Christian Churches of God
Commentary on John
(Edition 1.0 20220822-20220822)
Commentary on Chapters 9-12.
Commentary on John Part 3
John Chapters 9-12 (RSV)
1As he passed by, he saw a man blind from his birth. 2And his disciples asked him, "Rabbi, who sinned, this man or his parents, that he was born blind?" 3Jesus answered, "It was not that this man sinned, or his parents, but that the works of God might be made manifest in him. 4We must work the works of him who sent me, while it is day; night comes, when no one can work. 5As long as I am in the world, I am the light of the world." 6As he said this, he spat on the ground and made clay of the spittle and anointed the man's eyes with the clay, 7saying to him, "Go, wash in the pool of Silo'am" (which means Sent). So he went and washed and came back seeing. 8The neighbors and those who had seen him before as a beggar, said, "Is not this the man who used to sit and beg?" 9Some said, "It is he"; others said, "No, but he is like him." He said, "I am the man." 10They said to him, "Then how were your eyes opened?" 11He answered, "The man called Jesus made clay and anointed my eyes and said to me, 'Go to Silo'am and wash'; so I went and washed and received my sight." 12They said to him, "Where is he?" He said, "I do not know." 13They brought to the Pharisees the man who had formerly been blind. 14Now it was a sabbath day when Jesus made the clay and opened his eyes. 15The Pharisees again asked him how he had received his sight. And he said to them, "He put clay on my eyes, and I washed, and I see." 16Some of the Pharisees said, "This man is not from God, for he does not keep the sabbath." But others said, "How can a man who is a sinner do such signs?" There was a division among them. 17So they again said to the blind man, "What do you say about him, since he has opened your eyes?" He said, "He is a prophet." 18The Jews did not believe that he had been blind and had received his sight, until they called the parents of the man who had received his sight, 19and asked them, "Is this your son, who you say was born blind? How then does he now see?" 20His parents answered, "We know that this is our son, and that he was born blind; 21but how he now sees we do not know, nor do we know who opened his eyes. Ask him; he is of age, he will speak for himself." 22His parents said this because they feared the Jews, for the Jews had already agreed that if any one should confess him to be Christ, he was to be put out of the synagogue. 23Therefore his parents said, "He is of age, ask him." 24So for the second time they called the man who had been blind, and said to him, "Give God the praise; we know that this man is a sinner." 25He answered, "Whether he is a sinner, I do not know; one thing I know, that though I was blind, now I see." 26They said to him, "What did he do to you? How did he open your eyes?" 27He answered them, "I have told you already, and you would not listen. Why do you want to hear it again? Do you too want to become his disciples?" 28And they reviled him, saying, "You are his disciple, but we are disciples of Moses. 29We know that God has spoken to Moses, but as for this man, we do not know where he comes from." 30The man answered, "Why, this is a marvel! You do not know where he comes from, and yet he opened my eyes. 31We know that God does not listen to sinners, but if any one is a worshiper of God and does his will, God listens to him. 32Never since the world began has it been heard that any one opened the eyes of a man born blind. 33If this man were not from God, he could do nothing." 34They answered him, "You were born in utter sin, and would you teach us?" And they cast him out. 35Jesus heard that they had cast him out, and having found him he said, "Do you believe in the Son of man?" 36He answered, "And who is he, sir, that I may believe in him?" 37Jesus said to him, "You have seen him, and it is he who speaks to you." 38He said, "Lord, I believe"; and he worshiped him. 39Jesus said, "For judgment I came into this world, that those who do not see may see, and that those who see may become blind." 40Some of the Pharisees near him heard this, and they said to him, "Are we also blind?" 41Jesus said to them, "If you were blind, you would have no guilt; but now that you say, 'We see,' your guilt remains.
Intent of Chapter 9
9:1-41 Jesus manifest himself as the light of Life continuing from Part II in chs. 5-8.
vv. 1-12 Jesus heals the man who was born blind
This miracle was done so that Christ could deal with the Spiritual blindness of the Temple Priesthood and the Sadducees, Pharisees and the Scribes. The first question to Christ presumes that sickness equals sin and that the child or its parents must have sinned for it to be born blind.
vv. 2-3 The religious authorities had deteriorated in self righteousness to the extent that all suffering and illness was attributed to sin. Indeed under the law some sin was relegated to the tenth generation. Under modern DNA some sin and sickness is hereditary in the family DNA. Christ says that it was manifested so that the works of God could be made manifest.
v. 4 Christ said that they must work the works of God who sent him while it is still day. Night is coming when no man can work.
v. 5 Jesus again declares himself the Light of the world while he is in the world. This carries on from chs. 5-8 in Part II. (F043ii).
v. 6 Christ then formed a clay poultice using spittle and placed it on the man’s eyes (This miracle is also referred to in the Quran.) v. 7 Christ then told him to wash in the pool of Siloam (meaning Sent). Christ used this to demonstrate that he was sent by God to perform this miracle and give light. v. 8 The people question if it were he or someone like him and he then gave testimony to the fact that it was indeed he that was blind. This questioning was for those of later times who would question the reality of the sign.
vv. 13-34 Religious leaders question the blind
The Pharisee legalists considered making something out of clay work and banned under the Sabbath Laws pertaining to the Fourth Commandment. v 16. Some of the Pharisees considered that Christ could not be from God as he did the act on the Sabbath. Others asked how can a man, who is a sinner, be able to do such signs? v. 17 They again asked the man what he said about him since it was he who opened his eyes. He said: “He is a prophet.”
vv. 18-23 The Jewish authorities did not believe that he had been blind, and summoned his parents. The parents confirmed it was their son, and who had been born blind. They said: How he now sees we do not know, nor do we know who opened his eyes. They said: “He is of age he will speak for himself.” v. 22 They said this because they were afraid of the authorities. The authorities had already determined that if anyone should confess him to be the Christ, they should be put out of the synagogue (excommunicated (see v. 34)).
vv. 24-34 Final questioning and punishment of the former blind man
v. 24 They said Give God the praise (rather than Jesus) as technical phrase to tell the truth (Jos. 7:19). One who broke the Sabbath must be a sinner. v. 25 He said, unwilling to condemn Christ who had healed him: Whether he is a sinner I do not know; one thing I do know that though I was blind, now I see. v. 26 The authorities said to him. What did he do to you, How did he open your eyes? v. 27 He answered them: “I have told you already and you would not listen; why do you want to hear it again? Do you too want to become his disciples?”
At this point they reviled him and it was becoming obvious that they wished to kill Jesus as a sinner, as no one ever had restored the sight of one blind from birth (v. 32). They declared themselves disciples of Moses not realising that Moses had declared the Christ from the beginning and that it was Christ that gave the Law to Moses (Acts 7:30-53 (F044ii); 1Cor. 10:1-4 (F046ii)) as the Angel of the Presence at Sinai after bringing Israel out of Egypt (The Passover (No. 098); Moses and the God’s of Egypt (No. 105); Pentecost at Sinai (No. 115) and The Ascents of Moses (No. 070)).
Judaism, from the First Century, and Pseudo Christianity are almost completely blind, as are the majority of the Churches of God in the 20th and 21st Centuries. They are all riddled with false doctrines. Over the last forty years of the Completion of the Sign of Jonah (No. 013B), God began to Measure the Temple (Rev. 11:1-2; F066iii). The Measurement of the Temple (No. 137) began in 1987 under declaration, and the Churches of God were scattered from 1993-1995 becoming Binitarian and many became Trinitarian in 1978 (SDA etc) and also in 1993-1999 turning back to false doctrines. Hence they were consigned to re-education in the Second Resurrection (No. 143B), unless they repent under the Witnesses, before they are killed (Rev. 11:3-11) (No. 141D).
In this next section, Jesus then talks of Spiritual blindness.
vv. 35-41 Jesus teaches about spiritual blindness
Jesus heard that they had cast the man out and found him. He asked him: “Do you believe in the Son of man?” He answered, “And who is he sir that I may believe in him?” v. 37 Jesus said to him “You have seen him, and it is he who speaks to you.” v. 38 He said “Lord I believe; and he paid obeisance, or worshipped (Proskuneo), to him.
v. 39 Jesus said: “For judgement I came into this world, that those who do not see may see, and that those who see may become blind.”
v. 40 Some of the Pharisees near him heard this and said to him: “Are we also blind?”
v. 41 Jesus said to them “If you were blind you would have no guilt; but now that you say ‘we see’ your guilt remains” and so is it so with all who were educated in the faith and fail to keep the Law and the Temple Calendar and corrupt the Scriptures (Jas. 3:1).
1"Truly, truly, I say to you, he who does not enter the sheepfold by the door but climbs in by another way, that man is a thief and a robber; 2but he who enters by the door is the shepherd of the sheep. 3To him the gatekeeper opens; the sheep hear his voice, and he calls his own sheep by name and leads them out. 4When he has brought out all his own, he goes before them, and the sheep follow him, for they know his voice. 5A stranger they will not follow, but they will flee from him, for they do not know the voice of strangers." 6This figure Jesus used with them, but they did not understand what he was saying to them. 7So Jesus again said to them, "Truly, truly, I say to you, I am the door of the sheep. 8All who came before me are thieves and robbers; but the sheep did not heed them. 9I am the door; if any one enters by me, he will be saved, and will go in and out and find pasture. 10The thief comes only to steal and kill and destroy; I came that they may have life, and have it abundantly. 11I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep. 12He who is a hireling and not a shepherd, whose own the sheep are not, sees the wolf coming and leaves the sheep and flees; and the wolf snatches them and scatters them. 13He flees because he is a hireling and cares nothing for the sheep. 14I am the good shepherd; I know my own and my own know me, 15as the Father knows me and I know the Father; and I lay down my life for the sheep. 16And I have other sheep, that are not of this fold; I must bring them also, and they will heed my voice. So there shall be one flock, one shepherd. 17For this reason the Father loves me, because I lay down my life, that I may take it again. 18No one takes it from me, but I lay it down of my own accord. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again; this charge I have received from my Father." 19There was again a division among the Jews because of these words. 20Many of them said, "He has a demon, and he is mad; why listen to him?" 21Others said, "These are not the sayings of one who has a demon. Can a demon open the eyes of the blind?" 22It was the feast of the Dedication at Jerusalem; 23it was winter, and Jesus was walking in the temple, in the portico of Solomon. 24So the Jews gathered round him and said to him, "How long will you keep us in suspense? If you are the Christ, tell us plainly." 25Jesus answered them, "I told you, and you do not believe. The works that I do in my Father's name, they bear witness to me; 26but you do not believe, because you do not belong to my sheep. 27My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me; 28and I give them eternal life, and they shall never perish, and no one shall snatch them out of my hand. 29My Father, who has given them to me, is greater than all, and no one is able to snatch them out of the Father's hand. 30I and the Father are one." 31The Jews took up stones again to stone him. 32Jesus answered them, "I have shown you many good works from the Father; for which of these do you stone me?" 33The Jews answered him, "It is not for a good work that we stone you but for blasphemy; because you, being a man, make yourself God." 34Jesus answered them, "Is it not written in your law, 'I said, you are gods'? 35If he called them gods to whom the word of God came (and scripture cannot be broken), 36do you say of him whom the Father consecrated and sent into the world, 'You are blaspheming,' because I said, 'I am the Son of God'? 37If I am not doing the works of my Father, then do not believe me; 38but if I do them, even though you do not believe me, believe the works, that you may know and understand that the Father is in me and I am in the Father." 39Again they tried to arrest him, but he escaped from their hands. 40He went away again across the Jordan to the place where John at first baptized, and there he remained. 41And many came to him; and they said, "John did no sign, but everything that John said about this man was true." 42And many believed in him there.
Intent of Chapter 10
vv. 1-21 Jesus is the Good Shepherd who gives life
vv. 1-6 The details are strikingly true to the life of a shepherd. The prophet Qasim said that “there is no prophet that has not been a shepherd. I tended sheep as a boy.” Some prophets, like Amos (7:14) (F030), were also keepers of trees as well as herdsmen.
v. 7 Christ is the door and keeper into God’s fold.
v. 8 Refers to Messianic pretenders, whose political ambitions men of faith ignored.
v. 9 over the previous chapters from 5 and 6 (Part 2) to chapter 9 above, Christ provides escape from the perils of sin and through the Predestination (No. 296) and Calling of God (Rom. 8:29-30 (F044ii), freedom in the Kingdom of God through the bread, water and light of life as explained in all of those chapters from 5-9 above.
v. 10 Life (see 3:13-15 n) abundantly beyond measure (Ps. 23:5). v. 11 Jesus fulfils OT promises that the Second God of Israel (Ps. 45:6-7; Heb. 1:8-9; Zech. 2:6-13; 12:8) will come himself to shepherd his people, sent by the One True God (Isa. 40:11; Jer. 23:1-6; Ezekiel 34 esp. v. 11) (see also Commentary on Zechariah (F038)).
v. 16 Other sheep – The gentiles. One Flock Eph. 2:11-22. vv. 19-21 7:43; 8:48; 9:16.
vv. 22-42 Religious leaders surround Jesus at the Temple
v. 22 Dedication commemorating the rededication of the Temple, in 164 BCE, after its desecration by Antiochus Epiphanes.
vv. 24-30 Evidence of Jesus’ oneness with God demands faith for its understanding (see 8:58 n).
vv. 31-39 The Jews took up stones to stone the Messiah
There are two arguments advanced:
vv. 34-36 In this section Christ declares the destiny of mankind to become Gods (v. 34 quoting Ps. 82:6) (see The Elect as Elohim (No. 001)) and also the irrevocable nature of Scripture, which cannot be broken. (v. 35) (see No. 164 etc.) and himself as the Son of God, and hence the elohim of Israel (v. 36), which makes him the subordinate God of Israel (Ps. 45:6-7; Heb. 1:8-9 (see F043, F043ii above).
v. 40 Jesus withdraws to Perea for safety.
v. 41 1:26-36 There many were called to the faith. From then there were the Twelve, the Seventy (Hebdomekonta (duo)) Lk. 10:1,17 and the 500 of the called, and more from the Resurrection.
1Now a certain man was ill, Laz'arus of Bethany, the village of Mary and her sister Martha. 2It was Mary who anointed the Lord with ointment and wiped his feet with her hair, whose brother Laz'arus was ill. 3So the sisters sent to him, saying, "Lord, he whom you love is ill." 4But when Jesus heard it he said, "This illness is not unto death; it is for the glory of God, so that the Son of God may be glorified by means of it." 5Now Jesus loved Martha and her sister and Laz'arus. 6So when he heard that he was ill, he stayed two days longer in the place where he was.
7Then after this he said to the disciples, "Let us go into Judea again." 8The disciples said to him, "Rabbi, the Jews were but now seeking to stone you, and are you going there again?" 9Jesus answered, "Are there not twelve hours in the day? If any one walks in the day, he does not stumble, because he sees the light of this world. 10But if any one walks in the night, he stumbles, because the light is not in him." 11Thus he spoke, and then he said to them, "Our friend Laz'arus has fallen asleep, but I go to awake him out of sleep." 12The disciples said to him, "Lord, if he has fallen asleep, he will recover." 13Now Jesus had spoken of his death, but they thought that he meant taking rest in sleep. 14Then Jesus told them plainly, "Laz'arus is dead; 15and for your sake I am glad that I was not there, so that you may believe. But let us go to him." 16Thomas, called the Twin, said to his fellow disciples, "Let us also go, that we may die with him." 17Now when Jesus came, he found that Laz'arus had already been in the tomb four days. 18Bethany was near Jerusalem, about two miles off, 19and many of the Jews had come to Martha and Mary to console them concerning their brother. 20When Martha heard that Jesus was coming, she went and met him, while Mary sat in the house. 21Martha said to Jesus, "Lord, if you had been here, my brother would not have died. 22And even now I know that whatever you ask from God, God will give you." 23Jesus said to her, "Your brother will rise again." 24Martha said to him, "I know that he will rise again in the resurrection at the last day." 25Jesus said to her, "I am the resurrection and the life; he who believes in me, though he die, yet shall he live, 26and whoever lives and believes in me shall never die. Do you believe this?" 27She said to him, "Yes, Lord; I believe that you are the Christ, the Son of God, he who is coming into the world." 28When she had said this, she went and called her sister Mary, saying quietly, "The Teacher is here and is calling for you." 29And when she heard it, she rose quickly and went to him. 30Now Jesus had not yet come to the village, but was still in the place where Martha had met him. 31When the Jews who were with her in the house, consoling her, saw Mary rise quickly and go out, they followed her, supposing that she was going to the tomb to weep there. 32Then Mary, when she came where Jesus was and saw him, fell at his feet, saying to him, "Lord, if you had been here, my brother would not have died." 33When Jesus saw her weeping, and the Jews who came with her also weeping, he was deeply moved in spirit and troubled; 34and he said, "Where have you laid him?" They said to him, "Lord, come and see." 35Jesus wept. 36So the Jews said, "See how he loved him!" 37But some of them said, "Could not he who opened the eyes of the blind man have kept this man from dying?" 38Then Jesus, deeply moved again, came to the tomb; it was a cave, and a stone lay upon it. 39Jesus said, "Take away the stone." Martha, the sister of the dead man, said to him, "Lord, by this time there will be an odor, for he has been dead four days." 40Jesus said to her, "Did I not tell you that if you would believe you would see the glory of God?" 41So they took away the stone. And Jesus lifted up his eyes and said, "Father, I thank thee that thou hast heard me. 42I knew that thou hearest me always, but I have said this on account of the people standing by, that they may believe that thou didst send me." 43When he had said this, he cried with a loud voice, "Laz'arus, come out." 44The dead man came out, his hands and feet bound with bandages, and his face wrapped with a cloth. Jesus said to them, "Unbind him, and let him go." 45Many of the Jews therefore, who had come with Mary and had seen what he did, believed in him; 46but some of them went to the Pharisees and told them what Jesus had done. 47So the chief priests and the Pharisees gathered the council, and said, "What are we to do? For this man performs many signs. 48If we let him go on thus, every one will believe in him, and the Romans will come and destroy both our holy place and our nation." 49But one of them, Ca'iaphas, who was high priest that year, said to them, "You know nothing at all; 50you do not understand that it is expedient for you that one man should die for the people, and that the whole nation should not perish." 51He did not say this of his own accord, but being high priest that year he prophesied that Jesus should die for the nation, 52and not for the nation only, but to gather into one the children of God who are scattered abroad. 53So from that day on they took counsel how to put him to death. 54Jesus therefore no longer went about openly among the Jews, but went from there to the country near the wilderness, to a town called E'phraim; and there he stayed with the disciples. 55Now the Passover of the Jews was at hand, and many went up from the country to Jerusalem before the Passover, to purify themselves. 56They were looking for Jesus and saying to one another as they stood in the temple, "What do you think? That he will not come to the feast?" 57Now the chief priests and the Pharisees had given orders that if any one knew where he was, he should let them know, so that they might arrest him.
Intent of Chapter 11
vv. 1-16 The death and raising of Lazarus
Lazarus was allowed to die so that the crowning miracle or sign might be performed (12:17-18) revealing the Christ as the giver of life (5:25-29) and finally causing the Jewish religious authorities to plan his death (11:53).
v. 1 Bethany v. 18; v. 2 12:1-3.
v. 4 Death – final death. v. 6 Jesus delayed his actions so as to allow for the formal period of the corpse to be declared dead.
v. 9 His life would end when God willed; his enemies could not accelerate the time frame of the prophecies and the Sign of Jonah ... (No. 013).
v. 11. Sleep was the common euphemism for the death of the elect of the faith in the Church of God (Mat. 9:24 n; Mk. 5:39; Acts7:60; 1Cor. 15:6).
v. 15 The miracle will confirm the faith of the apostles. v. 16 Thomas here expressed courageous loyalty, and not cynicism.
vv. 17-36 Jesus comforts Mary and Martha
v. 20 As in Lk. 10:38-42. Martha is active, Mary contemplative. vv. 21-22 Disappointment is mingled with faith and hope now Messiah is there.
v. 24 Belief in the Resurrection at the Last Day was widespread in Judah, in spite of the Sadducees.
vv. 25-26 Jesus is revealed as not just the agent in control of the Final Resurrection, but gives Eternal Life (No. 133) to the faithful under delegation by God, as Life giver (Rom. 6:4-5; Col. 2:12; 3:1); (see No. 143A; No. 143B and No. 143C)
v. 27 Martha declares Jesus to be the Christ, the Son of God, he who is coming into the world. He is the Monogenes Theos (B4), the Only Born God of John. 1:18.
v. 32 Mary repeated Martha’s statement of v. 21. Both had absolute faith Lazarus could have been saved.
v. 33 probably moved at the power of death over the people (12:27). v. 34 laid – buried.
v. 35 wept – displaying his human emotions.
vv. 37-44 Jesus raises Lazarus from the dead
v. 39 Dead four days. The popular belief was that the soul lingered near the body for three days before it returned to God who gave it (Eccl. 12:7). Hence they waited four days to declare them officially dead (see The Soul (No. 092)).
v. 40 Glory of God – God acting to reveal His Power as Life Giver.
vv. 41-42 God hears even Jesus’ unspoken thoughts. However, Christ wishes the people to know that he is sent by God and is acting on God’s instruction.
vv. 45-57 Religious leaders plot to kill Jesus
v. 47 Council – The Sanhedrin - The official Jewish Court of the Seventy under the High Priest made up of priests, scribes and elders. Nicodemus and Joseph were both members.
vv. 49-53 The prophecy of Caiaphas was given showing that the death and resurrection of the Messiah would redeem not only Judah, but all the Gentile nations and the creation; and enable the Sons of God with it. v. 54 Ephraim, About fifteen miles north of Jerusalem.
1Six days before the Passover, Jesus came to Bethany, where Laz'arus was, whom Jesus had raised from the dead. 2There they made him a supper; Martha served, and Laz'arus was one of those at table with him. 3Mary took a pound of costly ointment of pure nard and anointed the feet of Jesus and wiped his feet with her hair; and the house was filled with the fragrance of the ointment. 4But Judas Iscariot, one of his disciples (he who was to betray him), said, 5"Why was this ointment not sold for three hundred denarii and given to the poor?" 6This he said, not that he cared for the poor but because he was a thief, and as he had the money box he used to take what was put into it. 7Jesus said, "Let her alone, let her keep it for the day of my burial. 8The poor you always have with you, but you do not always have me." 9When the great crowd of the Jews learned that he was there, they came, not only on account of Jesus but also to see Laz'arus, whom he had raised from the dead. 10So the chief priests planned to put Laz'arus also to death, 11because on account of him many of the Jews were going away and believing in Jesus. 12The next day a great crowd who had come to the feast heard that Jesus was coming to Jerusalem. 13So they took branches of palm trees and went out to meet him, crying, "Hosanna! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord, even the King of Israel!" 14And Jesus found a young ass and sat upon it; as it is written, 15"Fear not, daughter of Zion; behold, your king is coming, sitting on an ass's colt!" 16His disciples did not understand this at first; but when Jesus was glorified, then they remembered that this had been written of him and had been done to him. 17The crowd that had been with him when he called Laz'arus out of the tomb and raised him from the dead bore witness. 18The reason why the crowd went to meet him was that they heard he had done this sign. 19The Pharisees then said to one another, "You see that you can do nothing; look, the world has gone after him." 20Now among those who went up to worship at the feast were some Greeks. 21So these came to Philip, who was from Beth-sa'ida in Galilee, and said to him, "Sir, we wish to see Jesus." 22Philip went and told Andrew; Andrew went with Philip and they told Jesus. 23And Jesus answered them, "The hour has come for the Son of man to be glorified. 24Truly, truly, I say to you, unless a grain of wheat falls into the earth and dies, it remains alone; but if it dies, it bears much fruit. 25He who loves his life loses it, and he who hates his life in this world will keep it for eternal life. 26If any one serves me, he must follow me; and where I am, there shall my servant be also; if any one serves me, the Father will honor him. 27"Now is my soul troubled. And what shall I say? 'Father, save me from this hour'? No, for this purpose I have come to this hour. 28Father, glorify thy name." Then a voice came from heaven, "I have glorified it, and I will glorify it again." 29The crowd standing by heard it and said that it had thundered. Others said, "An angel has spoken to him." 30Jesus answered, "This voice has come for your sake, not for mine. 31Now is the judgment of this world, now shall the ruler of this world be cast out; 32and I, when I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all men to myself." 33He said this to show by what death he was to die. 34The crowd answered him, "We have heard from the law that the Christ remains for ever. How can you say that the Son of man must be lifted up? Who is this Son of man?" 35Jesus said to them, "The light is with you for a little longer. Walk while you have the light, lest the darkness overtake you; he who walks in the darkness does not know where he goes. 36While you have the light, believe in the light, that you may become sons of light." When Jesus had said this, he departed and hid himself from them. 37Though he had done so many signs before them, yet they did not believe in him; 38it was that the word spoken by the prophet Isaiah might be fulfilled: "Lord, who has believed our report, and to whom has the arm of the Lord been revealed?" 39Therefore they could not believe. For Isaiah again said,40"He has blinded their eyes and hardened their heart, lest they should see with their eyes and perceive with their heart, and turn for me to heal them." 41Isaiah said this because he saw his glory and spoke of him. 42Nevertheless many even of the authorities believed in him, but for fear of the Pharisees they did not confess it, lest they should be put out of the synagogue: 43for they loved the praise of men more than the praise of God. 44And Jesus cried out and said, "He who believes in me, believes not in me but in him who sent me. 45And he who sees me sees him who sent me. 46I have come as light into the world, that whoever believes in me may not remain in darkness. 47If any one hears my sayings and does not keep them, I do not judge him; for I did not come to judge the world but to save the world. 48He who rejects me and does not receive my sayings has a judge; the word that I have spoken will be his judge on the last day. 49For I have not spoken on my own authority; the Father who sent me has himself given me commandment what to say and what to speak. 50And I know that his commandment is eternal life. What I say, therefore, I say as the Father has bidden me."
Intent of Chapter 12
In the full knowledge of a plot against his life (11:53,57), Jesus returns to the vicinity of Jerusalem.
vv. 1-11 A woman anoints Jesus with perfume at Bethany (Mat. 26:6-13; Mk. 14-3-9).
v. 1 Bethany 11:18. vv. 4 -5 Judas’ reaction is a sign of his defection and his corruption.
v. 6 Take = steal. v. 7 Jesus foresees his death. The anointing is the last rite in the preparation for burial. v. 8 The poor will also be with them; the Messiah will not be, and the love of the brethren will always look after the poor among them.
12:12-19 Jesus enters Jerusalem on a donkey (Mat. 21:1-11; Mk. 11:1-11; Lk. 19:28-44).
This is the prophesied entrance of the Messiah to Jerusalem for the setting aside of the Lamb of God.
v. 13 Hosanna (see Mat. 21:9 n) In the name of - with the authority of God. King of Israel – The Messiah.
vv. 14-15 fulfilling Zech. 9:9, the king of peace comes, not on a war horse, or in a chariot, but on an ass’ colt.
v. 16 The stauros, death by piercing, three days and nights in the Tomb for the Sign of Jonah, (No. 013). The Resurrection on the Sabbath evening, Ascension as the Wave Sheaf at 9AM Sunday (No. 106B), return, (see The Cross: Its Origin and Significance (No. 039); Timing of the Crucifixion and the Resurrection (No. 159); Forty Days Following the Resurrection (No. 159A) and Pentecost (No. 115; No. 065; No. 173) all fulfil prophecies regarding the granting of the Holy Spirit (No. 117) and Eternal Life (No. 133) to mankind.
A Friday death and Sunday resurrection could not possibly have fulfilled the Sign of Jonah and that festival was the festival of the mother goddess Easter, or Ishtar or Ashtaroth, consort of Baal which entered Christianity in the last half of the Second Century CE via the festivals of the gods Attis in Rome and the Middle East and Adonis among the Greeks, and Osiris, Isis and Horus among the Egyptians and Jupiter, Juno and Minerva among the Romans (see The Origins of Christmas and Easter (No. 235); and The Golden Calf (No. 222)). So also did Binitarianism come into Christianity at the end of the Second Century in Rome from the Cult of Attis in the Sun and Mystery cults (see Binitarianism and Trinitarianism (No. 076); Binitarian and Trinitarian Misrepresentation of the Early Theology of the Godhead (No. 127B)).
The disciples remembered these aspects when Christ was Glorified fulfilling all that was written about him in the prophecies.
12:20-50 The end of Jesus’ public ministry
vv. 20-36 Jesus explains why he must die.
v. 20 Greeks - Gentiles
vv. 23-24 The Hour see 2:4 n.
vv. 25-26 Mat. 10:39; Mk. 8:35; Lk. 9:24; 14:26. vv. 27-30 Mk. 14:32-42 A voice... from heaven was a common sign of divine reassurance (Mk. 1:11; 9:7; Acts 9:7).
vv. 31-33 This text shows that reality reversed the appearance. Christ’s death judged the world, not Christ. He defeated Satan, not himself. His resurrection draws men not repel them.
vv. 34-36a The people thought that Messiah would remain with them as conqueror, and they did not realise that to overcome sin and grant eternal life to mankind Messiah must die and be resurrected.
vv. 36b-43 Most of the people do not believe in Jesus.
vv. 44-50 Jesus summarizes his message
v. 44 He who believes in Christ believes not in him but in Him who sent him.
v. 45 He who sees Christ sees Him who sent him.
v. 46 Christ came as a light into the world so that whoever believes in Christ does not remain in darkness.
v. 47 Those who hear Christ’s sayings, but do not do them are not under Judgment. Christ did not come to judge the world but to save the world.
v. 48 He who rejects Christ and does not receive his sayings will be judged by the words Christ uttered in the last day.
v. 49 Christ did not speak on his own authority but by the Father who sent him and has given him His Commandments on what to say and what to speak.
v. 50 God’s Commandment is eternal life and what Christ says is as the Father has bidden him.
Thus those who see and obey Christ are in the Commandments of God and those that obey are given Eternal Life (No. 133) in the First Resurrection (No. 143A) and those who disobey come under judgment in the Second Resurrection and the Great White Throne Judgment (No. 143B).
Thus anyone who says the Law of God is done way is automatically consigned to the Second Resurrection and will face The Second Death (No. 143C) if they do not repent.
Summary of the Gospel of John Phase 1 chs. 1-12
Over this section we see the Gospel declare Christ as the Subordinate God of Israel who was the oracle of the One True God (Jn. 1:1-5, 18) whom no man has ever seen nor can see and who dwells in unapproachable light and who alone is immortal (1Tim. 6:16). The One True God was the creator of the Sons of God and the universe and of the earth. God the Father summoned all the Sons of God when He created the earth in Job 38:4-7. All the sons of God had access to the Throne of God, including Satan (Job 1:6: 2:1). For some reason the earth became tohu and bohu or waste and void. God did not create it that way (Gen. 1:1; Isa. 45:18). Christ was destined to become the elohim of Israel who was with God at the beginning of the Adamic creation in Genesis. He was sent with the other elohim to recreate the earth and create the Adamic host (Gen. Ch. 1ff). Once mankind had been created and were restructured under Noah, they were divided under the Sons of God. The elohim and son of God who was to become Messiah was allocated the nation that was to be forged into Israel as his inheritance (see Deut. 32:8 RSV, LXX, DSS (not the MT and KJV)). Thus the Messiah was not just King of the Jews but he was King of all Israel. Israel was destined to be the focal point of the Salvation of the Gentiles and Christ was destined to become High Priest of the Living Temple of God as mankind was destined to be (see The Plan of Salvation (No. 001A) and the Elect as Elohim (No. 001) and Israel as the Vineyard of God (No. 001C)).
This history then solves the riddle referred to in the Introduction to the Gospel of John where the gospel refers to The Jewish Authorities as Hoi Ioudaioi when Christ and the Apostles were Jews but also some Levites and some Benjamites. Judah was just one of the Twelve (thirteen) tribes. Christ was king over all Israel as we see in the twelve chapters of John regarding the Deity of Christ (No. 147); Christ and Deity (No. 237). He was the Monogenes Theos (B4) as the Only Born God of the Sons of God (Ps. 82:6). He was to become the High Priest of the Host, in the order of Melchisedek in the worship of the One True God (see The God We Worship (No. 002) and The Shema (No. 002B) (see also Commentary on Hebrews (F058)).
In understanding this problem we have to understand that Israel and Judah were separated at the death of King Solomon (see Solomon and the Key of David (No. 282C)). They became two nations and in 722 BCE Israel was sent into captivity north of the Araxes River by the Assyrians and some twenty years previously the tribes on the east bank of the Jordan with half of Manasseh preceded them into captivity. Also in that captivity the majority of Levi went with them into captivity. Only three of the divisions of the priesthood remained in Judah. Out of these three divisions the priesthood had to be reorganised into the twelve divisions for the annual functioning of the Temple priesthood. The story of the division of Israel and Judah is covered in the papers Descendants of Abraham: Judah (No. 212E); Descendants of Abraham: Israel (No. 212F). It was for this reason that the Apostles were dispatched in the Establishment of the Church under the Seventy (No. 122D). They were instructed to go to the lost tribes of the House of Israel. The tribes were spread throughout Parthia and through Scythia into India. Peter and his brother Andrew were sent into Parthia, where Peter was based at Babylon and Antioch and Andrew was into Scythia and Thrace. The Romans decided to coopt the “primacy of Peter” argument for their own purposes and declared Babylon as a Euphemism for Rome when Peter was in Parthia at Babylon (1Pet. 5:13) exactly where he said he was with Mark and his wife. Peter was never bishop of Rome. The first bishop of Rome was Linus ap Caradog one of the Seventy (Jn. 10:1,17; No. 122D above). Mark was then sent to Alexandria where he was martyred (F041). Luke was restored by Paul at Antioch (F042).
The other aspect is that a large body in First Century Judaism were not Jews at all being from the Maccabee conquest of Edom (ca 166 CE onwards); recent conversions from the Phoenicians, and Sidonians, building on Canaanites Palestinians and Egyptians and Hittites from the Exodus (see No. 067C) (Rev. 3:9 (F066). From the Fall of the Temple we saw Judaism corrupted completely (see War with Rome and the Fall of the Temple (No. 298) and The Sign of Jonah and the History of the Reconstruction of the Temple (No. 013)). That was to be compounded by the later conversion of the Arab clans and the Khazzar Ashenazim of the Steppes ca 630 CE. This mixture resulted in the Mishnah ca 200 CE and then the Talmud, which turned the Bible on its head, and there were very serious alterations to the MT (see 164F, 164G), and also animosity over the Lost Ten Tribes in Parthia, which moved into Western Europe at the fall of the Parthian Empire.
Thus Christ as Subordinate God of Israel is High Priest of the Temple of God and ruler and king of the world. The next phase from Chapters 13 to 21 sees Christ prepare to fulfil prophecy and qualify to fulfil the first steps of the Sign of Jonah and to ascend to heaven and take his place in the Throne Room of God at the RHS of God (see Psalm 110 (No. 178)).
Bullinger’s Notes on John Chs. 9-12 (for KJV)
as . . . passed by . See John 8:59 .
He saw . Compare John 5:6 and see App-176 .
saw. See App-133 .
man. Greek anthropos. App-123 .
which was. Should be in italics.
from his birth . Greek. ek ( App-104 ) genetes. Occurs only here.
disciples . Not necessarily the Twelve. See note on "neighbours" (John 9:8 ) and Structure "M".
asked . Greek. erotao. App-135 .
Master . Greek. Rabbi. App-98 .
sin . App-128 . The only sign (with the third; " C", p. 194)* connected with sin. See John 5:14 . *[ Conversion Note: The original text is shown here. Page 194 references Numbers 10:10-36 . It's completely unclear which of his comments or Bible text the author is referring to. The author presented no Structure diagrams on page 194.]
this man . The Lord was appealed to as Rabbi to settle a much controverted point as to pre-natal sin; or another question that "there shall be neither merit nor demerit in the days of the Messiah "(Lightfoot, xii, p. 326), referring back to "My day "(John 8:56 ).
that = in order that. Greek. hina.
was = should be.
Jesus. See App-98 .
Neither . . . nor. Greek. oute . . . oute.
but that . Supply the Ellipsis: but [he was born blind] in order that. Here we have the real answer to the question in John 9:2 .
works . See note on John 4:34 .
God. App-98 .
in. Greek. en. App-104 .
I must work. T Tr WH R read "We"; but not the Syriac. See App-94 . note 3, p. 136.
work the works . Figure of speech Polyptoton ( App-6 ), for emphasis.
can work = is able to work (two verbs).
world . App-129 . See note on John 1:9 .
I am. See note on John 6:35 .
light . Greek. phos. See App-130 and note on John 1:4 .
spat , &c. For the signification, see App-176 .
ground . Greek. chamai. Occurs only here and in John 18:6 .
anointed the eyes , &c = applied the clay to (Greek. epi. App-104 .) the eyes. Occurs only here and in John 9:11 .
wash . Greek. nipto. App-136 . See on John 13:10 .
in = into. Greek. eis. App-104 .
Siloam . See App-68 . which, &c. See note on "and we "(John 1:14 ).
Sent . So called from the sending forth of the waters, which were intermittent. See App-174 . Not the same word as in John 9:4 .
seeing . Greek. blepo. App-133 .
neighbours . Note the different parties in the Structure on p. 1641.
seen. Greek. theoreo. App-133 . Not the same word as elsewhere in this chapter. not. App-106 .
sat and begged = was sitting and begging.
Some . Greek. allos. App-124 , as in next clause. others. See note above.
answered and said . See App-122 and note or Deuteronomy 1:41 .
to = unto. Greek. eis. App-104 .
received sight = looked up [and saw]. App-133 .
Then = = Therefore.
know = have (intuitive) knowledge. Greek. oida. App-132 . See note on John 1:26 .
not. Greek. ou. App-105 . Not the same as in John 9:39 .
brought = bring.
to. Greek pros. App-104 .
Pharisees . See App-120 .
And = Now.
the sabbath day = a sabbath. Compare John 5:10 .
made the clay . Held then to be a breach of the law
upon . Greek. epi. App-104 .
of = from (beside). Greek. para. App-104 .
sinner. Greek. hamartolos. Compare App-128 .
miracles = signs. See App-176 and note on John 2:11 .
there was, &c. The second of three. See note on John 7:43
among. Greek. en. App-104 .
of = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104 .
hath opened = opened.
prophet . Compare John 4:18 .
But = Therefore.
the Jews . See note on John 1:19 . See the Structure "P"
believe . See App-150 and p. 1511.
concerning. Greek. peri. App-104 .
him = the very one.
son. App-108 .
who = of whom.
was = that he was.
by what means = how.
for = concerning, as in John 9:18 .
agreed . . . that = agreed together, to this end that
if. For the condition see App-118 . Not the same as John 9:41 .
any man = any one. App-123 .
Christ = Messiah. See App-98 . No art.
be = become.
Therefore On account of (Greek. dia. App-104 JJohn 9:2 ) this.
again = of (Greek. ek. App-104 .) a second time.
praise = glory. Greek. doxa. See p. 1511.
he = Therefore he.
Whether = If. App-118 .
I have told = I told. hear. See note on John 8:43 .
would ye hear = do ye wish ( App-102 .) to hear (two verbs).
will ye also , &c. = surely ye also do not ( App-105 . wish to become.
his = that Man's. Spoken with contempt.
Moses'. See note on John 1:17 .
spake = hath spoken.
herein = in (Greek. en. App-104 .) this.
marvellous = wonderful.
a worshipper of God = a pious man, or God-fearing [man]. Greek theosebes. Occurs only here in N.T. Compare the kindred noun in 1 Timothy 2:10 . In an inscription at Miletus the Jews are called theosebeioi. Deissmann, Light, &c., App-4 .
will. Greek. thelema. App-102 .
Since the world began . Greek. ek tou aionos. See App-151 . This phrase Occurs only here in N.T. See note on John 6:64 .
If . App-118 . not. Greek. me. App-105 .
could do nothing = would not ( App-105 ) be able to do anything.
altogether = wholly.
sins . App-128 .
thou. Note the emphasis.
cast him out . Nqt the same word as in John 9:22 .
out = outside.
when He had found him . Compare John 5:14 , and see App-176 .
Dost thou believe on , &c. Requiring an affirmative answer.
Almost = Surely thou believest, &c. See App-150 ., and note on John 1:7 .
the Son of God. See App-98 .
Lord . See App-98 .
seen. Greek. horao. App-133 .
with. Greek. meta. App-104 .
believe . App-150 .
worshipped . App-137 .
For judgment I am come . Referring to the effect of His coming: John 12:47 refers to the object of His coming.
For . Greek. eis. App-104 .
judgment. App-177 .
into. Greek. eis.
be made = become.
some = [those]. Are you blind also? = Surely we also are not (Greek. me. App-105 ) blind, are we?
If ye were blind . Assuming the condition as an actual fact. See App-118 .
should = would.
no . Greek. ou. App-105 .
remaineth = abideth. See note on John 1:32 .
Verily, verily. The fifteenth occurance. Connecting the sign with the signification. See note on John 1:51 .
entereth = entereth in. Note the Figure of speech Parechesis ( App-6 ), the Aramaic ( App-94 ) being: min tar ' s' letira'.
by = by means of. Greek dia. App-104 .John 10:1 .
into . Greek eis. App-104 .
the sheepfold = the fold (Greek. stele) of the sheep; the two symbols being used separately. See John 10:16 .
climbeth up = mounts up [over the fence].
some other way = from another quarter. The "from" is significant. Greek. allachothen. Only here, in N.T.
the same = that one. thief.
Who uses craft . Greek. kleptes. Always correctly so rendered. Compare App-164 .
robber . One who uses violence. Greek. lestes. As in John 10:8 ; John 18:40 ; 2 Corinthians 11:26 . Elsewhere wrongly rendered "thief", as in Matthew 21:13 ; Matthew 26:55 ; Matthew 27:38 , Matthew 27:44 .Mark 11:17 ; Mark 14:48 ; Mark 15:27 . Luke 10:30 , Luke 10:36 ; Luke 19:46 ; Luke 22:52 .
the = a: i.e. one of many.
hear = hear [and understand]. Compare John 8:43 .
calleth . Greek. kaleo. But all the texts read phoneo, generally implying a personal address. Compare John 13:13 .
by name = according to (Greek. kata. App-104 .) their name.
he putteth forth = he shall have put forth.
before = in front of. Not the same as in John 10:8 .
for = because,
know = know intuitively. From birth, not front having been taught. App-132 . See note on John 1:26 .
not = by no means, or in no wise. Greek. ou me. App-105 .
from = away from. Greek. apo. App-104 . not. Greek. ou. App-105 .
This parable . See note on "and we", &c. (John 1:14 ).
parable = wayside saying. Greek paroimia. Not parable, which is parabole. Paroimia Occurs in John here; and translated "proverb" in John 16:25 , John 16:25 , John 16:29 , and 2 Peter 2:22 . Parabole occurs fifty times, but is not used in John. Paroimia is the Septuagint word for mashal = proverb in Proverbs 1:1 . See note there.
Jesus . App-98 .
understood not = did not get to know. Greek. ginosko. App-132 . See note on John 1:10 .
what things they were = what it was, or what it meant.
Then = Therefore.
I say . . . I am = I say . . . that I am, &c.; hoti, putting the words that follow as a quotation. See App-173 .
of = for. Of the sheep, not of the fold.
All that ever = All whoever.
before . Greek pro. App-104 . The true Shepherd could not come till God's purpose was ripe in the fullness of the times (Galatians 1:4 , Galatians 1:4 ). Moses and the prophets were not "thieves and robbers". None of them claimed to do more than point, as John the Baptist did, to the coming One. All others were deceivers.
I am = I represent. See note on John 6:35 .
if, &c. A contingency which would be proved by the result. App-118 . Not the same word as in Joh 24:33 , Joh 24:37 , Joh 24:38 .
any man = any one. App-123 .
and out = and shall go out. The two expressions being the idiom used for life in general.
find = shall find.
but = except. Greek. ei me.
for to steals = sin order that (Greek. hina) he may steal. and. Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton ( App-6 ), for emph.
I am come = I came.
that = in order that (Greek. hina) .
life . Greek. zoe. App-170 . See note on John 1:4 .
might = may.
more abundantly , i.e. life in abundance.
I am , &c. See note on John 6:33 .
the good Shepherd = the Shepherd-the good [one]. Connect this with death, and Psalms 22:0 ; connect the "great" Shepherd with resurrection (Hebrews 13:20 ), and Psalms 23:0 ; and connect the "chief" Shepherd with glory (1 Peter 5:4 ), and Psalms 24:0 .
giveth His life = layeth down His life. The expression is frequent in John. See verses: John 10:15 , John 10:17 , John 10:18 ; John 13:37 , John 13:38 ; John 15:13 . 1 John 3:16 . Agreeing with the presentation in this Gospel. See page 1511. Compare Mat 20:35 .Mark 10:45 .
life = soul. Greek. psuche . See App-110 .
for = on behalf of. Greek huper. App-104 .
and not = and not being.
seeth . Greek. theoreo = to view [with fixed gaze], i.e. with terror or fascination. See App-133 .
and . Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton ( App-6 ), for emph.
The hireling fleeth . [L] Tm. Trm. WI R omit, but not the Syriac. See App-94 . note 3, p. 136.
because . Greek. hoti. Same as "for" in John 10:4 .
careth not for = is not himself concerned about.
for = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104 .
of = by. Greek. hupo. App-104 .
As = According as. the Father. See note on John 1:14 .
even so know I = I also know.
lay down. Same as "give", John 10:11 .
other . Greek altos. See App-124 .
of = out of. Greek. ek. App-104 .
fold . Greek aule = a place in the open air, as in John 10:1 , not the same word as in the next clause.
I must = it behoves Me.
shall = will.
be = become.
My Father. See note on John 2:16 .
love . Greek agapao. App-135 . See note on John 3:16 .
No man = No one. Greek. oudeis, i.e. no being, man or devil. Until 1660 the Authorized Version read "none".
of = from. Greek apo. App-104 .
power = authority. App-172 .
of = from. Greek para. App-104 .
was = arose.
a division . This was the third of three. See note on John 7:43 .
among . Greek. en. App-104 .
sayings = words. Greek. Plural of logos. See note on Mark 9:32 .
words . Greek. Plural of rhema. See note on Mark 9:32 .
him that hath a devil = one possessed by a demon.
Can a devil. . . ? = Surely a demon is not (Greek. me, App-105 ) able to . . . is he?
And. Figure of speech Chronographia. App-6 .
at. Greek. en. App-104 .
the feast of the dedication. Greek. enkainia = renewal, from kainos, new, i.e. the cleansing of Ezra's temple after its defilement by Antiochus Epiphanes, 25th Chislen (= December), 164 B.C. Compare 1 Macc. 4:52 - 59.
walked = was walking. in. Greek. en. App-104 .
temple . Greek. hieron. See note on Matthew 23:18 .
came . . . round about = encircled. Compare Psalms 88:17 .
make us to doubt? Greek. raise our souls, i.e. hold us in suspense, or excite our expectations.
us = our souls. App-110 .
If , &c. App-118 .
Christ , i.e. Messiah. App-98 .
plainly . Same Greek. word as "openly", John 18:20 .
told . He had not spoken to them as He did in John 4:26 ; John 9:35-37 , but the works were evidence enough to those who had eyes to see. Compare John 5:36 ; John 7:31 ; John 9:32 ; John 15:24 . believed. App-150 .
of = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104 .
and . Fig, Polysyndeton. App-6 .
eternal . Greek aionios. App-151 .
never = by no means (Greek. ou me. App-105 ) unto the age (Greek. eis ton aiona. App-151 ).
neither = and not (Greek. ou. App-105 ).
pluck = snatch. See John 10:12 .
out of . Greek. ek: App-104 .
one. Greek hen. Neut., one in essence, not one person which would be heir, masculine. This is the climax of His claim to oneness with the Father in verses: John 10:18 , John 10:25 , John 10:28 , John 18:29 . Compare also John 10:38 ; John 14:11 .Revelation 22:3 .
again . See John 8:59 .
to . Greek hina, as in John 10:10 .
from . Greek. ek. App-104 .
blasphemy . See Leviticus 24:16 .
God = Jehovah. See App-98 .
gods . See App-98 . Quoted from Psalms 82:6 . Psa 82:38
unto . Greek. pros. App-104 .
cannot = is not (Greek. ou. App-105 ) able to.
broken . Compare John 7:23 .
sanctified = set apart for a holy purpose. Compare John 17:19 .
sent . App-174 .
world . App-129 .,
the Son of God . App-98 .
believe . App-160 .
though = even if. Greek. kan = kai ean. App-118 . the works. These have a voice of their own. Compare Psalms 19:1-4 .
where , &c. See John 1:28 .
baptized = was baptizing. App-115 .
resorted = came.
said = kept saying.
did, &c. Miracles were not necessarily the credentials
of a prophet (Deuteronomy 13:1-3 ).
no . Greek. ouden.
miracle = sign, a characteristic word in this Gospel. See note on John 2:11 , and p. 1511.
true. Greek alethes. App-175 .
believed. See App-150 .
on. Greek eis. App-104 .
there . Emphatic, in contrast with His treatment in Jerusalem.
was sick . Pointing to great weakness and exhaustion, the result of active disease, rather than the disease itself. The verb is used thirty-six times, gene- rally translated in the Gospels "sick", in Paul's Epistles "weak", but in John 5:3 , John 5:7 "impotent".
Lazarus . Same as Eleazar = God helpeth. First occurance. Exodus 6:23 .
of = from. Greek. apo. App-104 .
the town = of (Greek. ek, App-104 .) the town, or unwalled village. See Luke 10:38 , which refers to Bethany.
Mary. See App-100 .3. Martha Aramaic. See App-94 .
It was , &c. This is an explanatory statement, anticipating what is related in John 12:3 .
the Lord. Greek. Kurios. App-98 .
sent . Greek apostello. App-174 ., If the place of John 10:40 was Bethabara beyond Jordan, and is to be identified with Beth-nimrah (Numbers 32:36 ) in Peraea, it would be about 25 miles from Jerusalem.
unto. Greek. pros. App-104 .
Lord . App-98 .
behold . Greek. ide. App-133 .
lovest . App-135 .
is sick : literally is weakening = is sinking.
Jesus . App-98 .
sickness . Greek. asthenia = weakness, not nosos, active disease. See note on Matthew 4:23 .
not . Greek. ou, App-105 .
for = for the purpose of. Greek huper. App-104 .
the glory , &c. The glory of God and of His Son are one and the same.
glory . See the book comments for John.
God. App-98 .
that = in order that. Greek. hina.
the Son of God . App-98 .
He abode . . . still . Greek. tote men emeinen. Then indeed He remained. Both Authorized Version and Revised Version omit these important adverbs.
in. Greek. en. App-104 .
Then Afterward. Greek. epeita.
after , Greek. meta. App-104 .
into. Greek. eis. App-104 .
Master = Rabbi. App-98 .
twelve hours ; reckoning from sunrise to sunset, 6am to 6pm.
If. App-118 .
any man. App-123 .
seeth. App-133 . the light, &c., i.e. the sun naturally, the Sun of righteousness metaphorically,
light . Greek. phos. App-130 .
world, Greek. kosmos. App-129 .
there is no light in him = the light is not (Greek. ou. App-105 )
Illustration Walking by day in the light of the sun, a man stumbles not.
(exoteric). Walking by night without that light, he stumbles.
Application He that hath the Son is. walking in the light.
friend. Greek. philos, noun of phileo, John 11:3 .
sleepeth = has fallen asleep. Greek. koimaomai. App-171 .
awake him out of sleep . Greek. exupnizo . Occurs only here.
Then = Therefore. if. App-118 .
shall do well = shall be saved. Greek. sozo', as in John 10:9 .
of = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104 .
Then said Jesus ; literal. Then therefore Jesus said. plainly. See John 10:24 .
believe . App-150 . i.
Thomas . App-94 and App-141 .
fellow disciples. Greek. summathetes. Occurs only here.
with (Greek. meta. App-104 . 1) Him, i.e. the Lord, not with Lazarus. Thomas realized that to return to the neighbourhood of Jerusalem meant certain death.
grave = tomb. Greek mnemeion. First, a memorial or monument, then a sepulchre. Compare John 5:28 .
about , &c. = as it were from (Greek. apo. App-104 .)
fifteen furlongs , i.e. 11 miles.
of = out of, from among. Greek ek. App-104 .
came = had come.
to. Greek. pros, as in John 11:3
concerning . Greek. peri, as in John 11:13 .
went and met = met. The word implies desire to avoid notice,
sat still = was sitting (Greek. kathezomai). There is no word for "still", and the Authorized Version and Revised Version insertion of it implies, without warrant, that Mary heard as well as Martha, but nevertheless remained where she was. Compare the other five occurrences of the word, John 4:6 ; John 20:12 .Matthew 26:55 .Luke 2:46; Luke 2:46 Acts 6:15 .
know . Greek. oida. App-132 .
rise again . Greek. anistemi. See App-178 .
resurrection. App-178 .
at = in. Greek. en. App-104 .
life. Greek zoe. App-170 .
believeth. See App-150 . These words refer to 1 Thessalonians 4:16 .
in . Greek. eis. App-104 .
yet shall he live = shall live. Figure of speech Aposiopesis. App-6 . The word "yet "is not in the Greek, and is unwarrantably introduced by both Authorized Version and Revised Version.
liveth = is alive, referring to 1 Thessalonians 4:17 .
never = by no means (Greek. ou me. App-105 ) unto the age (Greek. eis ton aiona. App-151 ).
Believest . See App-150 .
the Christ = the Messiah ( App-98 ). the Son of God ( App-98 ). Compare Peter's confession in Matthew 16:16 .
secretly, saying = saying secretly.
The Master. Greek. ho didaskalos. App-98 . John 11:8 .
saw . Greek. eidon. App-133 .
saying . T Tr. A WH R read, "supposing".
unto. Greek. eis. App-104 .
weep (Greek. klaio) = . to wail. Not the same word as in John 11:35 .
fell down . Others who fell down before Him or at His feet were the wise men (Matthew 2:11 ), Jairus (Mark 5:22 ), the woman (Mark 5:33 ), the Syrophenician (Mark 7:25 ), Peter (Luke 5:8 ), the leper (Luke 5:12 ), the Gadarene (Luke 8:28 ), and the Samaritan (Luke 17:16 ). This makes nine in all. See App-10 .
at. Greek. eis. App-104 .
spirit . App-101 .
wept = shed tears. Greek dakruo. Occurs only here. The noun dakru or dakruon occurs eleven times, and is always translated by plural "tears".
And = But.
this man (Greek. houtos) = this (One). Compare Matthew 8:27 .
blind = blind (man). See John 9:1-7 .
not . Greek. me. App-105 .
to = unto. Greek eis, as John 11:31 .
cave . Natural or artificial. Compare Isaiah 22:16 .
upon = against. Greek. epi. App-104 .
four days. The Rabbis taught that the spirit wandered about for three days, seeking re-admission to the body, but abandoned it on the fourth day, as corruption began then.
see . App-133 .
the glory of God , i.e. the manifestation of the same glory by which Christ was raised. Compare Romans 6:4 .
Father . See John 1:14 and and App-98 . Fifteen times the Lord used this term in prayer (omitting parallel passages in brackets): Matthew 11:25 , Matthew 11:26 (Luke 10:21 ); Joh 26:39 , Joh 26:42 (Mark 14:36 . Luke 22:42 ). Joh 23:34 , Joh 23:46 . John 11:41 ; John 12:27 , John 12:28 ; John 17:1 , John 17:5 , John 17:11 , John 17:21 , John 17:24 , John 17:25 (15 = 3x5. App-6 ). Next to John 17:0 , this is the longest prayer recorded of our Lord.
hast heard = heardest (Aorist tense). This suggests that the prayer was heard and answered before, perhaps in Peraea. See John 11:4 .
because of . Greek. dia, as in John 11:15 .
come forth ; literally hither, out.
he that was dead . Greek. ho tethnekos, the dead man. Compare Luke 7:12 .
graveclothes . Greek. keiriai. Only used here in N.T. In the Septuagint it is used in Proverbs 7:16 , as the rendering of the Hebrew marebaddim. Originally it meant a bed-girth, and so any kind of wrapping. Here, = swathings.
seen (Greek. theaomai. App-133 .) = regarded with wonder.
the things which. Some read "the thing which", referring to this special miracle, or rather these two miracles; for how could Lazarus, when restored to life, come forth, bound, as he was, hand and foot, and his eyes covered, save by a further exercise of Divine power? Thus there was a great increase of disciples, which alarmed the rulers.
But some . These were probably temple spies,
went , &a. = went off.
Pharisees . See App-120 .
told = "informed".
what things = the thing which, as in John 11:45 . So LT Tr. WH.
council . Greek sunedrion. The Sanhedrin was the supreme national court. See Matthew 5:22 . It consisted of seventy-one members, originating, according to the Rabbis, with the seventy elders, with Moses at their head (Numbers 11:24 ). Its sittings were held in the "stone chamber" in the temple precincts.
What do we? = What are we about? i.e. something must be done. this man. See John 11:37 , but "man" ( App-123 .) is ex-pressed here.
miracles = signs (Greek. semeion). A characteristic word in John's Gospel. See p. 1511 and App-176 .
our of us . Greek. hemon. Both the word and its position are emphatic. They claimed for themselves what belonged to God. Compare Matthew 23:38 ,
place Greek. topos). No doubt the temple was meant, the centre and source of all their influence and power. The word is often so used. See John 4:20 . Acts 6:13 , Acts 6:14 ; Acts 21:28 , Acts 21:29 .
nation . Greek. ethnos. " Our" belongs to nation as well as to place. They claimed the nation which they ruled as their own (see Luke 20:14 ).
that, &c. Caiaphas had been appointed six months before.
Ye know nothing at all = ye know nothing (Greek. ouk ouden, a double negative), i.e. you do not grasp the position; you do not see how critical it is.
Nor . Greek. oude.
it is expedient = it is to our interest.
us. All the texts read "you".
should die = was about to die.
children . Greek teknon. App-108 .
from . Greek. apo. App-104 .
that day, i.e. the day on which the council came to their awful decision.
for to , &c. -in order that (Greek. hina) they might kill Him, i.e. on some judicial pretence. The raising of Lazarus, followed, as it was. by so many becoming believers, brought the malignity of the Pharisees to a climax. It was the last of the three miracles that so exasperated them, the others being those on the impotent man, and on the man born blind. See the result in each case (John 5:16 . 2 John 1:9; 2 John 1:9 :34 .)
walked = was walking.
openly . Same as "plainly "in John 11:14 .
among . Greek. en. App-104 .
Ephraim . If it is to be identified with the modern Ophrah, it is about 16 miles north-east of Jerusalem. Compare 2 Chronicles 13:19 .
Jews' passover. Commencing on the 14th Nisan. See note on John 2:13 .
out of . Greek. ek. App-104 .
before . Greek. pro. App-104 .
to = in order to. Greek. hina.
sought = were seeking.
among themselves = with (Greek. meta. App-104 .) one another.
temple . Greek. hieron. See note on Matthew 23:16 .
not = in no wise. Greek. ou me. App-105 .
any man = any one. Greek. Us. App-123 .
knew = got to know. Greek ginosko. App-133 .
Then = Therefore.
Jesus. App-98 .
six days , &c.: i.e. on the ninth day of Nisan; our Thursday sunset to Friday sunset. See App-156 .
before . Greek pro. App-104 .
to = unto. Greek. eis. App-104 .
Lazarus . See note on John 11:1 .
which had been dead. [L Tr. A] T WI R and Syriac omit these words.
raised . Greek. egeiro. App-178 .
from = out of. Greek ek. App-104 .
the dead . There is no article. See App-139 .
a supper . The first of the three suppers. It was on Saturday evening, at the close of the Sabbath, on the tenth day of Nisan. See App-157 .
Martha . Aramaic. See App-94 .
served = was serving. Greek diakoneo. Occurs twenty- two times in the Gospels: thirteen times translated "minister" (Matthew 4:11 to Luke 8:3 ); nine times "serve" (Luke 10:40 to John 12:26 ). Compare Luke 10:40 . Same word as in Luke 22:27 .
Mary . See App-100 .
pound . Greek. litra Latin. libra = about 12 oz. App-51 . Occurs only here and John 19:39 .
ointment . Greek. muron. Aromatic balSamaritan Pentateuch
spikenard. See note on Mark 14:3 .
anointed. Three anointings are recorded in the Gospels. The first, probably in Capernaum in the house of Simon the Pharisee ( Luk 7:36-60 ): a woman anointed His feet. The one here was the second, and again His feet were anointed. At the third, in the house of Simon the leper, a woman (unnamed) anointed His head. For the last two see App-156 and App-168 .
with = out of, or from. Greek. ek. App-104 .
of = out of. Greek. ek. App-104 .
Judas Iscariot . See note on John 6:71 .
should betray Him = was about to deliver Him up.
not . Greek. ou . App-105 .
three hundred pence = about See App-51 .
poor . See App-127 .
for = concerning. Greek peri. App-104 .
thief. Greek. kleptes. The same word as in John 10:1 , John 10:8 , John 10:10 . Matthew 6:19 ; Matthew 24:43 , &c. Not the same as in Matthew 21:18 ; Matthew 26:63 ; Matthew 27:38 . Luke 10:30 . That is lestes, and should be translated "robber", as in John 10:1 , John 10:8 ; John 18:40 .
the bag . Greek. glossokomon. Only here and John 13:29 . Used in the Septuagint of the chest made by command of Joash (2 Chronicles 24:8-11 ). The word means a bag to keep the tongues or reeds of wind instruments, and if Judas was a shepherd (Kerioth being in the hilly district of southern Judah), the bag might be the pouch or wallet for the reeds of the pipes so much used by the eastern shepherd.
Let her alone , &c. L T Tr. A WI R (not the Syriac) read, "Let her alone, in order that she may keep it, "&c.
against = unto. Greek. eis. App-104 .
with you = among yourselves: i.e. not the outside poor, but the Lord's poor.
with . Greek. meta. App-104 .
knew = got to know. Greek ginosko. App-132 . for.
sake = on account of. Greek. dia. App-104 .John 12:2 .
that = in order that. Greek. hina.
see . Greek. eidon. App-133 .
put . . . to death . Greek. apokteino = kill. Occurs seventy-five times, and mostly implies violent death, not by judicial execution. Compare Matthew 14:5 .Luke 9:22 ; Luke 20:14 .Acts 3:19 ; Act 7:62 ; Acts 23:12 .Revelation 13:10 .
by reason of = on account of. Greek. dia, as in John 12:8 .
went away = withdrew: i.e. from the chief priests' faction.
believed on . See App-150 .
On the next day: i.e. the fourth day before the Passover, the 11th of Nisan. Our Saturday sunset to Sunday sunset. See App-156 . much people a great crowd.
to meet for (Greek. eis. App-104 .) meeting. cried. Greek. Imperative mood of krazo. Same word as in John 12:44 , but LT Tr. A WH R read imperative mood of krazo = were shouting out; used once of the Lord, John 11:43 Other occurances: John 18:40 ; John 19:6 , John 19:15 .Matthew 12:19 ; Matthew 15:22 .Acts 22:23 . In the Septuagint, only in Ezra 3:13 .
Hosanna , &c. See note on Matthew 21:9 .
in . Greek en. App-104 .
thereon = upon (Greek. epi. App-104 .) it.
written . See App-153 . Quoted from Zechariah 9:9 .
not . Greek me. App-105 .
on = upon. Greek. epi. App-104 .
understood = perceived. Greek. ginosko. App-132 .
glorified . Greek. doxazo. One of the characteristic words in John (see p. 1511).
of = about. Greek. epi. App-104 .
had done = did.
The people = The crowd.
out of. Greek. ek. App-104 .
grave . See note on John 11:17 .
bare record . = were testifying. See note on John 1:7 .
For this cause = on account of (Greek. dia. App-104 .) this.
for that = because. Greek. hoti, as in verses: 6, 11.
miracle = sign. Greek semeion. See App-176 ., and p. 1511.
The Pharisees . See App-120 .
among. Greek. pros. App-104 .
Perceive. Greek. theoreo. App-133 . I. 11.
nothing = nothing at all. Greek. ouk ouden, a double negative,
behold . Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6 .
world . Greek. kosmos. App-129 .
And , &c. This was the third day before the Passover, 12th of Nisan, our Sunday sunset to Monday sunset.
among = out of. Greek. ek. App-104 .
came up = were coming up, according to custom.
worship . Greek. proskuneo. App-137 . This would be in the outer court of the Temple, called the Court of the Gentiles. Compare Revelation 11:2 .
at = in. Greek. en. App-104 .
the feast . They would not be allowed to eat the Passover, unless they were proselytes (Exodus 12:48 ).
Philip . . . of Bethsaida . See App-141 . Probably these Greeks were from Galilee ( App-169 ), and, as Philip bore a Greek name, had some acquaintance with him.
of. Greek. apo. App-104 .
desired = prayed. Greek. erotao. App-134 .
Sir . Greek. kurios. App-98 .
we would see = we wish (Greek. theta. App-102 .) to see (Greek. eidon. App-133 .)
Andrew . See App-141 . Andrew belonged to the first group of the Apostles, Philip to the second.
the Son of man . App-98 and App-99 .
Verily, verily . The seventeenth occurance of this double amen. See note on John 1:51 .
Except = If not. Greek. ean ( App-118 ).
a corn of wheat = the seed-corn of the wheat. The Greek word kokkos occurs seven times: in Matthew 13:31 ; Matthew 17:20 . Mark 4:31 .Luke 13:19 ; Luke 17:6 (of mustard seed); here; and 1 Corinthians 15:37 .
into . Greek. eis. App-104 .
ground . Greek. ge. App-129 .
abideth . Greek. meno, one of the characteristic words in this Gospel. See p. 1511.
if. Greek. ean. App-118 .
bringeth forth = beareth.
loveth . Greek. phileo. App-135 .
keep = guard, or preserve. Greek. phulasso. See note on John 17:12 .
unto. Greek. eis. App-104 .
life . Greek. zoe. App-170 .
eternal. Greek. aionios. App-151 .
My Father . Greek. the Father. App-98 .
soul. Greek. psuche; here used in the personal sense = I myself: App-110 .
and what shall I say? , &c. Supply the Ellipses ( App-6 ) that follow, thus: (Shall I say) "Father, save Me from this hour? "(No!) It is for this cause I am come to this hour. (I will say) "Father, glorify Thy name".
Father . App-98 . See John 1:14 .
I have, &c. The Father's name was glorified in the wilderness by the Son's victory over the "tempter". It was about to be glorified again by the final victory over Satan, in the contest beginning in Gethsemane and ending at the empty tomb.
answered , &c. See App-122 .
because of = on account of. Greek. dia. App-104 .John 12:2 .
for your sakes = on account of (Greek. dia. App-104 .) you.
judgment . Greek. crisis ( App-177 .); i.e. the crisis reached when the world pronounced judgment against Christ and His claims.
prince = ruler. Greek. archon; applied to Satan as prince of this world (kosmos. App-129 .) three times, here, John 14:30 , and John 16:11 ; as prince of the demons in Matthew 12:24 .Mark 3:22 ; and as prince of the power of the air in Ephesians 2:2 . The same word used in Revelation 10:5 of the Lord. The prince of this world was a well-known Rabbinical term (Sar ha `olam, prince of the age) for Satan, "the angel", as they say, "into whose hands the whole world is delivered". See Dr. John Lightfoot's Works, xii, p. 369.
out (Greek. exo) = without, outside.
lifted up. Greek hupsoe. Occurs twenty times. Always in John refers to the cross; see John 12:34 ; John 3:14 , John 3:14 , and John 8:28 . In fourteen other passages (Matthew 11:23 ; Matthew 23:12 , Matthew 23:12 .Luke 1:52 ; Luke 10:15 ; Luke 10:14 .; John 18:14 , John 18:14 .Acts 2:33 ; Acts 5:31 ; Act 13:17 . 2 Corinthians 11:7 . 1 Peter 5:6 ) rendered "exalt", and in James 4:10 , "lift up".
earth. Greek ge. App-129 .
draw . Greek. helkuo. Same word as in John 6:44 . Used else- where in John 18:10 ; John 21:6 , John 21:11 and Acts 16:19 . The classical form helko occurs in Acts 21:30 . James 2:6 . It was thought the form helkuo was peculiar to the N.T. and Septuagint, but it is found in one of the Oxyrhyncus Papyri. See Deissmann, Light, &c., pp. 437-9.
unto . Greek. pros. App-104 .
Me = Myself. Greek. emautou.
what death = what kind of death.
should die = was about to die.
We have heard = we heard. The Greek tense (aorist, refers to a definite time, and may refer to a portion of the law (compare note on John 10:34 ) read on the Great Sabbath, two days previously. The quotation is usually referred to Psalms 89:29 , but it may rather be Psalms 92:0 (Psalms 92:1 ), which is said to have been read on the Sabbath from the days of Ezra.
unto = to. them: i.e. the people around Him.
light . App-130 .
while. All the texts read "as".
lest darkness = in order that (Greek. hina) dark ness may not (Greek. me. App-105 ).
knoweth . Greek. oida. App-132 .
in = on. Greek. eis. App-104 .
be = become,
children = sons. App-108 .
did hide Himself = was hidden.
from = away from. Greek. apo. App-104 .
Esaias . Greek form of Isaiah.
believed . App-150 .
Therefore = On account of (Greek. dia. App-104 .) this: i.e. the unbelief of John 12:37 .
could not = were not able to.
believe . App-160 . Judicial blindness follows persistent unbelief.
He hath blinded , &c. Quoted from Isaiah 6:9 , Isaiah 6:10 . See notes there. This was the second occasion of this prophecy being quoted, the first being in Matthew 18:14 (compare Mark 4:12 .Luke 8:10; Luke 8:10 ), when the Lord explained why He spoke to the people in parables; the other two being Acts 28:26 , Acts 28:27 and Romans 11:8 .
when. Greek hote. All the texts read hoti, because.
glory . Greek. doxa. One of the characteristic words in John's Gospel. See John 1:14 .
of = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104 .
loved . Greek. agapao. App-135 .
praise = glory. Same word as in John 12:41 .
men . Greek anthropos. App-123 .
God . App-98 .
sent. Greek. pempo. App-174 .
seeth . Greek. theoreo. App-133 .
I am come , &c. Compare John 8:12 .
words = sayings. Greek. rhema. See note on Mark 9:32 .
judge. Greek. krino. App-122 .
rejecteth . Greek. atheteo. Occurs sixteen times in twelve passages. The others are: Mark 6:26 ; Mark 7:9 . Luke 7:30 ; Luke 10:16 . 1 Corinthians 1:19 . Galatians 1:2 , Galatians 1:21 ; Gal 3:15 . 1 Thessalonians 4:8 . 1 Timothy 5:12 .Hebrews 10:28 . Jude 1:8 . Often translated despise. It means to count as nothing. See 1 Corinthians 1:19 .
I have not spoken of Myself : i.e. from Myself. The Lord's constant claim was that His very words were what the Father had given Him to speak. Compare John 3:34 ; John 7:16-18 ; John 8:28 , John 8:47 ; John 14:10 , John 14:24 ; John 17:8 , John 17:14 .
say. Greek. eipon. This has to do with the matter, or subject.
speak. Greek. laleo. This word. which is very common in John's Gospel, and occurs eight times in this chapter, refers to the words in which the message
was delivered. See note above and next verse.
everlasting. Greek. aionios. Same as "eternal" in John 12:25 . See App-151 .