Christian Churches of God


No. F019_1






Commentary on The Psalms

Part I:

The Genesis Book

(Edition 1.0 20230603-20230603)

Psalms 1-41



Christian Churches of God

PO Box 369,  WODEN  ACT 2606,  AUSTRALIA






(Copyright © 2023 Wade Cox; Diane Flanagan; Randy Hook; Cherie Willett)



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Psalms Part 1: The Genesis Book


As we say in the Introduction, the Theology of Israel is clearly reflected in its Psalter of the Psalms.  It concerns the Council of the Elohim as the controlling entity of the Heavenly Host, operating as sons of God.  This important structure within the Psalms has not so far been properly addressed on any systematic basis by any of the Christian sects.  We will now deal with the structure as coherently as possible. The Psalms follow the structure of the theology of the Bible and reflect God's Plan. The Psalms reflect the Creation of God and the future of mankind as Elohim, as sons of God, as with the Host (Ps. 82:6; Jn. 10:34-36).


The Companion Bible: Bullinger’s Notes to the Psalms




* In the first Book of the Psalms the leading thought corresponds with that of the first Book of the Pentateuch. The counsels of God are shown from the beginning to the end in relation to MAN.


As Genesis begins with the Divine blessing on Man (1. 28), so Psalm 1 opens with "Blessed is the man". All blessedness for man is shown to consist in subjection to, and occupation with, God's Law. It is the Tree of Life to him; and, meditating on this, he becomes like a well-watered tree in the Paradise of God.

But, in Gen. 3, Man rebelled against that Law: and Ps. 2 describes the consequences of that rebellion; while Ps. 3 takes its title from one who rebelled against God's King. The ruin can be repaired only by "THE MAN Christ Jesus" (the Seed of the woman, Gen. 3. 15) : and in the Psalms of this first Book (the third section) we see Him in His atoning work, which alone sets man again in the blessedness which he had lost.


The first Book consists of forty-one Psalms. The central Psalm is 21, which sets forth the eternal life and blessedness of God's King. All that have titles (37) are David's—the man of God's choice.


Of the Divine Titles, Jehovah occurs 279 times, and Elohim only 48 times, 9 of which are joined with Jehovah. (See Ap. 4.) Note also the references to the events, &c, of Genesis in this first Book. (See Ap. 63. V.)


† Pss. 1 and 2 are linked together by having no Titles; and by Ps. 1 opening, and Ps. 2 closing


with "Blessed".


The first or GENESIS book is divided into three sections, which (on p. 721) are stated thus:—

The First (Pss. 1-8) concerning "MAN".

The Second (Pss. 9-15) concerning "THE MAN OF THE EARTH" (the Antichrist).

The Third (Pss. 16-41) concerning "THE MAN CHRIST JESUS'" (the Messiah).


‡ Pss. 9 and 10 are linked together by having an irregular alphabet running acrostically through the two. The alphabet is broken and irregular, like the "times of trouble", "the great tribulation", of which they speak.


|| Ps. 16 is the first Mictam Psalm. The others are Pss. 56-60. See Ap. 65. xii.

§ Ps. 32 is the first Maschil Psalm, denoting instruction.





Psalm 1

1:1  Blessed is the man who walks not in the counsel of the wicked, nor stands in the way of sinners, nor sits in the seat of scoffers;  2 but his delight is in the law of the LORD, and on his law he meditates day and night. 3He is like a tree planted by streams of water, that yields its fruit in its season, and its leaf does not wither. In all that he does, he prospers. 4The wicked are not so, but are like chaff which the wind drives away.  5Therefore the wicked will not stand in the judgment, nor sinners in the congregation of the righteous; 6for the LORD knows the way of the righteous, but the way of the wicked will perish.


Intent of Psalm 1

1:1-3 blessings for keeping the Law- prosperity of the righteous. (Blessed Lit. O how happy, comp. Ps. 119). The intent of the first psalm of  the first book of the psalms (a wisdom psalm); in the Genesis book, focuses on the  blessings of God for keeping His law (see also Jer. 17:5-8).  The importance of keeping the law is seen in Deuteronomy 6:4-9 in the Shema. For more information see the (see The Shema (No. 002B) and The Law of God (No. L1)).

We see we are to be judged on God’s law, as in Joshua 1:8 and Psalm 119:23.

1:4-5 Consequences of Sin of the ungodly

All men sin and fall short of the glory of God. Like chaff they are blown away in threshing. Through repentance we can restore our relationship with God the Father and have a part of the Plan of Salvation (No. 001A).

(See also The First Commandment: The Sin of Satan (No. 153); The Doctrine of Original Sin Part 1 The Garden of Eden (No.246); Repentance and Baptism (No. 052).)

Just as individuals can sin in the transgression of God's Law (L1) (see 1Jn. 3:4) so too nations sin and receive the consequences of their actions and choices. For more information see (The Blessings and the Curses (No. 075)). Because of Sin they will face the Second Resurrection and the Great White Throne Judgment (No. 143B) and possibly the Second Death (No. 143C) at the end of the Second Resurrection.

1:6 God’s Omniscience knows the way of the righteous  and the ungodly.

God the Father, Eloah knows the end from the beginning. He is the one and only True God. It is only through knowing the one true God (and Christ whom He sent Jn 17:3) and Worshipping Him on the correct days and keeping His Law that we can be blessed and inherit Eternal Life (No. 133); becoming a spirit being in the Resurrections (see The God We Worship (No. 002)).


God alone is immortal (1Tim. 6:16). He is the Most High God (Gen. 14:18; Num. 24:16; Deut. 32:8; Mk. 5:7) and the One True God (Jn. 17:3; 1Jn. 5:20). He is Omniscient (Isaiah 46:10, 48:3-6, Isaiah 66:18). For more information see (The Angel and Abraham's Sacrifice (No. 071).


We see Psalm 1 and 2 are linked together by having no titles. Psalm 1:1 opens with blessed is the man and Psalm 2 closes with blessed ….


From Bullinger’s App 65 VI. 


The word rendered "blessed" in the "Beatitudes" is not always "barak," to bless; but 'ashrey, happinesses.  Its first occurrence is Deut. 33:29.  It is the plural of majesty or accumulation, and means "O the happinesses", or, "O the great happiness", or "O How happy".


'Ashrey occurs twenty-six times in the book of Psalms.  It is translated "blessed" nineteen times, and "happy" seven times.  In the list below, these latter are marked with an asterisk (*).


The following is the complete list :

Pss. 1:1, 2:12; 32:1, 2; 33:12; 34:8; 40:4; 41:1; 65:4; 84:4, 5, 12; 89:15; 94:12; 106:3; 112:1; 119:1, 2; 127:5*; 128:1, 2*; 127:8*, 9*; 144:15*, 15*; 146:5*.


The word is distributed in the five books of the Psalms as follows:  Book I, eight times; Book II, once; Book III, four times; Book IV, twice; Book V, eleven times; making twenty-six in all.


Psalm 2

2:1  Why do the nations conspire, and the peoples plot in vain? 2The kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers take counsel together, against the LORD and his anointed, saying, 3"Let us burst their bonds asunder, and cast their cords from us." 4He who sits in the heavens laughs; the LORD has them in derision. 5Then he will speak to them in his wrath, and terrify them in his fury, saying, 6"I have set my king on Zion, my holy hill." 7I will tell of the decree of the LORD: He said to me, "You are my son, today I have begotten you. 8Ask of me, and I will make the nations your heritage, and the ends of the earth your possession. 9You shall break them with a rod of iron, and dash them in pieces like a potter's vessel." 10Now therefore, O kings, be wise; be warned, O rulers of the earth. 11Serve the LORD with fear, with trembling 12kiss his feet, lest he be angry, and you perish in the way; for his wrath is quickly kindled. Blessed are all who take refuge in him.


Intent of Psalm 2

2:1-3 Folly of the nations against God

The Bible is filled with references to the folly of man’s heart.

v. 2 The word anointed in Hebrew literally means “Messiah” as a title of an Israelite king. With the extinction of the Monarchy the term became synonymous with the Christ as returning monarch (see Act 4:25-29).

2:4-6 God’s response from heaven

God’s throne is in the third heaven in the sides of the north. God the Father is Omniscient and He ‘laughs’ from  heaven indicates He knows the foolishness of man’s heart; therefore He has set up the plan of salvation to bring man and the fallen host back to His way of life at the correct time. The king queries God's promise of eternal rule.

2:7-9 God’s decree and His anointed

Here we see The Almighty explaining His son is His anointed one who is Messiah (see Deut. 32:8; Ps. 45:6-7; Heb. 1:8-9; and see 2Sam. 7:14; Ps. 89:26-27; Acts 13:33).

2:10-12 Rebellious rulers are warned to submit

2:11 How we should respond

We again are reminded to obey the One True God and take refuge in Him.


Jesus is the first begotten (prototokos) of the creation (Col. 1:15) hence the beginning (arche) of the creation of God (Rev. 3:14). See  Statement of Beliefs A1; Joshua, the Messiah, the Son of God (No. 134); The Significance of the Term Son of God (No. 211), The Angel of YHVH (No. 024).


There are multiple Sons of God (from Job 1:6, 2:1, 38:7; Pss. 86:8-10, 95:3, 96:4, 135:5) who are identified as the Bene Elyon or Sons of the Most High. See also The Elect as Elohim (No. 001).


Surah 6 explains that there is One God and He sent his son. Commentary on the Koran: Surah 6 (No. Q006).


From Ps. 45:7 and Heb.1:9 we see Christ was anointed by his God, above his fellows; since he was to lay down his life as the perfect sacrifice for man and the host to be reconciled to God the Father. See the plan The Plan of Salvation (No. 001A).


In Rev. 2: in the message to Thyatira in verse 2:27 “And he shall rule them with a rod of iron; as the vessels of a potter shall they be broken to shivers: even as received of my Father.”


Psalm 3

3:1 A Psalm of David, when he fled from Absalom his son. O LORD, how many are my foes! Many are rising against me; 2many are saying of me, there is no help for him in God. [Selah] 3But thou, O LORD, art a shield about me, my glory, and the lifter of my head. 4I cry aloud to the LORD, and he answers me from his holy hill. [Selah] 5I lie down and sleep; I wake again, for the LORD sustains me. 6I am not afraid of ten thousands of people who have set themselves against me round about. 7Arise, O LORD! Deliver me, O my God! For thou dost smite all my enemies on the cheek, thou dost break the teeth of the wicked. 8Deliverance belongs to the LORD; thy blessing be upon thy people! Selah


Intent of Psalm 3

3:1-2 David’s trouble 

This is the first psalm with a title: A Psalm of David when he fled from Absalom his son. The events are recorded in 2 Samuel 15-18, but the heart of David at that difficult time is recorded in this psalm. Israel's subject people plot rebellion against the new king,

v. 2 The word anointed in Hebrew literally means “Messiah” as a title of an Israelite king. With the extinction of the Monarchy the term became synonymous with the Christ as returning monarch (see Act 4:25-29). Selah is a liturgical direction and may indicate an instrumental interlude in the singing of the psalm. 

3:3-6 God is our protector and refuge

vv. 3-4 expression of trust; a regular element in psalms of lament.

3:4-9 The newly throned king quotes God's promises of universal rule.

vv. 5-6 The psalmist is reassured, perhaps after the night in the temple, that the Lord is his support.

3:7-8 David’s concluding prayer for safety and for the nation                                                                                              

We see David put his trust and faith in God the Almighty. It is through David’s obedience he is protected and requests made to the One True God through prayer. For more information see Teach Us to Pray (No. 111) and The Power of Prayer (No. 111C).


Psalm 4

4:1 Hear me when I call, O God of my righteousness: thou hast enlarged me when I was in distress; have mercy upon me, and hear my prayer. 2O ye sons of men, how long will ye turn my glory into shame? how long will ye love vanity, and seek after leasing? Selah

3But know that the Lord hath set apart him that is godly for himself: the Lord will hear when I call unto him. 4Stand in awe, and sin not: commune with your own heart upon your bed, and be still. Selah. 5Offer the sacrifices of righteousness, and put your trust in the Lord. 6There be many that say, Who will shew us any good? Lord, lift thou up the light of thy countenance upon us. 7Thou hast put gladness in my heart, more than in the time that their corn and their wine increased. 8I will both lay me down in peace, and sleep: for thou, Lord, only makest me dwell in safety.


Intent of Psalm 4

4:1 David’s prayer to God for deliverance

4:2-3 David’s comments to men

The Psalmist rebuked them for the false accusations of wrong doing (see also 26:4-7).

v. 2,4 Selah; see n. 3:2.

4:4-6 David’s actions and thoughts

4:7-8 God’s Deliverance 

Perhaps the sequence in this psalm involved sacrifice (v. 5); but trust is in the Lord. Security follows the trust (v 8).


Righteousness is one of the five centralities of God and His Law. Ezra 9:15 tells us God is righteous. Ps. 119:172 tells us God’s law is righteous. Eph. 4:24 explains we are to be in the likeness of God created in righteousness and holiness and truth  Here we see the concept that God and His Law are righteous and we too are to become like God and His Law.


In James 2:23 the Scripture was fulfilled which says, "Abraham believed God, and it was reckoned to him as righteousness"; and he was called the friend of God. See Why was Abraham called “the Friend of God”? (No. 035).


God does not desire physical sacrifices rather “he who is humble and of a contrite of spirit and who trembles at My word.” He wants the sacrifice of poor contrite hearts (Isa.  66:2).


Psalm 5

5:1  To the choirmaster: for the flutes. A Psalm of David. Give ear to my words, O LORD; give heed to my groaning. 2Hearken to the sound of my cry, my King and my God, for to thee do I pray. 3O LORD, in the morning thou dost hear my voice; in the morning I prepare a sacrifice for thee, and watch. 4For thou art not a God who delights in wickedness; evil may not sojourn with thee. 5The boastful may not stand before thy eyes; thou hatest all evildoers. 6Thou destroyest those who speak lies; the LORD abhors bloodthirsty and deceitful men. 7But I through the abundance of thy steadfast love will enter thy house, I will worship toward thy holy temple in the fear of thee. 8Lead me, O LORD, in thy righteousness because of my enemies; make thy way straight before me. 9For there is no truth in their mouth; their heart is destruction, their throat is an open sepulchre, they flatter with their tongue. 10Make them bear their guilt, O God; let them fall by their own counsels; because of their many transgressions cast them out, for they have rebelled against thee. 11But let all who take refuge in thee rejoice, let them ever sing for joy; and do thou defend them, that those who love thy name may exult in thee. 12For thou dost bless the righteous, O LORD; thou dost cover him with favor as with a shield.


Intent of Psalm 5

5:1-3 David’s morning prayer

1-2 Cry for help.  Prayer for deliverance from personal enemies as a lament.

5:3-7 Expression of Trust (3:3-4)

v.      3 The psalmist participates in the morning sacrifice; perhaps at the end of a night's vigil (3:5; less likely 4:8).

5:8-12 Concluding prayer

5:4-8 The wickedness verses righteousness of men

5:8-12 Concluding prayer (v. 9-10; see 4:2-4 n.)

5:9-10 description and consequences of wickedness

5:11-12 description and consequences of righteousness


David is pouring his heart out to God in prayer, God is always there and the texts tell us that He wants us to be in continual prayer and conversation with Him.  In Hebrew, justice and righteousness are the same word. Righteousness requires us to act on the facts we know within the basis of Law and God's Holy Spirit to guide us. For more information see Statement of Beliefs (No. A1) and  (No. 117).


Regarding the concepts of wickedness and sin see The Doctrine of Original Sin Part 1 The Garden of Eden (No. 246) and Doctrine of Original Sin Part 2 The Generations of Adam (No. 248).


Psalm 6

6:1 To the choirmaster: with stringed instruments; according to The Sheminith. A Psalm of David. O LORD, rebuke me not in thy anger, nor chasten me in thy wrath. 2Be gracious to me, O LORD, for I am languishing; O LORD, heal me, for my bones are troubled. 3My soul also is sorely troubled. But thou, O LORD--how long? 4Turn, O LORD, save my life; deliver me for the sake of thy steadfast love. 5For in death there is no remembrance of thee; in Sheol who can give thee praise? 6I am weary with my moaning; every night I flood my bed with tears; I drench my couch with my weeping. 7My eye wastes away because of grief, it grows weak because of all my foes. 8Depart from me, all you workers of evil; for the LORD has heard the sound of my weeping. 9The LORD has heard my supplication; the LORD accepts my prayer. 10All my enemies shall be ashamed and sorely troubled; they shall turn back, and be put to shame in a moment.


Intent of Psalm 6

In the church liturgy this is the first of Seven Penitential Psalms (Pss. 6; 32; 38; 51; 102; 130; 143). 6:1-5 is a cry for help:

v. 5. Sheol The place of the dead where men know nothing and their nephesh or spirit is returned to the care of God (comp. 88:5-6; Job 3:13-19; Eccl 9:5; 12:7; (see also Gen. 37:35 and n.)). In death there is no remembrance of anything and no communion possible with God or any being.

6:1 Plea to God

6:2-3 Physical and Spiritual trouble

6:4-5 David’s plea

David continues to pour his heart out to God. He is aware of the state of dead, in that the dead know nothing. In Eccl. 9:10: Whatever your hand finds to do, do it with your might; for there is no work or thought or knowledge or wisdom in Sheol, to which you are going. Isa 38:18 also talks of the state of the dead.

6:6-7 David’s agony and misery

David is in a weakened condition.

6:8-10 David’s statement

David receives assurance that his prayer is heard and by implication that God will support him.

v. 8 David demands his enemies depart from him as the Lord has heard him. This is similar to Job whom the Lord heard and rebuked his friends (comp. Ps.102:3-8).


Psalm 7

A Shiggaion of David, which he sang to the LORD concerning Cush a Benjaminite.

7:1  O LORD my God, in thee do I take refuge; save me from all my pursuers, and deliver me,  2lest like a lion they rend me, dragging me away, with none to rescue. 3O LORD my God, if I have done this, if there is wrong in my hands, 4if I have requited my friend with evil or plundered my enemy without cause,  5let the enemy pursue me and overtake me, and let him trample my life to the ground, and lay my soul in the dust. Selah

6Arise, O LORD, in thy anger, lift thyself up against the fury of my enemies; awake, O my God; thou hast appointed a judgment. 7Let the assembly of the peoples be gathered about thee; and over it take thy seat on high. 8The LORD judges the peoples; judge me, O LORD, according to my righteousness and according to the integrity that is in me. 9O let the evil of the wicked come to an end, but establish thou the righteous, thou who triest the minds and hearts, thou righteous God. 10My shield is with God, who saves the upright in heart. 11God is a righteous judge, and a God who has indignation every day.  12If a man does not repent, God will whet his sword; he has bent and strung his bow; 13he has prepared his deadly weapons, making his arrows fiery shafts. 14Behold, the wicked man conceives evil, and is pregnant with mischief, and brings forth lies. 15He makes a pit, digging it out, and falls into the hole which he has made. 16His mischief returns upon his own head, and on his own pate his violence descends. 17I will give to the LORD the thanks due to his righteousness, and I will sing praise to the name of the LORD, the Most High.


Intent of Psalm 7

7:1-2 David’s trust in God

7:3-5 David states his innocence

7:6-9 Prayer for God's intervention in the trial.

7:6-7 God’s judgment

7:8-9 David’s request

7:10-16 God is protector and righteous judge

7:11-13  God is the just judge

7:14-16 God deals with wickedness

7:17 Praise the name of God David's formal thanks to God.


Here just like in Psa. 5:8-10 we see David pouring his heart out to God the Father to defend him against the wicked


Psa 7:9 we see God tries the heart. God is in the process of calling and refining all humans, each one in his own time and order. Psa 11:4-5; Jer.11:20; and Rev.2:23 all reflect the concept of God searching the mind and heart.


In verse 17 we see the first usage of the Lord Most High which is translated from Yahovah Elyon. We are clearly talking about the One True God, who is creator and sustainer of all things. This is the first usage of this title in the Psalms. For more information on the various uses of the Name of God see The Names of God (No. 116), and Dialogue on the Name and Nature of God (No. 116A).


Psalm 8

To the choirmaster: according to The Gittith.

A Psalm of David.

8:1 O LORD, our Lord, how majestic is thy name in all the earth! Thou whose glory above the heavens is chanted  2by the mouth of babes and infants, thou hast founded a bulwark because of thy foes, to still the enemy and the avenger. 3When I look at thy heavens, the work of thy fingers, the moon and the stars which thou hast established; 4what is man that thou art mindful of him, and the son of man that thou dost care for him? 5Yet thou hast made him little less than God, and dost crown him with glory and honor. 6Thou hast given him dominion over the works of thy hands; thou hast put all things under his feet,  7all sheep and oxen, and also the beasts of the field,  8the birds of the air, and the fish of the sea, whatever passes along the paths of the sea. 9O LORD, our Lord, how majestic is thy name in all the earth! 


Intent of Psalm 8

A comprehensive analysis of Psalm 8 (No. 014) gives greater explanation

8:1 The Glory of God in the Creation

8:2 the glory of God over His enemies

8:2a is quoted in Mat. 21:16 (ref. 1Sam. 17:14.33, 42,55,56). The text rendered enemy is adversaries and the word avenger is revenger.

8:3-9  God’s intent for man – He shall rule as El or Elohim hence Israel. [See also No.014].

8:4 see 144:3-4; Job 7:17-18 n. Distinction between “Man” and the “son of man” looking forward to Messiah in the creation.

Psalm 8:4,5,6 is quoted also in Hebrews 2:6-8...

The text here in verse 4 refers to mortal man ‘enosh and ‘adam in the Hebrew.

We see in Hebrews 2:9 that it was for the suffering of death that he was made lower than they were for a little while. Bullinger notes the reading “for a little while” in the notes to the text. This accords with Philippians 2:5-9...

angels in Psalm 8 and Hebrews, is, as we see in the Hebrew elohim and means gods. It was translated as ‘aggelos (for messengers) in the Septuagint, and also from that into the Greek text in Hebrews and retained in that sense in the Vulgate, the Syriac and the Arab. It was translated as angels in the English. The reason it was retained in this sense is that it suited the original Hebrew translators to render it messengers, because it was dealing with the plurality of the sons of God as elohim, rather than Eloah. Trinitarians have followed this to have it as “angels” and omit the "for a little while" sense, and also in that sense in the later Syriac and the Arabic. The reason appears to be that none of them wanted to acknowledge that the elohim were an extended order of beings. However, the text is definitely elohim in the original Hebrew and Bullinger makes note of that in the note to the verse in The Companion Bible. The priests knew that the son of man was an elohim who became Son of God as the monogenes theos, or the only born God of John 1:18 (cf. Marshall's Greek English Interlinear RSV). The notes to The Companion Bible in the texts examine these aspects.

They were referring to him making himself equal to the elohim, and as this was not spoken in Greek but in Aramaic we get the text as elohi then rendered as angels. The sons of God were all elohim as the OT texts show by their usage. These elohim were understood as 'aggelos, or messengers, and translated as angels in the English and other texts. However, the Temple priests understood the implications perfectly.


The term son of man (no article) used in the text in Psalm 8 is used three times before this text: in Numbers 23:19; Job 25:6 and 35:8. It is 111 times in the singular in the OT and 39 times in plural. The other occurrences in the Psalms (Pss. 49:2; 144:3) are a different word. Here in 8:4 the title relates to dominion in the earth and is used in that sense in the text in Hebrews relating it to Messiah.


8:6 refers to the dominion given to the first man Adam, and which was lost in the fall. The dominion and restoration is the aim of the salvation of which we are to be mindful and guard. The numbers in verses 7 and 8 are six items, which is the number of man. (see also Heb. 2:1-18).


He thus became human and died to reconcile all to God. He proclaims our names in the congregation of the elohim, and he is not ashamed to call us brethren.


The reason God is not concerned with the elohim, called angels here, but with the descendants of Abraham is that He has chosen to make us a priesthood and is concerned with getting us to that point through Christ.


Here we see the text in Hebrews speaks of the law delivered by the angels. This being who delivered the law to Moses was Christ, and was understood by the early Church as being Christ.


Thus the step up was to the care of a greater salvation than was possible under the Law without the Holy Spirit.


Thus Christ then came to declare this great salvation. The apostles who were eyewitnesses attested to it. It was also attested to by the power of God through the Holy Spirit in signs and wonders from which we derive the term miracles.


In this text we now see the fact that the subjection of the world to come was not given to the elohim as angels. It was subjected to Christ as the Son of Man and to mankind that we might demonstrate our capacity to enter into salvation under Christ.


v. 9  Opening verse as a refrain


Psalm 9

To the choirmaster: according to Muth-labben.

A Psalm of David.

9:1 I will give thanks to the LORD with my whole heart; I will tell of all thy wonderful deeds. 2I will be glad and exult in thee, I will sing praise to thy name, O Most High. 3When my enemies turned back, they stumbled and perished before thee.  4For thou hast maintained my just cause; thou hast sat on the throne giving righteous judgment.  5Thou hast rebuked the nations, thou hast destroyed the wicked; thou hast blotted out their name for ever and ever. 6The enemy have vanished in everlasting ruins; their cities thou hast rooted out; the very memory of them has perished. 7But the LORD sits enthroned forever, he has established his throne for judgment; 8and he judges the world with righteousness, he judges the peoples with equity. 9The LORD is a stronghold for the oppressed, a stronghold in times of trouble. 10And those who know thy name put their trust in thee, for thou, O LORD, hast not forsaken those who seek thee. 11Sing praises to the LORD, who dwells in Zion! Tell among the peoples his deeds! 12For he who avenges blood is mindful of them; he does not forget the cry of the afflicted. 13Be gracious to me, O LORD! Behold what I suffer from those who hate me, O thou who liftest me up from the gates of death, 14that I may recount all thy praises, that in the gates of the daughter of Zion I may rejoice in thy deliverance. 15The nations have sunk in the pit which they made; in the net which they hid has their own foot been caught. 16The LORD has made himself known, he has executed judgment; the wicked are snared in the work of their own hands. Higgaion. Selah

17The wicked shall depart to Sheol, all the nations that forget God. 18For the needy shall not always be forgotten, and the hope of the poor shall not perish for ever. 19Arise, O LORD! Let not man prevail; let the nations be judged before thee!  20Put them in fear, O LORD! Let the nations know that they are but men! Selah


Intent of Psalm 9

General information:

9:1-2 Praises to God

9:3-4 David’s praise to God

9:5-8 refers to YHVH

9: 9-10 the Lord is our refuge

9:11-12 the Lord remembers His people

9:13-14 a cry for mercy

9: 15-16 results of wickedness

9:17-18 God is a righteous judge

9:19-20 Request of God


Psalm 9 and Psalm 10 are linked together by an irregular Acrostic beginning at Psalm 9:1 and ending with Psalm 10:18. Seven letters are omitted. The Acrostic is irregular, corresponding with the "times of trouble".

Psalms 9-15 refer to “the man of the earth, the antichrist” His days, character, and end and times of trouble to the Great Tribulation.


Psalm 9:5-8 refers to YHVH who is faithful in the assembly of the saints (multitude). He is highest of the Sons of the Mighty (or the Eliym (elohim) as plural of the El, i.e. the Gods). El is greatly to be feared in the congregation (inner assembly or council) of the saints (qedoshim or holy ones). Yahovah, God of Hosts, is the entity referred to as being surrounded by faithfulness. Revelation 4 and 5 show that this group numbered thirty entities including the four Cherubim or Living Creatures. The Elders are charged with monitoring the prayers of the saints (Rev. 5:8) and Christ is their High Priest, the member of them who was found worthy to open the scroll of the Plan of God having ransomed men and made them a kingdom and priests to our God, i.e. the God of the Council and of Christ (Rev. 5:9-10).


For more information about YHVH see No. 001


There are numerous references to the times of trouble for more information see the 299 series.


Lucifer was created perfect until iniquity was found in him. When he rebelled his name was changed to Satan, “the accuser.” For more information (see Lucifer: Light Bearer and Morning Star (No. 223); 2012 and the Antichrist (No. 299D); Antichrist in Early Church Theology and the Last Days (No. 299F)).


Psalm 10

10:1  Why dost thou stand afar off, O LORD? Why dost thou hide thyself in times of trouble?  2In arrogance the wicked hotly pursue the poor; let them be caught in the schemes which they have devised. 3For the wicked boasts of the desires of his heart, and the man greedy for gain curses and renounces the LORD. 4In the pride of his countenance the wicked does not seek him; all his thoughts are, "There is no God." 5His ways prosper at all times; thy judgments are on high, out of his sight; as for all his foes, he puffs at them. 6He thinks in his heart, "I shall not be moved; throughout all generations I shall not meet adversity." 7His mouth is filled with cursing and deceit and oppression; under his tongue are mischief and iniquity. 8He sits in ambush in the villages; in hiding places he murders the innocent. His eyes stealthily watch for the hapless, 9he lurks in secret like a lion in his covert; he lurks that he may seize the poor, he seizes the poor when he draws him into his net. 10The hapless is crushed, sinks down, and falls by his might. 11He thinks in his heart, "God has forgotten, he has hidden his face, he will never see it." 12Arise, O LORD; O God, lift up thy hand; forget not the afflicted. 13Why does the wicked renounce God, and say in his heart, "Thou wilt not call to account"? 14Thou dost see; yea, thou dost note trouble and vexation, that thou mayst take it into thy hands; the hapless commits himself to thee; thou hast been the helper of the fatherless. 15Break thou the arm of the wicked and evildoer; seek out his wickedness till thou find none. 16The LORD is king for ever and ever; the nations shall perish from his land. 17O LORD, thou wilt hear the desire of the meek; thou wilt strengthen their heart, thou wilt incline thy ear 18to do justice to the fatherless and the oppressed, so that man who is of the earth may strike terror no more.


Intent of the Psalm

10:1-4  The wicked pursue the poor

10:5-11 Actions of the Wicked

10:12:13 Request for God to act

10:14-15 the helpless

10:16-18 Confidence in God


Pure undefiled religion is described in James 1:27. Religion that is pure and undefiled before God and the Father is this: to visit orphans and widows in their affliction, and to keep oneself unstained from the world.


In Micah 6:8 we see what God expects of us; which not only shows our love to God but also our fellow man. God is love and clearly cares about the poor.


Pro. 14:31 He who oppresses a poor man insults his Maker, but he who is kind to the needy honours him.


Throughout Scripture we are told numerous things about the poor:

The poor will always be with you Deut. 15:11, Treat the poor the same as others regarding judgement Lev.19:15; Exo. 23:6; Deut.  24:14; Pss. 112:9, 140:12; Pro 31:9. the same half shekel temple tax Exo. 13:15. Help provide for the poor Lev. 19:10; Lev. 23:22; Deut. 15:7; Pss. 107:41; 132:15; Pro. 31:20; Isa. 41:17. He is the father of the poor Job 29:16. His soul is grieved for the poor Job 30:25. they will not be forgotten Psa. 9:18; the Lord hears the needy  Pss. 69:33; 72:13. He hears and delivers Pss. 70:5; 72:4; 72:12; 109:31; 113:7. The poor praise His name Psa 74:21; Isa 29:19; Jer 20:13.


1Sam. 2:8 He raises up the poor from the dust; he lifts the needy from the ash heap, to make them sit with princes and inherit a seat of honor. For the pillars of the earth are the LORD'S, and on them he has set the world.


Psalm 11

11:1  To the choirmaster. Of David. In the LORD I take refuge; how can you say to me, "Flee like a bird to the mountains; 2for lo, the wicked bend the bow, they have fitted their arrow to the string, to shoot in the dark at the upright in heart; 3if the foundations are destroyed, what can the righteous do"? 4The LORD is in his holy temple, the LORD's throne is in heaven; his eyes behold, his eyelids test, the children of men. 5The LORD tests the righteous and the wicked, and his soul hates him that loves violence. 6On the wicked he will rain coals of fire and brimstone; a scorching wind shall be the portion of their cup. 7For the LORD is righteous, he loves righteous deeds; the upright shall behold his face.


Intent of Psalm 11

Confidence in God's concern for justice.

This psalm is a song of trust. It may have developed from the expressions of trust which is a feature of the laments (3:3-4 n. comp. 5:3-7; 7:10-16; 9:3-12).

11:1-3 David reacts to the advice to flee

He rebukes those who tell him his safety lies in fleeing his enemies.

11:2-3 David remembers the words of fear

11:4 David remembers God’s Throne

11:5 The Lord tries the righteous

11: 6 consequences for the wicked

Brimstone Sulphur (Gen. 19:24) Cup Isa. 51:17 (see Lk. 22:42 n.)

11:7 The Lord loves the righteous. 

Fear is a device of Satan and David clearly remembers to focus on God’s word and His promises. He reflects on God’s throne. God’s throne is described as being in the 3rd heaven from 2Cor. 12:2 and Isa. 14:13 tells us it is in the north.

Perfect love casts out fear 1John 4:18.

David’s love for God strengthened David time and time again and the psalms clearly demonstrate this fact.

David knows God is righteous. We see righteousness expounded in numerous scriptures of the Bible. There are 3 key facts about righteousness. God is righteous from Ezra 9:15p; His law is righteous: from Psa. 119:172 and we are to become righteous Eph. 4:24.


Psalm 12

To the choirmaster: according to The Sheminith.  12:1. A Psalm of David. Help, LORD; for there is no longer any that is godly; for the faithful have vanished from among the sons of men. 2Every one utters lies to his neighbor; with flattering lips and a double heart they speak. 3May the LORD cut off all flattering lips, the tongue that makes great boasts,  4those who say, "With our tongue we will prevail, our lips are with us; who is our master?" 5"Because the poor are despoiled, because the needy groan, I will now arise," says the LORD; "I will place him in the safety for which he longs." 6The promises of the LORD are promises that are pure, silver refined in a furnace on the ground, purified seven times.  7Do thou, O LORD, protect us, guard us ever from this generation.  8On every side the wicked prowl, as vileness is exalted among the sons of men.


Intent of Psalm 12

Special Note: Shemenith. (1Chr.15:21, Pss. 6 & 12) An eight string instrument only mentioned in three scriptures (SHD 8067). It also demonstrates the lowest of the 8-Octaves that a man can sing, therefore a deep, mellow, and solemn tone.



The Psalm reveals a contrast between the words of deceitful flattering evil doers and the pure reliable words of God. David laments the speech and behaviour of a proud and evil culture in his days (Hab. 1:2-4, Psa. 22:2). He expressesd assurance that the Lord will protect him, and all the righteous from their wicked contemporaries (Psa. 3:3-4). See also Conversion and Truth (No. 072).


v. 1 No longer any godly men. (Isa. 9:8-12, Heb. 2:1-3; 3:12-13, 18). See Proverbs 31 (No.114).


vv. 2-3 Lies to his neighbor (Prov. 26:19; Jer. 9:6;  Matt. 24:1; Rom. 16:18; 1Tim. 2:14).  Double heart  (1Chr.12:33; Psa. 86:11; Prov. 10:3, 16:5, 26:12; Isa. 29:13; Jas. 1:26; Rev. 3:15-16).

Flattering lips (Prov. 12:22; Psa. 120:2; Dan. 11:32; Eph. 4:29; 1Pet. 3:10; Jas. 3:10).

Lord cutting off the tongue that makes great boasts (Ex. 15:9; Job 32:22; Prov.18:21; Psa. 17:10; 73:8-9; Dan. 7:8,25; Mal. 3:13; 2Pet. 2:18; Rev. 13:5). For more information on deceiving spirits (see The Toronto Blessing, Hysteria and Demon Possession (No. 149); The Doctrines of Demons of the Last Days (No. 048)).


v. 4 With our own tongue (words) we prevail (gain) (Deut. 8:2-3; Prov. 27:1-2; Jer. 9:23-26; 27:2; Jas. 4:13-16). By our lips (deeds) who is our master? (self-righteousness) (1Sam. 15:23; 2Chr. 29.6; Isa. 5:20; Jer. 9:24; Mal. 3:5; John 3:10; Rom. 10:3). For more information regarding dependence without a Godly Master, see: Commentary on Nahum (F034).


v. 5 Poor are despoiled: (to strip of belongings, possessions, or value, pillage, steal from violently, left without, destitute.) Other translations: oppressed, devastated, mistreated. “I will place him in the safety for which he longs” David believed that this was Gods word for him, and he was one of the poor and needy longing for safety. See Safety in the Hand of God (No. 194B) (Exo. 2: 23-24; 3:7-9; Job. 5:15; Pss.10:5; 91:1-2; Isa. 33:10; Ezek. 18:18; Mal.7:8-9; Jas. 5-4). For more information on the Poor and Destitute, see Respect of Persons (No. 221).

v. 6 The pure words (promises) of the Lord, in contrast to the idle, two-faced, lying and proud lips of David’s adversaries. God’s words are pure as if they were fine silver purified seven times (see also Dan. 3:19). This means the word of God can be trusted in every sense. It is good, pure and tested true. We can trust that God has tested his own word (Mal. 3:10; 1John 4:1). For more information on the Seven Spirits (see The Seven Spirits of God (No. 064)).

Note: v. 6 (The structure of seven indicates, being spiritually pure and also reflects the message of Eloah through the seven angels of the seven churches and the seven thunders).

vv. 7-8 Lord’s protection of us over the evilness of this vile generation of man. (Exo. 14:14; Prov.18:10; Pss. 91:1-2; 121:7-8; Jer. 22:3; Matt. 5:39, 43-44; Eph.6:11-12) Armour. For more information on how God protects over self-righteousness and evils; see Encouragement and Discouragement (No. 130).


Psalm 13

13:1  To the choirmaster. A Psalm of David. How long, O LORD? Wilt thou forget me forever? How long wilt thou hide thy face from me? 2How long must I bear pain in my soul, and have sorrow in my heart all the day? How long shall my enemy be exalted over me? 3Consider and answer me, O LORD my God; lighten my eyes, lest I sleep the sleep of death; 4lest my enemy say, "I have prevailed over him"; lest my foes rejoice because I am shaken.  5But I have trusted in thy steadfast love; my heart shall rejoice in thy salvation.  6I will sing to the LORD, because he has dealt bountifully with me.


Intent of Psalm 13

Prayer for deliverance from personal enemies.

(a lament)

13:1-4 A cry for help.

v. 1 Questions of anxiety (Psa. 130:5; Prov. 20:22; Isa. 30:18).

The number four has significance (see No. 007). 

13:1-2 The psalmist’s complaint is given emphasis by the fourfold “How Long” (Psa. 34:18; Matt. 26:38; Rom. 12:15).

13:2-5  Prayers of lamentation and trust, David appears to have been concerned God may have left him. (Rom. 8:28, Pss. 5:7;  28:7; Prov. 3:6; Jos. 1:9; Jer. 29:11; Mt. 6:25).

13:3-4 Prayers for help (see 4:2-4) Lighten my eyes comp. 38:10.

The psalmist’s troubles are characteristic of the faithlessness of the times. It is God’s way of sustaining us in times of trouble by his enduring love and grace. In David’s mind, in despair, and troublesome and trying times, we can know God will provide for our needs, even when others abandon or desert us. We can be sure God hears the prayers of his chosen. See The Relationship between Salvation by Grace and the Law (No.082)

v. 5  Trust in God


vv. 4-5 Enemies Exalted over you and Trusting in the Lord. (Mt. 5:43-48, 1 Pet. 4:5, Psa. 37:9-12) David believes that God answers because the love of God never fails. David’s joy in the Lord and his Salvation (Faith, Trust, Belief) in Yahovah. (Pss. 5:7; 25:5; 42:5; 78:22). See also Why was Abraham called “the Friend of God?” (No. 035).


13:6     The Vow (see 7:17 n.). 

            Sing to the Lord. (Psa. 95; Eph. 5:16)

Commanded to “Sing a New Song” (Pss. 33:3; 96:1, 98:1, 149:1; Isa. 42:10). See Joshua, the Messiah, the Son of God (No. 134).



Psalm 14

14:1  To the choirmaster. Of David. The fool says in his heart, "There is no God." They are corrupt, they do abominable deeds, there is none that does good. 2The LORD looks down from heaven upon the children of men, to see if there are any that act wisely, that seek after God. 3They have all gone astray, they are all alike corrupt; there is none that does good, no, not one. 4Have they no knowledge, all the evildoers who eat up my people as they eat bread, and do not call upon the LORD? 5There they shall be in great terror, for God is with the generation of the righteous. 6You would confound the plans of the poor, but the LORD is his refuge. 7O that deliverance for Israel would come out of Zion! When the LORD restores the fortunes of his people, Jacob shall rejoice, Israel shall be glad.


Intent of Psalm 14

See also Psalm 53 (a similar writing).

The intent is the safety of godliness, and the peril of ungodliness.


v. 1 David says the fool rejects the existence of God, moral corruption fills the earth, and everyone has turned away from God as a similar writing in Psalm 53 (see also Pss. 10:4; 73:3; 92:6; 107:17; Isa.25:25;  Eph. 2:12).

vv. 2-4 God is transcendent and seeking any with spiritual knowledge. They are going around as lost sheep and goats, with no teacher in their midst, and no protection from the wrath of God (Deut. 4:29; 2Chr.. 30:9; Prov. 8:17; Isa. 55:89; Ezek.18:9;  Matt. 6:33;  Matt. 4:17, Acts 2:38, 3:19; Rom. 3:21; Phil. 3:9; Heb. 11:6; 2Pet. 3:9) See also (No. 141A); (No. 141 B); and (No. 141E).

v. 3 Corrupt here means astray from or in breach of the Law of Eloah. 

v. 4 Knowledge here means they have no understanding of the commandments of Eloah. (Prov. 30.14; Lev. 5:17; Jas. 1:5).

 vv. 5-6  Rejecting the council of the elect and the laws of Eloah. Great Terror, because God is with the Elect or righteous in each generation (Gen. 17:7), and the evil are trying to stop the plans of the poor (in-spirit), but the Lord is their refuge (Psa. 23). See also He Calls Them by Name: A Study of Psalms 23 (No. 018).

v. 6 The evilness of earth will persecute the elect (Rev. 12:17; 14:12) or Holy Seed (Isa. 6:9-13; Am. 9:1-15) up until the final days, but Eloah will defend his people (Israel and Spiritual Israel) and will protect the individual in “their” wilderness.  See Safety in the Hand of God (No. 194B).

v. 7 The Law resides in Jerusalem (Isa. 2:3), deliverance is from Zion (City of Holiness where also the God of Israel dwells (Isa. 8:18, 24:23; Psa. 74:2 and the Lord restores the fortunes of his people, Jacob and Israel rejoice (Psa. 126:1-3; Jer. 30:18).


Psalm 15

15:1 A Psalm of David. O LORD, who shall sojourn in thy tent? Who shall dwell on thy holy hill?  2He who walks blamelessly, and does what is right, and speaks truth from his heart; 3who does not slander with his tongue, and does no evil to his friend, nor takes up a reproach against his neighbor; 4in whose eyes a reprobate is despised, but who honors those who fear the LORD; who swears to his own hurt and does not change; 5who does not put out his money at interest, and does not take a bribe against the innocent. He who does these things shall never be moved.


Intent of Psalm 15

A Liturgy for admission to the Temple as the Kingdom of God. The Psalm poses the questions of “who may dwell with God?” It doesn’t simply look into the future as to who will dwell with God in the end, but directs us to what it means to dwell with him now; to walk in faith and fellowship with the living God.

v. 1 Signifies entering into the presence of God (Ex. 33:14; Psa. 24: 3-5; Isa. 50:4; Jer.33.3) See The City of God (No. 180).

vv. 2-5 David asking “Who” 7-more times from v.1 Who has the requisite moral character and

is blameless (Prov. 28:18), does not slander (Psa. 101:5), honours those who fear the LORD (Prov. 1:7, 15:33) to his own hurt, and does not charge interest, or take a bribe.

v. 5 “Who” does these will not be moved (1Cor. 16:13, Eph. 6:13-18). See The Blessings and the Curses (No. 075), Commentary on Ephesians (No. F049) (Chap. 6).

(See Bullinger’s App 70; Psalm 15 and the Sermon on the Mount.)


Psalm 16

16:1  A Miktam of David. Preserve me, O God, for in thee I take refuge. 2I say to the LORD, "Thou art my Lord; I have no good apart from thee." 3As for the saints in the land, they are the noble, in whom is all my delight. 4Those who choose another god multiply their sorrows; their libations of blood I will not pour out or take their names upon my lips. 5The LORD is my chosen portion and my cup; thou holdest my lot. 6The lines have fallen for me in pleasant places; yea, I have a goodly heritage. 7I bless the LORD who gives me counsel; in the night also my heart instructs me. 8I keep the LORD always before me; because he is at my right hand, I shall not be moved.  9Therefore my heart is glad, and my soul rejoices; my body also dwells secure. 10For thou dost not give me up to Sheol, or let thy godly one see the Pit. 11Thou dost show me the path of life; in thy presence there is fullness of joy, in thy right hand are pleasures for evermore.


Intent of Psalm 16

The text introduces the term Miktam in the  Psalms (seen in the beginnings of Pss.16 and 56-60 and probably of Isa. 38:9) The etymology of the word is uncertain (LXX Gr. as Stelograthia). It has been incorrectly translated as “poem.”   Mowinckel and others translate it from the Akkadian Katamu (to cover) hence Naktamu as “covering,” or to expiate. Thus making it a psalm of expiation. In Green's Interlinear Bible, it is listed as SHD 4387, as Poem from “Engraving” from SHD 3799 (Katham), meaning “to carve or engrave” (indelibly) as a permanent writing. See Bullingers Appendix 65, XII.


David confesses his faith and belief in the eternal words of his God where many of the Saints and Noble men quickly follow after strange or other gods (Deut. 6:14-15), and by following the eternal God his heart is glad and knows he will dwell secure and God will always direct his path even to the grave.

16: 1-2 Acknowledging the LORD will guard and protect him from the unknown assailant, and that without God his refuge place is as nothing.

16: 3-4 Here David speaks of the Priest and Noble, possibly to mention of the Priesthood where foreign gods and worship and ceremonies have entered into the kingdom, and in other translations it is to say hurry or quickly to follow other and strange gods, and he will not speak their names on his lips. (Deut. 6:4-8) See The Shema (No. 002B), Law and the First Commandment (No. 253) (Ex. 29: 2-6, Dt. 5: 2-10, Ex. 23:13).

16:3 Saints – lit the pious or “Holy Ones” (see v.10).

vv. 5-6 God holds his life in his balances by his measures where he sets the boundaries of his land and dwelling places to include eternal  places and David testifies he has a wonderful inheritance.

vv. 7-9 here he states the LORD is with him both day and night and he will not be shaken or misled because he knows the LORD is right beside him and that is his faith if he shall fail. His heart is happy and soul rejoices dwelling safely with the LORD. See Safety in the Hand of God (No. 194B).

v. 10    He knows God will not leave his souls (of the Holy One/s) in the grave (Sheol) with the dead, but returns his spirit to the LORD. (Eccl. 12:7) in anticipation of the Resurrection. This text refers to the Christ in the Resurrection (Acts 2:27; see also 52:9 (SHD 2623 - pious) where some codices read Holy One. See Bullinger's n.). See The Plan of Salvation (No.001A), The Soul (No. 092).

v. 11 Here again he acknowledges that without God’s guidance and presence there is no joy in this temporary dwelling, and only in God’s hand is there eternal happiness.

See also The Day of the Lord and the Last Days (No.192). 

(Psa. 16:8-11; Acts 2:14-36 quotes the text in Psa. 16).


Psalm 17

17:1  A Prayer of David. Hear a just cause, O LORD; attend to my cry! Give ear to my prayer from lips free of deceit! 2From thee let my vindication come! Let thy eyes see the right!  3If thou triest my heart, if thou visitest me by night, if thou testest me, thou wilt find no wickedness in me; my mouth does not transgress. 4With regard to the works of men, by the word of thy lips I have avoided the ways of the violent. 5My steps have held fast to thy paths, my feet have not slipped. 6I call upon thee, for thou wilt answer me, O God; incline thy ear to me, hear my words. 7Wondrously show thy steadfast love, O savior of those who seek refuge from their adversaries at thy right hand.  8Keep me as the apple of the eye; hide me in the shadow of thy wings, 9from the wicked who despoil me, my deadly enemies who surround me. 10They close their hearts to pity; with their mouths they speak arrogantly. 11They track me down; now they surround me; they set their eyes to cast me to the ground. 12They are like a lion eager to tear, as a young lion lurking in ambush. 13Arise, O LORD! confront them, overthrow them! Deliver my life from the wicked by thy sword, 14from men by thy hand, O LORD, from men whose portion in life is of the world. May their belly be filled with what thou hast stored up for them; may their children have more than enough; may they leave something over to their babes. 15As for me, I shall behold thy face in righteousness; when I awake, I shall be satisfied with beholding thy form.


Intent of Psalm 17

David here, even in turmoil, acknowledges God will listen to his cries due to his obedience and states God is everyone's refuge from the worldly evils. He asks God to vindicate him and the righteous of the people against the evil doers, but for God to ensure even his enemies’ children have enough to grow and continue, and by David seeking no harm to his enemies’ children he knows that looking to his LORD, his allotment in righteousness shall be appointed to him justly.


vv. 1-6 Praying to God to listen and hear because he has not sinned or slipped, but held onto his path to show he is worthy of an answer. (Psa. 139:4, Prov. 4:25-26, 15:29) Prayer is an important aspect of the believer; see Teach us to Pray (No. 111); The power of Prayer (No. 111C).

vv. 7-12 God is the Savior of those in want, and in need of refuge, and protection, from the deadly enemies who surround them and desire real harm. (Pss. 91:10; 116:5)

vv. 13-14 Arise O LORD! Here he is exclaiming the LORD’s power is enough and the Lord will overthrow them and then deliver his life from their wickedness. (Deut. 20:4; Psa. 116:5).

v. 14    Even in exclaiming God’s might to overthrow these enemies, he still asked for their children to not be without enough, and ensure the babes have something. (Isa. 43:1-3; 49:25).

v. 15    As for David, he will look upon the LORD’s face in righteousness, and when he wakes he will be satisfied by what ever bounties he receives from the LORD once he continually looks upon him. (Isa. 41:10).

See also Bullinger’s (v. 15) note below regarding the resurrections.


Psalm 18

18:1  To the choirmaster. A Psalm of David the servant of the LORD, who addressed the words of this song to the LORD on the day when the LORD delivered him from the hand of all his enemies, and from the hand of Saul. He said: I love thee, O LORD, my strength. 2The LORD is my rock, and my fortress, and my deliverer, my God, my rock, in whom I take refuge, my shield, and the horn of my salvation, my stronghold. 3I call upon the LORD, who is worthy to be praised, and I am saved from my enemies. 4The cords of death encompassed me, the torrents of perdition assailed me; 5the cords of Sheol entangled me, the snares of death confronted me. 6In my distress I called upon the LORD; to my God I cried for help. From his temple he heard my voice, and my cry to him reached his ears. 7Then the earth reeled and rocked; the foundations also of the mountains trembled and quaked, because he was angry.  8Smoke went up from his nostrils, and devouring fire from his mouth; glowing coals flamed forth from him. 9He bowed the heavens, and came down; thick darkness was under his feet. 10He rode on a cherub, and flew; he came swiftly upon the wings of the wind. 11He made darkness his covering around him, his canopy thick clouds dark with water. 12Out of the brightness before him there broke through his clouds hailstones and coals of fire. 13The LORD also thundered in the heavens, and the Most High uttered his voice, hailstones and coals of fire. 14And he sent out his arrows, and scattered them; he flashed forth lightnings, and routed them. 15Then the channels of the sea were seen, and the foundations of the world were laid bare, at thy rebuke, O LORD, at the blast of the breath of thy nostrils.16He reached from on high, he took me, he drew me out of many waters. 17He delivered me from my strong enemy, and from those who hated me; for they were too mighty for me. 18They came upon me in the day of my calamity; but the LORD was my stay. 19He brought me forth into a broad place; he delivered me, because he delighted in me. 20The LORD rewarded me according to my righteousness; according to the cleanness of my hands he recompensed me. 21For I have kept the ways of the LORD, and have not wickedly departed from my God. 22For all his ordinances were before me, and his statutes I did not put away from me. 23I was blameless before him, and I kept myself from guilt. 24Therefore the LORD has recompensed me according to my righteousness, according to the cleanness of my hands in his sight.25With the loyal thou dost show thyself loyal; with the blameless man thou dost show thyself blameless; 26with the pure thou dost show thyself pure; and with the crooked thou dost show thyself perverse. 27For thou dost deliver a humble people; but the haughty eyes thou dost bring down. 28Yea, thou dost light my lamp; the LORD my God lightens my darkness. 29Yea, by thee I can crush a troop; and by my God I can leap over a wall. 30This God--his way is perfect; the promise of the LORD proves true; he is a shield for all those who take refuge in him. 31For who is God, but the LORD? And who is a rock, except our God?-- 32the God who girded me with strength, and made my way safe. 33He made my feet like hinds' feet, and set me secure on the heights. 34He trains my hands for war, so that my arms can bend a bow of bronze. 35Thou hast given me the shield of thy salvation, and thy right hand supported me, and thy help made me great. 36Thou didst give a wide place for my steps under me, and my feet did not slip. 37I pursued my enemies and overtook them; and did not turn back till they were consumed. 38I thrust them through, so that they were not able to rise; they fell under my feet. 39For thou didst gird me with strength for the battle; thou didst make my assailants sink under me. 40Thou didst make my enemies turn their backs to me, and those who hated me I destroyed. 41They cried for help, but there was none to save, they cried to the LORD, but he did not answer them. 42I beat them fine as dust before the wind; I cast them out like the mire of the streets. 43Thou didst deliver me from strife with the peoples; thou didst make me the head of the nations; people whom I had not known served me. 44As soon as they heard of me they obeyed me; foreigners came cringing to me. 45Foreigners lost heart, and came trembling out of their fastnesses. 46The LORD lives; and blessed be my rock, and exalted be the God of my salvation,  47the God who gave me vengeance and subdued peoples under me;  48who delivered me from my enemies; yea, thou didst exalt me above my adversaries; thou didst deliver me from men of violence. 49For this I will extol thee, O LORD, among the nations, and sing praises to thy name. 50Great triumphs he gives to his king, and shows steadfast love to his anointed, to David and his descendants for ever.


Intent of Psalm 18

David calls out to God when in distress and turmoil knowing his LORD will hear him from His temple, and even when death confronted him he knew he would be delivered due to his faithfulness, therefore he tells the LORD he loves Him in a song, and sings praises to His name, because of the great triumphs He gives to his King.


vv. 1-2 David acknowledges who God is, and His power to redeem him out of the middle of adversity out of the hands of his enemies.

vv. 3-19 He speaks of being delivered from your enemies hands when God hears your calls, and when Gods acts that the whole earth shakes and trembles. (Jer. 10:10-11)  See Samson and the Judges (No. 073); Encouragement and Discouragement (No. 130).

vv. 3-6 David calls to God for protection and deliverance. (Psa. 31:22) See Teach us to Pray (No. 111) and (111B).

vv. 7-15 Once God hears His servants cry, He acts and a great deliverance is effected with the whole earth being displaced. (Pss. 34:15, 145:18-19; Isa. 65:24; Jer. 10:10-11)

vv. 16-19 Eloah delivers out of trouble and a strong enemy, because He delights in a faithful servant.

vv. 20-24 God measures our reward according to our righteousness (faithfulness) and cleanliness by our obedience to His laws and ordinances. (Deut. 28; 2Chr. 15:7)  See The Shepherd of Hermas Pt. 6 (No. B10).

vv. 25-27  David says that  God deals with others who transgress  against his servants who are blameless. See The Doctrine of Balaam and Balaam’s Prophecy (No. 204).

vv. 28-30  God lightens the way of his people and gives victory over their enemies and is the shield in hard-times. In a religious light it is seen as victory of Good over Evil, and Knowledge over Ignorance, so God puts his saints into the light to not fall for the evils of the age.  See The Fall of Jericho (No. 142).

v. 31 David asks: Who is God, but the LORD? And Who is a rock, except our God? Because the Canaanites called their false gods as their rock, therefore, David is saying Israel's God is the LORD and the only Rock, the provider of Salvation. Moses said: their rock is not our Rock” (Deut. 32:31). Baal means “Lord” in the Cannanite text and hence the texts allows idolatrous confusion.

vv. 34-41 God assists in the training of his hands for battle and is the shield in hard times.

v. 41 The enemies cry for help, but there is none to save them. They cried to the LORD, but he did not answer them. God does not answer prayers of self-motives and pride in the heart. (Prov. 1:29, 15:29) See Praying to Christ or Beings other then the Father (No. 111B).

vv. 42-50 God gave David full domination over his enemies with vengeance to deliver him. David spread the faith among the nations under that domination. For these reasons he extols God and seeks His steadfast love to his descendents for ever.

Read further Q & A on the Christian Faith (No. 003B).    


Psalm 19

19:1  To the choirmaster. A Psalm of David. The heavens are telling the glory of God; and the firmament proclaims his handiwork. 2Day to day pours forth speech, and night to night declares knowledge. 3There is no speech, nor are there words; their voice is not heard; 4yet their voice goes out through all the earth, and their words to the end of the world. In them he has set a tent for the sun, 5which comes forth like a bridegroom leaving his chamber, and like a strong man runs its course with joy. 6Its rising is from the end of the heavens, and its circuit to the end of them; and there is nothing hid from its heat. 7The law of the LORD is perfect, reviving the soul; the testimony of the LORD is sure, making wise the simple; 8the precepts of the LORD are right, rejoicing the heart; the commandment of the LORD is pure, enlightening the eyes; 9the fear of the LORD is clean, enduring for ever; the ordinances of the LORD are true, and righteous altogether. 10More to be desired are they than gold, even much fine gold; sweeter also than honey and drippings of the honeycomb.  11Moreover by them is thy servant warned; in keeping them there is great reward. 12But who can discern his errors? Clear thou me from hidden faults. 13Keep back thy servant also from presumptuous sins; let them not have dominion over me! Then I shall be blameless, and innocent of great transgression. 14Let the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart be acceptable in thy sight, O LORD, my rock and my redeemer.


Intent of Psalm 19

David in this Psalm is personal, in prayer, not concerned with worldly circumstances, but with God’s nature, and what he expects from his servants the Saints. He holds God up on high and worries about his own worship in hidden faults and sin.

vv. 1-6 David explains the mighty glory of Eloah as the Elyon and the heavens and sky show the true Nature of God, and there is no speech or words to express his love. This true nature of God is expressed in five necessary properties within the Bible. God is: Omnipotent (all-powerful), Omnipresent (present everywhere), Omniscient (all-knowing), Omnibenevolent (concerned for His creation, hence all-loving), Omnitranscendent (over all things in the creation) (see also Rom.1:20). See FAQ: The Nature of God (No. 003), Dialogue on the Name and Nature of God (No. 116A).

vv. 7-11 David continues by setting a biblical statement of the perfection of Eloah's Laws, “The Law of the LORD is perfect” also (Psa. 18:30). Beginning of Wisdom (Prov. 9:10), Words of God are Sweeter than Honey (Psa. 119:103-105), and keeping of his Law is a great reward (Deut. 28, Blessings and Curses).

vv. 12-14 David expresses his desire to be as an offering is on the Altar, where the Priest would examine it for blemish, so he want his inner being to be free from sins and blemish. (Gen. 17:1; Lev.1:3-10, 22:17-25; Pss. 15:1-3, 22:4-5).


Psalm 20

20:1  To the choirmaster. A Psalm of David. The LORD answer you in the day of trouble! The name of the God of Jacob protect you! 2May he send you help from the sanctuary, and give you support from Zion! 3May he remember all your offerings, and regard with favor your burnt sacrifices! Selah

4May he grant you your heart's desire, and fulfil all your plans! 5May we shout for joy over your victory, and in the name of our God set up our banners! May the LORD fulfil all your petitions! 6Now I know that the LORD will help his anointed; he will answer him from his holy heaven with mighty victories by his right hand. 7Some boast of chariots, and some of horses; but we boast of the name of the LORD our God. 8They will collapse and fall; but we shall rise and stand upright. 9Give victory to the king, O LORD; answer us when we call.


Intent of Psalm 20

Prayer for the King’s victory in battle. From OARSV, this psalm was probably composed to accompany a sacrifice offered before the battle was begun (v. 3; compare 1Sam. 13:8-15a).

20:1-5 The prayer sung at the altar, or while approaching it.

20:3 Selah, see 3:2  n.

20:5 Between v. 5 and v 6 some liturgical action evidently occurred, probably the proclamation of an oracle of victory by a priest or temple prophet (see 12.5 n.; compare also 21:8-12), which then inspired the expression of confidence in vv. 6-8.

20:6 Anointed, the word anointed in Hebrew is literally “messiah,” one of the titles of an Israelite King; after the transfer of the Hebrew monarchy into the Exilarchs (No. 067), Messiah became a name for the ideal king of the future in prophecy and the hoped-for restoration. The psalm was reinterpreted accordingly (compare Acts 4.25-29).

20:9: Concluding exclamatory prayer.


For additional biblical insight refer to CCG Papers:

Israel as the Plan of God (No. 001B)

Questions and Answers to the Christian Faith (No. 003B)

The Angel of YHVH (No. 024)

Atonement (No. 138)

Role of Messiah (No. 226)

Christ and Deity (No. 237)

Offering (No. 275)

Bible Study Program (No. B1)


Psalm 21

21:1  To the choirmaster. A Psalm of David. In thy strength the king rejoices, O LORD; and in thy help how greatly he exults! 2Thou hast given him his heart's desire, and hast not withheld the request of his lips. Selah

3For thou dost meet him with goodly blessings; thou dost set a crown of fine gold upon his head. 4He asked life of thee; thou gavest it to him, length of days for ever and ever. 5His glory is great through thy help; splendor and majesty thou dost bestow upon him. 6Yea, thou dost make him most blessed for ever; thou dost make him glad with the joy of thy presence. 7For the king trusts in the LORD; and through the steadfast love of the Most High he shall not be moved. 8Your hand will find out all your enemies; your right hand will find out those who hate you. 9You will make them as a blazing oven when you appear. The LORD will swallow them up in his wrath; and fire will consume them. 10You will destroy their offspring from the earth, and their children from among the sons of men. 11If they plan evil against you, if they devise mischief, they will not succeed. 12For you will put them to flight; you will aim at their faces with your bows. 13Be exalted, O LORD, in thy strength! We will sing and praise thy power.


Intent of Psalm 21

Thanksgiving after the King’s victory in battle. This psalm is intentionally paired with Ps. 20.

21:1-7 God is praised for having answered the king’s prayer.

21:2 Selah is a liturgical direction; it may indicate that there should be an instrumental interlude at this point in the singing of the psalm. (See also 3:2 n. OARSV.)

21:8-12 An oracle promising a succession of victories, addressed to the king by a priest or temple prophet (compare 20.5 n.)

21:13 Concluding exclamation of praise.


For additional biblical insight refer to CCG Papers

Consubstantial with the Father (No. 081)

The Oracles of God (No 184)

Questions and Answers of the Christian Faith (No. 003B)

The Names of God (No. 116)

The Ark of the Covenant (No. 196)

Rule of the Kings Part 1: Saul (No. 282A)

Rule of the Kings Part II: David (No. 282B)

From Seals and Trumpets to the Vials of the Wrath of God and the Millennium (No. 141A)

Bible Study Program (No. B1)


Psalm 22

22:1  To the choirmaster: according to The Hind of the Dawn. A Psalm of David. My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? Why art thou so far from helping me, from the words of my groaning?  2O my God, I cry by day, but thou dost not answer; and by night, but find no rest. 3Yet thou art holy, enthroned on the praises of Israel. 4In thee our fathers trusted; they trusted, and thou didst deliver them. 5To thee they cried, and were saved; in thee they trusted, and were not disappointed. 6But I am a worm, and no man; scorned by men, and despised by the people. 7All who see me mock at me, they make mouths at me, they wag their heads; 8"He committed his cause to the LORD; let him deliver him, let him rescue him, for he delights in him!" 9Yet thou art he who took me from the womb; thou didst keep me safe upon my mother's breasts. 10Upon thee was I cast from my birth, and since my mother bore me thou hast been my God. 11Be not far from me, for trouble is near and there is none to help. 12Many bulls encompass me, strong bulls of Bashan surround me; 13they open wide their mouths at me, like a ravening and roaring lion.14I am poured out like water, and all my bones are out of joint; my heart is like wax, it is melted within my breast; 15my strength is dried up like a potsherd, and my tongue cleaves to my jaws; thou dost lay me in the dust of death. 16Yea, dogs are round about me; a company of evildoers encircle me; they have pierced my hands and feet--17I can count all my bones--they stare and gloat over me; 18they divide my garments among them, and for my raiment they cast lots. 19But thou, O LORD, be not far off! O thou my help, hasten to my aid!  20Deliver my soul from the sword, my life from the power of the dog! 21Save me from the mouth of the lion, my afflicted soul from the horns of the wild oxen! 22I will tell of thy name to my brethren; in the midst of the congregation I will praise thee: 23You who fear the LORD, praise him! all you sons of Jacob, glorify him, and stand in awe of him, all you sons of Israel! 24For he has not despised or abhorred the affliction of the afflicted; and he has not hid his face from him, but has heard, when he cried to him. 25From thee comes my praise in the great congregation; my vows I will pay before those who fear him. 26The afflicted shall eat and be satisfied; those who seek him shall praise the LORD! May your hearts live for ever! 27All the ends of the earth shall remember and turn to the LORD; and all the families of the nations shall worship before him. 28For dominion belongs to the LORD, and he rules over the nations. 29Yea, to him shall all the proud of the earth bow down; before him shall bow all who go down to the dust, and he who cannot keep himself alive. 30Posterity shall serve him; men shall tell of the Lord to the coming generation, 31and proclaim his deliverance to a people yet unborn, that he has wrought it.


Intent of Psalm 22

This is a Psalm of Christ as the sin offering for mankind and the fallen host, written about a thousand years before the crucifixion of our Lord the Christ.

Refer to OARSV:

22:1-2 Cry for help. 1; quoted by Jesus on the stauros or stake (Mk. 15:34).

22:3 God has helped his people in time past.

22:6-8 The psalmist’s misery is aggravated by the mockery of those who regard his illness as proof that God has forsaken him.

22:9-11 God’s help in former times inspires him to pray that it may continue in the present.

22:12-18 Description of Christ’s condition under sentence on the stauros.

22:12-13 His detractors behave like savage animals (see also v.16, although the meaning of the third line is obscure: and vv. 20-21) Bulls of Bashan, (Am. 4:1).

22:14-15, 17-18 A vivid account of the prophecy of the Messiah and resulting weakness in the purging.

22:16 Dogs, enemies (compare lion, wild oxen, v. 21).

22:18 It is the prophecy now over the division of the raiment of the Messiah. The soldiers have already begun to divide his property.

22:19-21 Prayer for healing and for deliverance from slanderers.

22:22-31 If he recovers, he vows to offer a formal thanksgiving in the midst of the congregation, the temple (see 7:27 n.). This is the thanksgiving Messiah is to offer in the council of the elohim and the congregation of the elect.

22:22 The vow (compare v. 25).

22:23-31 The hymn which is a Messianic song of praise of Israel and the congregation of the elect.


For additional biblical insight refer to CCG Papers:

I Thirst (No. 102)

Commentary on Revelation Part 5 (F066v)

Commentary on Jonah (F032)

Commentary on Matthew Part 6 (F040vi)

Commentary on Isaiah Part iv: Messianic Prophecy through Isaiah to Hezekiah (No. 157D)

Commentary on John Part 5 (No. F043v)

The Cross: Its Origin and Significance (No. 039)

The Diety of Christ (No. 147)

Timing of the Crucifixion and the Resurrection (No. 159)

The Purpose of the Creation and the Sacrifice of Christ (No. 160)

God our Saviour (No. 198)

Role of Messiah (No. 226)

Christ and Diety (No. 237)

Bible Study Program (No. B1)


Psalm 23

23:1 A Psalm of David. The LORD is my shepherd, I shall not want; 2he makes me lie down in green pastures. He leads me beside still waters; 3he restores my soul. He leads me in paths of righteousness for his name's sake. 4Even though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I fear no evil; for thou art with me; thy rod and thy staff, they comfort me. 5Thou preparest a table before me in the presence of my enemies; thou anointest my head with oil, my cup overflows. 6Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life; and I shall dwell in the house of the LORD for ever.


Intent of Psalm 23

Psalm 23 focuses on the trust in God caring for each individual. For more information (see He Calls Them by Name: A Study of Psalm 23 (No. 018)).

The psalm is an expression of confidence in God’s protection, a song of trust; see Ps. 11 n. (Also OARSV)

vv. 1-4 The LORD is compared to a shepherd.

v. 3 Soul here is the Nephesh (as in the life force which returns to God on death (Eccl. 12:7). There is no “immortal soul” that remains with the deceased as taught by the mystery and sun cults. Paths of righteousness, or “of rightness” that is, right paths (see note u in OARSV). This is a product of the Messiah in the granting of the Holy Spirit (No. 117).

v. 4 Shadow of death is the reading of the scribes, but “deep darkness” see note v OARSV); compare 44:19; 107:10; Job 3:5; Isa. 9:2; etc., where the same Hebrew expression occurs (OARSV).

vv. 5-6 The LORD is compared to a gracious host.

v. 6 Dwell in the house of the LORD means to worship in the temple (compare 27:4 see n. OARSV). For ever, Hebrew “for length of days,” meaning “as long as I live” (see note y and 27:4 in the OARSV). This also looks forward to the Resurrection under Messiah and the structure of Revelation chs. 20-22 (F066v).


For additional biblical insight refer to CCG Papers:

The Shepherd of Hermas Parts 1-7 (No. B10)

He calls them by Name: A Study of Psalms 23 (No. 018)

The Soul (No. 092)

The Names of God (No. 116)

The Place of Safety (No. 194)

The Seven Seals (No. 140)

Heaven, Hell or the First Resurrection of the Dead (No. 143A)

Bible Study Program (No. B1)


Psalm 24

24:1  A Psalm of David. The earth is the LORD's and the fulness thereof, the world and those who dwell therein; 2for he has founded it upon the seas, and established it upon the rivers. 3Who shall ascend the hill of the LORD? And who shall stand in his holy place? 4He who has clean hands and a pure heart, who does not lift up his soul to what is false, and does not swear deceitfully. 5He will receive blessing from the LORD, and vindication from the God of his salvation. 6Such is the generation of those who seek him, who seek the face of the God of Jacob. Selah

7Lift up your heads, O gates! and be lifted up, O ancient doors! that the King of glory may come in. 8Who is the King of glory? The LORD, strong and mighty, the LORD, mighty in battle!  9Lift up your heads, O gates! and be lifted up, O ancient doors! that the King of glory may come in. 10Who is this King of glory? The LORD of hosts, he is the King of glory! Selah


Intent of Psalm 24

Note:  Psalms from the Temple Worship (No. 087). Psa. 24 is for the first day of the week.

Psalm 24 is a liturgy on entering the sanctuary.

vv. 1-6 Perhaps sung by a choir within the temple gates.

vv. 1-2 Acknowledgement of the LORD as the creator.

v. 3: The question: Who shall be admitted to the temple? (compare Ps.15).

vv. 4-6 The answer: Only those who have the requisite moral qualities of pure hands and a clean heart; who do not support what is false or swear falsely.

v. 6 Selah, is a liturgical direction; it may indicate that there should be an instrumental interlude at this point in the singing of the psalm. (See 3:2 n. in OARSV.)

vv. 7-10 The choir outside the gates, presumably accompanied by the ark, now requests to be admitted.

v. 7: Heads, lintels.

vv. 8-10 The King of glory is the Lord of Hosts (Eloah), means the Most High as God of Israel, whose presence was associated with the ark (Num. 10:35-36). See also Pss. 45, 82 and 110.


For additional biblical insight refer to CCG Papers:

Psalms from the Temple Worship (No. 087)

Israel as the Plan of God (No. 001B)

Israel as the Vineyard of God (No. 001C)

The Blessings and the Curses (No. 075)

God and the Church (No. 151)

The Covenant of God (No. 152)

How God became a Family (No. 187)

Safety in the Hand of God (No. 194B)

The Ark of the Covenant (No. 196)

God Our Saviour (No. 198)


Psalm 25

25:1 A Psalm of David. To thee, O LORD, I lift up my soul. 2O my God, in thee I trust, let me not be put to shame; let not my enemies exult over me. 3Yea, let none that wait for thee be put to shame; let them be ashamed who are wantonly treacherous. 4Make me to know thy ways, O LORD; teach me thy paths. 5Lead me in thy truth, and teach me, for thou art the God of my salvation; for thee I wait all the day long. 6Be mindful of thy mercy, O LORD, and of thy steadfast love, for they have been from of old. 7Remember not the sins of my youth, or my trangressions; according to thy steadfast love remember me, for thy goodness' sake, O LORD! 8Good and upright is the LORD; therefore he instructs sinners in the way. 9He leads the humble in what is right, and teaches the humble his way.  10All the paths of the LORD are steadfast love and faithfulness, for those who keep his covenant and his testimonies. 11For thy name's sake, O LORD, pardon my guilt, for it is great. 12Who is the man that fears the LORD? Him will he instruct in the way that he should choose. 13He himself shall abide in prosperity, and his children shall possess the land. 14The friendship of the LORD is for those who fear him, and he makes known to them his covenant. 15My eyes are ever toward the LORD, for he will pluck my feet out of the net. 16Turn thou to me, and be gracious to me; for I am lonely and afflicted. 17Relieve the troubles of my heart, and bring me out of my distresses.18Consider my affliction and my trouble, and forgive all my sins. 19Consider how many are my foes, and with what violent hatred they hate me. 20Oh guard my life, and deliver me; let me not be put to shame, for I take refuge in thee. 21May integrity and uprightness preserve me, for I wait for thee.22Redeem Israel, O God, out of all his troubles.


Intent of Psalm 25

Prayer for deliverance from personal enemies, (a lament):

In acrostic form (compare Ps. 9-10 n.), every successive verse beginning with another letter of the Hebrew alphabet. This artificial pattern, for some antinomian scholars, accounts for what they see as the absence of any clear, logical structure, although the psalm has most of the elements of the typical lament: cry for help vv. 1-3, the psalmist’s situation. The logic of Psalm 25 is clear and depends on the Covenant of God.

vv. 8-15 prayer for vindication (vv. 16-20).

v. 13 Possess the land, see 37:9,11,29; compare Deut. 11.8-9.

vv. 18-19 Psalmist’s situation;

vv. 8-15 expression of trust; prayer for vindication (vv. 16-20).

v. 21 protestation of innocence.

v. 22 the verse is seen (OARSV) as probably a liturgical addition adapting an individual prayer to congregational use.


For additional biblical insight refer to CCG Papers:

The Power of Prayer (No. 111C)

The Names of God (No. 116)

Truth (No. 168)

The Blessings and the Curses (No. 075)

The Covenant of God (No. 152)

God Our Saviour (No. 198)


Psalm 26

26:1  A Psalm of David. Vindicate me, O LORD, for I have walked in my integrity, and I have trusted in the LORD without wavering. 2Prove me, O LORD, and try me; test my heart and my mind. 3For thy steadfast love is before my eyes, and I walk in faithfulness to thee. 4I do not sit with false men, nor do I consort with dissemblers; 5I hate the company of evildoers, and I will not sit with the wicked. 6I wash my hands in innocence, and go about thy altar, O LORD, 7singing aloud a song of thanksgiving, and telling all thy wondrous deeds. 8O LORD, I love the habitation of thy house, and the place where thy glory dwells. 9Sweep me not away with sinners, nor my life with bloodthirsty men, 10men in whose hands are evil devices, and whose right hands are full of bribes. 11But as for me, I walk in my integrity; redeem me, and be gracious to me. 12My foot stands on level ground; in the great congregation I will bless the LORD.


Intent of Psalm 26

Prayer for deliverance from personal enemies (a lament). See OARSV n.

26:1-3 Cry for vindication against an unjust charge (compare 1Kgs. 8.31-32).

vv. 4-7 Protestation of innocence (compare 4:2-4).

vv. 6-7 The protest is dramatized in a liturgical ceremony. Wash my hands in innocence, compare Deut. 21.6-8; Psa.51:7.

26:8-11 Prayer for help. Thy glory dwells, Isa.4:5; Ezek.43:4-5.

26:12 The vow (7:17 n.).


For additional biblical insight refer to CCG Papers:

Faith (No. 020)

Faith and Works (No. 086)

Statement of Belief of the Christian Faith (No. A1)

Forgiveness (No. 112)

Reconciliation through Forgiveness in the Temple of God (No. 112B)

Teach us to Pray (No. 111)

The Power of Prayer (No. 111C)

The First Resurrection of the Dead (No. 143A)


Psalm 27

27:1  A Psalm of David. The LORD is my light and my salvation; whom shall I fear? The LORD is the stronghold of my life; of whom shall I be afraid? 2When evildoers assail me, uttering slanders against me, my adversaries and foes, they shall stumble and fall. 3Though a host encamp against me, my heart shall not fear; though war arise against me, yet I will be confident.  4One thing have I asked of the LORD, that will I seek after; that I may dwell in the house of the LORD all the days of my life, to behold the beauty of the LORD, and to inquire in his temple. 5For he will hide me in his shelter in the day of trouble; he will conceal me under the cover of his tent, he will set me high upon a rock. 6And now my head shall be lifted up above my enemies round about me; and I will offer in his tent sacrifices with shouts of joy; I will sing and make melody to the LORD. 7Hear, O LORD, when I cry aloud, be gracious to me and answer me! 8Thou hast said, "Seek ye my face." My heart says to thee, "Thy face, LORD, do I seek." 9Hide not thy face from me. Turn not thy servant away in anger, thou who hast been my help. Cast me not off, forsake me not, O God of my salvation! 10For my father and my mother have forsaken me, but the LORD will take me up. 11Teach me thy way, O LORD; and lead me on a level path because of my enemies. 12Give me not up to the will of my adversaries; for false witnesses have risen against me, and they breathe out violence. 13I believe that I shall see the goodness of the LORD in the land of the living! 14Wait for the LORD; be strong, and let your heart take courage; yea, wait for the LORD!


Intent of Psalm 27

A Psalm of David, an act of devotion and a prayer for deliverance.

vv. 1-6 Song of trust (see Ps. 11 n.).

v. 4 Dwell in the house of the LORD, see 23:6. The aim of the psalm is to incorporate the body of Israel into the Kingdom of God in the Land of the Living (under Messiah) and the Resurrection of the Dead in an eternal structure.

v. 6 Tent, poetic name for the temple.

vv. 7-14 A lament.

vv. 7-9 Cry for help.

vv. 10-12 The psalmist’s situation.

vv. 13-14 Expression of confidence. In the land of the living, i.e. “during my life.”


For additional biblical insight refer to CCG Papers:

The Plan of Salvation (No. 001A)

The Relationship between Salvation by Grace and the Law (No. 082)

Teach Us to Pray (No. 111)

Heaven, Hell or the First Resurrection of the Dead (No. 143A)

The Second Resurrection and the Great White Throne Judgment (No. 143B)

Praying to Christ or Beings other than the Father (No. 111B)

The Purpose of the Creation and the Sacrifice of Christ (No. 160)

Sacrifice Offering (No. 278)

Lesson: Complaining and Rebellion (No. CB045_2)

Psalms from the Temple Worship (No. 087)

Pentecost at Sinai (No. 115)

The Place of Safety (No. 194)

Sanctification of the Temple of God (No. 241)


Psalm 28

28:1  A Psalm of David. To thee, O LORD, I call; my rock, be not deaf to me, lest, if thou be silent to me, I become like those who go down to the Pit. 2Hear the voice of my supplication, as I cry to thee for help, as I lift up my hands towards thy most holy sanctuary.  3Take me not off with the wicked, with those who are workers of evil, who speak peace with their neighbors, while mischief is in their hearts. 4Requite them according to their work, and according to the evil of their deeds; requite them according to the work of their hands; render them their due reward. 5Because they do not regard the works of the LORD, or the work of his hands, he will break them down and build them up no more. 6Blessed be the LORD! for he has heard the voice of my supplications. 7The LORD is my strength and my shield; in him my heart trusts; so I am helped, and my heart exults, and with my song I give thanks to him. 8The LORD is the strength of his people, he is the saving refuge of his anointed. 9O save thy people, and bless thy heritage; be thou their shepherd, and carry them for ever.


Intent of Psalm 28

These Psalms of David seem to see a possible response and assurance by a temple officer after v. 5 (see comments re v. 5 and also OARSV on previous comment).

Prayer for Deliverance from personal enemies (a lament).

vv. 1-5 Cry for vindication (compare 26:1-3).

v. 1 The Pit, i.e. Sheol (see 6:5 n. and OARSV)

vv. 6-7 After v. 5, a priest or temple prophet probably delivered an oracle of assurance (compare 12:5 n.) to which these verses are the psalmist’s grateful response.

vv. 8-9 See 25:22 n.

v. 8 Anointed, see 2:2 n.

v. 9 Shepherd, Isa. 40:11


For additional biblical insight refer to CCG Papers:

The Shepherd of Hermas Parts 1-7 (No. B10)

Commentary on Jonah (F032)

The Night to be Much Observed (No. 101)

Commentary of Isaiah Part IV: Messianic Prophecy through Isaiah to Hezekiah (No. 157D)

The Song of Moses (No. 179)

The Oracles of God (No. 184)

Sanctification of the Temple of God (No. 241)

Cleansing the Temple (No. 241B)


Psalm 29

29:1  A Psalm of David. Ascribe to the LORD, O heavenly beings, ascribe to the LORD glory and strength. 2Ascribe to the LORD the glory of his name; worship the LORD in holy array. 3The voice of the LORD is upon the waters; the God of glory thunders, the LORD, upon many waters. 4The voice of the LORD is powerful, the voice of the LORD is full of majesty. 5The voice of the LORD breaks the cedars, the LORD breaks the cedars of Lebanon. 6He makes Lebanon to skip like a calf, and Sirion like a young wild ox. 7The voice of the LORD flashes forth flames of fire. 8The voice of the LORD shakes the wilderness, the LORD shakes the wilderness of Kadesh. 9The voice of the LORD makes the oaks to whirl, and strips the forests bare; and in his temple all cry, "Glory!" 10The LORD sits enthroned over the flood; the LORD sits enthroned as king for ever. 11May the LORD give strength to his people! May the LORD bless his people with peace!


Intent of Psalm 29

This is a call to the council of the elohim as the heavenly sons of God and a call to them for worship of the One True God of Hosts in Holy Array. The One True God is seen as being manifested in the power of the storm with its effect on the creation.

vv. 1-2 Call to Worship to man and elohim in Holy Array.

vv. 3-9 The power of the LORD’s manifestation in the thunderstorm.

v. 3 The voice of the LORD, the thunder.

The waters, the Mediterranean and many other waters.

v. 5 Lebanon, the principal mountains of Syria.

v. 6 Sirion, Mount Hermon.

v. 7 Flames of fire, the lightning.

v. 8 Kadesh, probably the Kadesh of the wilderness wanderings (Num. 20:1).

vv. 10-11 Above the tumult of the storm, the LORD reigns in majestic peace.


For additional biblical insight refer to CCG Papers:

The God we Worship (No. 002)

The Seven Spirits of God (No. 064)

Moses and the gods of Egypt (No. 105)

The Seven Seals (No. 140)

The First Commandment: The Sin of Satan (No. 153)

God’s Calendar (No. 156)

Law and the Eighth Commandment (No. 261)

New Moon and Holy Day Calendar (No. C3)

Wars of the End Part 1: Wars of Amalek (No.141C)


Psalm 30

30:1  A Psalm of David. A Song at the dedication of the Temple. I will extol thee, O LORD, for thou hast drawn me up, and hast not let my foes rejoice over me. 2O LORD my God, I cried to thee for help, and thou hast healed me. 3O LORD, thou hast brought up my soul from Sheol, restored me to life from among those gone down to the Pit. 4Sing praises to the LORD, O you his saints, and give thanks to his holy name. 5For his anger is but for a moment, and his favor is for a lifetime. Weeping may tarry for the night, but joy comes with the morning. 6As for me, I said in my prosperity, "I shall never be moved." 7By thy favor, O LORD, thou hadst established me as a strong mountain; thou didst hide thy face, I was dismayed. 8To thee, O LORD, I cried; and to the LORD I made supplication: 9"What profit is there in my death, if I go down to the Pit? Will the dust praise thee? Will it tell of thy faithfulness?  10Hear, O LORD, and be gracious to me! O LORD, be thou my helper!" 11Thou hast turned for me my mourning into dancing; thou hast loosed my sackcloth and girded me with gladness, 12that my soul may praise thee and not be silent. O LORD my God, I will give thanks to thee for ever.


Intent of Psalm 30

A psalm of Restoration from Death in the Resurrection. It is also a call to the Saints under the Messiah.

vv. 1-3 David’s call to the LORD. How the annointed was brought back to life from the pit of Sheol.

vv. 4-6 The Call is to the Saints of the Lord and the blessing of honouring the LORD as part of his Temple (see 16:10 same Hebrew word).

vv. 7-8 David’s confidence in the benefits of God's guidance and security.

vv. 9-11 The benefits of joy and preservation are seen as extending eternally with the life of the Saints; literally the Holy Ones (see also 16:10 n.).

vv. 6-12 The narrative of David's experience (18:4-6 n.). Before the illness he felt secure (v. 6-7). With the illness he turned to God in prayer (vv. 8-10). God answered him (vv. 11-12).


  Psalm 31

31:1  To the choirmaster. A Psalm of David. In thee, O LORD, do I seek refuge; let me never be put to shame; in thy righteousness deliver me! 2Incline thy ear to me, rescue me speedily! Be thou a rock of refuge for me, a strong fortress to save me! 3Yea, thou art my rock and my fortress; for thy name's sake lead me and guide me, 4take me out of the net which is hidden for me, for thou art my refuge. 5Into thy hand I commit my spirit; thou hast redeemed me, O LORD, faithful God. 6Thou hatest those who pay regard to vain idols; but I trust in the LORD. 7I will rejoice and be glad for thy steadfast love, because thou hast seen my affliction, thou hast taken heed of my adversities, 8and hast not delivered me into the hand of the enemy; thou hast set my feet in a broad place. 9Be gracious to me, O LORD, for I am in distress; my eye is wasted from grief, my soul and my body also. 10For my life is spent with sorrow, and my years with sighing; my strength fails because of my misery, and my bones waste away. 11I am the scorn of all my adversaries, a horror to my neighbors, an object of dread to my acquaintances; those who see me in the street flee from me. 12I have passed out of mind like one who is dead; I have become like a broken vessel. 13Yea, I hear the whispering of many--terror on every side!--as they scheme together against me, as they plot to take my life. 14But I trust in thee, O LORD, I say, "Thou art my God." 15My times are in thy hand; deliver me from the hand of my enemies and persecutors! 16Let thy face shine on thy servant; save me in thy steadfast love! 17Let me not be put to shame, O LORD, for I call on thee; let the wicked be put to shame, let them go dumbfounded to Sheol. 18Let the lying lips be dumb, which speak insolently against the righteous in pride and contempt. 19O how abundant is thy goodness, which thou hast laid up for those who fear thee, and wrought for those who take refuge in thee, in the sight of the sons of men! 20In the covert of thy presence thou hidest them from the plots of men; thou holdest them safe under thy shelter from the strife of tongues. 21Blessed be the LORD, for he has wondrously shown his steadfast love to me when I was beset as in a besieged city. 22I had said in my alarm, "I am driven far from thy sight." But thou didst hear my supplications, when I cried to thee for help.  23Love the LORD, all you his saints! The LORD preserves the faithful, but abundantly requites him who acts haughtily. 24Be strong, and let your heart take courage, all you who wait for the LORD!


Intent of Psalm 31

A lament as a prayer for the deliverance from one's enemies.

vv. 31:1-8 and 9-24 are are parallel in form, both containing the principal elements of a lament.

1-8 a Cry for help (vv. 1-5)

The Psalmist’s situation (v. 4) and expression of confidence (v. 5); protestation of innocence (v. 6) and the grateful recognition of God's help (vv. 7-8).

9-24 Cry for help (v. 9);

The psalmist’s situation (vv.10-13); expressions of confidence (vv. 14,19-20);

 prayer for vindication (vv. 15-18);

grateful recognition of God's help (vv. 21-24)

31:12 Broken vessel - (comp. Eccl. 12:6); v. 13 (Jer. 20:10); 23 (see 30:4-6 n.).


Psalm 32

32:1  A Psalm of David. A Maskil. Blessed is he whose transgression is forgiven, whose sin is covered. 2Blessed is the man to whom the LORD imputes no iniquity, and in whose spirit there is no deceit. 3When I declared not my sin, my body wasted away through my groaning all day long.  4For day and night thy hand was heavy upon me; my strength was dried up as by the heat of summer. Selah

5I acknowledged my sin to thee, and I did not hide my iniquity; I said, "I will confess my trangressions to the LORD"; then thou didst forgive the guilt of my sin. Selah

6Therefore let every one who is godly offer prayer to thee; at a time of distress, in the rush of great waters, they shall not reach him. 7Thou art a hiding place for me, thou preservest me from trouble; thou dost encompass me with deliverance. Selah

8I will instruct you and teach you the way you should go; I will counsel you with my eye upon you. 9Be not like a horse or a mule, without understanding, which must be curbed with bit and bridle, else it will not keep with you.  10Many are the pangs of the wicked; but steadfast love surrounds him who trusts in the LORD. 11Be glad in the LORD, and rejoice, O righteous, and shout for joy, all you upright in heart!


Intent of Psalm 32

Thanksgiving for healing

32:1-2 God is praised for David's recovery

Blessed - see 1:1 n.  Disease was regarded as the punishment for sin. Healing was then regarded as the forgiveness of sin.

32:3-5 The psalmist’s experience (see 18:3-6 n.)

v. 4 Selah  - see 3:2 n.

v. 5 Healing came only after the acknowledgement of sin.

32:6-11 David commends to the people similar faith in God (vv. 6-7,10) and obedience to God's Will and Law (vv. 8-9).


 Psalm 33

33:1  Rejoice in the LORD, O you righteous! Praise befits the upright. 2Praise the LORD with the lyre, make melody to him with the harp of ten strings! 3Sing to him a new song, play skilfully on the strings, with loud shouts. 4For the word of the LORD is upright; and all his work is done in faithfulness. 5He loves righteousness and justice; the earth is full of the steadfast love of the LORD. 6By the word of the LORD the heavens were made, and all their host by the breath of his mouth.  7He gathered the waters of the sea as in a bottle; he put the deeps in storehouses. 8Let all the earth fear the LORD, let all the inhabitants of the world stand in awe of him! 9For he spoke, and it came to be; he commanded, and it stood forth.  10The LORD brings the counsel of the nations to nought; he frustrates the plans of the peoples.  11The counsel of the LORD stands for ever, the thoughts of his heart to all generations. 12Blessed is the nation whose God is the LORD, the people whom he has chosen as his heritage! 13The LORD looks down from heaven, he sees all the sons of men; 14from where he sits enthroned he looks forth on all the inhabitants of the earth, 15he who fashions the hearts of them all, and observes all their deeds. 16A king is not saved by his great army; a warrior is not delivered by his great strength.17The war horse is a vain hope for victory, and by its great might it cannot save.  18Behold, the eye of the LORD is on those who fear him, on those who hope in his steadfast love, 19that he may deliver their soul from death, and keep them alive in famine. 20Our soul waits for the LORD; he is our help and shield. 21Yea, our heart is glad in him, because we trust in his holy name. 22Let thy steadfast love, O LORD, be upon us, even as we hope in thee.


Intent of Psalm 33

Hymn to God as Creator and sustainer of the universe.

33:1-3 Call to worship.

33:4-5  Describe the character of Israel's God.

33:6-9 The Lord as Creator, God is creator and by His Divine Fiat the Heavens were made (Job 38:4-7) (## 002b; 187). It is not the re-creation under the elohim in Gen. 1:3-31.

33:10-19 The Lord God rules over the destinies of nations.

33:20-22 Israel puts her complete trust in Him.


Psalm 34

34:1 A Psalm of David, when he feigned madness before Abimelech, so that he drove him out, and he went away. I will bless the LORD at all times; his praise shall continually be in my mouth. 2My soul makes its boast in the LORD; let the afflicted hear and be glad. 3O magnify the LORD with me, and let us exalt his name together! 4I sought the LORD, and he answered me, and delivered me from all my fears. 5Look to him, and be radiant; so your faces shall never be ashamed. 6This poor man cried, and the LORD heard him, and saved him out of all his troubles. 7The angel of the LORD encamps around those who fear him, and delivers them. 8O taste and see that the LORD is good! Happy is the man who takes refuge in him! 9O fear the LORD, you his saints, for those who fear him have no want!  10The young lions suffer want and hunger; but those who seek the LORD lack no good thing. 11Come, O sons, listen to me, I will teach you the fear of the LORD. 12What man is there who desires life, and covets many days, that he may enjoy good? 13Keep your tongue from evil, and your lips from speaking deceit. 14Depart from evil, and do good; seek peace, and pursue it. 15The eyes of the LORD are toward the righteous, and his ears toward their cry. 16The face of the LORD is against evildoers, to cut off the remembrance of them from the earth. 17When the righteous cry for help, the LORD hears, and delivers them out of all their troubles.18The LORD is near to the brokenhearted, and saves the crushed in spirit. 19Many are the afflictions of the righteous; but the LORD delivers him out of them all. 20He keeps all his bones; not one of them is broken.  21Evil shall slay the wicked; and those who hate the righteous will be condemned. 22The LORD redeems the life of his servants; none of those who take refuge in him will be condemned.


Intent of Psalm 34

Thanksgiving for deliverance from trouble.

Like Pss. 9, 10 & 25 this is an alphabetical acrostic.

34:1-3  A brief hymn of praise

34:4-6 Narrative of the psalmist’s experience (see 18:3-6 n. Comp. 30:6-12; 32:3-5).

34:7-22 He commends to the congregation the same faith in God and assures them that He will never be found wanting (comp. 32:6-11). The style is that of Pss. 1 & 37; (see also v. 11 with Prov. 1:8; 2:1).

v. 9 Saints – (see 16:3,10 n.)

34:12-14 1Pet. 3:10-12.

34:20 Jn. 19:36-37 re the Messiah on the Stauros who had no bones broken but was pierced with the spear in accord with Zech. 12:10; Psa. 22; Rev. 1:7.


Psalm 35

35:1  A Psalm of David. Contend, O LORD, with those who contend with me; fight against those who fight against me! 2Take hold of shield and buckler, and rise for my help! 3Draw the spear and javelin against my pursuers! Say to my soul, "I am your deliverance!" 4Let them be put to shame and dishonor who seek after my life! Let them be turned back and confounded who devise evil against me! 5Let them be like chaff before the wind, with the angel of the LORD driving them on! 6Let their way be dark and slippery, with the angel of the LORD pursuing them! 7For without cause they hid their net for me; without cause they dug a pit for my life. 8Let ruin come upon them unawares! And let the net which they hid ensnare them; let them fall therein to ruin! 9Then my soul shall rejoice in the LORD, exulting in his deliverance. 10All my bones shall say, "O LORD, who is like thee, thou who deliverest the weak from him who is too strong for him, the weak and needy from him who despoils him?" 11Malicious witnesses rise up; they ask me of things that I know not. 12They requite me evil for good; my soul is forlorn. 13But I, when they were sick--I wore sackcloth, I afflicted myself with fasting. I prayed with head bowed on my bosom, 14as though I grieved for my friend or my brother; I went about as one who laments his mother, bowed down and in mourning. 15But at my stumbling they gathered in glee, they gathered together against me; cripples whom I knew not slandered me without ceasing; 16they impiously mocked more and more, gnashing at me with their teeth. 17How long, O LORD, wilt thou look on? Rescue me from their ravages, my life from the lions! 18Then I will thank thee in the great congregation; in the mighty throng I will praise thee. 19Let not those rejoice over me who are wrongfully my foes, and let not those wink the eye who hate me without cause. 20For they do not speak peace, but against those who are quiet in the land they conceive words of deceit. 21They open wide their mouths against me; they say, "Aha, Aha! our eyes have seen it!" 22Thou hast seen, O LORD; be not silent! O Lord, be not far from me! 23Bestir thyself, and awake for my right, for my cause, my God and my Lord! 24Vindicate me, O LORD, my God, according to thy righteousness; and let them not rejoice over me!  25Let them not say to themselves, "Aha, we have our heart's desire!" Let them not say, "We have swallowed him up." 26Let them be put to shame and confusion altogether who rejoice at my calamity! Let them be clothed with shame and dishonor who magnify themselves against me! 27Let those who desire my vindication shout for joy and be glad, and say evermore, "Great is the LORD, who delights in the welfare of his servant!" 28Then my tongue shall tell of thy righteousness and of thy praise all the day long.


Intent of Psalm 35

Prayer for deliverance from one's enemies

As with Psalm 31, the elements of the lament occur more than once, so that vv. 1-10; 11-18 and 19-28 can be treated as separate units (see also OARSV n.). 

35:1-10 The First Lament. vv.1-6. Cry for vindication and vengeance.

v. 7 David finds his situation is without cause.

v. 8 Prayer for vengeance renewed.

35:9-10  He has made his vow (see 7:17 n.)

35:11-18 The second lament.

vv. 11-16 Proclamation of innocence; the enemies act  from malice.

v.  17  Cry for help,

v.  18 The Vow (see 7:17 n.).

35:19-29  The third lament.

v.  19 Cry for help

35:20-21  The psalmist’s situation

35:22-27  Prayer for vindication

v. 28 The vow (Comp. v. 18)


Psalm 36

36:1 To the choirmaster. A Psalm of David, the servant of the LORD. Transgression speaks to the wicked deep in his heart; there is no fear of God before his eyes.  2For he flatters himself in his own eyes that his iniquity cannot be found out and hated.  3The words of his mouth are mischief and deceit; he has ceased to act wisely and do good. 4He plots mischief while on his bed; he sets himself in a way that is not good; he spurns not evil. 5Thy steadfast love, O LORD, extends to the heavens, thy faithfulness to the clouds. 6Thy righteousness is like the mountains of God, thy judgments are like the great deep; man and beast thou savest, O LORD. 7How precious is thy steadfast love, O God! The children of men take refuge in the shadow of thy wings. 8They feast on the abundance of thy house, and thou givest them drink from the river of thy delights. 9For with thee is the fountain of life; in thy light do we see light. 10O continue thy steadfast love to those who know thee, and thy salvation to the upright of heart! 11Let not the foot of arrogance come upon me, nor the hand of the wicked drive me away.  12There the evildoers lie prostrate, they are thrust down, unable to rise.


Intent of Psalm 36

A Composite Psalm

36:1-4 In the type of a wisdom psalm

36:5-9 is in the form of a hymn. 

36:10-12 is in the form of a prayer in the style of a lament (see also OARSV n. which states that since the last section might characterise the psalm then it should be classed as a liturgy of lament). The first section deals with the wicked man.

v. 1 He is inspired by sin and transgression as a prophet is inspired by the Holy Spirit (No. 117).

36:5-9 God's character is that He is a source of blessing to the righteous and provides them with a refuge.

Fountain of life Comp. Jer. 2:13.

36:10-11 Prayer for deliverance.

36:12 Assurance of having been heard.


Psalm 37

37:1  A Psalm of David. Fret not yourself because of the wicked, be not envious of wrongdoers!  2For they will soon fade like the grass, and wither like the green herb. 3Trust in the LORD, and do good; so you will dwell in the land, and enjoy security. 4Take delight in the LORD, and he will give you the desires of your heart. 5Commit your way to the LORD; trust in him, and he will act.  6He will bring forth your vindication as the light, and your right as the noonday. 7Be still before the LORD, and wait patiently for him; fret not yourself over him who prospers in his way, over the man who carries out evil devices! 8Refrain from anger, and forsake wrath! Fret not yourself; it tends only to evil. 9For the wicked shall be cut off; but those who wait for the LORD shall possess the land. 10Yet a little while, and the wicked will be no more; though you look well at his place, he will not be there. 11But the meek shall possess the land, and delight themselves in abundant prosperity. 12The wicked plots against the righteous, and gnashes his teeth at him; 13but the LORD laughs at the wicked, for he sees that his day is coming. 14The wicked draw the sword and bend their bows, to bring down the poor and needy, to slay those who walk uprightly; 15their sword shall enter their own heart, and their bows shall be broken. 16Better is a little that the righteous has than the abundance of many wicked. 17For the arms of the wicked shall be broken; but the LORD upholds the righteous. 18The LORD knows the days of the blameless, and their heritage will abide for ever; 19they are not put to shame in evil times, in the days of famine they have abundance. 20But the wicked perish; the enemies of the LORD are like the glory of the pastures, they vanish--like smoke they vanish away. 21The wicked borrows, and cannot pay back, but the righteous is generous and gives; 22for those blessed by the LORD shall possess the land, but those cursed by him shall be cut off. 23The steps of a man are from the LORD, and he establishes him in whose way he delights; 24though he fall, he shall not be cast headlong, for the LORD is the stay of his hand. 25I have been young, and now am old; yet I have not seen the righteous forsaken or his children begging bread. 26He is ever giving liberally and lending, and his children become a blessing. 27Depart from evil, and do good; so shall you abide for ever. 28For the LORD loves justice; he will not forsake his saints. The righteous shall be preserved for ever, but the children of the wicked shall be cut off.  29The righteous shall possess the land, and dwell upon it for ever. 30The mouth of the righteous utters wisdom, and his tongue speaks justice.  31The law of his God is in his heart; his steps do not slip. 32The wicked watches the righteous, and seeks to slay him. 33The LORD will not abandon him to his power, or let him be condemned when he is brought to trial. 34Wait for the LORD, and keep to his way, and he will exalt you to possess the land; you will look on the destruction of the wicked. 35I have seen a wicked man overbearing, and towering like a cedar of Lebanon. 36Again I passed by, and lo, he was no more; though I sought him, he could not be found. 37Mark the blameless man, and behold the upright, for there is posterity for the man of peace. 38But transgressors shall be altogether destroyed; the posterity of the wicked shall be cut off.  39The salvation of the righteous is from the LORD; he is their refuge in the time of trouble. 40The LORD helps them and delivers them; he delivers them from the wicked, and saves them, because they take refuge in him.


Intent of Psalm 37

The certainty of retribution for the wicked (a wisdom psalm). The argument is directed at those discouraged by the world's injustices. An acrostic form (see Pss. 9 & 10 and the n.). The psalm depicts the Righteous and their triumph over the accrued wealth of the wicked and their inevitable punishment under the Lord.

v. 3 The Land – Palestine

vv. 9, 11, 22, 29 comp. Deut. 11:8-32.

v. 10.  The thrust is: Do not be impatient: God's retribution will come soon enough though not yet seen (comp. vv. 35-36).

v. 11  Mat. 5:5.

37:25 (Comp. Job 4:7).

v. 28 Saints (see 30:4 n.)

v. 34 Be not in anxiety but wait patiently for the Lord (comp. v. 9; 38:15; 62:1,5; 130:5; Isa. 40:31). The righteous will not be forsaken.


Psalm 38

38:1 A Psalm of David, for the memorial offering. O LORD, rebuke me not in thy anger, nor chasten me in thy wrath! 2For thy arrows have sunk into me, and thy hand has come down on me. 3There is no soundness in my flesh because of thy indignation; there is no health in my bones because of my sin. 4For my iniquities have gone over my head; they weigh like a burden too heavy for me. 5My wounds grow foul and fester because of my foolishness, 6I am utterly bowed down and prostrate; all the day I go about mourning. 7For my loins are filled with burning, and there is no soundness in my flesh. 8I am utterly spent and crushed; I groan because of the tumult of my heart.  9Lord, all my longing is known to thee, my sighing is not hidden from thee. 10My heart throbs, my strength fails me; and the light of my eyes--it also has gone from me.  11My friends and companions stand aloof from my plague, and my kinsmen stand afar off.  12Those who seek my life lay their snares, those who seek my hurt speak of ruin, and meditate treachery all the day long.  13But I am like a deaf man, I do not hear, like a dumb man who does not open his mouth.  14Yea, I am like a man who does not hear, and in whose mouth are no rebukes. 15But for thee, O LORD, do I wait; it is thou, O LORD my God, who wilt answer. 16For I pray, "Only let them not rejoice over me, who boast against me when my foot slips!" 17For I am ready to fall, and my pain is ever with me. 18I confess my iniquity, I am sorry for my sin. 19Those who are my foes without cause are mighty, and many are those who hate me wrongfully. 20Those who render me evil for good are my adversaries because I follow after good.  21Do not forsake me, O LORD! O my God, be not far from me!  22Make haste to help me, O Lord, my salvation!


Intent of Psalm 38

The psalm of David is for the memorial offering.

A psalm of lament for healing in serious sickness.

The psalmist is being troubled by enemies who are taking advantage of his illness. The ancient belief that sickness equals sin and that God was against or punishing the person led them to attack during those times. (See also Psalm 22 and its application to Messiah.)

Title: Memorial Offering (see Lev. 2:1-10; comp. Lev. 24:7).

v. 1 Cry for help.

vv. 2-20  The psalmist’s situation

v. 2 Thy arrows -  6:4; 16:12,13

38:3-10  David's disease

vv. 3-4  David acknowledges that his problem must be for a sin he has inadvertently committed (comp. v. 18).

v. 11 His former friends avoid him as one forsaken by God.

v. 12 His enemies are defaming him (comp. vv. 19-20).

vv. 13-16  He patiently waits for God to act (comp. 37:34). David hopes by confessing his sins God will heal his illness (comp. 32:3-5). vv. 21-22  His final plea for help.


Psalm 39

39:1  To the choirmaster: to Jeduthun. A Psalm of David. I said, "I will guard my ways, that I may not sin with my tongue; I will bridle my mouth, so long as the wicked are in my presence." 2I was dumb and silent, I held my peace to no avail; my distress grew worse, 3my heart became hot within me. As I mused, the fire burned; then I spoke with my tongue: 4"LORD, let me know my end, and what is the measure of my days; let me know how fleeting my life is!  5Behold, thou hast made my days a few handbreadths, and my lifetime is as nothing in thy sight. Surely every man stands as a mere breath! Selah

6Surely man goes about as a shadow! Surely for nought are they in turmoil; man heaps up, and knows not who will gather! 7"And now, Lord, for what do I wait? My hope is in thee. 8Deliver me from all my transgressions. Make me not the scorn of the fool!  9I am dumb, I do not open my mouth; for it is thou who hast done it. 10Remove thy stroke from me; I am spent by the blows of thy hand. 11When thou dost chasten man with rebukes for sin, thou dost consume like a moth what is dear to him; surely every man is a mere breath! Selah

12"Hear my prayer, O LORD, and give ear to my cry; hold not thy peace at my tears! For I am thy passing guest, a sojourner, like all my fathers. 13Look away from me, that I may know gladness, before I depart and be no more!"


Intent of Psalm 39

Again a prayer for healing in sickness (a lament).

39:1-3 In this severe illness David has had his faith significantly tested and pledges his fidelity. He wants to know if he is to die. He makes no public complaint as he does not wish to encourage the sceptical and the wicked who denied God's concern for justice and goodness (see Pss. 10:4 and 14).  He has contained himself but now cries to God (in private).

39:4-6 David acknowledges that all human life is short.

v. 5 see 3:2 n. Handbreaths – i.e. Four fingers (say 3 inches (comp. Ezek. 40:5; 43:13).

39:7-13 Prayer for healing.

v. 8 Deliver...from... transgressions, i.e. Heal the disease they have caused (cf. 32:1).

39:12-13 He pledges his hope is in God and asks God to look away from him and allow him to know gladness before he dies.


Psalm 40

40:1 To the choirmaster. A Psalm of David. I waited patiently for the LORD; he inclined to me and heard my cry. 2He drew me up from the desolate pit, out of the miry bog, and set my feet upon a rock, making my steps secure. 3He put a new song in my mouth, a song of praise to our God. Many will see and fear, and put their trust in the LORD. 4Blessed is the man who makes the LORD his trust, who does not turn to the proud, to those who go astray after false gods! 5Thou hast multiplied, O LORD my God, thy wondrous deeds and thy thoughts toward us; none can compare with thee! Were I to proclaim and tell of them, they would be more than can be numbered. 6Sacrifice and offering thou dost not desire; but thou hast given me an open ear. Burnt offering and sin offering thou hast not required. 7Then I said, "Lo, I come; in the roll of the book it is written of me;  8I delight to do thy will, O my God; thy law is within my heart." 9I have told the glad news of deliverance in the great congregation; lo, I have not restrained my lips, as thou knowest, O LORD. 10I have not hid thy saving help within my heart, I have spoken of thy faithfulness and thy salvation; I have not concealed thy steadfast love and thy faithfulness from the great congregation. 11Do not thou, O LORD, withhold thy mercy from me, let thy steadfast love and thy faithfulness ever preserve me!  12For evils have encompassed me without number; my iniquities have overtaken me, till I cannot see; they are more than the hairs of my head; my heart fails me. 13Be pleased, O LORD, to deliver me! O LORD, make haste to help me!  14Let them be put to shame and confusion altogether who seek to snatch away my life; let them be turned back and brought to dishonor who desire my hurt!  15Let them be appalled because of their shame who say to me, "Aha, Aha!"  16But may all who seek thee rejoice and be glad in thee; may those who love thy salvation say continually, "Great is the LORD!"  17As for me, I am poor and needy; but the Lord takes thought for me. Thou art my help and my deliverer; do not tarry, O my God!


Intent of Psalm 40

Thanksgiving for deliverance from trouble and a prayer for help.

40:1-11 are for thanksgiving.

40:12-17 are a lament. Perhaps the two independent units have been combined as a liturgy.

40:1-3 Benefits of waiting on God in the experience of the psalmist (18:4-6). His trouble is not specified.

40:4-10 Fulfilment of his vow (see 7:17 n. & 22:22-31 n.)

40:4-5 Trusting in God

40:6-8 What God desires 

v. 6 (comp. 50:8-13; 51:16,17; Am. 5:21-24; Hos. 6:6).

v. 7 Roll of the Book  56:8; 139:16.

40:9-12 Exclaiming God’s praises  

v. 9 comp. 22:22.

v. 11 Prayer for continuing help.

40:12-17 A Lament,

v. 12 the psalmist's situation.

40:13-15 Plea for deliverance. Almost identical with Psa. 70.

40:16-17 Praise and request for speedy deliverance.


This psalm refers to the burnt offering, see note on offering below. Christ fulfilled all aspects of the offerings (cf. The Wave Sheaf (No. 106B)).

Clearly now God desires a contrite heart (see Psa. 51:17; Isa 66:2).


A person that is humble and has a contrite heart is one who meditates on God’s law and lives God’s law. We are to be a royal priesthood; priests are to:

Live by the word of Eloah (Deut. 8:3; Mat. 4:4; Lk. 4:4).

Explain the Law of Eloah (Neh. 8:7).

Teach the Law of Eloah (Deut. 33:10; Lev.10:11; Ezra 7:10).

Keep or preserve the Law of Eloah (Mal. 2:7; Neh. 18:18).

Judge by the Law of Eloah (Deut. 17:2-13; 21:5).


In reference to the great congregation the texts refer to the congregation of the elohim of God Almighty as Ha Elohim, the Elyon; The Most High God.


Psa. 45:6-7 talks of Messiah of Israel (Heb. 1:8-9) being anointed above his fellows in the great congregation of God. Psa. 82:1ff discusses the council of the Elohim; (for more information see The Shema (No. 002B); The Government of God (No. 174); How God Became a Family (No. 187)).

(see also F043).

The Elohim as the council of the sons of God are also referred to in Pss 86:8, 95:3, 96:4,5, 97:7,9, 135:5, 136:2, 138:1.


Psalm 41

41:1 To the choirmaster. A Psalm of David. Blessed is he who considers the poor! The LORD delivers him in the day of trouble; 2the LORD protects him and keeps him alive; he is called blessed in the land; thou dost not give him up to the will of his enemies. 3The LORD sustains him on his sickbed; in his illness thou healest all his infirmities. 4As for me, I said, "O LORD, be gracious to me; heal me, for I have sinned against thee!"  5My enemies say of me in malice: "When will he die, and his name perish?" 6And when one comes to see me, he utters empty words, while his heart gathers mischief; when he goes out, he tells it abroad. 7All who hate me whisper together about me; they imagine the worst for me.  8They say, "A deadly thing has fastened upon him; he will not rise again from where he lies." 9Even my bosom friend in whom I trusted, who ate of my bread, has lifted his heel against me. 10But do thou, O LORD, be gracious to me, and raise me up, that I may requite them!  11By this I know that thou art pleased with me, in that my enemy has not triumphed over me. 12But thou hast upheld me because of my integrity, and set me in thy presence for ever. 13Blessed be the LORD, the God of Israel, from everlasting to everlasting! Amen and Amen.


Intent of Psalm 41

A Lament as prayer for healing from sickness.

41:1-3 Blessings for those that remember the unfortunate in the style of the wisdom writers (see also Psa. 1).

41:4-6 Sinners request for mercy

41:7-9 Whispers;   things God hates

41:10-12 Prayer for mercy and deliverance

41:13 Blessed be the God of Israel

This text is a doxology having no part of the Psalm (see OARSV n.)

The text started the Genesis book in Psalm 1:1 and concludes the book in Psalm 41:13 with this doxology.

v. 13 Everlasting is SHD 5769 and is also used twice in the psalm for the first day of the week Psalm 24, describing the everlasting doors. 


Micah 6:8 He has showed you, O man, what is good; and what does the LORD require of you but to do justice, and to love kindness, and to walk humbly with your God?


Pro. 14:31 He who oppresses a poor man insults his Maker, but he who is kind to the needy honors him.


Throughout Scripture we are told numerous things about the poor. The poor will always be with you (Deut. 15:11),

Treat the poor the same as others regarding judgement (Lev.19:15, Exo. 23:6, Deut. 24:14; Pss. 112:9, 140:12; Pro. 31:9).

the same half shekel temple tax Exo. 13:15 

Help provide for the poor Lev. 19:10; 23:22; Deut. 15:7, Pss. 107:41; 132:15; Pro. 31:20, Isa 41:17

He is the father of the poor Job 29:16,

His soul is grieved for the poor Job 30:25,

They will not be forgotten Psa. 9:18,

The Lord hears the needy  Psa. 69:33;72:13

He hears and delivers Pss. 70:5; 72:4; 72:12; 109:31; 113:7.

The poor praise His name Psa. 74:21; Isa 29:19; Jer. 20:13.


See also 1Sam. 2:8.

In Proverbs 6:16 we learn of the six things God hates and seven which are an abomination to Him.


This book concludes with a double Amen, The first occurrence of a double Amen was in Num. 5:22; the second is in Neh. 8:6. The Genesis book is the third double amen in Psa. 41:13, the fourth occurrence is the Exodus book at 72:19 and the final double Amen is in the Leviticus book at 86:52. The Psalter was divided in imitation of the Pentateuch (Comp. 72:18-20; 89:52; 106:48). Psa. 72:20 ends the prayers of David the son of Jesse.




Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 1

Verse 1

BLESSED = How Happy. The first Psalm begins thus and Psalm 2 ends thus. So does the last Psalm of Book I: Psalms 41:1; Psalms 41:13). Figure of speech Antiptosis (App-6). Compare Jeremiah 17:7, Jeremiah 17:8. See App-63. for the Beatitudes in the Psalms.

man. Hebrew "ish. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Species), App-6, for all of both sexes.

walketh, &c: i.e. who never did walk . . . stand . . . sit. Figure of speech Anabasis, three triplets: walketh counsel ungodly = continue in. standeth way sinners = carry out. sitteth seat scornful = settle down.

Verse 2

the law = instruction: i.e. the whole Pentateuch which contains it.

Verse 3

be = become, or prove. Figure of speech Simile. App-6. Like a tree. The first of two comparisons. See Psalms 1:4.

planted: i.e. in a garden. Not a "tree of the field".

rivers = divisions irrigating a garden. Hebrew. palgey-mayim. See note on Proverbs 21:1. .

Verse 4

like the chaff. The other comparison. See Psalms 1:3. Compare Psalms 35:5.

Verse 5

stand = rise. No part in first resurrection. Revelation 20:5, Revelation 20:6. Compare Psalms 49:14.

Verse 6

For. Effect latent in first clause: cause latent in second clause.

knoweth = approveth, or acknowledged. Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause). Compare Nahum 1:7. 2 Timothy 2:19.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 2

Verse 1

The second Psalm of each book has to do with the enemy. See App-10.

Why. ? Figure of speech Erotesis. App-6. Repeat at beginning of Psalms 2:2. Compare Acts 4:25, Acts 4:26.

heathen = nations. Note the quadruple Anabasis (App-6): nations, peoples, kings, rulers. Compare Psalms 1:1.

Verse 2

set themselves = take their stand.

take counsel together = have gathered by appointment. So the Septuagint and Aramaean. Compare Psalms 48:4.

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

Anointed = Messiah. So Psalms 18:50; Psalms 20:6; Psalms 28:8; Psalms 84:9; Psalms 89:38, Psalms 89:51; Psalms 132:10, Psalms 132:17. In Daniel 9:25, Daniel 9:26, rendered Messiah.

Verse 3

their: i.e. Jehovah"s, and Messiah"s.

Verse 4

The LORD*. Primitive text was Jehovah. Altered by the Sopherim to Adonai. See App-32.

Verse 6

set = founded. Not the same word as Psalms 2:2.

My holy hill. Figure of speech Antimeria (App-6). Hebrew = "mount of my Sanctuary".

Zion. The mount immediately south of Moriah. See note on 2 Samuel 5:7. Occurs thirty-eight times in Psalms. "Jerusalem" occurs seventeen times.

Verse 7

Thou art my Son. Quoted in Acts 13:33. Hebrews 1:5; Hebrews 5:5. This is the Divine formula for anointing. Compare Matthew 3:17, for Prophet; Matthew 17:5, for Priest; and Hebrews 1:5, Hebrews 1:6, for King.

begotten Thee. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia (App-6). It refers to resurrection (Acts 13:33. Romans 1:3, Romans 1:4. Colossians 1:18. Revelation 1:5).

Verse 8

Ask of me. Referring not to this present dispensation of grace, but to coming dispensation of judgment.

I shall give, &c. Quoted in Revelation 2:27; Revelation 12:5; Revelation 19:15.

Verse 9

break them = rule, or govern them. So Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate.

iron. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), for unbending authority.

Verse 11

the LORD. Hebrew. "eth Jehovah. App-4. (objective).

Verse 12

Kiss = submit to, or be ruled by. Hebrew. nashak. Occurs thirty-two times (first in Genesis 27:26, Genesis 27:27). Always so rendered except 1 Chronicles 12:2. 2 Chronicles 17:17. 2 Chronicles 78:9 (where it is Poel Part.) "armed"; Ezekiel 3:13 "touched" (margin "kissed"); and Genesis 41:40, "be ruled" (margin "be armed", or "kiss").

Son. Aramaean. bar, a Homonym with two meanings: (1) son (Daniel 3:25. Ezra 5:1, Ezra 5:2, Ezra 5:2; Ezra 6:14. Daniel 3:25; Daniel 5:22; Daniel 7:13, and Proverbs 31:2, Proverbs 31:2, Proverbs 31:2 (king Lemuel); (2) ground, Daniel 2:38; Daniel 2:4, Daniel 2:12, Daniel 2:15, Daniel 2:21, Daniel 2:23, Daniel 2:23, Daniel 2:25, Daniel 2:32. See note on Job 39:4. So here in Psalms 2:12 = kiss the ground, Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6, for prostrate yourselves in submission. The usual Hebrew for "son" is ben, and is translated "son" or "sons" 2,890 times, and "child" or "children" (where it ought always to be "son" or "sons"), 1,549 times: making 4,439 in all. The Aramaean ben is also used for "son".

He: i.e. Jehovah, Psalms 2:11.

from the way. No Figure of speech Ellipsis (App-6) here, "from" not needed = "perish, way [and all]". Ending like Psalms 1:6. Compare Psalms 146:9. So 2 Kings 3:4 = wool [and all].

put their trust = flee for refuge to. Hebrew. hasah. See App-69.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 3

Verse 1

when. The first psalm with an historical title. See App-63and App-64. Compare 2 Samuel, chapters 15-18.

Verse 2

my soul = me, or myself. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

Selah. Connecting the contrast between "man" (as a creature) who knows God (Elohim) only as Creator, with the speaker (David), who knew Jehovah as his Covenant God. See App-4and Psalms 66:11.

Verse 3

art a shield. Figure of speech Metaphor (App-6); "shield" put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6, for defence.

Verse 4

holy hill. See note on Psalms 2:6.

Selah. Connecting the peace which comes from prayer, as in Philippians 1:4, Philippians 1:6. See App-66.

Verse 7

ungodly = lawless. Hebrew. rasha". App-44.

Verse 8

Salvation = deliverance, same word as "help", Psalms 3:2.

Thy blessing is = Thy blessing hast been, and wilt be: i.e. whatever may happen to me. In this spirit he sends back the Ark (2 Samuel 15:25.

Selah. Connecting Psalm 3 with Psalm 4, which has the same subject. See App-66.

Neginoth = smitings; from nagan, to strike, as on strings. See App-65. Here the reference is to the smitings with words in Psalm3, as in Lamentations 3:63 (compare Job 30:9. Lamentations 3:14). Compare the other Neginoth Psalms: Psalms 3:2; Psalms 5:6; Psalms 53:1; Psalms 54:3; Psalms 60:1, Psalms 60:11, Psalms 60:12; Psalms 66:10-12; Psalms 75:4-6 (Compare Psalms 77:7, Isaiah 38:20, and Habakkuk 3:19).


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 4

Verse 1

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

God of my righteousness = My righteous God. Genitive of relation or object.

Have mercy = be gracious, or show favour to.

Verse 2

how long = until when. Ellipsis correctly supplied.

leasing = falsehood. Anglo-Saxon = leasung; Mid. Eng. = lesing.

Selah. Connecting and contrasting his enemies" acts with his own sure defence. See App-66.

Verse 3

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

set apart. All depended on Jehovah"s favour (Numbers 14:8). Some codices, with Septuagint and Vulgate, read "hath given distinction to".

him that is godly: i.e. a subject of grace.

Verse 4

Selah. Connecting their sin with its being put away. See App-66.

Verse 5

sacrifices of righteousness = righteous sacrifices. Genitive of Character. How could they offer these while in rebellion against the Lord"s Anointed?

trust = confide. Hebrew. batah. See App-69.

Verse 6

that say . . . good. See note on Psalms 144:12-15.

lift Thou up. No priest with David to give the blessing of Numbers 6:24-26. See 2 Samuel 15:32-37.

countenance. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia.

Verse 7

their corn. See note on Psalms 144:15.

wine = new wine. Hebrew. tirosh. App-27.

Verse 8

and sleep = sleep at once. This reference is to 2 Samuel 17:2. See note there.

safety = confidence.

upon Nehiloth; better, nehaloth = concerning inheritances. Referring to Jehovah"s favour as being the true inheritance of godly Israelites, as shown in verses: Psalms 4:3, Psalms 4:6, Psalms 4:7. Compare Psalms 144:12-15, the other Nehaloth Psalm. See App-65.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 5

Verse 1

Give ear . . . Consider . . .

LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

meditation. Connecting this Psalm with Psalms 1:2; Psalms 2:1.

Verse 2

Hearken. Figure of speech Synonymia. App-6.

voice. The voice marks the tone of any cry. First occurrence here.

my cry. Connecting this Psalm with Psalms 3:4.

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

Verse 3

direct = set in order (as the wood on the altar). Compare Genesis 22:9. Exodus 40:4, Exodus 40:23.

look up = look out, or watch for [an answer].

Verse 4

wickedness = lawlessness. Hebrew. rasha". App-44.

Verse 5

foolish = boasters.

iniquity. Hebrew. "aven. App-44.

Verse 6

leasing = falsehood. See note on Psalms 4:2.

Verse 7

as for me. Compare Psalms 17:15; Psalms 26:11; Psalms 35:13; Psalms 41:12; Psalms 55:16; Psalms 69:13; Psalms 73:2.

multitude = abundance.

mercy = lovingkindness, or grace.

holy. See note on Exodus 3:5.

temple. Hebrew. heykal = palace: i.e. heaven itself, which was the pattern for the earthly "house" or tent, as being the dwelling-place of Jehovah. Hence it is used of the Tabernacle (1 Samuel 1:9; 1 Samuel 3:3). Compare Psalms 11:4; Psalms 18:6.

Verse 8

Thy way: not mine.

Verse 9

faithfulness = steadfastness, or stability.

their = his. Referring to the man of Psalms 5:6.

Their. Three times repeated; refers to the "foolish" and "workers" of Psalms 5:6.

tongue. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), App-6, for what is spoken by it.

Verse 10

Destroy Thou them = Deal with them as guilty.

by their own counsels. Answered in Ahithophel (2 Samuel 15:31; 2 Samuel 17:14, 2 Samuel 17:23). A prayer suited for the dispensation in which David lived. See App-63.

transgressions. Hebrew. pasha". App-44.

Verse 11

put their trust = flee for refuge to. Hebrew. hasah. See App-69.

defendest = coverest.

Thy name = Thee Thyself. "Name" put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6, for the person and character: i.e. all that the name implies and includes.

Verse 12

bless the righteous = bless the justified one. Compare Psalms 1:1; Psalms 2:12; Psalms 3:8.

favour. This is the "shield". In His favour is "life" (Psalms 30:5); "preservation" (Psalms 86:2, margin); "security" (Psalms 41:11); "mercy "(Isaiah 60:10). Hence the prayer of Psalms 106:4.

as. Figure of speech Simile. App-6.

a shield. Hebrew. zinnah, a shield of the largest size. See 1 Samuel 17:7, 1 Samuel 17:41. "Only here, Psalms 35:2 (buckler), and Psalms 91:4 in the Psalms. In other Psalms it is magen, smaller both in size and weight (compare 1 Kings 10:17. 2 Chronicles 9:16). The shield is the "favour" of Jehovah mentioned above.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 6

Verse 1

LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

Verse 2

Have mercy = Be gracious, or show favour to.

Verse 3

My soul = I. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.

sore vexed = troubled. Same as John 12:27. Compare Psalms 42:5, Psalms 42:6.

how long? = until when? Figure of speech Erotesis; and, before and after these words, the Figure of speech Aposiopesis. App-6.

Verse 4

mercies = mercy"s. Hebrew lovingkindness.

Verse 5

no remembrance. See Psalms 30:9; Psalms 88:10-12; Psalms 115:17; Psalms 118:17. Isaiah 38:18, Isaiah 38:19. Ecclesiastes 9:10.

the grave. Hebrew Sheol. App-35.

Verse 7

consumed = wasted.

enemies = adversaries.

Verse 8

Depart, &c. Figure of speech Apostrophe. App-6.

iniquity. Hebrew. "aven. App-44.

heard . . .

Verse 9

receive. Figure of speech Synonymia. App-6.

Title. Shiggaion = a loud cry in danger or joy, from sha"ag, always rendered "roar". Occurs twenty-one times. Both meanings are seen in this Psalm, and Habakkuk 3:1 (plural "set to" = concerning), the only two occurrences. See App-65.

words = matters, or business.

Cush. Who it was is not known: an evidence of genuineness.

the = a.

Benjamite. Hence probably an adherent or servant of Saul, and therefore long before Shimei and Absalom.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 7

Verse 1

put my trust = flee for refuge. Hebrew. hasa. See App-69.

persecute = pursue me. Refers probably to Saul.

Verse 2

he: i.e. Cush.

tear. Hebrew. taraph. Refers to living prey.

my soul = me. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.

while there is none to deliver. Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulg, read "and there be no deliverer to rescue". Better, no sign of a rescuer. Compare Lamentations 5:8.

Verse 3

iniquity. Hebrew. "aval. App-44. not the same as Psalms 7:14.

in my hands. Hands put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), App-6, for what is done by them.

Verse 4

evil. Hebrew. raa". App-44.

delivered = rescued. Aramaean and Syriac read "oppressed".

enemy = adversary. Hebrew. zarar.

Verse 5

enemy = foe. Hebrew. "oyeb.

persecute . . . take . . . tread. Figure of speech Anabasis. App-6.

it = me.

Selah. Connecting the treading down of Psalms 7:5 with the rising up of Jehovah. See App-66.

Verse 7

people = peoples.

compass Thee about = gather round Thee: i.e. to hear Thy judgment.

Verse 9

wickedness . . . wicked = lawlessness . . . lawless. Hebrew. rasha. App-44.

Verse 10

defence = shield. See note on "shield", Psalms 6:12.

upright. Plural.

Verse 11

righteous. Plural.

GOD. Hebrew El. App-4.

Verse 12

He: i.e. God.

His sword . . . bow. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia.

Verse 13

ordaineth = will ordain.

Verse 14

Behold. Figure of speech Asterismos, App-6.

travaileth . . . conceived . . . brought forth. Figure of speech Anabasis. App-6.

travaileth = will travail.

iniquity. Hebrew "aven App-44. i, not same word as Psalms 7:3.

mischief. Hebrew. "amal. App-44.

Verse 16

pate = head; especially the smooth skull. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Part), App-6, for the whole person, for emphasis. From "plate" = the smooth top of the head (Skeat).

Verse 17

MOST HIGH. Hebrew. Elyon. See App-4. First occurrence in Psalms. The first of thirty-six occurrences in O.T. is Genesis 14:18.

upon Gittith = relating to the Feast of Tabernacles (for which it was suited), because it commemorated safe dwelling after deliverance. See App-66.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 8

Verse 1

LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

Thy name: i.e. Jehovah Himself; "name" being put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6, for His character, person, and attributes. See Psalms 20:1. Compare Psalms 5:11.

the earth: i.e. the great subject of this Psalm. See note on verses: Psalms 8:4, Psalms 8:6.

glory = majesty, or excellence.

Verse 2

Out of, &c. Quoted in Matthew 21:16.

babes. Referring to his own youth. A still more definite reference to 1 Samuel 17:14, 1 Samuel 17:33, 1 Samuel 17:42, 1 Samuel 17:55, 1 Samuel 17:56.

ordained = appointed. Hebrew. yasad.

strength. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Subject) for the praise due for what is put forth by it.

enemies = adversaries.

enemy = foe.

avenger = the revenger.

Verse 3

work. The Western Massorites (App-30), with Septuagint and Vulgate, read "works" (plural)

fingers. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. App-6.

ordained = established. Hebrew. kun.

Verse 4

What. . . ? Figure of speech Erotesis. App-6. Quoted in Hebrews 2:5-8. Compare 1 Corinthians 15:27 and Ephesians 1:22.

man = mortal man. Hebrew. "enosh.

mindful . . . visitest. Figure of speech Anabasis.

the son of man. No Art. Occurs 3 times before this (Numbers 23:19. Job 25:6; Job 35:8). In singular 111 times in O.T. and 39 times in plural (the other occurrences in the Pss. (Psalms 49:2; Psalms 144:3) is a different word). Here, Psalms 8:4, the title relates to dominion in the earth. Compare verses: Psalms 1:6-9, and see notes on Ezekiel 2:1, Matthew 8:20, and Revelation 14:4.

man. Hebrew. "adam. App-14.

Verse 5

the angels. Hebrew. Elohim. See App-4. Rendered "angels" in Hebrews 2:7; also here, in Septuagint, Vulgate, Syriac, and Arabic. See also Psalms 97:7. Hebrews 1:6.

crowned, &c. This refers to "the second man". See notes on Hebrews 2:8, and 2 Peter 1:17.

Verse 6

him: i.e. the "first man", Adam (Genesis 1:26).

dominion, &c. This he lost in the Fall.

works. Some codices, with three early printed editions and Syriac, read "work" (singular)

hands. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. App-6.

hast = didst. See Genesis 1:26.

all things. Six are enumerated in Psalms 8:7 and Psalms 8:8. (The number of man. See App-10.)

upon Muth-labben = relating to the death of the champion (Goliath). Compare 1 Samuel 17:4, 1 Samuel 17:46, &c, and 144, which has, in the Septuagint,


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 9

Verse 1

Psalm 9 and Psalm 10 are linked together by an irregular Acrostic (see notes on pp. 721, 722, and App-63), beginning at Psalms 9:1 and ending with Psalms 10:18. Seven letters are omitted. The Acrostic is irregular, corresponding with the "times of trouble". The notes will show how one subject pervades them (see H p. 721). Compare "the lawless one" (Psalms 9:5, Psalms 9:16 and Psalms 10:2, Psalms 10:4, Psalms 10:13, Psalms 10:15); "times of trouble" (Psalms 9:9 and Psalms 10:1); "the oppressed" (Hebrew. dak, crushed, Psalms 9:9 and Psalms 10:18; occurs only here and Psalms 74:21); "mortal men" (Psalms 9:19, Psalms 9:20 and Psalms 10:18); "forget" (Psalms 9:12, Psalms 9:17, Psalms 9:18 and Psalms 10:11, Psalms 10:12); "humble" (Psalms 9:12, Psalms 9:18, and Psalms 10:12, Psalms 10:17); "not alway" (Psalms 9:18, and "never", Psalms 10:11); "for ever and ever" (Psalms 9:5 and Psalms 10:16); "arise, Jehovah" (Psalms 9:19 and Psalms 10:12).

Title. A Psalm. See App-65.

I will = Let me.

Verse 2

MOST HIGH. Hebrew. Elyon.

Verse 4

satest = hast sat.

right = righteously.

Verse 5

heathen = nations.

the wicked = a lawless one: i.e. the Antichrist. Compare Psalms 10:3, Psalms 10:13, Psalms 10:14, Psalms 10:15. Hebrew. rasha". App-44.

put out = blotted out.

for ever, &c. Compare Psalms 10:16.

Verse 6

thou enemy. Same as the lawless one of Psalms 9:5.

destructions are come = complete is the destruction.

a perpetual end = for evermore. Some codices, with two early printed editions, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "swords are abandoned".

Verse 7

endure = sit as king.

Verse 8

He, &c. Quoted in Acts 17:31.

the world = the habitable world. Hebrew. tebel. First occurrence in Psalms; never found with the Art.

people = peoples.

Verse 9

the oppressed = the crushed one. Compare Psalms 10:18.

times of trouble = the great time of trouble: i.e. the tribulation of Mat 24, Jer 30, &c. Compare Psalms 10:1.

Verse 10

Thy name. See note on Psalms 5:11.

put their trust = confide. Hebrew. batah. See App-69.

Verse 11

Zion. See App-68.

Verse 12

maketh inquisition for = inquireth concerning.

them: i.e. those named in Psalms 9:10.

forgetteth not. Compare Psalms 9:18 and Psalms 10:11, Psalms 10:12.

cry = outcry.

humble = oppressed. Compare Psalms 9:18 with Psalms 10:12, Psalms 10:17.

Verse 13

Have mercy = Be gracious, or favourable to.

Verse 14

praise. So some codices, with four early printed editions (one in margin). Other codices read "praises".

I will = that I may.

Verse 16

Higgaion = soliloquy, or meditation. See App-66.

Selah. Connecting the wicked one (singular) of Psalms 9:16 with the wicked ones (plural) of Psalms 9:17. See App-66.

Verse 17

wicked = wicked ones (plural) Hebrew. rasha". App-44.

turned = returned. Compare Job 21:26; Job 34:15. Psalms 104:29. Ecclesiastes 3:20; Ecclesiastes 12:7.

hell = the grave. Hebrew Sheol. App-35.

Verse 18

the needy = a needy one.

poor = oppressed. Compare Psalms 9:12.

not. Ellipsis of second negative. See note on Genesis 2:6.

Verse 19

man. Hebrew. "enosh. App-14.

in Thy sight = before Thee: i.e. at Thy coming.

Verse 20

Put them in fear = Appoint them some terror.

nations. As in Psalms 9:59


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 10

Verse 1

times of trouble = the great time of tribulation. Compare Psalms 9:9.

Verse 2

The wicked = a lawless one. Hebrew. rasha". App-44.

persecute = hotly pursue.

the poor = an oppressed one. Compare Psalms 10:18, and Psalms 9:9. Hebrew. "ani. See note on Proverbs 6:11.

Verse 3

heart"s = soul"s. Hebrew. nephesh. .

blesseth, &c. One of the emendations of the Sopherim (see App-33). The primitive text of this line read, "the covetous man (or robber) blasphemeth, yea, abhorreth Jehovah". Compare 1 Kings 21:10, 1 Kings 21:13. Job 1:5, Job 1:11; Job 2:5, Job 2:9.

Verse 4

God. Hebrew. Elohim. i.e. "no sign of God in all his thoughts".

Verse 5

sight = ken. [perception]

enemies = adversaries.

puffeth at = despiseth.

Verse 6

said in his heart. Compare Psalms 10:11.

Verse 7

His mouth, &c. Quoted in Romans 3:14.

Verse 8

the poor = a weak one. Hebrew. helkah.

Verse 11

forgotten. Compare Psalms 10:12, and Psalms 9:12, Psalms 9:17, Psalms 9:18.

never see it. Compare Psalms 10:14.

Verse 12

Arise. Compare Psalms 9:19.

the humble = the humble ones. Compare Psalms 10:17.

Verse 13

Wherefore . . . ? Figure of speech Erotesis.

require it = investigate.

Verse 14

Thou hast seen. Compare Psalms 10:11.

Verse 15

the evil = an evil one. Hebrew. raa". App-44.

Verse 16

The LORD, &C. Quoted in Revelation 11:15.

for ever and ever. Compare Psalms 9:5.

heathen = nations. Compare Psalms 9:5, Psalms 9:15.

Verse 17

heard. prepare. cause. Figure of speech Anabasis.

prepare = establish.

ear. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. App-6.

Verse 18

oppressed. Compare Psalms 9:9.

the man of the earth. Spoken of above as the "lawless one".


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 11

Verse 1

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

put I my trust = I have fled for refuge. Hebrew. hasah. See App-69.

my soul = me (for emphasis). Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.

as. The Aramaean, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulg, read this "as" (or "like") in the text.

Verse 2

the wicked = the lawless ones. Hebrew. rasha. ".

privily = in the darkness.

the upright = upright ones.

Verse 3

the foundations: hashshathoth = settled order of truth or institutions; not the roof or walls.

the = a.

do. Not say or think, but lawfully and effectually "do".

Verse 4

eyes . . . eyelids. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. App-6.

children = sons.

men. Hebrew. "adam. App-14.

Verse 5

the righteous = a righteous one.

His soul = He (emphatic). Hebrew. nephesh. App-13. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. App-6.

Verse 6

tempest = blast. Hebrew. ruach. App-9.

Verse 7

His countenance doth behold the upright = An upright one shall gaze upon His face. One of the emendations of the Sopherim. See App-33, and note on Exodus 34:20.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 12

Verse 1

upon Sheminith = the Sheminith. See App-65.

Title. A Psalm. See App-65.

godly man = "gracious [man]".

ceaseth = is no more. Compare Isaiah 57:1. Micah 7:2.

faithful. Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6, put for faithful men.

children of men = sons of men. (Hebrew "adam. App-14.)

Verse 2

They speak. Man"s words contrasted with Jehovah"s words. Compare Psalms 12:6, and see Structure above.

double = deceitful. Hebrew "a heart and a heart". Compare 1 Chronicles 12:33.

Verse 3

The tongue, &c. Quoted in James 3:5.

Verse 4

With our tongue will we prevail = Thanks to our tongue, we will prevail.

Verse 5

poor = wretched. Hebrew " ain. See note on Proverbs 6:11.

saith the LORD = let Jehovah say.

from him that puffeth at him = let him [the oppressed] despise it [the oppression],

him = it: i.e. the oppression.

Verse 6

words = the spoken words, sayings, or utterances. Compare Psalms 119:38.

silver tried: i.e. pure silver.

furnace = crucible. Put a full stop after this word.

of = to, or pertaining to (referring to the "words"). The letter lamed is the sign of the Dative case, not the Genitive.

earth. Hebrew. "erez (the earth), not "adamah (the ground): i.e. "words for, or pertaining to the earth", but purified seven times: i.e. with spiritual perfection (see App-10). Some are used with a higher meaning; some in a different sense. Psalms 12:6 is an alternation.

Purified. The verb is singular, agreeing with silver. The words of Jehovah are pure words. As silver tried in a furnace: [Words] pertaining to the earth: Purified seven times.

Verse 7

them: i.e. the godly. Plural reference to "the faithful" of Psalms 12:1.

them = him: refers to the man of grace (Psalms 12:1).

Verse 8

wicked = lawless. Hebrew. rasha". App-44.

men: i.e. the sons of Adam, as in Psalms 12:1.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 13

Verse 1

How long . . . ? = Until when? Figure of speech Erotesis. App-6. Four times repeated is the Figure of speech Anaphora. App-6.

forget . . . face. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. See Psalms 9:12, Psalms 9:17, Psalms 9:18, and Psalms 10:11, Psalms 10:12.

LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

Verse 2

my soul = myself (emph.) Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.

Verse 3

hear = answer.

Lighten mine eyes = Revive me.

sleep the sleep of death = sleep my last sleep. Hebrew Figure of speech Polyptoton. App-6.

Verse 5

trusted = confided. Hebrew. batah. App-69.

mercy = lovingkindness, or grace.

Verse 6

dealt bountifully with = compensated.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 14

Verse 1

The fool: i.e. the impious man. Compare Psalms 10:4; Psalms 53:1.

no = no sign of a.

GOD*. The primitive text was "Jehovah" (App-4.), but the Sopherim say that they altered it to El (App-4.). So Psalms 14:2 and Psalms 14:5. See App-32

There is, &c. Quoted in Romans 3:10-12 with other scriptures.

doeth good. The Septuagint adds "no not one". This completes the Figure of speech Epanadiplosis with Psalms 14:3 (App-6).

Verse 2

The LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4. Figure of speech Epanadiplosis (App-6). The verse beginning and ending with "Jehovah" (see note on "GOD", Psalms 14:1). Psalm not for public use: but for David"s private use.

looked . . . To see. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia.

children = sons.

men. Hebrew. "adam. App-14.

Verse 3

all = the whole mass. Compare "No, not one", Romans 3:10-12.

filthy = corrupt.

Verse 4

eat up My People. Compare Jeremiah 10:25. Amos 8:4. Micah 3:3. Between Psalms 14:3 and Psalms 14:4 the Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulg, insert four verses; three are retained in P.B.V. Probably an ancient marginal note which found its way into a MS.

Verse 5

were they in great fear. Figure of speech Polyptoton. App-6. Hebrew they feared a fear.

generation = circle. Hebrew. dor, company, or class.

righteous = righteous man.

Verse 6

poor = an oppressed one. Compare Psalm 9 and Psalm 10.

Verse 7

Oh . . ! Figure of speech Epiphonema. App-6.

Zion. See App-68.

bringeth back the captivity. Figure of speech Paronomasia (App-6). See note on Deuteronomy 30:3.

Jacob . . . Israel. On these names, see notes on Genesis 32:28; Genesis 43:6; Genesis 45:26, Genesis 45:28.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 15

Verse 1

LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

tabernacle = tent: i.e. dwelling, or home. Some codices, with one early printed edition, read "tents"; plural of majesty = Thy heavenly home. See App-40.

dwell = abide continually. Figure of speech Anabasis. App-6.

holy hill = holy mountain: i.e. Mount Zion; the type of the heavenly kingdom.

Verse 2

walketh = walketh habitually.

walketh . . . worketh . . . speaketh. Note Figure of speech Anabasis.

uprightly = without blame.

truth. First occurrence in the Psalms.

Verse 3

He that = that never hath. So in the following two lines.

evil. Hebrew. ra"a". App-44.

neighbour = friend.

taketh up = receiveth.

Verse 4

to his own hurt. Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "to his neighbour".

Verse 5

usury. Compare Exodus 22:25. Leviticus 25:36, Leviticus 25:37. Deuteronomy 23:19, Deuteronomy 23:20.

reward = bribery. Compare Exodus 23:8. Deuteronomy 27:25.

never be moved. See Psalms 15:1. Contrast Psalms 9:15, Psalms 9:17, and compare Matthew 7:24-27. Matthew 16:8; Matthew 125:1.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 16

Verse 1

David. And therefore refers to David"s Son, and David"s Lord, as do all the Davidic Psalms.

Preserve. Compare Hebrews 5:7-9.

put my trust = flee for refuge. Hebrew. hasah. App-69.

Verse 2

thou hast said. Some codices, with two early printed editions, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "I said", in which case there is no Ellipsis, and "O my soul" should be omitted.

LORD*. One of the 134 places where the Sopherim changed Jehovah (of the primitive text) to Adonai (App-32).

My goodness, &c. = I have no good beyond Thee.

Verse 3

But to = As for.

saints = holy (or separated) ones. See note on Exodus 3:5.

in the earth = in His own Land.

to. Omit "to".

in whom = in them.

my: or, His: i.e. Jehovah"s. So the Septuagint.

Verse 4

their names: i.e. the names of their gods.

Verse 5

portion. Note the four things: portion (Psalms 16:5); path, presence, pleasures (Psalms 16:11).

maintainest = wilt maintain.

lot. Put by Figure of speech Metonomy (of Cause), App-6, for

Verse 6

lines. the land thus allotted by it.

Verse 7

reins. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Subject), App-6, for thoughts.

instruct = will instruct.

Verse 8

I have set, &c. Quoted in Acts 2:25-28; Acts 13:35.

not be moved. Compare Psalms 15:5.

Verse 9

my heart = I myself, like "my soul". Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Part).

glory. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Effect), App-6, for the powers of the mind which give the glory.

My flesh also shall rest. Refers to Messiah"s death.

Verse 10

Thou wilt not leave, &c. Refers to the Resurrection.

my soul = me. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.

hell = the grave. Hebrew Sheol. App-35.

suffer = give, or allow.

Holy One, or Thy beloved: i.e. Christ the Messiah (Acts 2:27). See note on Psalms 52:9.

see = experience, or know.

corruption. [decay] Showing that it is the body that is referred to.

Verse 11

the path of life. Refers to Ascension.

Thy right hand. Compare Psalms 16:8, and see Structure above.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 17

Verse 1

Title. Prayer. Hebrew. Tephillah. One of five Psalms so called (17; 86; 90; 102; 142). See App-63. It is a prayer of Messiah, the true David; in view of Psalms 16:6-11, Compare Psalms 17:15.

Hear . . . attend . . . Give ear. Figure of speech Anabasis. App-6.

right = righteousness. Compare Psalms 17:15, and Structure.

LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah.

ear. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. App-6. Compare verses: Psalms 17:2, eyes; 7, hand; 8, wings; 15, face.

feigned = guileless.

Verse 2

Let my sentence, &c. = From thy presence my judgment will come: Thine eyes will discern upright ones.

Verse 3

find nothing. None but Christ could say this. See John 14:30.

Verse 4

men. Hebrew. "adam. App-14.

kept me from = I have marked.

the destroyer = the oppressor, or violent one. Only here in the Psalms.

Verse 5

paths = tracks, or ruts.

Verse 6

hear = answer. See Structure, above.

Verse 7

put their trust = flee for refuge. Hebrew. hasah. App-69.

Verse 8

as. Figure of speech Simile. App-6.

apple. . . eye . . . wings. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia.

Hide = Thou wilt hide.

Verse 9

the wicked = the lawless ones.

my deadly enemies = the foes of my soul Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.

Verse 11

steps = ways, or goings, as in Psalms 17:5.

Verse 13

Disappoint = anticipate.

my soul = me myself. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.

the wicked = a lawless one. Hebrew. rasha". App-44.

sword. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. App-6.

Verse 14

men. Hebrew. methim. App-14.

hand. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. App-6. See note on "ear", Psalms 17:1.

world. Hebrew. heled. The world as being transitory. See longer note on Psalms 49:1.

hid. Figure of speech Antimereia (App-6). Act. Part, put for Noun. Hebrew thy hid = thy hidden, or secret thing.

They are = Let them be.

full = satisfied with. Compare Psalms 17:15.

children = sons.

Verse 15

I will behold Thy face. See note on Exodus 23:15; Exodus 34:20.

face. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. App-6. Compare Psalms 17:1, and see note on Exodus 23:15; Exodus 34:20.

satisfied = full, as in Psalms 17:14.

when I awake = when I awake from the sleep of death in resurrection. This prayer is in view of Psalms 16:9-11. Resurrection of the body is the true inheritance.

Thy likeness = Thine appearing, or a vision of Thee. Compare 1 John 3:2.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 18

Verse 1

Title. David. Like all Psalms of David, it finds its fulfilment in the true David. See the Structure of this book (p. 721). Compare Psalms 18:4, Psalms 18:5 with Psalms 17:9. It is placed, as first written, in 2Sa 22; but it is edited and placed here to find its true relation to other Psalms. Why should not David have the right claimed by all other writers? to say nothing of the Holy Spirit"s right to do as He pleases and wills. It was edited for its place here, when it was handed over "to the chief Musician". See the subscription, and App-64.

the servant. Compare Isaiah 42:1; Isaiah 49:6; Isaiah 52:13.

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

song. Hebrew. shirah. See App-65.

in the day. Compare 2Sa 22, and App-18.

delivered, &c. Compare Luke 1:74.

hand = paw.

I will love Thee = Fervently do I love Thee. Hebrew. raham, to yearn over. This verse was added by David when the Psalm was handed over to the chief Musician (subscription, and App-64) for use in public worship.

LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

strength. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Effect), App-6, for the source of all strength. Hebrew. hazak, strength (for holding fast); not the same word as verses: Psalms 18:2, Psalms 18:17, Psalms 18:17, Psalms 2:32, Psalms 2:39.

Verse 2

rock = fortress. Hebrew. sela". See notes on Deuteronomy 32:13, and Exodus 17:6. Note the Figures of speech Anthropopatheia and Exergasia. App-6.

fortress = mountain stronghold. Hebrew. mezad.

My GOD. Hebrew El. App-4.

strength = rock (in original situation): hence, refuge. Hebrew. zur. See Deuteronomy 32:13; not same as verses: Psalms 18:17, Psalms 18:32, Psalms 18:39.

trust = flee for refuge. See App-69.

buckler = shield. Hebrew. magen, as in Psalms 18:30 and Psalms 5:12.

the horn, &c. Quoted in Luke 1:69.

Verse 3

worthy to be praised. Figure of speech Antimereia. App-6, Pass. Part, put for Adjective. Hebrew the praised One.

So shall I, &c. Quoted in Luke 1:71.

saved = delivered (in the widest sense). Hebrew. yasha".

Verse 4

sorrows = meshes, or snares (Hebrew. hebel). Not bodily pains.

ungodly men = Belial.

Verse 5

hell = the grave. Hebrew Sheol. App-35.

snares. Hebrew. yakash = noose, or snare.

prevented = were beforehand with, or confronted.

Verse 6

temple = palace. Put for heaven itself.

cried . . . ears. See note on Psalms 18:41.

Verse 7

shook . . . trembled . . . shaken. Figure of speech Paronomasia. Hebrew vattig"ash, vattir"ash. Eng. = "shaked . . . quaked and shaked", or "rocked and reeled".

hills = mountains.

Verse 8

out of = into.

nostrils . . . mouth. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. App-6.

Verse 10

cherub. See App-41.

wind. Hebrew. ruach. App-9.

Verse 11

darkness . . . dark. Hebrew. hashak. See notes on Job 3:6.

Verse 13

in. Some codices, with Aramaean, Septuagint, and Vulgate, read "from" (1 Samuel 22:14).

HIGHEST. Hebrew. Elyon. App-4.

Verse 15

channels. Hebrew. "aphikim. See note on 2 Samuel 22:16.

world. Hebrew. tebel = the habitable world. Greek. oikoumene.

blast. Hebrew. neshamah. App-16.

breath. Hebrew. ruach. App-9.

Verse 16

many waters. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6, for troubles.

Verse 17

strong = strong (for might). Hebrew. "azaz. Not same word as verses: Psalms 18:1, Psalms 18:2, Psalms 18:32, Psalms 1:39.

strong = strong (for activity). Hebrew. "amaz. Not same word as verses: Psalms 18:1, Psalms 18:2, Psalms 18:32, Psalms 1:39.

Verse 19

because, &c. This is the one ground of blessing. See note on Numbers 14:8, and 2 Samuel 15:25, 2 Samuel 15:26.

Verse 23

before = with.

mine iniquity. Some codices read "the wicked". Hebrew "avah. App-44.

Verse 25

merciful = gracious.

With. Some codices, with two early printed editions, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "And with".

man = strong man. Hebrew. geber.

Verse 26

the forward = the perverse. Hebrew. "ikesh.

forward = a wrestler, or contender.

Verse 28

candle = lamp. Used to-day, in the East, more for comfort than light.

Verse 29

run = broken through.

Verse 30

GOD. Hebrew = the El. App-4.

word = sayings, as in Psalms 12:6 (feminine plural); Psalms 19:14 (masculine plural) (not Psalms 18:4); Psalms 119:11 (see note there), &c.

trust in = flee for refuge to. Hebrew. hasah. App-69.

Verse 31

GOD. Hebrew Eloah. App-4.

rock. Hebrew. zur. See notes on Exodus 17:6; Exodus 32:13.

save = except.

Verse 32

strength = might (for valour). Hebrew. hil. Not the same as verses: Psalms 18:1, Psalms 18:2, Psalms 18:17, Psalms 1:17.

Verse 33

my. Ginsburg thinks this should be omitted.

Verse 34

broken = bent.

Verse 35

gentleness = condescension.

Verse 37-38

pursued . . . overtaken . . . consumed . . . wounded . . . fallen. Figure of speech Anabasis. App-6. The tenses may be future, and prophetic.

Verse 41

cried . . . save. Figure of speech Paronomasia . App-6. May be represented in Eng. "they cried with fear, but none gave ear. "

Verse 42

wind. Hebrew. ruach. App-9.

cast them out: or scatter them. Some codices, with Aramaean, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "crush". Compare 2 Samuel 22:43.

Verse 43

heathen = nations, or Gentile peoples.

Verse 44

strangers = sons of the foreigner.

submit = come cringing.

Verse 45

be afraid = come trembling.

Verse 48

man. Hebrew "ish. App-14.

Verse 49

Therefore, &c. Quoted in Romans 15:9.

Verse 50

Anointed = Messiah. Looking beyond David, to David"s Son and David"s Lord.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 19

Verse 1

The changes from 2Samuel 22 were made when David handed the Psalm over for general use in public worship. The position of this Psalm in the Structure (p. 721) shows that it corresponds with, Psa 29, with its two answering parts, the "Glory" and the "Voice" of Jehovah. The verbs in the first part (1-6) are literary, and in the second part astronomical, thus interlacing and uniting the two parts in one whole.

Title. A Psalm of David. One Psalm: one whole, not two odd scraps strung together by some late "redactor". See App-65.

declare = rehearse (the Piel part, implying repetition. Compare Psalms 71:15. Genesis 24:66. Figure of speech Prosopopoeia. App-6.

GOD. Hebrew El. App-4.

firmament = expanse.

sheweth = is setting forth. Compare first occurrence (Genesis 3:11. Psalms 97:6; Psalms 111:6).

Verse 2

Day unto day = Day after day.

uttereth = constantly poureth forth. Hebrew. naba", to tell forth, or prophesy.

speech = speaking. See note on Psalms 18:30.

unto = after.

knowledge = intelligence, information.

Verse 3

language = words.

Where. Omit this word. There is no Ellipsis (App-6).

voice = sound: i.e. "their voice is not heard"

Verse 4

Their, &c. Quoted in Romans 10:18.

line = inheritance. Hebrew measuring, or allotting line. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), App-6, for inheritance. Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "voice". So Romans 10:18, thus connecting the written word. See note on Psalms 19:7.

earth. Hebrew "erez = the earth (as created).

words = sayings, or teachings. See note on Psalms 18:30.

world. Hebrew. tebel = the world (as inhabited). Greek. oikoumene.

tabernacle = tent, or house. Hence the signs of the Zodiac are called the "houses" of the sun, because in them he moves and dwells, and completes his circuit. This corresponds with God"s servants dwelling and moving in the written "Word" (Psalms 19:11).

Verse 5

Which is = And he.

chamber = bridal canopy. Hebrew. chuppah. First occurrence; elsewhere, only in Isaiah 4:5 ("defence"). Joel 2:16 ("closet").

And. Omit this "And".

strongman. Hebrew. gibbor. App-14.

Verse 7

law. Note the synthetic parallelism of the second half of this Psalm, which compares the written words in the Scripture with the words written in the heavens, and preserved in the names of the signs of the Zodiac and the constellations. See App-12. Note in verses: Psalms 19:7-9 the six titles of the Word, its six attributes, and its six effects (see App-10).

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4. The Covenant God, in contrast with El (Psalms 19:1) the Creator. Occurs seven times in this latter half of the Psalm.

perfect: like all His other works. Note the six words in verses: Psalms 19:7-9.

converting = returning. As the sun returns in the heavens, so here the same word is used of the sinner"s conversion (or returning). Note that all the verbs in this second half are astronomical, as those in the first half are literary. See note above.

the soul. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.

testimony = witness. Compare Psalms 89:37.

sure = faithful and enduring; as the sun is "the faithful witness in the heavens" (Psalms 89:37).

Verse 8

statutes = precepts. Heb pikkudim. Found only in the Psalms, and in the Plural

right = righteous: i.e. equitable and just.

enlightening = giving light, as the sun (Genesis 1:15, Genesis 1:17, Genesis 1:18. Isaiah 60:19).

Verse 9

fear = reverence.

clean = cleansing (especially Levitically). Compare Leviticus 16:30. Numbers 8:7, Numbers 8:21. Ezekiel 36:33, &c. Hebrew. taher.

judgments = judicial requirements.

true = faithful (in perpetuity).

Verse 11

by them = in them. Hebrew. bahem, as in Psalms 19:4, going about the Scriptures, moving and dwelling in the written Word, as the sun does in the heavens. (Compare 1 Timothy 4:15; 1 Timothy 3:14.)

warned = enlightened; hence, taught or admonished.

keepings = observing, or watching; as observers watch the heavenly bodies. Compare Psalms 130:6. Isaiah 21:11).

there is great reward = great [is] the reward.

Verse 12

understand = discern.

his. Not in Hebrew text.

errors = wanderings. Like those of the "planets" (= wanderers).

Cleanse = clear, or acquit. Hebrew. nakah.

secret = hidden things; things that are not discerned.

Verse 13

Keep back = restrain or hold back; as the motions of the heavenly bodies are controlled. First occurrence Genesis 20:6; Genesis 22:12, Genesis 22:16; Genesis 39:9. Compare 1 Samuel 25:39, &c.

from presumptuous sins. Figure of speech Hypallage. App-6. Hebrew keep back presumptuous [men] from me.

have dominion over = rule, as the sun and moon rule the day and night (Genesis 1:18. Psalms 136:8, Psalms 136:9).

the great = much.

transgression. Hebrew. pasha". App-44.

Verse 14

meditation. Hebrew. haggaion. See App-66.

be acceptable = come with acceptance.

in Thy sight = before Thee.

strength = rock. Hebrew. zur. See notes on Psalms 18:1, Psalms 18:2.

redeemer. Hebrew. ga"al. See note on Exodus 6:6. The Psalm begins with the Creator and ends with the Redeemer. Compare the heavenly worship, where we have the same two in the same order (Revelation 4:11 with Psalms 5:9).


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 20

Verse 1

The LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. See App-4.

name. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6, for the person himself. Occurs three times in this Psalm: Psalms 20:1, the Defending Name; Psalms 20:5, the Displayed Name; Psalms 20:7, the Delivering Name.

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

God of Jacob = Jacob"s God: i.e. the God Who met Jacob when he had nothing and deserved nothing (but wrath), and gave him everything. The N.T. "God. of all grace", See note on Genesis 32:28; Genesis 43:6; Genesis 45:26, Genesis 45:28; this Divine title occurs in Psalms 46:7, Psalms 46:11; Psalms 75:9; Psalms 76:6; Psalms 81:1, Psalms 81:4; Psalms 84:8; Psalms 94:7; Psalms 114:7; Psalms 146:5.

defend = shall defend. To this day the calling out the name of a person of rank or power will bring protection to one in danger from the violence of an enemy. In Psalms always used of God.

Verse 2

thee = thy.

strengthen = sustain, or support. Hebrew. sa"ad. Compare Psalms 20:6 with Psalms 21:1.

Zion. See App-68.

Verse 3

all thy offerings. Some codices, with eight early printed editions, read "every present of thine".

offerings = gift offerings, or presents. Hebrew. minchah. App-43.

accept. Hebrew turn to ashes. This was the only way by which Jehovah accepted what was offered. See note on Genesis 4:4.

Selah. Here, connecting the prayer of Psalms 20:4 with the atonement or accepted sacrifice of Psalms 20:3; the only ground on which prayer can be answered. See App-66.

Verse 5

fulfil = will fulfil.

Verse 6

His Anointed = His Messiah.

will hear = answereth (continually).

holy. See note on Exodus 3:5.

With the saving strengths = by the mighty saving deeds.

strength = might (inherent). Hebrew. gabar. Compare App-14 and Psalms 20:2 above.

right hand. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. App-6

Verse 7

Some trust in = Some by, &c.

in = by.

we will remember, &c. = we by, &c.

Verse 8

stand upright = are established.

Verse 9

Save, LORD, or, O LORD, save. Or, with Septuagint, "Jehovah save the king". Compare Psalms 20:6.

when = in the day when. See App-18.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 21

Verse 1

of = pertaining or relating to.

strength = prevailing strength. Hebrew. "araz, as in Psalms 21:13. Compare notes on Psalms 20:2, Psalms 20:6.

LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

Verse 2

heart"s desire. Compare Psalms 20:4; Psalms 37:4.

Selah. See App-66. Here connecting the reason (Psalms 21:3) of the answer (Psalms 21:2) with the prayer of Psalms 20:4; which, by the Selah of Psalms 20:3, had been connected with the reason given there: i.e. atonement.

Verse 3

preventest = comest to meet. Compare "settest" in Psalms 21:3.

crown. See Revelation 14:14, and compare Matthew 8:20.

Verse 4

life: i.e. resurrection life. Compare Isaiah 53:10. Hebrews 2:10-18; Hebrews 5:7.

Verse 5

Honour, &c. Compare Revelation 5:13.

Verse 6

blessed. Compare Revelation 5:13.

Verse 7

trusteth = confldeth. Hebrew. batah. App-69.

mercy = lovingkindness, or grace.

MOST HIGH. Hebrew. Elyon.

Verse 9

make them = place them as [in] a furnace of fire.

anger. Hebrew face is put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Subject), for the anger manifested by it.

Verse 10

children = sons.

men. Hebrew. "adam. App-14.

Aijeleth Shahar = the Day-dawn: David"s Coronation, 953BC. Looking forward to the Day-dawn of Messiah"s Coronation, which is the subject of the Psalm 21, not of Psalm 22. Compare 2 Samuel 23:4; see note on 2 Peter 1:19 and App-65. Compare Psalms 139:9.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 22

Verse 1

of David = relating to or concerning David"s Son and David"s Lord (Matthew 22:41-45). "The root and the offspring of David" (Revelation 22:16). David "being a prophet and knowing . . . spake of". These three Psalms (Psalm 22, Psalm 23, Psalm 24) relate to the sufferings and the glory of "the Man Christ Jesus." Psalm 22 = The Good Shepherd on Earth, in Death (John 10:11). Psalm 23 = The Great Shepherd, in Heaven, by Resurrection (Hebrews 13:20). Psalm 24 = The Chief Shepherd, coming in His Glory to earth and Zion, again (1 Peter 5:4. Rev 19). See the Structure (p. 721). Psalm 22 is Christ as the sin offering; Psalm 40, as the burnt offering; Psalm 69, as the trespass offering.

My GOD, my GOD. Hebrew my El (App-4. IV). God as Almighty in relation to the creature; not Jehovah (App-4.), in covenant relation with His servant. Quoted in Matthew 27:46. Mark 15:34. The Psalm is Christ"s prayer and plea on the Cross. It begins with "My God, my God" (Matthew 27:46. Mark 15:34), and it ends with "It is finished". See note on Psalms 22:31, and compare John 19:30. If the Lord uttered the whole of this Psalm on the cross, the dying malefactor must have "heard", and believed (Romans 10:17). Compare Luke 23:32, Luke 23:40-42. The "kingdom" had been referred to by Christ in Psalms 22:22-30. See note on "roaring", below. The Figure of speech Epizeuxis (App-6) is used for solemn emphasis.

roaring = lamentation. Hebrew. sha"ag = spoken of a lion, and of thunder.

[Note:Some versions of the Companion Bible text have the comment below, but the originally published book I have does not.]

It is believed by some scholars (including this humble student) that our Lord actually quoted all, or, most of this Psalm while hanging on the Cross. Compare Matthew 27:46; Mark 15:34.

Verse 2

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

Verse 3

But Thou. And yet Thou. Compare Psalms 22:9 and Psalms 22:19. Note the emphasis.

holy. See note on Exodus 3:6. Here = the Divine attribute.

inhabitest the praises. "Praises" put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6, for the Sanctuary, where the praises were offered. The various readings and renderings arise from trying to make sense, not seeing this figure of speech. Compare Psalms 80:1; Psalms 99:1.

Verse 4

trusted = confided. Hebrew. batah. See App-69.

Verse 6

worm. Hebrew. tola", not the ordinary word for "worm", but the crimson coccus from which the scarlet dye was obtained. Hence rendered "scarlet" in Exodus 25:4; Exodus 26:1, &c. See note on Joshua 2:18, and Exodus 12:13. Jacob, so called Isaiah 41:14. Christ thus took the lowest place of His People.

man. Hebrew. "ish. App-14.

men. Hebrew. "adam. App-14.

despised. Compare Isaiah 53:3.

Verse 7

All. Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Genus), App-6, put for most or greater part. (Some believed.)

shoot out = open.

Verse 8

He, &c. Figure of speech Eironeia (Irony). App-6. Quoted in Matthew 27:43. Mark 15:29. Luke 23:35.

trusted, &c. = devolved all on Jehovah. Hebrew. galal. See App-69.

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

Verse 9

make = cause.

hope = trust, or confide. Hebrew. batah. App-69.

Verse 11

none to help. Compare Psalms 69:20. He was alone in this wondrous work.

Verse 14

in the midst of my bowels = within me.

Verse 15

dried up. Compare John 19:28.

Verse 16

dogs. Figure of speech Hypocatastasis. App-6. "Enemies" being implied (not expressed).

assembly = congregation: in civic aspect.

wicked = breakers up. Hebrew. ra"a. App-44.

They pierced, &c. = "As a lion [they break up] my hands and my feet". The Hebrew text reads ka"ari = as a lion (the "k" = as). The Authorized Version and Revised Version, with Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, take the "k" as part of the verb k"aru, and alter the vowel points, making it read "they pierced". It is better to translate the Hebrew text literally, and supply the Ellipsis of the verb from Isaiah 38:13, "they break up". The meaning is exactly the same, and agrees with John 19:37.

Verse 17

tell = count. The whole description applies to death by crucifixion only.

look and stare = look for and see. In this idiom the former verb includes the feeling implied by the context. Compare 1 Samuel 17:42.

Verse 18

part, &c. Quoted in Matthew 27:35. Mark 15:24. Luke 23:34. John 19:24.

Verse 19

LORD *. One of the 134 emendations of the Sopherim (App-32) by which "Jehovah" of the primitive text was changed to "Adonai".

Verse 20

soul. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.

darling = only one. Hebrew. yahid. See note on Deuteronomy 6:4. = my one own priceless possession; put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Subject), App-6, for "my life", answering to "my soul" in the preceding line. Compare psuche. (John 12:27).

power. Hebrew hand, or paw. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), App-6, for the power exercised by it.

Verse 21

lion"s. See note on "They pierced" (Psalms 22:16).

For = Yea.

heard me = answered me. Compare Psalms 22:2. Supply Ellipsis, "[and delivered me]".

from the horns, &c. This clause may be joined on to the end of the preceding line. "Thou hast heard me "may be read on to Psalms 22:22, "I will declare".

unicorns = the bulls of Psalms 22:12. Note here the Parenthesis of the present Dispensation: for which see App-72.

Verse 22

I will declare. These words are Christ"s in resurrection. See Hebrews 2:12.

Thy Name = Thee (emphatic). Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6, for the Person and all His attributes. See note on Psalms 20:1.

brethren. Compare John 20:17.

congregation = assembly: in its military aspect.

Verse 23

Ye: i.e. the Gentiles of Psalms 18:49; Psalms 117:1. Deuteronomy 32:43. Isaiah 11:1, Isaiah 11:10. word as in third line.

that fear = that stand in awe. Hebrew. gur. Not the same Jacob . . . Israel. See notes on Genesis 32:28; Genesis 43:6; Genesis 45:26, Genesis 45:28.

fear = revere. Referring to Israel. Hebrew. yare". Not the same word as in first line and Psalms 22:25.

Verse 24

the affliction = the humiliation.

the afflicted = the patient One.

Verse 26

meek = the patient or wronged ones.

Verse 27

the ends, &c. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Subject) App-6, for the people dwelling in the farthest regions.

world = earth. Hebrew. "erez.

Verse 28

For, &c. Compare Matthew 6:13.

Verse 29

All they that be fat = All the great ones.

shall bow. Compare Philippians 1:2, Philippians 1:9-11, and references there.

And none can = Even He cannot: reference to Matthew 27:42. Compare Acts 1:8.

soul. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.

Verse 30

A seed. Septuagint and Vulg, read "My seed". Compare Isaiah 53:10.

accounted to = recounted of.

for a generation = unto a generation that shall come (reading the first part of Psalms 22:31 with the end of Psalms 22:30).

Verse 31

shall declare His righteousness = His righteousness shall be declared.

that shall be born. Referring to the new birth as declared by Christ to Nicodemus (John 3:3-7). Compare Ezekiel 36:25-27.

That = For. Corresponding with "for", Psalms 22:24 and Psalms 22:28, not Psalms 22:21.

He hath done this = It is finished. Compare John 19:30. Thus concluding the Psalm. Compare the beginning. Hebrew. "asah, to accomplish or finish, as in 2 Chronicles 4:11.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 23

Verse 1

The LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah.

The LORD ... my shepherd. One of the Jehovah Titles. See App-4, "Jehovah-Ro"i". Figures of Speech. Metaphor and Anthropopatheia. App-6.

not want. Because "Jehovah will provide", Jehovah-Jireh. See App-4.

Verse 2

maketh me = causeth me (implying continuance).

lie down. We need making so as to feed, and not trample the pastures down.

green pastures = choice pastures. Hebrew "pastures of tender grass".

leadeth me = causeth me to rest. Hebrew. nahal, to lead flocks.

still waters. Hebrew "waters of rests", JEHOVAH-SHALOM. App-4.

Verse 3

restoreth = bringeth back, as in Psalms 19:8, JEHOVAH-ROPKEKA. App-4.

soul. Hebrew. nephesh.

leadeth. Hebrew. nahal, to guide, conduct.

paths of righteousness = righteous paths. JEHOVAH-ZIDKENU. App-4.

name"s = own. See note on Psalms 20:1.

Verse 4

Yea = Moreover.

through. Not into; but "through", and out of it, into resurrection life.

valley, &c. = a valley of deep shade: may include (but not necessarily) death"s dark valley.

evil. Hebrew. ra"a". App-44.

Thou art with me. JEHOVAH-SHAMMAH. App-4.

rod and . . . staff = club and . . . crook. The only two things carried by the shepherd; the former for defense, the latter for help. The club for the sheep"s enemies, the crook for the sheep"s defense. A lesson for pastors to-day.

comfort = gently lead. Same word as "leadeth" in Psalms 23:2.

Verse 5

preparest = settest in order.

table. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Subject), App-6, for what is on it. So that I may feast while He fights. JEHOVAH-NISSI. App-4. The figure of the sheep is continued: for the "table" of Psalms 23:5 answers to the "pastures" of Psalms 23:2.

enemies = adversaries.

anointest. JEHOVAH-MEKADDISHKEM. App-4. Still referring to the sheep and the Shepherd"s care: for the figure of the "sheep" is carried right through the Psalm.

cup: i.e. the Shepherd"s cup of water for the sheep.

runneth over. See note on Psalms 73:10.

Verse 6

mercy = lovingkindness, or grace.

follow = = follow after, or closely. In Hebrew present put for future.

for ever = evermore. Hebrew "to length of days".


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 24

Verse 1

of David = concerning David and the true David. Relates to the entrance of the Ark into Zion (see App-68), typifying the coming glory of Hebrews 1:6. Compare 2 Samuel 6:2. 1 Chronicles 15:25. Psalm 68 relates to the setting out of the procession. Psalm 24 to the entrance up to Zion. Psalm 87 to the joy of the entrance with dancings and shouting?. Psalm 105, for subsequent celebrations of the event.

The earth.Hebrew "erez,the earth (as created).

the LOBD"S.Hebrew Jehovah"s.App-4. The emphasis is on Jehovah = "Jehovah"s is the earth".

the fulness = all that fills it. Quoted in 1 Corinthians 10:26.

world. Hebrew. tebel, the world (as inhabited).

Verse 2

founded, &c. Compare 2 Peter 3:5. Psalms 136:6. Genesis 1:1.

Verse 3

the hill = the mountain (of Zion, south of Moriah). Seven times so called: here, and Genesis 22:14. Numbers 10:33. Isaiah 2:3; Isaiah 30:29. Micah 4:2. Zechariah 8:3. See App-68.

Or. The Authorized Version, 1611, read "And". Changed in 1769 to Greek.

stand = rise up. Compare Psalms 1:5.

holy. See note on Exodus 3:5.

Verse 4

clean. Compare Psalm 15 and Exodus 20:13-16.

soul. Hebrew nephesh. App-13.

Verse 5

And = Even.

righteousness. The gift received from Jehovah.

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

Verse 6

This = Such: i.e. not a "new cart" (2 Samuel 6:3), but the Kohathites. See Numbers 7:9; Numbers 4:2, Numbers 4:15. Deuteronomy 10:8; Deuteronomy 31:9, &c; and compare 2 Samuel 6:13. 1 Chronicles 15:2.

generation = class or circle. Here, the Kohathites. Compare Psalms 22:30.

O Jacob. Septuagint and Syriac read "O God of Jacob".

Jacob. See notes on Genesis 32:28; Genesis 43:6; Genesis 45:26, Genesis 45:28.

Selah. Connecting the first triad with the Ark of Jehovah: transferring our thoughts from the general claim to the particular making of the claim by this event. See note on Psalms 24:10, and App-66.

Verse 7

everlasting doors = age-abiding entrances. The tabernacle (or tent) of David, on Mount Zion, was not ancient. This looks forward to the fulfilment of prophecy in times yet to come.

King of glory = Glorious king. The repeated question points us both to Psalms 22:6 ("a worm, and no man") and to Psalms 23:1 (The Shepherd).

Verse 10

Who = Who then, is He, this glorious King?

The LORD of hosts. See note on first occurrence (1 Samuel 1:3) and Structure above.

Selah. Connecting Psalm 25 with Psalm 24. Psalm 24 referring to Zion, the new place of worship, and Psalm 25 referring to the worship itself, which was to be and could henceforward be offered there. Psalm 24 corresponds with 1 Chronicles 15, and Psalm 25 with 1 Chronicles 16, which together give a full description of the worship. Psalm 25 is further emphasised by being an Acrostic Psalm, in which the worthiness of Jehovah and the unworthiness of His worshippers stand out in vivid contrast.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 25

Verse 1

The second Acrostic Psalm (see App-63.) The omission of (Koph) makes twenty-one letters (7x3) instead of twenty-two, and marks off one verse (Psalms 25:11) as central, which is the first confession of sin in the Psalms; thus linking on Repentance to Suffering and Resurrection (Psalms 16:22), as in Luke 24:44-47. The double (Heb. character) (A=Aleph) in Psalms 25:1-2 connects the looking up of the worshipper with the double (Heb. character) (R=Resh) of Psalms 25:18-19, which speaks of the looking down of Jehovah. These two are linked on to Psalm 25 by the Selah of Psalms 24:10 and Psalms 24:4. See note on Selah (Psalms 24:10).

Title. of David = by David, or pertaining to the true David.

lift up., Psalms 25:1-2 are connected with verses: Psalms 25:18, Psalms 25:19, the double Aleph, with the double Resh connecting David"s looking up with Jehovah"s looking down.

soul. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.

Verse 2

I trust = have confided. Hebrew. batah. See App-69. Not the same word as in Psalms 25:20.

not. Hebrew. "al (= Greek. me), subjective. Compare "none", Psalms 25:3.

ashamed = put to shame. Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause) as a verb. So Psalms 25:20; Psalms 31:1; Psalms 119:116, &c.

enemies = foes.

Verse 3

let none. Hebrew "none with (lo; Greek. ou, objective) them". Compare "not", Psalms 25:2.

transgress = act treacherously. Hebrew. bagad.

Verse 5

On = For. Hebrew. ki. Some codices, with Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read Veki, "and for", thus restoring the Vav (consonant), which otherwise is wanting.

Verse 6

Remember. Note the threefold object of this remembrance in verses: Psalms 25:6, Psalms 25:7.

mercies = compassions. Hebrew. raham. Not the same word as in verses: Psalms 25:7, Psalms 25:16.

Verse 7

sins. Hebrew. chdta". App-44.

transgressions. Hebrew. pasha". App-44.

mercy = grace. Hebrew. hasad. Not the same word as in verses: Psalms 25:6, Psalms 25:16.

Verse 8

teach = direct. The subject of this member.

Verse 9

meek = patient, or good.

in judgment = to be vindicated.

Verse 10

such. The redeemed (Psalms 25:22) and righteous worshippers are the subject of this Psalm. See note above.

covenant. The first occurrence in the Psalms.

Verse 11

name"s. See note on Psalms 20:1.

Pardon. This is the first such plea in the Psalms. See note on "Selah" (Psalms 24:10). The central verse of this Psalm. Compare Psalms 25:18.

Verse 12

What. ? Figure of speech Erotesis (App-6), to emphasize the worshippers.

man. Hebrew. "ish. App-14.

feareth. = revereth.

Verse 13

His soul = He. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.

earth = land. Compare Matthew 5:5.

Verse 14

secret = secret counsel.

shew them = cause them to know.

Verse 15

ever toward. Supply Figure of speech Ellipsis (App-6), "ever [looking] toward". It is salutary suspense which keeps us thus looking.

Verse 16

have mercy upon = show kindness to. Hebrew. hanan. Not the same word as in verses: Psalms 25:6, Psalms 25:7.

desolate = [Thine] only One. Hebrew. yachid. See note on Deuteronomy 6:4. Septuagint = monogenes, only begotten.

Verse 17

enlarged, &c.: or, troubles have enlarged my heart: i.e. made it more sympathetic.

O bring: or Thou hast brought.

Verse 18

Look upon. See note on "lift up", Psalms 25:1.

affliction = humiliation.

forgive = bear away. First occurrence in the Psalms.

sins. Hebrew. chata. App-44.

Verse 19

Consider. Same Hebrew as "look upon", Psalms 25:18,

enemies = foes.

cruel hatre d. Hebrew "hatred of violence" = "violent hatred". Ginsburg thinks "hatred without a cause".

Verse 20

deliver = rescue.

put my trust = flee for refuge. Hebrew. hasah. See App-69. Not the same word as in Psalms 25:1.

Verse 22

Redeem = Deliver: i.e. redeem by putting forth power. Hebrew. padah. See notes on Exodus 13:13.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 26

Verse 1

Title. of David = by David, or concerning the true David.

Judge me = Vindicate me, or Do me justice.

LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

trusted = confided. Hebrew. batah. App-69.

Verse 2

reins = kidneys.

reins . . . heart. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Subject), App-6, for thoughts and feelings.

Verse 3

walked = walked habitually.

Verse 5

congregation = assembly: in its military aspect.

wicked = lawless. Hebrew. rasha" App-44.

Verse 6

altar. No need to suppose this to refer to the Temple or later period than David. The altars of burnt offering and incense were in use from the time of the Exodus.

Verse 7

tell of = recount.

Verse 8

habitation = dwelling: implying safety.

house. Referring not to the Temple, but to David"s Tabernacle on Zion. Compare Psalms 5:7, and see below.

the place, &c. = the place of Thy glorious Tabernacle.

dwelleth. Hebrew. shakan. See note on "placed" (Genesis 3:24).

Verse 9

Gather not = Destroy not. Hebrew. "asaph. A Homonym. See note on "receive" (Numbers 12:14, Numbers 12:15).

my soul = me (emphatic). Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.

Verse 10

mischief = lewdness.

Verse 11

Redeem = deliver (by power). Hebrew. padah. See note on Psalms 25:22.

be merciful = show me favour, or be gracious.

Verse 12

congregations = assemblies; or plural of majesty = the great assembly. Occurs only here, and Psalms 68:26.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 27

Verse 1

of David = by David, or relating to the true David.

light. Figure of speech Metonymy (of Effect), App-6, not Figure of speech Metaphor; "light" put for Jehovah as the Author of joy.

strength = strength (for protection). Hebrew. "azaz.

of whom, &c. Compare Romans 8:31.

Verse 3

In this = in spite of this. In Psalms 27:1 we have the foundation of his confidence; in Psalms 27:2, the need of it; and in Psalms 27:3, the exercise of it.

Verse 4

dwell, &c. Compare Psalms 23:6.

beauty = pleasantness, delightfulness.

enquire = contemplate with admiration.

temple = palace. Used generally of heaven, but also of the holy place (Greek. naos).

Verse 5

time = day,

hide. Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6; hiding put for protection afforded by it.

pavilion = dwelling.

secret = secret place, where no stranger was admitted.

tabernacle = tent, or habitation. Hebrew. "ohel. App-40(3).

rock. Hebrew. zur. See note on Psalms 18:1, Psalms 18:2.

Verse 6

offer = sacrifice. Hebrew. zabach.

sacrifices of joy = joyful sacrifices. Genitive of character. See App-17. i: i.e. with shoutings of joy.

Verse 7

Have mercy = Show favour, or Be gracious.

Verse 8

When, &c.: or, "To thee, my heart, He hath said, "Seek thou My face"; Thy face, O Jehovah, will I seek".

Verse 9

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

of. Genitive of Origin. App-17.

Verse 10

take me up = receive and protect me with His saints.

Verse 11

Teach = Point out, or Direct.

enemies = those that observe me.

Verse 12

will = soul. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.

enemies = adversaries.

Verse 13

I had fainted, unless. The Hebrew word has the extraordinary points (see App-31) in the MSS. to show that the Massorites regarded it as not having been in the primitive text. Its presence accounts for the insertion (in italics) in the Authorized Version and Revised Version They are not found in some codices, the Septuagint, Syriac, or Vulgate. The verse should read: "I have believed that I shall see the goodness", &c.

In the land of the living. See note on Isaiah 38:11.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 28

Verse 1

of David = by David, or relating to the true David. The Psalm is a continuation of Psalm 27, and stands in relation to Psalm 18.

LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4. In Psalm 28 and Psalm 29 thereare twenty verses, and Jehovah occurs twenty times.

rock. Heb. zur See note on Psalms 18:1-2 and compare Psalms 27:5. The reference is to Psalm 18.

the pit. Hebrew bor, a sepulchre, as hewn (Genesis 21:19).

Verse 2

lift up my hands. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6, for praying.

holy. See note on Exodus 3:5.

oracle = speaking place. Occurs only here in Psalms. See note on 2 Samuel 16:23.

Verse 3

wicked = lawless. Hebrew. rasha".

iniquity. Hebrew. "aven

mischief. Hebrew. ra"a". App-44.

Verse 4

them. Note the Figure of speech Repetitio (App-6), for emphasis deeds = deed, or work.

endeavours = practices. work. Some codices, with Aramaean, Septuagint, and Vulgate, read "works" (plural)

Verse 5

works = deeds.

operation = actual execution. Some codices plural, as in note above.

Verse 7

shield. Here is the link with Psalm 18. Compare "strength" in Psalms 28:8, below.

trusted = confided. Hebrew. batah. App-69.

trusted . . . helped . . . praise. Note the reference to past, present, and future.

Verse 8

their = [strength] to His People. The letter Aleph being interchangeable with Ayin. This orthography is attested by some codices, and by Septuagint and Syriac. Thus agreeing with Psalms 29:11.

saving strength = great saving strength. Hebrew "strength of salvations". Plural of majesty.

of = to.

His anointed = His Messiah, as in Psalms 2:2.

Verse 9

Feed = tend as a shepherd. Compare Psalm 23.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 29

Verse 1

of David = by David, or relating to the true David. The sequel to Psalm 28, and the fulfilment of the promise in Psalms 28:7. It is "the voice of Jehovah" in response to David"s voice in Psalms 28:6. It ends in the same manner.

Give = Ascribe, or Bring as due.

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4. Occurs fourtimes in verses:##Psalms 1:2 and fourteen times in 3-11. See note on Psalms 28:1.

mighty. The Targum reads "angels".

Verse 2

His name = Himself. See note on Psalms 20:1.

Worship = Bow down.

the beauty of holiness = His glorious Sanctuary. Compare 2 Chronicles 20:21. 2 Chronicles 96:9. Exodus 28:2.

Verse 3

voice = thunder. Figure of speech Epibole or Anaphora. App-6. Seven times: verses: Psalms 29:3, Psalms 29:4, Psalms 29:4, Psalms 3:5, Psalms 3:7, Psalms 3:8, Psalms 3:9.

GOD. Hebrew El. App-4. = the mighty Creator, the glorious God.

many = mighty.

Verse 4

powerful = with power.

full of = with.

Verse 6

Sirion = Hermon. Compare Deuteronomy 3:9.

unicorn = the bull-calf of wild oxen. Compare Psalms 22:21. Job 39:9.

Verse 7

divideth the flames: or, "cleaveth [with] flames of fire": i.e. lightning.

Verse 8

Kadesh: i.e. Kadesh-Naphtali, near Lebanon (Psalms 29:6); not Kadeshbarnea.

Verse 9

to calve. Through fright.

discovereth = strippeth bare; or, layeth open to view.

temple = palace: i.e. heaven itself.

doth every one speak of = doth every being there ascribe. See Psalms 29:1. Compare Revelation 4:8.

Verse 10

sitteth upon the flood. Corresponding with Psalms 29:3 = "sat enthroned at the flood", referring to Genesis. Hebrew. mabbul, from yabal, to flow. Occurs only here and Genesis 6:17; Genesis 7:6, Genesis 7:7, Genesis 7:10, Genesis 7:17; Genesis 9:11, Genesis 9:15, Genesis 9:28; Genesis 10:1, Genesis 10:32; Genesis 11:10.

Verse 11

strength. See note on Psalms 28:8. He who has it (Psalms 29:1) will give it (Psalms 29:11).

peace = the (i.e. His) peace. Compare Philippians 1:4, Philippians 1:7.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 30

Verse 1

Song. Hebrew. Shir. The only Shir in the first book. See App-65.

dedication. Hebrew. hanak. Used of houses in Deuteronomy 20:5.

of the house of David. Compare 2 Samuel 7:1, 2 Samuel 7:2. Not the temple.

lifted me up = as out of a pit.

Verse 3

soul. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.

the grave. Hebrew Sheol. See App-35.

that I should not go down. So in some codices and one early printed edition; but other codices read "from among" [those who were going down], with Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate.

the pit = a sepulchre. Hebrew. bor. See note on "well" (Genesis 21:19).

Verse 4

Sing = Sing praises.

saints = favoured ones: literally men endued with grace. The natural man cannot do this (1 Corinthians 2:14).

Verse 5

endureth, &c. Render "For a moment [is] His anger; for a lifetime [is] His favour".

endure = lodge

Verse 6

I shall, &c. Compare Psalms 62:6.

Verse 7

my mountain: i.e. Zion, which David had but recently taken (2 Samuel 5:7-10).

hide Thy face. Probably refers to a sickness which followed.

face. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. App-6.

Verse 8

the LORD*. One of the 134 places where "Jehovah" (in the primitive text) was altered to "Adonai". See App-32. Some codices, with one early printed edition, read "Jehovah". App-4.

Verse 9

What profit . . . ? Figure of speech Erotesis. App-6.

is there. Supply "[will there be]".

blood = soul. Compare Leviticus 17:11.

the pit. Hebrew. Shachath = destruction (Psalms 55:23; Psalms 103:4), or corruption (Psalms 16:10; Psalms 49:9. Jeremiah 2:6).

Shall . . . ? Figure of speech Erotesis. App-6. Compare Psalms 6:5; Psalms 88:11; Psalms 115:17; Psalms 118:17. Isaiah 38:18.

Verse 11

turned: denoting the act. See "girded", below.

put off = torn open, or off.

sackcloth. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6, for the sadness of which it was the sign.

girded: denoting the fact. See "turned", above.

Verse 12

my glory. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Effect), App-6, for "myself", referring either to the tongue (Psalms 108:1 or powers of mind which give the praise. To the chief Musician. See App-64. Though written for a special occasion, Psalm 30 was handed over to the chief Musician for public use, and in connection with any other dedication.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 31

Verse 1

of David = by David, or relating to the true David.

LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

do I put my trust = have I fled for refuge to. See App-69.

Verse 2

ear. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. App-6.

rock. Hebrew. zur. See note on Psalms 18:1, Psalms 18:2.

Verse 3

rock. Hebrew. sela".

Thy name"s sake. See note on Psalms 20:1.

lead = Thou wilt gently lead.

guide = gently guide.

Pull = Thou wilt pull.

Verse 5

Into, &c. Quoted in Luke 23:4, Luke 23:6.

hand. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia.

commit = I will commit.

spirit. Hebrew. ruach. App-9.

redeemed = delivered by power. Hebrew. padah. See note on Exodus 13:13. Compare Exodus 6:6.

GOD. Hebrew El. App-4.

Verse 6

I have hated. Some codices, with Aramaean, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "Thou hatest".

lying vanities = idols. See Jeremiah 8:19; Jeremiah 10:8. Compare 2 Samuel 5:21. Jonah 2:8.

trust in = have fixed my hope on, or confidence in. Hebrew. batah. App-69.

Verse 7

mercy = lovingkindness, or grace.

considered = looked upon.

my soul = me myself. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.

Verse 9

Have mercy upon = Show favour or grace to.

belly. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Part), App-6, for "body".

Verse 10

iniquity. Hebrew. "avah. App-44. But Septuagint and Syriac read "humiliation".

Verse 11

reproach = derision.

my neighbours. Compare 2 Samuel 6:16, 2 Samuel 6:20.

Verse 12

am = became.

broken: or missing.

Verse 13

life-soul. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.

Verse 14

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

Verse 15

times. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6, for what is done in them = all my affairs.

Verse 16

face. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. App-6.

for Thy mercies" sake = in Thy lovingkindness.

Verse 17

wicked = lawless. Hebrew. rasha". App-44.

the grave. Hebrew Sheol. App-35.

Verse 18

grievous = hard, or arrogant.

the righteous = a righteous one.

Verse 19

trust = put their trust. Same word as Psalms 31:1.

men. Hebrew. "adam.

Verse 20

pride = conspiracy.

man. Hebrew. "Ish. App-14.

pavilion = booth, or tent.

Verse 21

kindness = lovingkindness, or grace.

strong = fortified: which Zion was.

Verse 22

eyes. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. App-6.

Verse 23

the LORD. Hebrew "eth Jehovah. App-4. (Objective.)

saints = favoured, or graced ones.

Verse 24

hope in = wait for.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 32

Verse 1

Maschil = giving instruction. This is the first of thirteen "Maschil" Psalms. These are Psalms 32:42, Psalms 32:44, Psalms 32:45, Psalms 32:52, Psalms 32:53, Psalms 32:54, Psalms 32:55, Psalms 32:74, Psalms 32:78, Psalms 32:88, Psalms 32:89; Psalms 32:142; some in each Book, except Book IV. See App-65.

Blessed = How happy. See App-63. Quoted in Romans 4:7, Romans 4:8.

he. Left to be supplied by any one who has this experience.

transgression = breaking away, rebellion. Hebrew. pasha", referring to thought. App-44.

forgiven = taken up and carried away.

sin = erring, transgression. Hebrew. chata". App-44.

covered = atoned (by the death and merit of a substituted sacrifice).

Verse 2

man. Hebrew. "adam. App-14.

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

imputeth not. Forensic or legal righteousness. The N.T. righteousness is not negative, but positive, for the righteousness of One (Christ) is imputed or accounted to another, as it was to Abraham (Genesis 15:6. Romans 4:13).

iniquity = sin in the nature, rather than breaches of the law in act = perverseness (never eradicated). Hebrew. "avon. App-44.

spirit. Hebrew. ruach. App-9.

Verse 3

kept silence: from confession. Probably during the year referred to in 2 Samuel 12:1-5.

roaring = irrepressible anguish. Not yet articulate confession.

Verse 4

hand. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. App-6.

is = was.

into. Some codices, with Aramaean, read "like".

Selah. Connecting the trouble of conviction with the confession to which it led. See App-66.

Verse 5

I acknowledged = I [made up my mind that I would] acknowledge.

have I not hid = did I not hide.

transgressions. Refers to 2 Samuel 12:13 (941 B. C). Some codices, with Septuagint and Vulgate, read it in singular.

Thou forgavest. Divine forgiveness follows immediately on true confession to Him. Compare 2 Samuel 12:13. Genesis 44:16, Genesis 44:17. Job 42:5, Job 42:6. Isaiah 6:5-7. Daniel 10:10-12. Luke 5:8-10.

Selah. Connecting this Divine forgiveness with prayer and worship, which can be accepted only from those who have this experience. Compare Psalms 32:4 and Psalms 32:7; and see App-66.

Verse 6

shall = let.

godly = man of lovingkindness, who has experienced this Divine grace or favour.

in a time, &c. = in a time of finding [his need].

floods, &c. Figure of speech Hypocatastasis. App-6. Put for the time of need in preceding line.

Verse 7

hiding place. Note Jehovah my righteousness (Psalms 32:6), my hiding place (Psalms 32:7), and my guide (Psalms 32:8). Compare Psalms 9:9; Psalms 27:5; Psalms 31:20; Psalms 119:114.

songs = shoutings.

Selah. Connecting this worship and praise with the further instruction and guidance which such receive.

Verse 8

I will instruct. Jehovah now speaks. See the Structure on p. 748.

instruct. Hence the title "Maschil". See App-65. Note the Figure of speech Anabasis (App-6): instruct, teach, guide.

shalt go = goest.

I will guide, &c. = Let me cause mine eye to take counsel concerning thee. Used of Jethro (Exodus 18:19, &c), Nathan (1 Kings 1:12, &c), Jeremiah (Jeremiah 38:15).

Verse 9

horse . . . mule. Compare Proverbs 26:3.

bit . . . bridle. See note on "eye", Psalms 32:8.

Lest = Otherwise they will not.

come near = draw near: i.e. for help and instruction, so as to understand what they are to do: (1) to help, Hebrew. karab, App-43. (Deuteronomy 4:7. Deuteronomy 34:18; Psalms 119:151; Psalms 145:18. Nehemiah 13:4); or (2) in worship (Leviticus 16:1. 1 Samuel 14:36. Ezekiel 40:46; Ezekiel 44:15).

Verse 10

the wicked = the lawless one. Hebrew. rasha. App-44.

trusteth = confideth. Hebrew. batah. App-69.

mercy = lovingkindness, or grace.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 33

Verse 1

Rejoice = Shout for joy. Psalm 33 (without a title) is thus linked on to Psalms 32:11. Other links maybe noted: Compare Psalms 32:8 with Psalms 33:17; and Psalms 32:8 with Psalms 33:18, &c.

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

Verse 3

a new song. First occurrence of seven new songs in the O.T. (six in the Psalms: Psalms 33:3; Psalms 40:3; Psalms 96:1; Psalms 98:1; Psalms 144:9; Psalms 149:1; and one in Isaiah 42:10). Hebrew. hadash, new, unheard of before.

Verse 5

goodness = lovingkindness.

Verse 6

By the word, &c. Quoted in 2 Peter 3:5.

breath = spirit. Hebrew. ruach. App-9.

Verse 7

as an heap. Aramaean, Septuagint, and Syriac read "as a skin-bottle", taking the pointing as in Psalms 119:83. The Massoretic pointing refers it to Exodus 15:8.

depth = depths, or abysses.

Verse 8

world = world (as inhabited). Hebrew. tebel,

Verse 9

spake. Referring to the one act.

was done = it became. Refers to the permanent fact.

commanded. Refers to the one act.

stood fast. Refers to the abiding fact.

Verse 10

heathen = nations, or peoples.

Verse 12

Blessed = How happy. See App-63. Compare Psalms 144:15.

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

Verse 13

the sons of men = humanity. Hebrew. adam (with Art.) App-14.

Verse 18

Behold. Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6.

eye. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. App-6. Some codices, with Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "eyes" (plural)

hope in = wait for.

mercy = lovingkindness, or grace.

Verse 19

deliver = rescue.

their soul = them themselves. Hebrew. nephesh (App-13),

Verse 20

Our soul = we ourselves. for emphasis.

shield. Hebrew. magen. See note on Psalms 5:12.

Verse 21

trusted = confided. Hebrew. batah. App-69.

holy. See note on Exodus 3:5.

name. See note on Psalms 20:1.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 34

Verse 1

when. Compare 1 Samuel 21:10, 1 Samuel 22:1.

Abimelech. An appellative for the kings of Gath. This Abimelech was named Achish. This is an Acrostic Psalm (see App-63.). It is divided into two parts, eleven letters to the first and eleven to the second.

the LORD. Hebrew "eth Jehovah. App-4. (Objective).

Verse 2

My soul = I myself. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

humble = patient, oppressed.

Verse 4

heard = answered.

delivered = rescued.

Verse 5

They looked. Some codices, with Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read Imperative, "Look. ! "

looked = looked expectantly. To this end Jehovah keeps us in salutary suspense.

unto Him. That is why they were radiant. To look within is to be miserable (see notes on 77). To look around is to be distracted (see notes on 73).

Verse 6

troubles = distresses.

Verse 7

The angel of the LORD. Occurs in Psalms only here and Psalms 35:5. Here, in mercy; there, in judgment. Compare Act 12: delivering Peter (verses: Psalms 34:7-11), and smiting Herod (Psalms 34:23).

encampeth. Hebrew. hanah. Hence the name "Maha-naim" = two camps in Jacob"s vision, afterward to be noted in David"s history (2 Samuel 17:24, 2 Samuel 17:27; 2 Samuel 19:32).

fear = revere.

Verse 8

taste, &c. Referred to in 1 Peter 2:3.

Blessed = How happy. See App-63.

man = strong man. Hebrew. geber. App-14. Trusting not in his own strength, but in Jehovah.

trusteth in = fleeth for refuge to. Hebrew. hasah. App-69.I.

Verse 9

saints = separated ones. See note on Exodus 3:5.

Verse 12

What . . . ? Referred to in 1 Peter 3:10-12.

life. Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6, put for all that makes life worth living.

Verse 13

Keep, &c. Figure of speech Apostrophe.

Verse 15

ears. Figure of speech, Anthropopatheia. App-6.

Verse 16

face. Figure of speech, Anthropopatheia. App-6.

Verse 17

cry = have cried.

heareth = hath heard.

delivereth = hath rescued.

Verse 18

spirit. Hebrew. ruach. App-9.

Verse 19

the righteous = a righteous one. Compare "him", next clause.

Verse 20

bones. True (by application) of the members of Christ"s body. See note on Psalms 35:10. Ephesians 5:30. Hence John 19:31-33. Exodus 12:46. Heartbroken (Psalms 69:20), but not "bones".

Verse 21

the wicked = a lawless one. Hebrew. rasha". App-44.

desolate = held guilty.

Verse 22

redeemeth = delivereth (by power). Hebrew. padah. See note on Exodus 13:13; and compare Exodus 6:6.

soul. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 35

Verse 1

Plead = Contend, or strive. Note the Figure of speech Exergasia (App-6) in the words "plead", "fight", "take hold", "stand up", "draw out", "stop", "say", &c.; continued in verses: Psalms 35:4, Psalms 35:5. Psalm probably written during and concerning the times of 1 Samuel 21:24, 1 Samuel 21:26-27, but it relates also to David's Son and David's Lord, the Messiah, in view of Psa 22. See the Structure on p. 721. Compare especially verses: Psalms 35:15-21 with Matthew 26:67. Mark 14:65. Luke 22:63.

them that strive = my contenders.

Fight = make war.

Verse 2

shield, &c. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia.

Verse 3

stop = close up. Some render "battle axe" or "barricade".

persecute = pursue.

my soul = me (emph.) Hebrew. nephesh.

Verse 5

wind. Hebrew. ruach.

the angel of the LORD. See note on Psalms 34:7.

Verse 7

without cause. See note on Psalms 35:19.

net in a pit: i.e. a pit covered with a net.

Verse 10

All my bones = all the members of my body. Interpretation belongs to the speaker. The Application belongs (1) to the O.T. saints (Psalms 139:13-16), and (2) to the later members referred to in Ephesians 1:22, Ephesians 1:23; Ephesians 2:21; Ephesians 4:4-16. Note their experiences: Psalms 6:2 (vexed); Psalms 22:14 (out of joint); but "not broken" (Psalms 34:20, John 19:36. Exodus 12:46); His heart broken (Psalms 69:20); so our hearts (Psalms 34:18); but not ourselves (John 10:27-29).

say. They speak: and always of HIM. Figure of speech Prosopopoeia, for emphasis. They all and always confess Christ as LORD (1 Corinthians 12:3. 1 Peter 3:15).

who is like . . . ? Figure of speech Erotesis (App-6), for greater emphasis. Compare their words (Psalms 71:19; Psalms 73:25; Psalms 89:6. 1 Samuel 2:2. Deuteronomy 33:26, Deuteronomy 33:27).

deliverest = rescuest. Compare 2 Timothy 4:18. 2 Peter 2:9.

poor = oppressed. Compare Psalms 34:6.

too strong. Law too strong (Galatians 1:3, Galatians 1:10, Galatians 1:13); sin too strong (Romans 5:21); the world too strong (John 16:33); self too strong (Romans 7:24); death too strong (2 Timothy 1:10).

Verse 11

False witnesses. "Many of them". Compare Matthew 26:60, Matthew 26:61; Matthew 27:40. Mark 14:55-59.

Verse 12

evil. Hebrew. ra"a. App-44.

spoiling = bereaving.

Verse 13

clothing, &c. Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6, put, by Symbol, for feelings of sorrow.

with fasting = in the Fast: i.e. on the great Day of Atonement (Lev 16)

Verse 15

adversity = halting or falling. Compare Psalms 38:17. Jeremiah 20:10.

abjects = outcasts.

it. Supply Ellipsis (App-6), by reading "[them]".

tear me. Hebrew. kar"u (with Ayin = "). Spelled with Aleph (kar"u); it means "cry out". See note on Isaiah 11:4.

Verse 16

hypocritical mockers in feasts. Figure of speech Ellipsis (of Repetition) = "hypocrites [at feasts] mocking at the feast". App-6.

Verse 17

LORD*. The primitive text was Jehovah. App-4. Altered to "Adonai" by the Sopherim. See App-32.

My darling = My only one. See note on Psalms 22:20.

from the lions. Compare Psalms 22:13, Psalms 22:16.

Verse 18

congregation = assembly, or convocation.

much = mighty.

Verse 19

that hate me. Quoted in John 15:25.

without a cause. Note the same Greek word there (dorean) as in Romans 3:24, rendered "freely", but meaning "without a cause". Compare Psalms 35:7, and Psalms 69:4; Psalms 109:3.

Verse 20

deceitful matters. Hebrew "words of frauds".

Verse 21

opened their mouth. Implying contempt.

Aha, aha. Figure of speech Epizeuxis (App-6), for emphasis. See Psalms 40:15; Psalms 70:3. Compare Mark 15:29.

hath seen. Implying delight in so doing.

Verse 22

Thou hast seen. Another eye has seen.

Verse 23

judgment = vindication.

my God and my Lord. Compare John 20:28.

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

Lord. Hebrew Adonai. App-4.

Verse 24

Judge = Vindicate.

Verse 25

we = our soul. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13:. we have our great desire at last.

Verse 26

clothed with shame. Compare Psalms 109:29; Psalms 132:18.

Verse 27

my righteous cause = my justification.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 36

Verse 1

the servant of the Lord. In the Hebrew text these two words are reversed, and the title stands thus: "Relating to Jehovah"s servant, by David ". This is exactly what it is. His prayer and praise in view of Psalm 22 (see p. 721, and Isaiah 42:1, &c), in death and resurrection. Psalm 18 is the only other Psalm so entitled.

transgression = rebellion. Hebrew pasha". App-44.

the wicked = a lawless one. Hebrew rasha". App-44.

saith : declareth, as an oracle. Hebrew na"am. Compare Jeremiah 23:31 = declareth. Figure of speech Prosopopoeia. App-6.

within my heart = within me; "my heart" being put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the Part), App-6, for the whole person: i.e. assureth or convinceth me that, &c. Not seeing the Figure of speech, or the force of the Hebrew na"am, many follow the hypothesis of the Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, and read "his heart".

there is, &c. Quoted in Romans 3:18.

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4. His relation, as Creator, to His creatures. This lawless one knows not Jehovah; and fears not Elohim.

his eyes. Answering to "his heart" in preceding clause.

Verse 2

iniquity. Hebrew "avah.

Verse 3

iniquity. Hebrew. "aven. App-44.

Verse 4

mischief. Hebrew. "aven, as in Psalms 36:3, "iniquity".

setteth himself = taketh his stand.

evil. Hebrew. ra"a". App-44.

Verse 5

mercy = lovingkindness, or grace (as in Psalms 36:7).

LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4. mountains: i.e. great and mighty.

Thy judgments = And Thy just decrees. The "And" was cancelled by the Massorites (see the Babylonian Talmud Nedarim, 37b-38a). Ginsburg Int. (pp. 307-8).

LORD = Jehovah, because of preservation, which is more than creation. See App-4.

man. Hebrew. "adam. App-14.

Verse 7

lovingkindness. Compare "mercy", Psalms 36:5.

God. Hebrew. Elohim.(App-4.), because of His creatures, the sons of men.

children = sons.

put their trust under = flee for refuge to. Hebrew. hasah. App-69.

wings. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. App-6.

Verse 8

river = full stream. Hebrew. nahal. Refers to Paradise.

Verse 10

continue = prolong.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 37

Verse 1

Psalm 37 is an Acrostic Psalm (see App-63), having four lines (a quatrain) assigned to each successive letter of the alphabet, except the fourth (Psalms 37:7), the eleventh (Psalms 37:20), the nineteenth (Psalms 37:34), which each have three lines (a triplet) assigned to them. These three triplet verses occur in perfect order. The seventh verse is the seventh letter from the beginning; the thirty-fourth verse is the seventh letter from the end; while the middle verse (Psalms 37:20) marks the end of the first half with the first of the two middle letters.

The Psalm is Messiah"s admonition as to present blessing, arising from the fact that Jehovah is His Shepherd.

Fret not = Heat not thyself with vexation.

evildoers. Compare Psalms 36:11, Psalms 36:12. Hebrew ra"a". App-44. Hebrew "aval. App-44

Verse 3

Trust = Confide in. Hebrew. batah. App-4

Verse 5

Commit = Roll upon, or Repose on. Compare Psalms 55:22. Hebrew. galal. App-69

Verse 6

judgment = vindication. Some codices, with six early printed editions and Syriac, read plural, "vindications" = plural of majesty = thy complete vindication.

Verse 7

Rest. Hebrew be silent for: i.e. wait for, or stand still. Compare Psalms 62:5. Exodus 14:13.

man. Hebrew "ish. App-14

wicked. Hebrew "dshah. App-44.

Verse 9

be cut off: i.e. die. Used of Messiah (Daniel 9:26), whose resurrection was sure. (Psalm 16, &c).

the earth = the land, as in Psalms 37:3, Psalms 37:29, Psalms 37:34.

Verse 10

wicked = lawless (plural) Hebrew. rasha". App-44.

Verse 11

But the meek = patient oppressed ones. Quoted in Matthew 5:5.

Verse 13

The LORD*. Hebrew. Jehovah. Altered by the Sopherim to Adonai. App-32.

laugh. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. App-6.

day = judgment. "Day" put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6, for the judgment then to be executed.

is coming. So some codices, with Aram, and Syriac Hebrew text = will come.

Verse 14

the poor and needy = a poor and needy one.

of upright conversation = upright in the (or their) way: i.e. in life. Some codices, with Septuagint and Vulgate, read "upright in heart".

Verse 17

the righteous. (Plural.)

Verse 18

knoweth. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), App-6, for regarding with affection or favour. Compare Psalms 1:6; Psalms 31:7.

Verse 20

into. Some codices, with Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "like".

Verse 21

sheweth mercy = is gracious.

Verse 22

of. Genitive of Cause = by: i.e. His blessed ones.

Verse 23

good man. Hebrew. geber. App-14. IV

ordered = prepared, or made firm.

Verse 24

hand. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. App-6.

Verse 26

ever = all the day, or all day long.

merciful = gracious.

Verse 27

dwell. Figure of speech Heterosis (of Mood), App-6, imperative mood for indicative mood = thou shalt dwell.

Verse 28

saints = favoured, or gracious ones.

They, &c. The letter Ayin is hidden behind the Preposition Lamed, in the first word "for ever" (Hebrew. le"olam,). Dr. John Lightfoot says it is cut off like the "seed" of the "wicked" in same clause, both these words ending with Ayin . He sees in this the seed of Joram being cut off (i.e. Ahaziah, Joash, and Amaziah. Matthew 1:8). Compare with 1 Chronicles 3:11, 1 Chronicles 3:12.

Verse 29

the land. See note on "the earth", Psalms 37:9.

Verse 30

the righteous = a righteous one.

judgment = justice.

Verse 31

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

Verse 35

the wicked = a lawless man.

in great power = ruthless.

a green bay tree = a green tree in its native soil. Septuagint and Syriac read "cedars in Lebanon". Compare Hosea 14:6.

Verse 36

he. Aramaean, Septuagint, and Vulg, read "I".

Verse 37

the end = the hereafter, or future.

peace: or wellbeing.

Verse 38

transgressors. Hebrew. pasha". App-44.

Verse 39

But. Some codices, with Syriac and Vulgate, omit "But", thus making the Tau the first letter instead of the second.

Verse 40

deliver = have made them escape. trust in = fled for refuge to. Hebrew. hasah. App-69.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 38

 Verse 1

to bring to remembrance. Used on the Day of Atonement.

This group of four Psalms closes the first book, and is similar in character to the four that end the second book.

Compare Psalm 38 Title (Psalms 38:1) with Psalm 70 Title (Psalms 70:1).

Compare Psalms 38:4, Psalms 38:11, Psalms 38:22 with Psalms 69:1, Psalms 69:2, Psalms 69:8, Psalms 69:13.

Compare Psalms 40:2, Psalms 40:3, Psalms 40:6, Psalms 40:13-17, with Psalms 69:14, Psalms 69:30, Psalms 69:31.

Compare Psalms 41:1 with Psalms 72:13.

Compare Psalms 41:2, Psalms 41:3, Psalms 41:7, Psalms 41:8, with Psalms 71:10, Psalms 71:13, Psalms 71:18.

Compare Psalms 41:7, Psalms 41:8, with Psalms 71:10-11.

Compare Psalms 41:13 with Psalms 72:18, Psalms 72:19.

LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

Verse 2

arrows . . . hand. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. App-6.

Verse 3

sin. Hebrew. chata". App-44.

Verse 4

iniquities. Hebrew. "aven. App-44.

over mine head. The reference is to the burdens of porters and carriers, which often mount up and project over the head.

Verse 7

loathsome = burning.

Verse 8

by reason of the disquietness of my heart. Ginsburg suggests lavi" instead of lavi = "beyond the roaring of a lion".

Verse 9

LORD *. Primitive text was Jehovah. One of the 134 emendations of the Sopherim. App-32.

Verse 10

strength. Strength to endure = vital strength. Hebrew. koh.

Verse 11

sore = stroke. Used of a leprous stroke.

kinsmen = neighbours.

Verse 12

life = soul. Hebrew. nephesh. App-9.

lay snares. Some commentators make two lines in this verse; but the Hebrew accents make three: the first = the act, the second = the speech, the third = the motive.

Verse 14

man. Hebrew. "Ish. App-14.

Verse 15

hear = answer.

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

Verse 17

halt. Compare Psalms 35:15 and Genesis 32:31.

Verse 18

sin. Hebrew. chata". App-44.

Verse 20

evil. Hebrew. ra"a". App-44.

even to Jeduthun. See App-65.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 39

Verse 1

of David = by David, and relating to the true David. The Psalm is a continuation of the subject of this last group of four Psalms. Psalms 39:2:9 link it on to Psalms 38:13; and Psalms 39:1 to Psalms 38:17. See note on Title of Psalms 38:1.

I said = I formed this resolution (Psalms 38:7).

take heed = observe, keep, or guard.

sin. Hebrew. chata". App-44.

keep: same as "take heed to", above. Septuagint and Vulgate read "I did put".

a bridle = a muzzle.

the wicked = a lawless one. Hebrew. rasha". App-44.

Verse 2

dumb: as if tongue-tied.

good. Perhaps the Ellipsis (App-6) may be supplied "from good [words]". See P.B.V.

Verse 4

frail = short lived.

Verse 5

Behold. Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6.

age = lifetime. Hebrew. heled. See note on "world" (Psalms 49:1).

at his best state = though standing fast, or firmly established.

altogether vanity = only all vanity. Some codices, with Syriac, omit "all".

Selah. Connecting the vanity of Psalms 39:5 with the expansion and explanation of it in Psalms 39:6. See App-66.

Verse 6

every man. Hebrew. "Ish. App-14.

walketh: i.e. walketh to and fro, or habitually.

in a vain shew = only in a mere form. Hebrew. zelem. Occurs thirty-three times. Always rendered image, except here and Daniel 3:19 ("form").

Verse 7

LORD*. The primitive text read "Jehovah". This is one of the 134 places where the Sopherim altered Jehovah to "Adonai". See App-32.

is = "it [is]"

Verse 8

transgressions. Hebrew. pasha".

the foolish = a foolish one.

Verse 10

blow = pressure.

hand. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. App-6.

Verse 11

man. Hebrew. "ish. App-14. See note on "moth", below.

moth. Hebrew. "ash. Forming the Figure of speech Paronomasia (App-6), connecting man ("ish) with a moth ("ash).

Selah. Connecting human vanity with an abiding reality and a divinely provided resource prayer, and hope in Jehovah. See App-66.

Verse 13

recover strength = be comforted. Hebrew "brighten up".


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 40

Verse 1

of David = by David, and relating to the true David.

I waited patiently. Hebrew in waiting I waited. Figure of speech Polyptoton, App-6.

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

inclined = hath inclined.

heard = hath heard.

Verse 2

brought = hath brought.

rock. Hebrew. sela". See notes on Psalms 18:1, Psalms 18:2.

Verse 3

a new song. See note on Psalms 33:3.

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4. I

see . . . and fear. Figure of speech Paronomasia. App-6. Hebrew. yir"u . . . v"yira"u = peer and fear.

trust = confide Hebrew. batah. App-69.

Verse 4

Blessed = Happy. See App-63.

man = strong man. Hebrew. geber. App-14.

Verse 5

hast done = didst.

thoughts. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. App-6.

If I would = Fain would I.

numbered: or rehearsed.

Verse 6

Sacrifice. Hebrew. zabach. App-43. Quoted in Hebrews 10:5-9.

offering. Hebrew. minchah. App-43. Compare Hebrews 10:5-7. Note the four great offerings here, and separately: Psalms 40:6= any sacrifice; -6-, the meal offering; -6-, burnt offering; -6, sin offering (compare Psalm 22); and in Ps. 69 =the trespass offering.

opened = digged. Kal Pret. of karah, = opening by digging, or boring. Note the occurrences: Genesis 50:5. Numbers 24:18. 2 Chronicles 16:14 (margin) Psalms 7:15 (margin); Psalms 40:6; Psalms 57:6; Psalms 119:85. Jeremiah 18:22, Jeremiah 18:22, referring to the opening of the ear to hear; for which, in Isaiah 50:5 (compare Isaiah 48:8), another word (pathah) is used with the meaning of opening (as of a door). Note the obedience, which is the point emphasized by the alternation in Psalms 40:6. | Sacrifice and offering. Not desired. | Mine ears hast Thou digged. (Pos.) | Burnt-offering and sin-offering. Not required. | Lo, I come to do. (Pos.) Obedience is the great truth here conveyed; and, on the same grounds as in 1 Samuel 15:22. Jeremiah 7:22, Jeremiah 7:23. Hebrews 10:5, is not a quotation of this verse: it is what Messiah "said" when He came into the world to perform what Psalms 40:6 prophesied, when He had become Incarnate, and could say "I am come". He must change the word "ears" for the "body", in which that obedience was to be accomplished, and He had a right to change the words, and thus adapt them. It is not a question of quotation, or of the Septuagint versus the Hebrew text. Note the heaping up of these expressions to emphasize the obedience, and observe the alternation of positive and negative in verses: Psalms 40:9, Psalms 40:10.

hast = didst.

Verse 7

Then said I: i.e. at Incarnation, when He "came into the world" (Hebrews 10:5).

volume of the book = scroll, that is to say, the book. Genitive of Apposition, and Figure of speech Pleonasm (App-6) = the book of the law (App-47).

it is written = it is prescribed. Compare 2 Kings 22:13.

of me = for me. Joseph and Mary should have remembered what was "written" (Luke 2:49).

Verse 8

delight. Note the double delight (Isaiah 42:1. Matthew 3:17).

will = good pleasure.

within = in the midst.

heart = bowels: i.e. my inward parts.

Verse 9

preached = declared as glad tidings = euaggelizo in N.T.

congregation = assembly, or convocation.

Verse 10

have not hid = did not hide.

salvation = or deliverance.

have not concealed = did not conceal.

from = in.

Verse 11

Withhold not Thou = Thou wilt not withhold.

Verse 12

evils = calamities. Hebrew. ra"a". App-44.

iniquities. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), App-6, for their punishment. Hebrew. "aven. App-44. Laid on Him as the substituted sacrifice.

am not able = was not able.

are more = were more.

heart. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6, for courage.

faileth me = failed me.

Verse 14

soul. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.

Verse 15

Aha, aha. Figure of speech Epizeuxis. App-6. Compare Psalms 35:21; Psalms 70:3.

Verse 16

Let. Some codices, with seven early printed editions, Aramaean, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "And let". Compare Psalms 35:27; Psalms 70:4.

Verse 17

poor = afflicted. Hebrew. "anah.

the LORD *. The primitive text read "Jehovah", but altered by the Sopherim to "Adonai". See App-32. Some codices, with seven early printed editions, read "may Jehovah".

thinketh = will think. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), App-6, for all that the thoughts can devise, plan, or order.


Bullinger’s Notes on Psalm 41

Verse 1

the poor = weak, or feeble. Hebrew. dal. Not the same as Psalms 40:17.

will deliver = may the LORD deliver . . . preserve.

in time of trouble = in the evil day.

Verse 2

keep him alive = revive, so as to live again; hence, to give life to: here, in resurrection. Hebrew. Piel conjugation, to give life, quicken. Compare Psalms 119:25, Psalms 119:37, &c. Deuteronomy 32:39. Job 33:4. Hence, to preserve seed (Genesis 19:32, Genesis 19:34); to repair, in the sense of restoring what was lost (1 Chronicles 11:8, Nehemiah 4:2. Hosea 6:2; Hosea 14:7. Hosea 85:6).

will = soul. Hebrew. nephesh.

Verse 3

the bed = the couch.

Verse 4

be merciful = be gracious, or show favour.

my soul = me.

I have sinned. Christ could say this of those whose sins He was bearing, which were laid upon Him. sinned. Hebrew. chata. App-44.

Verse 6

he come: i.e. the traitor; then Ahithophel, afterward Judas (see Psalms 41:9).

speaketh. Note the lying lips, the evil heart, the wicked slander.

Verse 8

An evil disease = a thing of Belial. Compare Psalms 101:3. Deuteronomy 13:13; Deuteronomy 15:9. Judges 19:22. 1 Samuel 2:12. See 2 Samuel 16:7.

Verse 9

mine own familiar friend: i.e. the one whom I was in the habit of saluting as my friend.

whom I trusted. These words not quoted by Christ (John 13:18), for He knew what was in man (John 2:24, John 2:25).

trusted = confided. Hebrew. batah. App-69.

which did eat, &c. Quoted in John 13:18.

bread. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Species), App-6. for all kinds" of food.

Verse 10

requite. Suited for that Dispensation. See App-63.

Verse 11

favourest = delightest, or hast pleasure in. Compare Matthew 3:17; Matthew 12:18; Matthew 17:5. Isaiah 42:1.

triumph = shout with triumph.

Verse 12

Thy face. See note on Exodus 34:20.

Verse 13

Blessed, &c. Hebrew. barak, not "ashrei, as in Psalms 41:1 and the Beatitudes (App-63). This Doxology concludes the first book of Psalms, also the second book (Psalms 72:18-20). They were the words of David when he brought up the Ark (1 Chronicles 16:36), also in 1 Kings 1:47, 1 Kings 1:48, when this group (37-41) was written; also in 1 Chronicles 29:10. They are taken up again in Luke 1:68-70.

to everlasting: i.e. to the age to come.

Amen = Truth. Figure of speech Epizeuxis (App-6), for solemn emphasis.