israel is here rehearsed. See the sub-scription. For use at the Passover.

Selah. Connecting the first going up of the Ark in the wilderness with its accompaniments. See App-66.

Verse 8

dropped: i.e. dropped [moisture].

Verse 10

Thy congregation = Thy living ones, or living host.

the poor = the humbled or oppressed one.

Verse 11

The LORD *. One of the 134 places where Jehovah was changed by the Sopherim to Adonai. See App-32; also verses: Psalms 68:17, Psalms 68:19, Psalms 68:22, Psalms 17:26, Psalms 17:32.

company = host, or army.

those = the women. See note on Psalms 68:25. This is the women"s part. Compare 1 Samuel 18:6, 1 Samuel 18:7. Compare Deborah.

published it. Always used of good news.

Verse 12

Kings, &c. Verses Psalms 12:13, are the words of the women.

did flee apace. The rendering of the Figure of speech Epizeuxis. Hebrew "did flee, did flee". Compare Judges 5:19; Judges 7:25.

tarried at home. Compare 1 Samuel 30:21-25.

Verse 13

pots. Hebrew Dual, the two [or between the] brickkilns: i.e. in Egypt. Not dirty vessels according to the Rabbinical commentators, but dirty places.

yet shall ye be. Referring to the deliverance and subsequent glory.

Verse 14

the ALMIGHTY. Hebrew Shaddai. App-4.

in it: i.e. in His inheritance.

was white, &c. Supply Figure of speech Ellipsis thus, "was as [when He scatters] snow in Salmon": i.e. scatters by dispersing, as snow is melted away.

Salmon. Occurs only here and Judges 9:48.

Verse 15

hill = mountain. See note on Ezekiel 28:16.

Verse 16

Why . . . ? Figure of speech Erotesis. App-6.

leap = look askance at, or envy. Hebrew. razad. Occurs only here. By the Figure of speech Prosopopoeia, the other mountains are spoken of as envying Zion.

This is. Omit these italics, and punctuate thus: "Why will ye envy, O ye high hills, the hill Jehovah desired for His abode".

desireth. Compare Psalms 78:67, Psalms 78:68; Psalms 132:13; and 1 Kings 11:32. Nehemiah 1:9.

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

Verse 17

chariots. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia.

twenty thousand. Hebrew twice ten thousand thousands.

even thousands. Hebrew thousands repeated: i.e. upon thousands. is among them, &c. This line, according to the primitive orthography in the division of the word, reads; "Jehovah hath come from Sinai into the Sanctuary". See Ginsburg, Int., pp 161, 162. Or, the printed text may stand with the Ellipsis supplied thus: "Jehovah among them (i.e. the angels and chariots) [hath come from] Sinai into the Sanctuary".

holy. See note on Exodus 3:5.

Verse 18

Thou. Is this the poor one of Psalms 68:10?

ascended on high = gone up to the high [mountain: i.e. Zion]; referring to the Ark; but a type of Christ"s ascension, as is clear from Ephesians 4:8.

led = led in procession.

captivity. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), for captives.

received gifts for men. The Hebrew lakah has a twofold meaning, i.e. receiving and giving. Here the Ellipsis must be supplied by the second, "received [and given] gifts among (or for) men". In Ephesians 4:8 the Ellipsis must be supplied by the former, "Thou hast [received] and given gifts among (or for) men". "Among" is one of the recognized renderings of Beth (= B) with a plural noun. (See Psalms 99:6. 2 Samuel 15:31.)

men. Hebrew. "adam. App-14.

Yea. Figure of speech Epitrechon. .

for the rebellious also. This is a foreshadowing of true grace.

THE LORD. Hebrew Jah, as in Psalms 68:4.

dwell. Hebrew. shakan. See note on "placed" (Genesis 3:24) = dwell as in a tabernacle, the Ark being the symbol of His presence. Compare Exodus 25:8; Exodus 29:45, Exodus 29:46. Joshua 18:1; Joshua 22:19. 1 Kings 6:13. It is from this verb that we have Shekinah.

Verse 19

THE GOD. Hebrew El (with Art.) App-4.

of our = "[Who is] our".

salvation. Some codices, with one early printed edition, Septuagint, and Vulgate, read "salvations" (plural) = our great salvation.

Selah. Connecting the exhortation to bless Jehovah (Psalms 68:19) with the reason for it (Psalms 68:20). See App-66.

Verse 20

He That is. These italics may be omitted, or otherwise supplied. "The El [we have] is the El", &c.

GOD the Lord. Hebrew. Jehovah.Adonai.

the issues from = means of escape from. (No Art.)

death. With the Art., as in Psalms 116:15. The reference is to Exodus 12:12, Exodus 12:13, Exodus 12:29.

Verse 21

trespasses. Hebrew. "asham. App-44.

Verse 22

I will bring. Figure of speech Epizeuxis, for emphasis = I will surely bring.

My people. Supply the Ellipsis from the context: "I will surely bring [mine enemies] from" wherever they may have fled, bring them again for judgment; the object being stated in the next verse. See the Structure.

Verse 23

dipped. Aramaean, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulg, read "bathed". Compare Isaiah 63:3, Revelation 19:13.

dogs in the same. Supply the Ellipsis from the context: "dogs [may lick] the same".

Verse 24

goings = progression, or procession. Compare 2Sa 6; 1 Chronicles 15:16-21, where the order is given as in verses: Psalms 68:24, Psalms 68:25 here.

goings. Figure of speech Epizeuxis.

in = into.

Verse 25

went before. Compare 1 Chronicles 15:16-21.

followed after = behind.

Among = between.

damsels. Hebrew. "dlamoth : i.e. the females of Psalms 68:11. See App-65.

timbrels = drums. Hebrew. toph. See note on Exodus 15:20.

Verse 26

congregations = assemblies.

from. Supply the Ellipsis, "[Ye that are] from, or of, the fountain of Israel".

fountain: i.e. the patriarch Abraham, or, Israel. Ginsburg suggests "the called of Israel".

Verse 27

Benjamin. The least of the tribes, and last on the jasper stone of Aaron"s breastplate. Compare Exodus 28:20. Jasper is the first Stone in the foundations of Revelation 21:19.

and their council = their company.

Zebulun. Four tribes named: two in the extreme south, and two in the extreme north.

Verse 28

Thy God hath commanded. Some codices, with Aramaean, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "Command, O God".

strength = strength (for defence). Hebrew. "azaz.

Strengthen, &c. "Strengthen, O God, the strength which Thou hast wrought for us from Thy temple". Connecting with this line the first words of Psalms 68:29.

Verse 29

Because of Thy temple. See note above.

at Jerusalem = unto Jerusalem (commencing a new line) shall kings bring presents, &c.

Verse 30

the company of spearmen = the wild beasts of the reeds.

The multitude of the bulls = the herd of mighty oxen. Compare Jeremiah 46:20, Jeremiah 46:21.

people = peoples.

pieces of silver: i.e. tribute money.

Scatter Thou. So it should read with Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, but Hebrew text reads "He hath scattered".

Verse 31

Ethiopia. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Subject), for Ethiopians.

stretch out her hands. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), either for bringing presents, as in Psalms 68:29, or for prayer, or for pledging loyalty with an oath.

Verse 32

Selah. Connecting the exhortation to praise with Him Who is to be praised, verses: Psalms 68:33-35. See App-66.

rideth. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia.

of old. Compare 2 Peter 3:5 and 2 Peter 3:6 : referring to "the world that then was".

His voice. Omit the italics, and then we have the Figure of speech Epizeuxis, "His voice a voice of strength".

Verse 35

Thou art terrible. Supply Ellipsis thus: "[To be feared] is God from His Sanctuary".

Thy holy places. Septuagint and Vulg, read the singular. It is the plural of majesty.

holy. See note on Exodus 3:6.

power. Hebrew, plural = mighty, or abundant power.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 69

Verse 1

Title. A Psalm. No Hebrew for this.

of David. Relating to the true David, Israel"s Redeemer. Psalm 22 is Christ as the sin offering; Psalm 40 as the whole burnt offering ; and this, Psalm 69 as the trespass offering. Verse prefers to John 15:25; verses: Psalms 69:14-20 refer to Gethsemane (Matthew 26:36-45); Psalms 69:21 to the Cross (Matthew 27:34, Matthew 27:48. John 19:29); verses: Psalms 69:22-28 to Romans 11:9, Romans 11:10; Romans 69:25 to Judas (Acts 1:20).

God. Hebrew. Elohim.

waters. Put by Figure of speech Hypocatastasis (App-6) for great troubles.

come in unto my soul: i.e. threaten my life.

my soul = me (emphatic). Hebrew. nephesh, App-13.

Verse 2

sink = have sunk.

mire. See note on waters, Psalms 69:1.

Verse 4

hate me without a cause. Compare Psalms 35:19. Quoted in John 15:25.

mighty. The Syriac, by supplying the letter Ayin, reads "stronger than my bones", thus completing the alternation of this verse.

Then. Ginsburg suggests "I" (emphatic) instead of "Then".

Verse 5

sins. Hebrew. "asham. App-44.

Verse 6

Lord GOD. Hebrew Adonai Jehovah. App-4. .

God of Israel. See note on Isaiah 29:23.

Verse 8

a stranger. Compare John 1:11.

children = sons.

Verse 9

the zeal, &c. Quoted as fulfilled in John 2:17.

the reproaches. Quoted in Romans 15:3.

Verse 10

I wept, and chastened my soul. The Septuagint reads "I humbled my soul".

Verse 11

sackcloth. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), for mourning attire.

proverb. Compare John 8:48. Matthew 27:63.

Verse 12

the song = the mocking song.

Verse 13

LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

in an acceptable time: i.e. at the time Thou pleasest.

multitude = abundance, or plenitude.

mercy = lovingkindness, or grace.

Hear = answer.

lovingkindness = grace.

Verse 18

redeem. Hebrew. ga"al. See Ex. note on Psalms 6:6.

Verse 20

some. Aramaean, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulg, read "one".

Verse 21

They gave. Fulfilled in Matthew 27:34, Matthew 27:48. Mark 15:23, Mark 15:36. Luke 23:36. John 19:28-30.

gave = put. See note on Matthew 27:34.

gall. = something bitter, probably the poppy. Hebrew. r"osh. In Deuteronomy 29:18; Deuteronomy 32:33, it is rendered "venom"; in Job 20:16, "poison"; in Hosea 10:4, "hemlock".

for = into.

meat = choice food. Occurs only here. A kindred form in 2 Samuel 13:5, 2 Samuel 13:7, 2 Samuel 13:10.

Verse 22

Let, &c. Imprecation. Suitable for a dispensation of Law and Judgment; not for this Day of Grace. See Romans 11:9, Romans 11:10.

Verse 25

Let, &c. Quoted in Acts 1:20.

habitation = palace: a place surrounded by a wall. Occurs only here in Psalms.

Verse 26

those whom Thou hast wounded = Thy wounded ones.

Verse 27

Add. Referring to the reading in Psalms 69:26.

iniquity. Hebrew "avah. App-44. Put here by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Effect), for the punishment deserved by it.

Verse 28

the living = life. See note on Leviticus 18:5.

Verse 29

poor = afflicted. Hebrew "ani. See note on Proverbs 6:11. Not the same word as in Psalms 69:33. Constantly used of Christ in the Psalms. Compare Psalms 22:24 (afflicted); Psalms 34:6, Psalms 35:10; Psalms 40:17; Psalms 70:5; Psalms 109:16, Psalms 109:22.

Let. Omit.

Verse 30

praise. The sufferings never mentioned without praise. Compare Psalm 22. Isa. 53, &c.

name : i. e. God Himself. Compare Psalms 20:1.

of. Genitive of Apposition. App-17.

with a song. Hebrew. beshir. Figure of speech Paronomasia with mishshor, an ox, in Psalms 69:31.

Verse 31

better. Praise is the truest sacrifice.

an ox. See note on "song" (Psalms 69:30).

horns. Showing full age; not under three years (Genesis 15:9).

and. So some codices, with two early printed editions, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate; but not in current printed Hebrew text.

hoofs = divided hoof, showing it to be ceremonially clean (Leviticus 11:3).

Verse 32

and be glad = they rejoice.

heart. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the Part), for the whole being.

shall live: i.e. live again in resurrection. See note on Leviticus 18:5.

God. In Authorized Version, 1611, this was printed "good". First printed "God" in ed. 1617.

Verse 33

poor = helpless. Hebrew "ebyon. See note on Proverbs 6:11.

Verse 34

heaven and earth. See note on Genesis 14:19.

Verse 35

Zion. See App-68.

will build. This is prophecy; for David was "a prophet" (Acts 2:30).

dwell, &c. Not merely dwell and possess, but inherit and hand down.

have it in possession = inherit it. Note the Introversion.

Verse 36

To the chief Musician. See App-64.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 70

Verse 1

Title. of David = relating to David.

to bring to remembrance: what is written in Psalms 40:13-17. Repeated here to complete the Structure of this second book (see p. 759).

Make haste. Supply. Ellipsis (App-6) from Psalms 40:13; "Be pleased".

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

Verse 2

Let them. Note the repeated alternation here.

my soul = me (emphatic). Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.

Verse 3

That say. Some codices, with Aramaean, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "Who are saying to me". Compare Psalms 40:15.

Aha, aha. Figure of speech Epizeuxis. App-6.

Verse 4

rejoice. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of the Subject), for "have cause to rejoice", &c.

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4. Some codices, with Aram, and Vulgate, read "Jehovah".

Verse 5

poor = wretched, or oppressed. Hebrew. "anah. See note on Proverbs 6:11.

O LORD. Some codices, with six early printed editions and Syriac, read "O my God". Compare Psalms 40:17.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 71

Verse 1

LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

do I put my trust = have I fled for refuge. Hebrew. hasah. App-69.

confusion = shame.

Verse 2

ear. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. App-6.

Verse 3

strong habitation = rock of habitation. Hebrew. zur, a fortified place. Some codices, with six early printed editions, Aramaean, Septuagint, and Vulgate, read "a rock of refuge".

whereunto I may continually resort, &c. Septuagint reads "a place of security to save me".

rock. Hebrew. sela". See note on Psalms 18:1, Psalms 18:2. Exodus 17:6. Deuteronomy 32:13.

Verse 4

Deliver = Cause me to escape.

the wicked = lawless one. Hebrew. rasha". App-44.

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

Verse 5

hope. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), for the object of hope.

Lord GOD. Hebrew Adonai Jehovah. App-4.

trust = confidence. Hebrew. batah. App-69.

Verse 6

from the womb. Compare Jeremiah 1:5. Some have supposed that this Psalm was written by Jeremiah. See note on Psalms 71:22. But even then it points to Christ.

Verse 7

I am = I have become.

art. Supply the Ellipsis, "hast been".

Verse 10

my soul = me (emphatic). Hebrew. nephesh.

Verse 15

the numbers. Compare Psalms 40:5.

Verse 16

strength = strengths. Plural of majesty = great strength.

Verse 18

Now also = Yea also.

when I am old and grayheaded = to old age and gray hairs.

Thy strength = Thine arm; "arm" being put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), App-6, for the wonders wrought by it.

every one that is to come. A special reading called. Sevir (App-34) reads "all who are to come".

Verse 19

who is like unto Thee. This is the cry of all God"s saints. See note on Exodus 15:11.

Verse 20

quicken me again = make me alive again.

bring me up again: i.e. in resurrection.

Verse 22

with = with the aid of.

sing = sing praise.

Holy One of Israel. Occurs only three times in the Psalms (here, Psalms 78:41; Psalms 89:18). In Isaiah we find it thirty times. In Jeremiah twice (Psalms 50:29; Psalms 51:5). See note on Psalms 78:41.

Verse 23

redeemed. Hebrew. padah. See note on Exodus 13:13 with Exodus 6:6.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 72

Verse 1

Title. for Solomon. Not of, but concerning. See Epilogue by David for his son Solomon, and for his "Greater Son", the Messiah. Written after Solomon"s second investiture, 1 Chronicles 29:23 (921 B. C). The year before David"s death.

the king: i.e. David himself.

judgments = just decisions (of David regarding Solomon).

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

righteousness: i.e. in all his (Solomon"s) judgments, according to 1 Kings 3:5-9. 1 Chronicles 29:19, and 1 Chronicles 28:5, 1 Chronicles 28:7.

king"s son = Solomon; but to be yet fulfilled in Christ.

Verse 2

judge, &c. = rule in righteousness.

poor = oppressed (plural) See note on Psalms 70:5.

judgment = justice.

Verse 3

peace = prosperity.

Verse 4

judge = vindicate.

children = sons.

Verse 6

like rain. Compare 2 Samuel 23:4.

Verse 7

the righteous. Some codices, with Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "righteousness".

Verse 8

from sea to sea. From the Mediterranean to the Persian Gulf.

the river: i.e. the Euphrates. Same Figure of speech as above.

Verse 9

lick the dust. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of the Adjunct), App-6, for utter subjugation.

Verse 10

Tarshish. On the west. See note on 1 Kings 10:22.

isles = coastlands, or maritime countries.

Sheba, &c. On the east and south.

offer gifts = bring near their presents. App-43.

Verse 12

the needy = a helpless one. Hebrew. "ebyon. See note on Proverbs 6:11.

Verse 13

poor = impoverished. Hebrew. dal. See note on Proverbs 6:11.

souls. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.

Verse 14

redeem. Hebrew. ga"al. See notes on Exodus 6:6; Exodus 13:13.

their soul = them, or their life. Hebrew. nephesh.

Verse 15

he shall live. The accent (rebia) on "he" marks it as emphatic, and as to be distinguished from the plurals of the preceding verses, and rendered "they", as it is in Revised Version See the Structure, and note the members "2-4" and "12-14", which treat of Messiah"s goodness to the poor. It is in Psalms 72:10 and in Psalms 72:15 that we have them, and their gifts to Him. He, the Head, delivers and saves them; and they, in Psalms 72:15, bring to Him a liberal hand, a praying heart, and a praising tongue.

live = live for ever. See note on Leviticus 18:5.

given, &c. Solomon the type (1 Kings 10:2, 1 Kings 10:10; 2 Chronicles 9:1). Fulfilment in Christ the Antitype.

gold. Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Species), "gold" being put for precious gifts. Compare Isaiah 60:6.

for = to.

daily = all the day.

Verse 16

handful = abundance.

corn = fine corn.

Verse 17

And men shall be blessed in him: All nations shall call him blessed = Yea, all nations shall be blessed in him shall call him happy. "Blessed" is not the same word as in the preceding line. Hebrew "ashar, cognate with "ashrey. See App-63.

in him. Thus confirming the promise to Abraham. See Genesis 12:3; Genesis 18:18; Genesis 22:18; Genesis 26:4; Genesis 28:14.

Verse 18

Blessed, &c. This doxology closes the second book of the Psalms. Hebrew. barak, not "asher.

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

God. Some codices omit "Elohim" here, with Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate.

Verse 19

name = self. See note on Psalms 20:1.

filled, &c. Compare Numbers 14:21.

Verse 20

are ended = are accomplished. When this Psalm is realized, all prophecy concerning Israel will be fulfilled: according to Daniel 9:24, and see 2 Samuel 23:1, where compare the title, "son of Jesse". This Third Book has to do with the Sanctuary; as the First Book (1-41) had to do with Man; and the Second Book (42-72) had to do with Israel.