Christian Churches of God

No. F024xiv




Commentary on Jeremiah:

Part 14 Summary


(Edition 1.0 20230524-20230524)





Christian Churches of God

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 Commentary on Jeremiah: Part 14 Summary

Part 1 to ch.10]


From its settlement under Joshua to the Kings and the division of Israel, the captive and neighbouring nations, the kings and priests introduced heresy into the nation. From 722 BCE Israel was sent into captivity, and Judah, three clans of Levi and Benjamin were left. They continued to theologically and spiritually collapse and corrupted God's Laws. By the time the Latter prophets, commencing with Isaiah, were sent to deal with their sin they were in serious trouble. They had been infested with Baal worship particularly under Elijah through Ahab and Jezebel and that simply escalated to Isaiah when he began to prophesy and the response was to kill him by sawing him in half (No 122C). Jeremiah was set aside from before his birth (1:5) and God ordained his works and its effect on Israel and its failure to obey God's Laws. God set aside the prophets from Jeremiah in to the Last Days and the Coming of Messiah ((4:15-27; Rev. Ch 3 and the Philadelphian system). Jeremiah was set aside to deal with Israel, and many nations, as we see in the texts below.


Israel had been sent to the north and they were to remain there and enter the northern systems with the Celts.The movement of Israel and the Semites into Europe is noted. The IJ supergroup was linked at the S2 and S22 links to the genome. These are dealt with in the papers Nos. 212E and 212F. Israel will be identified as YDNA Hg. I in the following texts and links. The tribe of Dan has entered Britain and Ireland as Tuatha de Danaan with YDNA HG. I (Isles) and on into Denmark. See also Asher (see Judges 5:17). Another eight Semitic tribal subdivisions came in with the R1b Anglo Saxons (as Hg. I (AS) and into Europe. The British Israelite traditions are erroneous in dealing with the histories. Very few of the HG J in Judah are actually Jews. Many are Edomites and Arabs riddled with Baal Worship from the other sons of Abraham (see 212 Series).


Isaiah, and both Jeremiah and Ezekiel, are specific that the Law of God is essential to Salvation and all mankind will be required to keep the entire Structure of the Law and the Testimony (Isa. 8:20; 66:23-24; Zech. 14:16-19). Jeremiah and Ezekiel follow on to the Last Days as we see and there is no alternative if one wishes to stay alive and enter the Millennium in the Kingdom of God under Messiah.


Intent of Chapter 1

vv. 1-3 Intro. 1. Words of Jeremiah history. Jeremiah means the Lord (Yahovah) exalts. Priests in Anathoth see Introduction;

v. 2 Thirteenth year of Josiah 627/6 BCE

v. 3 Eleventh Year of Zedekiah 587/6 BCE

vv. 4-19 Jeremiah’s Commission Given and Visions

vv. 4-10 Jeremiah’s First Prophecy

v. 4 Word of the Lord Emphasises that these are God’s words in prophecy through Jeremiah.

v. 5 Here God emphasises His Divine Omniscience and His Predestination (No. 296). This aspect was taken up also by Paul in Rom. 8:28-30 (F045ii). We see this power exercised in Jeremiah and particularly in Chapter 4:15-27 re the prophet of Dan in Ephraim in the Last Days in the Church of God, and for the Return of the Messiah. Jeremiah is appointed a prophet to the nations, not just to Assyria, Babylonia, Egypt and Judah but also to Israel in the dispersion and through the preservation of the Canon (No. 164) to all in the world. 

vv. 6-8 Jeremiah was less than the required age to teach as a priest in the Temple (i.e. 30 Years) and may have been even under the required age to be in Service there (25 Years).  God’s Spirit would be sufficient and would support him in all his works.

v. 9 Comp. 15:19; Mat. 10:19-20; 21-23.

v. 10 This charge and power in the Spirit of God was to set Jeremiah over nations and over kingdoms, to pluck up and break down, to destroy and to overthrow and to build and to plant (cf. Isa. 55:10-11). This power was to cover a massive scope ignored by modern scholarship, as we will see.

vv. 11-12 Jeremiah’s Second Prophecy

The word in v. 11 translated ‘almond’ in the Hebrew is shaped and the word ‘watching’ in v. 12 is the Hebrew meaning shaped and hence is a play on words to emphasise and encourage the nervous young prophet in the face of the opposition God knew he was to face.

1:13-19 Jeremiah’s Third Prophecy

1:13-14 Facing away from the north The meaning of the Hebrew is considered uncertain. The translation here implies that it is spilling its hot contents towards the south, or alternatively the draft on the fire came from the north, the usual route of invasion.

1:17-19 Here God expands on vv. 4-8 making Jeremiah a fortified city, an iron pillar, and a bronze wall against the whole land and against the kings of Judah and its princes and priests and the people of the whole land. No one would prevail against him as God was with him. Thus the predestination involving Jeremiah and indeed the other prophets involved nations. This was to have profound importance for the future of Israel. 


In the first Four chapters of Part I there is not a substantial difference between the MT and the LXX as we can see.


Intent of Chapter 2

2:1-37 The Apostasy of Israel This text refers to the whole house of Israel, both Judah, being dealt with at this time and being sent into captivity, and the whole of Israel of which the Ten Tribes had been sent into captivity by 722 BCE under the Assyrians. This text is a warning to both idolatrous houses, rotten with Baal worship of the Mystery and Sun cults to this very day.

vv. 1-3 God defends His Bride. In this He follows Hos. 2:16 and compares the Covenant at Sinai to the marriage vows. He protected her against all attempts to violate Israel from Amalekites, Canaanites, Philistines and others who would damage her.

vv. 4-9 God expresses here His unwavering commitment to Israel and His saving them from Egypt and placing them in the Promised Land.

v. 8 The priests and the Levites did not know God. The shepherds transgressed against God (here the Hebrew is translated rulers in the RSV).

The time necessitated Josiah’s reformation and after Josiah’s death God through Jeremiah was to verbally attack the prophets as we see in Ch. 23.

vv. 10-13 In this text God calls on the heavenly assembly of the Elohim to witness against Israel (Isa. 1:2; Mic. 6:1); to witness the folly not even seen among the gentiles either in the west (Cyprus) and the east (Kedar); of a people who forsake the Fountain of Living Waters (Jn. 4:10-15; 7:38) for what God terms the stagnant waters of what they have made to be a dry and leaky cistern  (F043) (cf. also 8:4-7). 

2:14-19 Israel had forsaken her covenant birthright of Freedom under the law of God to become slaves of the northern power (Assyria – the lions) and Egypt (Memphis was the capital of Northern Egypt fourteen miles south of Cairo), bringing disgrace upon themselves (Comp. 16b with Isa. 3:17; 7:20). 

vv. 16-18 Comp. v. 36

vv. 20-28 Here unfaithful Israel is compared to a stubborn ox and to a wild vine (see also Isa. 5:1-7; Hos. 10:1). They germinated from good seed but were now inexplicably completely worthless.

Israel is compared to a nymphomaniacal prostitute (see Hos. 4:13) who refuses to accept her guilt despite the evidence, such as sacrifice in the valleys etc. Like a thief is only remorseful when confronted by their wrongdoing, which God here likens to the trees (Asherah) as their father, and a stone saying you gave me birth (menhirs and idols); all evidence of the cultic accoutrements. Let these gods now rescue Israel in her time of need. Thus it will continue now into the Last Days and Israel will finally be destroyed and lastly rescued as captives by Messiah.

vv. 29-31 Israel rejected God and killed His Prophets (1Kgs. 19:10; 2Kgs. 21:16); (see also No. 122C).

v. 32 See vv. 2-3.

2:33-37 Israel is condemned by undeniable evidence. In shame and sorrow, symbolisd by the hands upon the head, and abandoned by her lovers (here Egypt and Assyria, but in the last days by the nations in their entirety). Faithless Israel and the nations among which they are scattered will stand alone before God and be corrected by Messiah for the millennial system. 


Chapters 3:1-4:4

We see the exhortations to Israel to repent, by God through the prophet.


Intent of Chapter 3

3:1-4:4 deals with the unrelenting harlotry of Israel over the ages.

3:1-5 Judah has sinned beyond that of even Israel and beyond that even contemplated under the law (Deut. 24:1-4). So God withholds the rains, and the latter rains; but Judah does not abandon her blatant indiscriminate harlotry (2:20). She cannot merit or expect any healing by God in her condition (see also vv. 6-13).

v. 1 Land  LXX reads “woman”

3:6-14 The Return of Israel is considered intrusive here and some scholars think it is not by Jeremiah (comp. Chs. 30-31; Ezek. Chs. 16; 23). God sent Israel into exile with a decree of divorce (Deut. 24:1-4), but Judah’s guilt is worse. Judah failed to learn from her sister’s punishment in the Northern tribes. Perhaps at odds with vv. 1-5, Israel is invited to repent and return. They do not return and Messiah sent the Apostles to them after 30 CE throughout Parthia and Scythia and as far as India (see No. 122D). Even then they played the harlot and now face the Wrath of God in the Last Days under Messiah (No. 141E) .

3:15-18 This section speaks of the establishment of faithful shepherds in the Last Days and promises to re-establish Judah and all Israel. It looks forward to a time when the nation of Israel has multiplied itself among the nations. The Ark of the Covenant (No. 196) was taken and hidden, reportedly by Jeremiah, and it will be brought to mind no more. Jerusalem, under Messiah, will replace the Ark as the symbol of the Throne of God among the Elect (No. 001) and the millennial nations (cf. 282D). The Church of God was established by Messiah and the Holy Spirit (No. 117) was given to its shepherds from 30 CE. Even so the people of Israel still managed to kill its shepherds on a widespread basis over the 2000 years (see F044vii).

v. 17 speaks of the Last Days (No. 192) when Messiah re-establishes Jerusalem as the Throne of God (14:21; 17:12). It speaks of the gathering of the people to Jerusalem as we see in Zech. 14:16-21 (F038).

v. 18 In those days the House of Judah will join the house of Israel and they shall come again from the north lands and be established again in the Promised Land.

3:19-20 The text continues vv. 1-5. Contrary to the custom (Num. 27:1-8) God would have made His “daughter” Judah His heir but her constant faithlessness makes this impossible.  Even to this very day they keep a false calendar and postpone the Holy Days and New Moons and keep the Babylonian Intercalations and postpone the Passovers into the incorrect months and even years (see ##195; 195C). They will be given their last chance under the Witnesses (Rev. 11:3ff; F066iii) and then face the Messiah. 

3:21-4:4 Continuation of the prophecy.

3:21-22 From the heights From these sites of future idolatry will come cries of Repentance (12-14) and resolve to return to God (Hos. 14:2-3). The conditions of repentance are removal of all pagan religious practices and sites and the pollution of our churches by the carcasses of our kings. It involves recognition of God’s exclusive position and sovereignty by swearing in His Name only (4:2b below).

v. 23 Truly the Lord our God is the Salvation of Israel.

3:24-25 Idolatry and its shameful practices have destroyed all for which Israel has laboured from their flocks and herds to their sons and daughters.

Let them lie down in shame for they have sinned and still sin to this day against the Lord their God.


Intent of Chapter 4

The Warning of the Last Days (No. 044)

Warning for the End Times (Jer. 4:1-31)

vv. 1-4 “The return to God is based firstly on the removal of abominations from among the people and the warning is to Israel firstly and then to Judah. It is by the circumcision of the hearts that Israel is saved and the nations are blessed in the God of Israel. Israel is warned first and then Judah is to be occupied by God’s Witnesses and then the Messiah. It is first to Israel and then to Judah from Jerusalem that the sequence is proclaimed. This text follows on from the previous chapters dealing with the absolute harlotry of Israel and Judah and their idolatrous practices, even to the very end.

4:5-31 The Enemy from the North

This is a recurring theme of Jeremiah because generally their enemies come from the North and especially when God raised them up to correct Israel and Judah (1:13-14; 5:15-17; 6:1-5 etc).

4:5-12 They are to sound the alarm and muster for the defence (see also 6:1-8). He implies that like a beast of prey the enemy approaches (cf. 5:6);

vv. 5-9 The proclamation is of evil and great destruction that comes from the North. It is the prophecies of Revelation when the angels are released from the pit that were kept at Euphrates so that a third of the world shall be destroyed in the wars of the Fifth and Sixth trumpets. So also must Judah be purged of its Kabbalistic Mysticism, as Israel is purged of its Babylonian Mysteries and Sun cults (#235). All must be cleansed and purged with hyssop. Then they are prepared for the wars of the end.

It is in those days that the princes, priests and prophets will be astonished because they had no understanding of just how far they had fallen into the Sun cults and the Babylonian Mysteries.  Their priests and rabbis have to be purged and cleansed of their idolatry and falsehood (see also 6:13-15; 14:13-16; 23:16-17). God’s judgment will sweep over the land, as the hot desert wind, destroying all before it (18:17). 

v. 10 The coming of the wars of the end is prophesied firstly by the voice of Dan/Ephraim that warns of the coming of the Messiah and the Wars of the End that besiege the cities of Judah. So the smooth words spoken by the prophets are lies and Israel and Judah are deceived.

vv. 11-13 The judgment of God is sent upon them and ruin is upon them. At the end modern warfare is inflicted upon them. It will happen swiftly. Like the eagle and the storm winds, the enemy forces approach.

vv. 14-16 God warns them through His last prophets to repent and cleanse themselves from wickedness that they may be saved. The final voice is from Joseph in the combined tribes of Dan/Ephraim that is the Joseph of Revelation chapter 7. This voice is the warning of the final Church of God of the Philadelphians (Rev. 3:7-13; F066) in the Last Days (see the paper The Pillars of Philadelphia (No. 283)). Note that the Septuagint says at verse 15: For a voice of one publishing from Dan shall come, and trouble out of mount Ephraim shall be heard of.  See also the text on John 1:19ff (F043) regarding this prophet being mistaken as coming at the time of John the Baptist. Note the voice of prophecy warns the nations that he is coming. The “He” here is the Messiah. The nations are the entire nations of the earth. In that time the watchers or besiegers come from a distant land and they shout against the cities of Judah. The term watchers [besiegers]is not the same word as the word used for the heavenly host. This action occurs at the return of the Messiah and heralds the battles of Armageddon (see the papers War of Hamon-Gog (No. 294) and also Advent of the Messiah Part I  (No. 210A) and Part II (No. 210B)). See also Wars of the End Part I: Wars of Amalek (No. 141C). The Wars are followed by the last two prophets Enoch and Elijah (Gen. 5:24; Mal 4:5) (1260 Days of the Witnesses (No. 141D)). Then Messiah will come (Armageddon and the Vials of the Wrath of God (No. 141E) and (No. 141E_2; 141E_2B). 

See also Fire From Heaven (No. 028).

The text of the LXX (below) does not substantially differ from the modern MT in this important area.

vv. 17-22 This text shows just how false and misguided the people of Israel are in their religious understanding and the worst is at Jerusalem with these people who say they are Jews but are not and who lie (Rev. 3:9) (F066). They have no understanding and have corrupted the Calendar of Judaism through their traditions and postponements and they have corrupted the Churches of God with this abomination of Hillel; and their priests and rabbis will die because of it. Less than 9% of them are actual Jews (No. 212E). By the coming of the Messiah there will not be one rabbi or priest or minister left alive that is keeping Hillel and the postponements and traditions. This is not a simple passage of troops from Dan (8:16) through mount Ephraim in Central Palestine and Benjamin (6:1). These are the identities of the last days appointed and set aside by God in this and other texts of Scripture, as was Jeremiah himself (1:5) (see also Rev. 11:3ff F066iii).


vv. 23-31 War will ensue and will continue on to utter devastation so that the earth will again become tohu and bohu and the heavens have no light (v. 23).   This was as we saw in Joel. It is as if struck by a nuclear bomb which will occur in the last days to kill a third of mankind (Rev. 9:18 F066iii). It was this text that forced the false prophetess Ellen G. White to declare the desolate earth theory and the heavenly investigative judgment and to declare Satan being confined to a desolate earth, which is utter heresy. See the papers The Millennium and the Rapture (No. 095); The Pre-Advent Judgment (No. 176) and False Prophecy (No. 269). It is the text that says I looked and there was no man that appears to have misled those who wished to see what they wanted to be so. It also says that all the birds of the air had fled. The fruitful land was a desert and all the cities were laid in ruins before the fierce anger of the Lord (see also 7:16; 15:1-4). Like a rejected harlot the daughter of Zion faces her end (3:2-3). However the Lord made a declaration in verse 27 which makes it all clear that the Lord will not make a full end. The people will be among the rocks and not in the cities and the Babylonian whore will be entirely destroyed (#299B F066iv and v).

4:29-31 It is at this time that the daughter of Zion shall give birth and the millennial system will come into operation. The murderers of Israel are not just the killers of men but of women and the women who abort their young and those who sell bodies for spare parts. They will be judged and put to the sword along with their false priests.”


Gideon’s Force and the Last Days (No. 022)

The sequence entails, firstly, the fall of the churches (cf. Measuring the Temple (No. 137)) and secondly, the fall of the nation. A major example of what is to take place is found in the story of Gideon (see also No. 141F).


Intent of Chapter 5

5:1-6:30 Corruption for which Judgment is to Come.

5:1-6 Jeremiah is commanded to search carefully for a faithful man that seeks the truth so that God may pardon Jerusalem (see also 6:9-10). If one can be found then the Lord will pardon the city (see Gen. 18:23-33). In the Last Days (v. 31) Israel has total scorn for the word of God, as it does here.

v. 2 They swear falsely. Jeremiah says: that God’s eyes look for truth but He has smitten them but they felt no anguish. God consumed them but they did not take correction. They have hardened their faces and refused to take correction and repent (v. 3). He said that he thought they were only the poor and knew not the way of the Lord, the law of God (v. 4). He then decided to go to the great that knew the way of the Lord, but they, all alike, had denied the faith (v. 5). (comp. Mat. 19:23-25). Therefore God gave them over to destruction from every direction, lions from the forest, wolves from the desert, and leopards who watch their cities. Anyone who goes out from them will be torn to pieces, because their transgressions are many and their apostasies great (2:15; 4:7; Hab. 1:8). God asks how can He pardon them in the face of such blatant widespread idolatry (2:11) and immorality v. 29; 9:9). Their children have forsaken Him and turned to false gods. When He fed them to the full they committed adultery and trooped to the houses of harlots (v. 7). They neighed for their neighbbours’ wives. Shall God not punish them and avenge Himself on a people such as this? (vv. 8-9).

5:10-11 Israel as the Vineyard of God (No. 001C) has grown wild and must be destroyed (Isa. 5:1-7; 2:20-21). 

5:12-17 The Judgment: The nation has said God will do nothing. No evil will come upon us. Nor shall they see sword or famine. The prophets will become wind and the word of God is not in them. Thus shall it be done to them (vv. 12-13).

The prophets will become the consuming word of God in power (Pss. 10:4; 14:1). Because the people have done this, the word of God shall be a fire in their mouths and the people wood and the fire shall devour them (v. 14).

5:15-17 God then will bring a nation far off to the entire house of Israel. They will consume their harvests and food, their sons and their daughters, their flocks and their herds; their vines and orchards and destroy their cities with the sword.

5:18-19 Even in the days of the destruction God will not make a full end of them (see 4:27) (see also 9:12-14; 16:10-13; 22:8-9). Only parts will be destroyed fully (16-17; 13:13-14). They will be made to serve strangers in strange lands until the Messiah takes them captive.

5:20-25 Israel’s foolish obstinacy has closed her eyes.

vv. 20-23 Proclaim this in Jacob (Israel) and Judah. These people have eyes but see not and ears but hear not, and have a stubborn and rebellious heart and no real fear of God (vv. 21-23)

v. 24 “The appointed weeks of the harvest as stated here are the seven weeks to Pentecost. Thus, the time from the Wave-Sheaf to Pentecost is reserved for God’s people. Pentecost is the second harvest of God and is sometimes referred to as the Feast of Harvest (Ex. 23:16).” God’s Feasts as they relate to the Creation (No. 227)

v. 25 Israel’s sins have turned the blessings of God away, and kept real good from them.

5:26-29 Wicked men are found among them with traps to catch men. These men have become great and rich through treachery and they know no bounds in their wickedness, especially so in the last days. They judge, with no justice, the rights of the fatherless and the needy. God will punish them for these sins.  In the last days they set traps to kill untold millions by war and poisons and pseudo “vaccines” and chemicals, and the politicians profit by it, and do nothing to stop it, but enforce it. They have to be punished for the blood they shed and the people’s lives they destroyed; men, women and children (## 259; 259B). The nations must be punished for tolerating the defrauding and murder of the defenceless (Deut. 24:17-18; Am. 2:6-7), and especially so for their tolerance of the perversity of priests and prophets (6:13-15; 23:9-22; Mic. 3:5-8).

vv. 30-31 says the prophets prophesy falsely (#269) and the priests rule at their direction (and not according to the word of God) and the people love to have it so. God then says “But what will you do when the end comes?” This is at the return of the Messiah in the Last Days and the prophecies of Jeremiah concern all these events to the millennial system as we saw from Part I (F024).

In the Last Days brazen antinomians and  idolaters go from door to door, and in houses of worship, telling people that the Law of God (L1) is done away and need not be observed. Such will be dealt with under the Witnesses and then put to the sword at the return of Messiah, or killed by the plagues of Egypt, as we will see over Isaiah (e.g. see 66:23-24) and Jeremiah, and as we see in Ezekiel and Zechariah (see 14:16-19). Others teach, in Judah, and even in the Churches of God, that God’s Calendar (No. 156) can be ignored and Hillel kept (## 195 and 195C). They too will die and face the Second Resurrection (No. 143B).


Intent of Chapter 6

6:1-8 The enemy approaches from the North

v. 1 Tekoa twelve miles south of Jerusalem. Beth-hacche’rem modern Ramet Rahel two miles south of Jerusalem.

v. 2 The comely and delicately bred of the daughter of Zion will be destroyed.

v. 3 Shepherds with their flocks – Kings with their armies (as per 1:15; 12:10).

v. 4 Prepare (in the sense of sanctify) (see Jl. 3:9; and Ezek. Chs. 38-39).

6:5-8 Jerusalem is condemned to be attacked for her wickedness and oppression. If she persists she can alienate God and He will make her a desolate land. The Temple mount was disgracefully made into a rubbish pit under the pseudo-Christians and the Caliph Omar had to capture it, and order it to be cleaned up.

6:9-15 Jeremiah was to search thoroughly for a God fearing person (5:1) and finds none in his work (20:7-18; Mic. 7:1-2). God is to pour out His wrath (Isa. 5:25; Ezek. 6:14) upon this unrepentant people. The leaders that promised them peace in material and spiritual blessings, when none was to be had, were to be punished (8:10-12; Ezek. 13:10-11).

6:16-21 The Lord directed them back to the ancient paths of the Law and the Testimony but they would not obey. God gave them His Covenant and instruction (as paths and His Law) and set watchmen over them but they would not listen (comp. Hos. 9:8). God then declared that He would inflict on them the fruit of their conduct and rejection of His Law. So also will He do the same in the last days before Messiah to those who declare the Law of God (L1) obsolete, or done away, as they do now, all over the world. 

6:22-26  The foe from the North (4:5-8) is many and varied over the centuries (see also 25:1-14) as they continue until their dispersal from 70 CE and 135 CE until the restoration of the entire city of Jerusalem and the Temple Mount in 1917 (Habakkuk F035) and 1967 (see Daniel Ch. 8:14 F027viii) and on until the Beast system over the 42 months of the Last Days (see also #141D) and the return of the Messiah (see Daniel F027xi, xii, xiii and F066iv and v) (see the Sign of Jonah... (No. 013) and Completion of the Sign of Jonah (No. 013_2).

v. 25 Terror on every side Jeremiah’s way of describing danger everywhere (comp. 20:3, 10; 46:5; 49:29; Lam. 2:22).

6:27-30 Jeremiah was here made an assayer and a tester of God’s people. They were condemned by God for being stubbornly rebellious and going about with slander among the people. They are as bronze and iron and all act corruptly and it has not changed even to this day. It is the reason, in the Last Days, that two entire eras of the Churches of God were declared dead and spewed out of God’s mouth (Rev. Ch. 3 F066). The refining goes on and the wicked are not removed (v. 29) and so the groups are rejected by God en masse as “refuse silver” (v. 30).


Intent of Chapter 7

7:1-15  The Temple Sermon (comp. 26:4-6).

Once again we see a call for repentance from God. The Temple being present in Jerusalem was an assurance of God’s protection (Isa. 31:4 and compare 22:29; Isa. 6:3). Through Jeremiah, God disagreed (see also Mic. 3:12) and held that a complete moral change was required (vv. 5-6; comp. Hos. 4:2; Mic. 6:8). The early central shrine at Shiloh, 18 miles north of Jerusalem, was destroyed in the days of Samuel (ca 1050 BCE) (see 1Sam. Chs. 4-6; Ps. 78:56-72). So also this house (Temple), desecrated by idolatry must be destroyed (v. 11; comp. Mat. 21:13). For the same reason the Temple was destroyed in 70 CE, by the Romans, as it was by the Babylonians here. As a result of this prophecy against the Temple and its leaders Jeremiah was arrested (see 26:8). They sought to put him to death but did not do so, as we will see. When they are in control of the Temple, they seem to seek to kill God’s prophets (see #122C).

7:16-8:3 Abuses in Worship

7:16-20 Prohibition of Intercession Because of Judah’s complete apostasy God forbids Jeremiah to exercise the important prophetic function of intercession (7:16; 11:14; 15:1; comp. Am. 7:2,5). The people then were making cakes for the Queen of Heaven (see 44:15-28). They do that to this very day right throughout the nations containing the tribes of Israel all over the world. In the English speaking world they call her festival Easter, the name of the goddess from Ishtar or Ashtaroth, and her festival Easter also (see #235) and they worship the Sun god Baal, her consort, on the day of the Sun and at the Solstice. For this reason alone they will be destroyed.

7:21-28 God requires faithfulness and not sacrifice. They are acceptable only when the right relationship exists between God and man (6:20; Ps. 51:15-19). Until that relationship is attained man may as well eat the flesh of the burnt offerings (incinerated under Lev. Ch. 1) as well as the other offerings (Lev. Ch. 3; 7:11-18),  as He tells Judah here through Jeremiah.

vv. 21-24

“We must understand that components of the law, which were related to the ordinances of the sacrifices and offerings were added because of Israel’s failures.”

Role of Messiah (No. 226)

vv. 25-28 The final casualty of the arrogant disobedience of Israel was truth. We cannot believe anything their leadership says. This situation is present in the Last Days even in the Churches of God with the last of Sardis and the Laodicean Churches. Those two Churches are not convicted by truth, neither in their ministry, nor generally among the brethren.

See The Warning of the Last Days (No. 044).

7:29-8:3 Israel (and hence Judah) is given its judgment and fate

Judah is told to cut your hair (as a sign of mourning 16:6; Mic. 1:16) and cast it away for the Lord has rejected the generation of His Wrath.

v. 31 The most gruesome of Israel’s sins was the sacrifice of children (19:5; 32:35). This was done on the burning platform (Topheth 2Kgs. 23:10). Strictly forbidden by God (Lev. 18:21), it will eventually be recognised as murder; although, it is conducted, even today, as abortion and infanticide (No. 259B).

Valley of the son of Hinnom Southwest of the city adjoining the Kidron Valley.

v. 33 The valley of slaughter will be a place where they will dispose of corpses as there will be no other place for them and the corpses will be food for carrion and they will be desecrated and the land shall become waste.


Intent of Chapter 8

8:1-3 Here God uses biting irony in the pen of Jeremiah, judging their leaders and commanding their bones be excavated and scattered before the Host of heaven that they worshipped. Their families will prefer death to life, everywhere God has scattered them.

8:4-10:25 Various Oracles

8:4-7 Here we see Israel’s incredible indifference (18:13-17).  Men and animals follow their natural instincts but Israel God’s people forget God’s Law. They will only find out with the Messiah in 30 CE that they cannot function properly without the Holy Spirit (No. 117) which enables the heart to be able to follow God’s Law.

8:8-9  Tradition v. Law Here Jeremiah denounces the traditions of the Scribes, which they insert into and corrupt the Laws of God (L1). The Scribes and Priests misinterpret the Law (Comp. 2:8). They have corrupted the Calendar and the Law and the Testimony and the pseudo-Christians do much worse, and kill those who obey God over the millennia. (F044vii cf. also Rev. 12:17; 14:12 (F066iii, iv).

8:10-12 A reinforcement of 6:12-15.

8:13-17 Israel (including Judah) is an unfruitful vine and vineyard (Isa. 5:7) and will be destroyed and given to Christ (comp. Lk. 13:7) (see No. 001C; 001A). They are panic stricken before their invaders and seek defence in their fortresses but they have no defence (F066v).

Poisoned Water (The cup of God’s Wrath (9:15; Ps. 75:8; Num. Ch. 5.) Dan is the northernmost point in Israel.

Serpents (Ecc. 10:11; Ps. 58:4-5; Num. 21:4-9).

8:18-9:1 Lament over Judah. It is God’s Lament through Jeremiah and not Jeremiah that is lamenting the destruction of Israel. God is speaking of the balm in Gilead (v. 20 – resin of the Styrax tree produced in the north in the Transjordan (46:11; Gen. 37:25) and no one to restore the health of His people.


Intent of Chapter 9

v. 1 is the end of the lament over Judah that commenced in 8:18.

9:2-9 The basis of this next lament is that the people are entirely corrupt and thus it differs from the previous lament. Instead of sympathy Jeremiah has nothing but contempt for the lying, deceiving, untrustworthy, adulterous nation (11:19-23; 12:6; 20:10). Jeremiah would rather a wayfarer’s remote lodging in the desert than with these lying slanderers (1Kgs. 19:3-4).

vv. 3-6 Let not one of us be guilty of slander (v. 4). The damage from libellous gossip, especially if done with malicious intent, is often impossible to recover. This is not how the mind of God works. We need to have friends and confidants but we should be cautious in exposing ourselves to needless harassment.

The time will come when our affiliation will bring a real persecution and we will stand to a public hatred of The God that will be reflected in hatred against those who keep God’s laws. This mindset of hostility and general wrong way of thinking is what is presently being dealt with through baptism.”

Role of Messiah (No. 226)

v. 9 5:9

9:10-22 Lamentation over Zion

9:10-12 God says that He will make Jerusalem a heap of ruins and Judah a desolation without inhabitant. Specifically, because they have forsaken God’s Laws and gone after the Baals as their fathers have taught them. Death stalks the land broken only by the howl of jackals (7:34).

9:13-16 A composite commentary on the oracle in vv. 10-12, 17-22 (comp. 5:18-19).

Poisonous water (and wormwood) (8:14; 23:15; Ezek. 23:31-34). Baal worship (including the festivals of the goddess Easter) was a religious system of the demons given to the nations in the Middle East. It has infected Israel and the Church, since Egypt, to this day (see ##105; 222; 235). It will now be finally stamped out at the return of Messiah (see #141F).    

9:17-22 Following on from 10-12 above: Here professional women mourners were to be summoned to bewail the fate of Zion. Death was to cut off the children from the streets and the young men from the town squares and into the houses and palaces.

v. 21 The verse reflects a figure of speech in allusion to the Canaanite god of death (see OARSV n.).

9:23-24   True Glory and Eternal Life (No. 133) is to know and understand the Only True God and Jesus Christ whom He sent (Jn. 17:3 and 1Cor. 1:31). Man’s goals are nothing (1Kgs. 3:10-12) compared to the Knowledge of God.

9:25-26 The days are coming when the circumcised will be punished as uncircumcised. Egypt, Judah, Edom, Ammon, Moab (see No. 212B; 212C; 212D; 212E; 212F) and all who dwell in the desert that cut the corners of their hair (as sun worshippers). For they are all uncircumcised and all the House of Israel is uncircumcised in their hearts.


Intent of Chapter 10

10:1-16 God and the Idols

Some claim that this is a later elaboration of a now lost oracle by Jeremiah (comp. Isa. 44:9-20; Ps. 115:3-8) (see OARSV n.).

vv. 1-9 God was specific in His condemnation of the sun cults in Jeremiah’s day. From this text we see God absolutely condemns the solstice festival that we now call Christmas.

Any person who keeps or follows these festivals is a devotee of the god Baal and the sun cults. They are not Christians.”

See Origins of Christmas and Easter (No. 235);

Origins of Radical Unitarianism and Binitarianism (No. 076C).

v. 2 Signs of the heavens eclipses, comets, and astrological observations are meaningless.

v. 4 Men deck it with silver and gold (Comp. Isa. 40:18-20; 41:6-7).

v. 5 They have to be carried see also Is. 46:1-7.

Cucumber field (Isa. 1:8).

Tarshis Sardinia or Tartessus in Southern Spain. Uphaz uncertain

“The decorated pine tree stems directly from the Mystery cults and the worship of the god Attis. He is held to have been a man who became a tree and, hence, is the embodiment of the ancient tree-spirit we meet in ancient Indian or Indus mythology from as early as Harappa and Mohenjo Daro. He is clearly a fertility god of corn and wears a Phrygian cap like Mithras (from the statue in the Lateran; Frazer, v, p. 279).

The bringing in of the pine tree decked in violets and woollen bands is like bringing in the May-tree or Summer-tree in modern folk custom. The effigy that was attached to the tree was a duplicate representative of the god Attis. This was traditionally kept until the next year, when it was burnt (Firmicus Maternus, De errore profanarum religionum; cf. Frazer, v, p. 277 and n. 2). It is forbidden by God in Jeremiah 10:1-9.

The original intent of this custom was to maintain the spirit of vegetation intact throughout the coming year. The Phrygians worshipped the pine tree above all others and it is from this area that we derive the Mysteries and the Mithras system. It is probably sacred to the cults in that it is an evergreen lasting through the solstice period over a large area, when other trees are bare. Remember also that pine-resin was burnt at the solstice festivals. The origins are lost in the antiquity of the Assyro-Babylonian system.”  The relics of the “cross” are all usually of pine. Christ was executed on a stauros or stake (see No. 039)

The Orgins of Christmas and Easter (No. 235).

Note that vv. 6,7,8 and 10 are not in the LXX, nevertheless it does not significantly diminish the impact of the meaning of the text.

vv. 10-11 The Lord is the True God

He alone is adonim of the adonim or the Lord of Lords. He created by fiat and delegation and hence the plurality of the text in Jeremiah 10:10-11.

v. 11 Considered an Aramaic gloss unique in Jeremiah from the Fifth Century BCE.

vv.  12-13 There is only one true God as we see. He is the living God and everlasting king. The elohim thus had a variety of roles in the creation. The one true God made the earth by His power and wisdom. Joshua the Messiah the Son of God (No. 134) and The Shema (No. 002B)

vv. 14-16  Israel was reserved as a portion to Yahovah of Hosts. Israel was the rod of His inheritance. Thus Israel had a function to perform in the establishment of God’s inheritance (see 001A, 001B, 001C). Yahovah of Hosts is the Father. He alone (Lam. 3:24) is worthy of Worship (see 51:15-19) No. 002). Yahovah of Hosts works through Yahovah of Israel whom He appointed (Deut. 32:8) and anointed above his partners (Ps. 45:6-7; Heb. 1:8-9). Yahovah of Israel is thus the Angel of Yahovah who is an elohim (Zech. 12:8), as will the sons of God become elohim (No. 001). However, flesh and blood cannot inherit the Kingdom of God (1Cor. 15:50). Thus the Kingdom and the inheritance look forward to the spiritual. Israel could not become sons of God through the flesh. Neither can unrighteousness inherit the Kingdom (1Cor. 6:9). However, it is the Father’s good pleasure to give us the Kingdom (Lk. 12:32), which is our inheritance. From our resurrection we become sons of God and equal to the angels (Lk. 20:36; F042). Those who received Christ were given the right to become sons of God (Jn. 1:12; F043). That was the purpose of the Incarnation so that we might see the love of God and be His sons (1Jn. 3:1-2; Rev. 21:7; F066v). The first covenant can only be fulfilled or completed through the second element. See also:

The Covenant of God (No. 152); First and Second Statements of the Covenant (No. 096B).

10:17-22 Prepare to Leave Related to but later than 9:10-22. The text describes a siege, perhaps in 597 BCE. They are sent into captivity because of the sin and stupidity of the shepherds and that will continue now until the Return of the Messiah (F066v). In Exile, Zion will lose her children (Isa. 49:14-23; 54:1-3).

22b 9:11

10:23-25 Prayer of Jeremiah - Judah is guilty and deserves punishment (Prov. 20:24; cf. Rom.  1:18-23). God is asked to not destroy Judah and be merciful (see Am. 7:2-6; Ps. 6:1).

v. 25 is considered by some as a later addition reflecting the Sixth Century BCE desolation of Judah as an accomplished fact rather than the declaration of God, which it actually is (see also Ps. 79:6-7).


[Part 2: chps. 11 to 25]

Intent of Chapter 11

11:1-37 Jeremiah and the Covenant

Josiah’s reformation was to eliminate all traces of foreign worship and this was carried on through Isaiah, Jeremiah and the latter prophets as we see in Jeremiah also and in Ezekiel (see also 2Kgs. Chs. 22, 23). The purpose was to return to the provisions of the Mosaic Covenant given by God through Christ to Moses (see Acts 7:30-53; 1Cor. 10:1-4; Rev. 12:17; 14:12). The greatest of the Gnostic heresies was that the Law of God (L1) is done away in the Churches of God; especially the Law under the NT. It is God’s Covenant (see 10:14-16 n. above and also ## 152; 096B; above and Christianity and Islam in the Covenant of God (No. 096C); (see v. 3 this covenant; v. 10 my covenant). Messiah will eliminate such antinomian views at his return for the Millennium (#141F). All prophetic preaching is based on the Covenant relationship with God according to His Law and Calendar (No. 156). If a religious authority does not speak according to the Law and the Testimony, there is no light in them (Isa. 8:20). As a result of the continuing apostasy of Israel and Judah, God will bring evil on them in the last days and wipe out their apostasy and backsliding and all their ministry that teach such things. Satan will be put in the pit and Israel and the entire world will be brought captive to the millennial system under Messiah. It is not understood, by some scholars, whether this speech is contemporary with Josiah’s reform from 627/6 BCE or later (after 609 BCE). Although, it could have been given by God to Jeremiah in the sequence as we might expect.

The word Command is used of the covenant in Deuteronomy (Deut. 4:13; 6:17; etc.).

v. 3. 27:26;

v. 4. Deut. 4:20;

v. 5 Deut. 7:12-13;

v. 8 Deut. 29:19).

Iron furnace Deut. 4:20; 1Kgs. 8:51; Isa. 48:10. Note that intercession for the apostate people is useless (14:11-12), as are their apostate rituals.

v. 16 The incineration of the green olive trees in the Temple area is symbolic of Judah’s destruction and ultimately all of Israel and the nations in preparation for the Millennium (Ps. 52:8).


11:18-12:6 Jeremiah’s First Personal Lament re: the plot against his life (11:18-19; 12:6; 11:20; 12:3b). In this order the lament is the first of Jeremiah’s six personal laments. The others are in 15:10-21; 17:14-18; 18:18-23; 20:7-13; 20:14-18. He learns that he is the object of an assassination plot and prays to the One True God for protection (17:10; Ps. 26).

11:21-23 His significant exposure of the false prophets and priests, and those associated with them is probably the origin of the threat. In his prophecies (5:12; 18:21; 19:15; 23:12) their end is foretold.

Intent of Chapter 12

12:1-4 In this text Jeremiah questions the traditional view that the wicked always suffer and the righteous prosper. In Judah at this time the wicked, ostensibly faithful prosper (see also Job Ch. 21, Ps. 73). Jeremiah asserts his integrity (see Ps. 139:23-24) and God, in two proverbs, explains to Jeremiah that the present age is but a preparation for a more demanding future. God says: vv. 5-6 “If we cannot contend with footmen, how can we run with horses in time of trial? If in a safe land we fall down how will we do in the jungles of the Jordan” (see 49:19).

The elect in comparative safety do little. We must learn to run with horses when the Jordan is in flood. The maxim of the soldier is, as you train so you fight. The Warning of the Last Days (No. 044). Keeping the Law is but a qualification test, over the 3400 years, from Moses to Messiah, of obedience to God for the “out resurrection” of Phil. 3:11; cf. Rev. 20 (see #143A).

12:7-13 God’s Lament; In this text, God laments the destruction of His people by the many shepherds (v. 10). He has forsaken His house and abandoned His heritage because it has lifted up its voice against Him. Therefore the nations are summoned as wild beasts against them. His people have sown wheat and harvested thorns and are to be ashamed of their harvests because of the fierce anger of the Lord.

12:14-17 They were corrupted by Baal worship and so were the nations around Israel who taught Israel to swear by Baal instead of the One True God Eloah, as Ha Elohim. To this day Israel and the nations are corrupted by the Sun and Mystery Cults and the paganised worship of the sun god and his consort, the goddess Easter (No. 235). The people will be destroyed and then restored after the Sun and Mystery cults are removed and eradicated completely for the Millennial Sabbath system under the Messiah. 


Intent of Chapter 13

13:1-11 Jeremiah and the Waistcloth God commanded Jeremiah to go and buy a linen waistcloth and place it on his loins and walk to the Euphrates (400 miles) and bury it on the river bank (v. 7). (The symbolism is in v. 11; cf. Ex. 19:6; Lev. 16:4.) The purpose was to show Israel (and Judah) the folly and corruption flowing from the pro-Babylonian policies of Jehoiakim (2:18). What was to follow was the all encompassing religious syncretism in Judah (2Kgs. 24:1-7) with their religious system and the Babylonian intercalations and False Calendar (see #195; 195C). The Babylonian traditions which were to result in the later adoption of the Hillel Calendar (ca. 344-358 CE) were to see Judah sent into the dispersion (from 70 CE) under the Sign of Jonah... (No. 013) and ultimately face the Holocaust (1941-45 and again in 2021-25). So also continuous Baal worship in Israel spread over the world and the nations on Sundays, Christmas and Easter with the crucifixion of the god Attis (Adonis among the Greeks), on Friday and Sunday and of the mother goddess Easter, consort of Baal (Lord) the Sun God and the baking of Cakes to Dumuzi (now hot cross buns) (see #235; 222) will see their destruction (see also No. 013B). There were also other illustrations of such requirements of the prophets (Isa. 20:1-6; Ezek. 4:1-17).

13:12-14 Allegory of the Wine Jar

The text uses a proverb (v. 12a) and drunkenness (v. 13; comp. 25:15-16; Ezek. 23:31) to illustrate God’s Judgment.

13:15-17 Judah’s last opportunity for repentance. Her captivity is imminent (v. 17).

13:18-19 They did not listen and Exile was to follow the Babylonian occupation of Jerusalem of 597 BCE and the First Deportation. There were three deportations for Judah here under the Babylonians. These were in the seventh, eighteenth, and twenty-third years of Nebuchadnezzar (Jer. 52:28). He had also taken some noble's sons hostage in 605 BCE, perhaps even before Carchemish (see Daniel (F027, i, ii).

13:20-27 Jerusalem’s Shame The text uses a common biblical simile of the ravishing of a woman (Isa. 47:2). Here Judah is the wanton harlot lifting her skirts and she suffers violence from those she has taught to be her “friends”. Jerusalem is raped by Babylon (vv. 22,26).

v. 20 North see also 1:1-14 n.; 4:6. Her shamelessness is the direct cause of her shame.

v. 23 Judah is unable to repent and change her ways (Hos. 5:4; Jn. 8:34 (F043ii); comp. 3:22).

13:26-27 Jerusalem is exposed as a wanton harlot and despite being sent into captivity on three occasions to Babylon she did not repent and despite being returned to enable the Mission of the Messiah as described in prophecy in 27-30 CE, after 70 CE she had to be sent in to dispersion permanently until the Messiah returns for the Millennium, and purges both Israel and Judah of this idolatrous conduct.


Intent of Chapter 14

14:1-16 Lament over Drought

14:1-10 Jeremiah describes the nation’s plight both in city and country and calls upon the Lord to save them because they are called by His name.

vv. 7-9  Prostrate in obeisance the people implore God not to leave them, but to save them.

v. 10 God says He will punish their iniquity and punish their sins.

vv. 11-12  God tells Jeremiah not to pray for this people. He will not accept their sacrifices but will pursue them by the sword, by famine and by pestilence (7:16). So will it be in the last days from 70 CE right to the Coming of the Messiah for both Israel and Judah (F066iii, iv, v).

7:13-16 In this place (in the Temple). Jeremiah attempts to plead for the people and their heedless reliance on the false prophets. It is rejected. The people have not obeyed God and the Law and will be punished.

14:17-15:4  Further Lament

14:17-18 God directs Jeremiah to speak to the people and directly blame the tears and anguish and death by the sword and pestilence and famine as the results of the false teachings of the prophets and priests.

14:19-22 Jeremiah acknowledges their wickedness and begs God not to spurn them for His own name’s sake, and not to break His Covenant with them. None of the false gods can bring rain and they have set their hope on God.


Intent of Chapter 15

15:1-4 God is set against the nation. He says that even if Moses (Ex. 32:11-14; Num. 14:13-19) and Samuel (1Sam. 12:17-18) were to stand before Him He would not spare them from destruction (17:16-17). This is one of four references to Moses in prophetic literature (see also Mic. 6:4; Isa. 63:11; Mal. 4:4);

Manasseh 2Kgs. ch. 21.

15:5-9 Jerusalem’s End

This passage is considered to be post 597 BCE. It is nevertheless the theme of punishment by war here and covers the entire period of 2611 years.

v. 6 Weary of relenting Comp. Amos 7:1-9.

v. 7 Winnowed them - as in grain (see Isa. 21:10; 27:12; Mat. 3:12; Lk. 3:17),

v. 9 she who bore seven - a sign of favour (Ru. 4:15; 1Sam. 3:5). Jerusalem will be bereaved (comp. Hos. 9:12).

15:10-21 Jeremiah’s Second Personal Lament

(see 11:18-12:6  n.)

15:10-18  v. 10 Jeremiah  bewails he is cursed by all with their continued rejection of the word of God (v. 16: Ezek. 2:8-10; Jn. 4:32-34). 

Some consider vv. 13-14 are misplaced from 17:3-4;

v. 15 With thou knowest (Pss. 40:9; 139); Jeremiah prays for vengeance against his persecutors.

v. 17 The hand of God The symbol of divine direction or intervention, often a symbol of good (Isa. 8:11; Ezek. 3:14,22) is here a symbol of a burden.

15:19-21 God tells Jeremiah to do what Jeremiah tells them to do. If he turns to God wholeheartedly God will restore him. If he utters what is precious and not worthless he shall stand as God’s mouth (Ex. 4:16). God says He will make Jeremiah a wall of bronze to this people and they will fight against him but they will not prevail for God is with him to deliver him from the hand of the wicked and the grasp of the ruthless (see also 1:18-19).  Not all prophets were to be as blessed (see 122C).


Intent of Chapter 16

16:1-13 Jeremiah’s Life as a Symbol

(see Hos. 1:2-9; Isa 8:3-4).

16:1-9 This text is also an illustration of 15:17 above.

vv. 1-4 God instructed him not to take a wife or have children there in Judah because the ones born there, and their parents, will have deadly diseases. They shall not be buried but were to lie on the surface of the ground. This punishment was to continue over the multiple sieges to 70 CE and again in the last days. That will cease under Messiah after Armageddon and the Vials of the Wrath of God (see ##141E; 141E_2). Thus Jeremiah relinquished hope for a home and family as a sign of the judgment (Ezek. 24:15-27 (F026vi); 1Cor. 7:25-40 (F046ii),

vv. 5-7  God has taken away His peace from this people.

vv. 8-9 (25:10) No one is to mourn for the dead or employ the pagan systems (cut himself 41:5; make himself bald Am. 8:10; Isa. 22:12 comp. Deut. 14:1). They are futile. There will be no rejoicing or marriages.

v. 10 The people will then ask Jeremiah what sin have they committed.

vv. 11-13 God told Jeremiah to say to them that it was because they had gone after other gods and served and worshipped them and have forsaken me and not kept my law. It is the same to this day and they refuse point blank all over the world to keep God’s Law and His calendar (No. 156).

Service of other gods is a punishment together with the desolation and hardship that it causes. Because God had made them His people, when He did not fight for them they became prey to the demons and the nations under their control and no one cared for Israel (Jer. 30:17).

God sent Israel into captivity and dispersed them among the nations because of the breach of the covenant (Lev. 26:33; Deut. 29:25-28; Jer. 7:15,34; 8:3; 13:24; 16:11-13; 18:17; 22:28; 27:10; Ezek. 12:14-15). “The Covenant of God (No. 152)

For that reason they will die in the millions until they repent under the Messiah. Every priest and minister that teaches a false calendar and that the law is done away will die and not enter the millennial system under Messiah.


Intent of Chapter 17

17:1-4 Judah's Sin

Again we see Judah condemned for blatant idolatry. 

v. 1 pen of iron a diamond tipped stylus (Job 19:24; re the text that the elohim is Job's redeemer whom he will see at the resurrection).

Horns of the altar Ex. 29:12.

Here Judah stands condemned once again for child sacrifice and for the Asherim beside every green tree and the heights of the hills and mountains of Israel. God says that He will give her wealth and treasures as spoil due to her sins. They are to be sent into captivity in a foreign land to serve other people. They simply will not learn as we see from all the latter prophets and the Messiah and the apostles to this very day.

It is important to note that these verses 1-4 are missing from the LXX and have been added to the MT some time after the fall of the Temple in 70 CE and perhaps much later.


17:5-11 See Prov. 5-8 re wisdom and the law of God and Psalm 1. The law abiding and God fearing are fruitful and well watered trees (Ps. 1:3; Prov. 3:18). The godless is as a fruitless desert.

 17:9-10 Only God can understand man and his heart properly; better than man himself (see Rom. 7:18-19). Thus only God can justly judge man (1Sam. 16:7; Ps. 62:12) even though He has given that task to Messiah as elohim, God also directs through the Holy Spirit in the matter (see #080; 143B; F066v).

v. 11 A proverb thought to refer to Jehoiakim (22:13; 2Kgs. 23:35) (see OARSV n.).

17:12-13 Throne The Ark in the Temple (Isa. 6:1);

Written in the earth assigned to sheol; the grave (Isa. 4:3); Fountain (see 2:13). 

17:14-18  Jeremiah's Third Personal Lament

(see 11:18-12:6 n.); Suffering stress because of the taunts of his foes, Jeremiah prays for healing (see Ps. 6:2-3). The false prophets are challenging him as to when the disaster will befall them (v. 15). Jeremiah has not prayed for disaster upon them but he asked that those who persecute him are put to shame. They do not really understand the far reaching nature of these prophecies of all the Latter Prophets. Jeremiah asks that those who rebuke him are given a double dose of the disaster. So also will it be in the last days.

17:19-27  Judah and the Sabbath

We see that Judah is breaching the Sabbath by various means and its leaders and Kings are also condoning it (see also 16:11). This is an expansion of the oracle in violation of the Sabbath (see Ex 23:12; Neh. 13:15-22; comp. Mat. 12:1-8). If they honour the Sabbaths correctly then they will prosper and live. They did not do so and in fact transferred the Sabbath worship to the day of the Sun, or Sunday, throughout the world in Baal Worship, for which they will face the Messiah.


Intent of Chapter 18

18:1-12 The Allegory of the Potter

Jeremiah went down to the Potter’s house (i.e. to the South) and the potter had spoiled the mould and then remade it. Thus God makes His people (Rom. 9:20-24). God makes them to enable the body to be used for evil or for good.

(See the Problem of Evil (No. 118).) If they sin and repent God will restore them under His Covenant.

18:13-17 Poetic Commentary on v. 12. However, both Israel and Judah refused to repent. Judah continued in this folly (2:10,32). God is angry with Israel and their idolatry. He will ignore them (2:27-28) and God will scatter them before the enemy, as before the East Wind (4:11; 13:24; 23:19) and turn His back to them in the days of their calamity. They have faced tragedy over the entire 2650 years and still they do not repent even before the Messiah in 27-30 CE and they killed him, the Apostles and the elect as ruthlessly as they did the prophets (see 122C; F044vii).

Sirion, Mt Hermon, Mountain Waters Either from the Anti-Lebanon mountains or from Mt. Hermon itself, as the Pharpar and Abanah rivers, the sources of the Jordan.

18:18-23  Jeremiah's Fourth Personal Lament

see 11:18-12:6 n.). The false prophets and priests and their followers, due to his attacks (2:8; 8:8), made plots against him. Jeremiah merely did what he was instructed and thus turned to God for vindication and the total destruction of his enemies and their families. Note in v. 18 they were defending both the priests’ interpretation of the law, the counsel of the scribes and the words of the false prophets he denounced; and they intended to use slander and to ignore him. Such are the tools of the corrupt religious authorities over the ages.


Intent of Chapter 19

19:1-20:6 The Public Persecution of Jeremiah.

19:1-2 Jeremiah is told by God to go and buy a potter's flask and go to the potsherd gate (later called the Dung Gate (in Neh. 2:13) taking with him some reliable elders and priests.

19:3-9  Jeremiah is told to condemn the leaders and the people for forsaking the Lord God and worshipping idols and offering their children to Baal (7:30-32). Using a play on the Hebrew words for flask and make void, God pronounces the horrible fate of Judah and Jerusalem and they are to be made to resort to cannibalism and fall by the sword. The Valley of the Son of Hinnom will become the Valley of Slaughter. Jeremiah then went to the court of the Lord's House and told the people that God was to bring upon Jerusalem and all the towns in Judah all the evil that He has pronounced against it because the people would not repent.

19:10-15 The idol worshipping city like the flask will be smashed beyond repair and death will hover over it as over Topheth (see 7:31 n.). Host of heaven 8:2; 2Kgs. 21:3-5.

God has said they refuse to repent in Israel and Judah (see The Sign of Jonah … (No. 013)) and in all the nations right up until the coming of the Messiah and through the Vials of the Wrath of God (see #141E ; F066iv). In the USA in 2023, the Satanists have reportedly announced their right to sacrifice children as part of their religion in Abortion and Infanticide (see 259B). This was just as they did here in Judah resulting in the dispersion in 597 BCE and in 70 CE under the Romans (see War with Rome and the Fall of the Temple (No. 298)). God will now bring death and destruction upon the whole world and save only the Holy Seed (Isa. 6:9-13; Am. 9:1-15).


Intent of Chapter 20

20:1-6 Pashhur, the chief officer of the temple police, seized Jeremiah and publicly beat him and put him in stocks in the upper Benjamin Gate at the Temple. Jeremiah was released the next morning and he said to Pashhur that Terror (6:25; Ps. 31:13) will be his name and lot for he and his family will suffer the same fate as the doomed city (25:8-11).

20:7-13; 14-18 Jeremiah's Fifth and Sixth Personal Laments

(See 11:18-12:6 n.)

20:7-9 Jeremiah, almost blasphemously, accuses God of deceiving him. The word of the Lord has become a derision almost permanently. He cannot be silent even when his accusers seek his hurt (see Am. 3:8; 1Cor. 9:16).

20:10-13 His family and friends seek to denounce him. However he understands that God is with him as a “dread warrior” to protect him and his persecutors will then stumble. He uses excerpts from liturgical hymns (Pss. 6:9-10; 31:13; 109:30; 140:12-13).

20:14-18 In this section Jeremiah curses not God but his own existence (15:10; Job Ch. 3). Here we see the frustration and agony of God's prophet as he was, as were all, confronted by the godlessness of his day.


Intent of Chapter 21

21:1-24:10 Oracles from the Time of Zedekiah

21:1-10 Oracles Against Zedekiah and Jerusalem

21:1-7 This is not the same event as in 37:1-10 as the delegation is different. (v. 1 comp. 37:3) as the Chaldeans here have not yet withdrawn from the city (comp. 37:5). The two accounts have much in common (comp. 4,5 and 37:10) and Pashhur the son of Malchiah, appears also in Ch. 38. Zephaniah the priest was later executed by Nebuchadrezzar at Riblah (52:24-27).

v. 5a  Deut. 4:34; 5:15

v. 5b Deut. 29:28

21:8-10 God has determined to destroy Jerusalem and its inhabitants who resist, and their only possibility for life is to surrender (see also 38:17ff.).

21:11-23:8; Oracles Concerning the Royal House

21:11-22:9 The General Oracle

21:11-14 The role of the king is to administer justice (1Kgs. 3:9; Ps. 72:1-4). God punishes him if he sins and does evil to others in that role. God is warning the House of David because they have failed to do justice early and deliver from the hands of the oppressor those who have been robbed (vv. 11-12).

vv. 13-14 This text is a direct condemnation of the devotees of the Queen of Heaven and her priestesses of the Baal system that has the Asherah in the forests and the menhirs of the rocks who say that God will not punish them. This influence has entered the rulership and administration. God says that He will punish them according to the fruit of their doings. God will kindle a fire in her forests and devour all that is round about her and her effigies. Some scholars incorrectly confine this reference to forests to 1Kgs. 7:2 and the House of the Forest at Jerusalem built by Solomon. It is far more widespread as we see below.


Intent of Chapter 22

22:1-5  God then sends Jeremiah to the King and says (v. 3) he is to do that which he said in 21:12. He is to do justice and righteousness and deliver, from the hand of the oppressor, him who has been robbed. The text also says that they are to do no wrong or violence to the alien, the fatherless, the widow, nor shed innocent blood. This ties it back to the rituals of sacrifice of 21:13-14. If the people repent, then their dynasty or house will be preserved. These pagan rituals continue on to the Last Days and will be stamped out by Messiah (see # 259; 259B). Those involved will be destroyed.

22:6-7 It is this text that ties the destruction in Jerusalem to the House of the Forest of Lebanon which was made from the cedars provided to Solomon (1Kgs. 7:2). This construction was also to be destroyed (with axes and saws) and then by fire, by the Chaldeans under Nebuchadrezzar but acting as God's Agent.

22:8-9 This text ties the destruction to Jerusalem in its entirety, and not just the palace, as being due to the worship of pagan gods of the Baal system which is present even to this day in Jerusalem not only in Judah but among the Sun and Mystery Cults of Baal and the Triune God among the pseudo Christian idol worship all over Jerusalem.  (#235). They will all be removed and destroyed by Messiah and the Host (see also 5:19; Deut. 29:23-28; 1Kgs. 9:8-9).


22:10-30 Oracles concerning Jehoahaz, Jehoiakim and Jehoiachin, kings of Judah

10-12 God says here that the dead (Josiah) was better than Shallum (personal name of Jehoahaz) (1Chron. 3:15). He was banished to Egypt ca 609 BCE by Neco (2Kgs. 23:33-34; 2Chron. 36:1-4; Ezek. 19:4).

22:13-19 This text shows Jeremiah censure Jehoiakim for expanding his house after Egyptian styles (v. 14) and by injustice in gains. A king was made by his just administration and not the size and splendour of a house, built with ill-gotten gains (21:11-12; Mic. 3:9-10).

Jeremiah tells him to emulate his father Josiah, whose death was mourned. His own death will be accompanied by indignities because of his misdeeds (36:30; 2Kgs. 24:1-5).

22:20-30  In this text God says that the people will lament over the desertion of Jerusalem by her gods (lovers 3:1-2) and the exile of her leaders (shepherds 23:1) and the terror of her king (inhabitant of Lebanon (the house of the Forest of 1Kgs. 7:2). The pagan gods were supported by the king and they were widespread over the valleys and the forests and stones (21:13-14).

22:24-30 The fate of Jehoiakin (Coniah) son of  Jehoiakim and his mother (13:8) is to be removed from authority (hence signet ring (v. 24) see Hag. 2:23) and a broken pot. We then see the final and threefold oracle (vv. 29-30; Isa. 6:3; Ezek. 21:27) concerning Coniah and that none of his descendants shall rule Judah. This was overcome in Messiah in that he was not a descendant of Coniah through Joseph but of David through Nathan and Levi through Shimei (Zech. 12:12-13; Lk 3:23-38 (F042)).


Re. 22:14-30 “Another major point of Matthew’s genealogy (Mat. 1:1-17) is that he is selective in naming only the direct lineage. Solomon is also mentioned because the kingship rested in him. He built the Temple. However, he also lapsed into idolatry and his line is then listed to Jeconiah, who was one of the last kings before the Babylonian captivity. The lineage of Joseph is then traced from Jeconiah to Joseph. Thus Joseph is a descendant of David, but through Jeconiah. This has great significance.” (See God's Prophecy in 22:29-30 above.)

Genealogy of Messiah (No. 119)


Intent of Chapter 23

23:1-8 A Messianic Oracle

God rebukes the shepherds of Israel who destroy and scatter the sheep of His pasture (see also 22:22; Ezek. Ch. 34 (F026ix)). God says He will deal with them for their evil doings (vv. 1-2). He says that He will gather the remnant from all the lands in which they were scattered and driven and He will bring them back to their land and they will be fruitful and multiply (v. 3). He will set shepherds over them and they will fear no more, nor be dismayed, nor will any be missing (v. 4).


“Messiah had to be the seed of the root of Jesse, the father of David. Messiah is of David’s line from Jeremiah 23:5-8.

vv. 5-8 This text confounds modern Christianity because it shows absolutely that Messiah [the Branch (see also Isa. 11:1; Zech. 3:8)], shall rule on earth and that there will be a second exodus, which establishes Israel under the Law and the Testimony within the Calendar [see also 30:9; Isa. 65:17-66:24; Zech. 14:16-21 (F038)]. Many accept that the modern founding of the State of Israel by Jews [who include converts to Judaism from the Mixed Multitude Egyptians (Hg. E3b and Hittites (Hg. R1B); Canaanites (Hg. E3b) Edomites and Arabs (Hg J), Khazzars (R1a) and from the Phoenicians E1a and E3b] out of the lands of the north in this fulfilment. We wait for its fulfilment in the upcoming dispersal of Israel, the so-called “lost ten tribes” who are among the nations presently located in North-West Europe [and the US and BC]. They, the holders of the birthright promises, will re-join Judah (Ezek. 37:15-22). They had been separated (1Kgs. 11:11-13) because of the breach in the Covenant (vv. 30-34). This re-union is in fulfilment of God’s promise to Abraham (Ex. 32:13).”


Messiah will rule responsibly before God (Isa. 9:2-7); this will be the Millennial Kingdom as foretold in 16:14-15 and see also Revelation Chs. 20-22 (F066v).


23:9-40 Oracles concerning the prophets

23:9-12 Jeremiah is distressed by the word of God and he knows the immorality of the priests and prophets, who are the supposed guardians of Israel's faith (v. 12). By their own sins the prophets will be destroyed.

23:13-15 Israel in Samaria saw the prophets prophesy by Baal and lead them astray under the Mystery and Sun Cults, which God held to be an unsavoury thing; but in Jerusalem they commit adultery and walk in lies. They strengthen the hand of evil doers so that no one turns from his wickedness and they have become like Sodom and its inhabitants like Gomorrah. God will feed them with wormwood and give them poisoned water to drink for the prophets in Jerusalem ungodliness has spread throughout all the land.

23:16-22 Jeremiah then turns from their deeds and conveys the word of God to them.

He rebukes them for their assurances of well- being to those who refuse to obey God's Laws (L1). Obviously they cannot be God's emissaries or His spokesmen. In 1Kgs. 22:19-23 we see in the Celestial Council of God a lying spirit emerge and agree to deceive the king. This being later emerged as Satan (comp. Zech, 3:1-2; Job. Chs. 1-2); (see also Isa. 6:1-7; 40:1-2).


23:23-32 God's Omnipresence

God's Omnipresence makes Him aware of all the  false revelations and also the false claims of divine revelations through dreams (27:9; 29:8; Deut. 13:3; comp. 2:8b).

vv. 26-27

“God allowed Israel to be given up to be profaned because they had profaned His name (Ezek. 7:21-22; 20:21-26; 24:21). The lack of knowledge caused by profanation is compounded by the ignorance of the people. Israel is destroyed for lack of knowledge (Hos. 4:6) and they are no longer God’s people in that state of sin (Hos. 1:9).


The honour of bearing the name of God was also removed and the nation became lost. Judah was also not allowed to bear the name. Israel profaned the name and hence forgot it (Isa. 17:10; 51:13; Jer. 2:32; 3:21; 13:25; 18:15; 23:27; Ezek. 23:35; Mal. 1:6-8).”

The Covenant of God (No. 152)

v. 28 if one has a dream, tell it faithfully.

v. 29 The Living Word of God is as devastating as fire (5:14) and is as shattering as a hammer. God is against those who steal His words from the mouth of one another (v. 30). See the threefold emphasis in 30, 31, 32, Jeremiah proclaims God's Condemnation of their false teaching and proclamation.

v. 33 Some consider this bitter irony using a play on words.

23:34-40 This text is considered by some scholars as a later commentary on v. 33. It is considered as “Non-Jeremianic” (see OARSV n.). This is an important restriction and should be read and understood in its own right and discarded at one's peril.          


Intent of Chapter 24

24:1-10  Vision of the Basket of Figs

24:1-7 The timing is after Jerusalem had been taken into captivity at God's Direction by Nebuchadrezzar (here as God's agent Nebuchadnezzar). This group was Jeconiah and the princes, craftsmen and smiths and the people associated with that deportation (see chapter 1 note). They had been sent into Exile at God's direction. In 597 BCE we saw the fall of Jerusalem and the bad figs appropriated the property of the good figs who were considered the object of God's wrath (29:15-19; Ezek. 11:14-15). God directs that the exiles are to be returned (29:10-14) and they are to become a faithful nation. They were to be returned and given a new heart to be a faithful people

v. 7 “Thus Israel is cleansed from sin and given a new heart and a new mind that will obey His Laws (L1) and be faithful to Him and His covenant (Deut. 30:6; Ps. 147:2-3; Jer. 24:7; 32:40; 50:20; Ezek. 36:24-28; Hos. 14:4).

Part of this cleansing is the removal of the systems of the demons as it was established among the nations (Ezek. 34:29; 36:13-15, 21-23).” The Covenant of God (No. 152)


24:8-10 The bad figs

The bad figs represented Zedekiah and those in Egypt who refused to accept God's chastisement and had expropriated the property of the captives. God had vowed to restore the exiles, but those with Zedekiah in Egypt were to be punished and removed from the Promised Land. Judah sinned again and refused to accept Messiah and the Church of God from 27-30 CE and the Establishment of the Seventy in the Church (Lk. 10:1,17) (see #122D). They were sent into captivity in accordance with the prophecy of Daniel F027ix re the Seventy weeks of years and the Sign of Jonah and the History of the Reconstruction of the Temple (No. 013). Judah was added to by “converts” such as Edomites (166-130 BCE); Hg. E1a Phoenicians under Herod's Rule, and R1a Khazzars ca 630 CE and Hg. J Arabs post 70 CE.


Intent of Chapter 25

Babylon as God's Instrument of Punishment.

25:1-3 The message was given in the first year of Nebuchadrezzar (as God's Agent Nebuchadnezzar) which was the year of his joint reign with his father in 605 BCE from the Battle of Carchemish. It was from this time that Daniel was sent to Babylon with the other noble hostages for training in the Babylonian structure. This was the commencement of the time frame of the Babylonian Beast of Daniel chapter 2 (F027ii) to continue on to the Last Days and the Return of the Messiah (##282E; 141E; 141E_2; F066v). 


From this text we see that Jeremiah began preaching twenty three years previously, from the  Thirteenth year of Josiah son of Amon, king of Judah, in 628 BCE, and this text was written after the Battle of Carchemish in 605 BCE. His record of prophecies conclude in this year (36:1-4) and were handed to Baruch for transcription and to be read in the House of the Lord by Baruch (36:5 ff) as by this time Jeremiah had been banned from the Temple. How else would Judah treat one of the greatest prophets of God? They had already flogged him and put him in stocks and he still would not stop exposing them. After all they sawed Isaiah in half. They put Uriah the prophet to the sword as we will see. They also stoned Zedekiah. Why wouldn't they go on to kill Messiah and many of the Apostles and the church as Isaiah prophesied (see F044vii). Jeremiah's prophecies and those of the other prophets were never understood by Judah, the latter churches, or the modern academics. They were not simply concerned with the foes from the North under the Chaldeans. The Latter Prophets concerned all the disasters to the Return of the Messiah in the last days as foretold by Daniel and also Jeremiah and Isaiah (4:15-27; Dan. Ch. 12; Isa. Chs 65-66 (F027xii, xiii; F043).


“The message of Jeremiah is first to Jerusalem, to Judah and then to Israel generally. The message is again taken up (here) in Jeremiah. 

25:4-6. This message is repeated in Jer. 35:15. But the difference there is that there is a small remnant, the Rechabites, who followed the commandments of their father and of God. These were rewarded. This concept is also repeated in the sons of Zadok, who approximate the loyal minority of the elect in the Last Days [see Ezekiel F026x, xi, xii] This concept formed the basis of the Qumran community and the Dead Sea Scrolls.

The comment that the Lord has sent His prophets rising early does not mean that the Lord gets up early. It means that the Lord sends His servants with sufficient time to do the job for repentance. But they did not listen then (Jer. 25:7ff.) and they will not listen now (Isa. 26:15-18).

The message is repeated in Jeremiah 26:3-6.”

Warning of the Last Days (No. 044)

They thus have to be sent into captivity each time they sin until finally they are placed under Messiah and the Host because they learn nothing.

Judah is punished and ultimately the real destroyer, the Babylonian Beast of Daniel Ch. 2, is utterly destroyed by Messiah at the end of the Six Empires of the Beast (F027ii, xi, xii and xiii. None of this faithless generation will see the restoration after the seventy years (v. 12; comp. Num. 14:20-24).


25:15-38 The Cup of Wrath

25:15-29 The vision originally introduced the now separated section of oracles against the nations (see Chs 46-51; comp. 1:5). Each nation, due to its transgressions (Am. 1:3-3:2) must suffer God's wrath.

vv. 27-29 continues the Cup of God's Wrath given to Jeremiah in v. 16). The cup is a symbol of God's judgment and here it is equated with a sword (cf. v 29). It is placed by God in the hands of Jeremiah from the beginning   (8:14; Isa. 51:17; Ps. 11:6 (F024)).  

25:17-26 This text is important in that it specifies the nations throughout the world that God will bring to destruction over the period of the process that ends in v. 26 with the destruction of the Babylonian system in its entirety (from Daniel).

Jeremiah says the destruction begins at Jerusalem and Judah, from that day (vv. 17-18). Then to Egypt and all its people and the foreigners that dwell among them. All the kings of the land of Uz, and the Lands of the Philistines (Ashkelon, Gaza, Ekron, Ashdod); Edom, Moab and the sons of Ammon, the kings of Tyre and all the kings of Sidon. It includes the kings of the coastlands across the sea; Dedan, Tema, Buz, and all who cut the corners of their hair. (see Bullinger’s n. to v. 23). All the kings of Arabia and all the mixed tribes that dwell in the desert. All the kings of Zimri, Elam and all the kings of Media. God calls all the kings of the north; far and near. They are called one after another and all the kingdoms of the world which are on the face of the earth. And after them the king of Babylon shall drink. These are the last wars of the Last Days The entire Middle East and North Africa including the Medes and the Persians or Iranians (see ##294; 141C; 141D; 141E; 141E_2).  This sequence is taken up by Ezekiel as the The Prophecy of Pharaoh's Broken Arms in the sequence from 605 BCE to 525 BCE  (No. 036) (F026viii).  It then, combined with the prophecies in Daniel proceeded to the wars of the Last Days (No. 036_2). The final part of the wars is the final war of  Armageddon and the Vials of the Wrath of God (No. 141E). The last to be destroyed is the final Beast of Babylon of the Ten Toes (Dan, 2:41-44 with its religious system (#141F).

25:26 Babylon is written in the Hebrew text as Sheshach. The practice of cypher in which the letters are substituted in reverse order of the Hebrew Alphabet is called “atbash” (see 51:1, 41 n. OARSV n.)

25:30-31 The Judgment is described in traditional or conventional terms: eg. roaring

 (Am. 1:2; Ps. 46:6). vintage (Isa. 16:9-10; 63:1-3); courtroom  (12:1); sword (12:12).

25:32-33 The destruction of the distant foes (6:22) will be from one end of the earth to the other (heavy casualties 8:2; 16:4). Those slain by the Lord on that day shall not be lamented and shall be scattered as dung on the ground. This is in accord with God's Law as given in Numbers 35:33 where the earth can only be cleansed of the blood shed in it by the blood of those that shed it.

25:34-38  The rulers or shepherds as Lords of the Flock are confused and desperate. This confusion will continue and get worse right up to the Last Days (Deut. 28:28).

25:37-38: Messiah (the Lord) is despoiling the pastures of the Shepherds and finally will destroy the entire Babylonian system including in Judah and Israel and the religions of the Sun and Mystery Cults. None will be left alive, throughout the world (F066v).


The LXX in chapter 25 has only the first 13 verses of the text here in the MT and then the verses for the MT in 34-39 are in 49:34-39. As usual the Intent of the chapters is listed with the MT sequence. The MT text for verses 25:34-38 appears to be added here.


[Part 3: chps. 26-38]

Intent of Chapter 26

26:1-35:19 Events and Prophecies  Concerning the Restoration.

26:1-24 The Temple Sermon

26:1-6 Jeremiah was sent to the Temple at the beginning of the reign of Jehoiakim son of Josiah to address the people in the Court of the Lord's House. This was probably at the Feast of Tabernacles of 609 BCE. It is considered, by some scholars, that the text is Baruch's summation, and contains elements of Ch. 7 and other sayings of Jeremiah (4:1-2; 18:7-11; 36:3). vv. 3-6 “Shiloh (or Seilun) was where the Lord set His name at first (see Deut. 12:5,11 etc.; cf. 1Sam. 4:4) and which the Lord destroyed because of its wickedness (Jer. 7:12). The message here is to the elect also, in that if the Lord would not spare His house, what is the end of the nation itself? Note also the concept of being spared by repentance from early warning. This emphasises the importance of timely work by God's servants.

The Warning of the Last Days (No.044)

26:7-19 Jeremiah's arrest and release.

Jeremiah frequently criticised the Temple priests and prophets at the command of God (see 2:8; 5:30-31; 6:13-14). The priests and prophets both saw that they would suffer greatly from the Temple’s destruction. They arrested Jeremiah and the royal officials assembled to hear the case. It was Jeremiah's dignified defence that won his release, with the judges making their decision on the precedent set by Hezekiah (716-687 BCE), regarding the prophet Micah. 

New gate is perhaps the Benjamin gate to the north of the Temple (20:2; 2Kgs. 15:35. See also the Avenging of Innocent blood (Gen. 4:10; 2Sam. 21:1-14; 1Kgs. Ch. 2).

26:20-24 Martyrdom of Uriah

Some scholars think that Baruch added this story to illustrate Jeremiah's personal danger and fortunate official support (Ahikam 2Kgs. 22:12,14). As Egypt's vassal (2Kgs. 23:34-35), Jehoiakim had no difficulty arresting Uriah (Elnathan, 36:12, 25). Some scholars consider his execution was deemed to be unusual in the annals of Israelite prophetism (see 2Chron. 24:20-22; Matt. 23:29-31 see OARSV n.). Perhaps that might have been so until they sawed Isaiah in half and then went on killing Uriah, Zechariah, and the other prophets to John and the Messiah and then the apostles and the church (#122C) F044vii.  There is nothing unusual for Israel and Judah in killing the prophets of God, and they will face them in the Millennium after the  First Resurrection (No. 143A), under Messiah, when they will keep God's Laws or die.


The text of Chapter 26 of the LXX is actually in the MT of Chapter 46. Ch 26:13 regarding the coming of Nebuchadrezzar is at 46:13. The texts do not significantly differ in contexts.


Intent of Chapter 27

27:1-28:17 Yoke of the King of Babylon

27:1-11 God placed Judah and her neighbours under the yoke of the king of Babylon because of their sin and refusal to keep His Law. And that has continued on right to the Last Days (21:1-10; 32:3-5). Thus their plans for rebellion were against God's will. The conspiracy was caused by a revolt in the Babylonian Army in December 595 - January 594 BCE and the ascension of Psammetichus II (594 BCE) in Egypt. Perhaps responding to Jeremiah's warning, Zedekiah did not carry out the rebellion and so Judah was spared during Nebuchadrezzar's campaign in punishment later that year. The form as God's Agent “Nebuchadnezzar” appears in Jer. Chs. 27-29; whereas elsewhere Nebuchadrezzar appears. The Babylonian form is Nabu-kudurru-ussur.

27:12-15 Jeremiah repeats his warning to Zedekiah, as God has not sent the prophets who are advising Zedekiah (14:14), and they are unreliable.

27:16-22 Here Jeremiah cautions the priests and the people against believing the baseless assurances of these prophets not sent by God that the Temple booty taken in 597 BCE would be soon returned. Instead they should pray that what they still have will not be taken to Babylon (see Jer. 52:17; 2Kgs. 25:13).


The LXX text of Chapter 27 is in the MT of Chapter 50.

This text refers to the Last Days after the Restoration of Israel and the destruction of the Babylonian system outlined in Daniel Chapter 2 and the restoration under Messiah at Daniel Chapter 12 (F027xii, xiii).


Intent of Chapter 28

28:1-17 Jeremiah and Hananiah

In the fifth month (Jul/Aug) of the Fourth year, early in the reign of Zedekiah, Hananiah the son of Azzur, the prophet from Gibeon, spoke to Jeremiah in the presence of the priests and all the people saying “Thus saith the Lord of Hosts, the God of Israel: I have broken the yoke of the King of Babylon. Within two years I will bring back to to this place all the vessels of the Lord's House which Nebuchadnezzar King of Babylon took away from this place and carried to Babylon. I will also bring back to this place Jeconiah the son of Jehoiakim. King of Judah, and all the exiles from Judah who went to Babylon, saith the Lord, For I will break the yoke of the king of Babylon.”

This was false prophecy and Jeremiah initially said “Amen. May the Lord do so; may the Lord make the words which you have prophesied come true, and bring back to this place from Babylon, the vessels of the House of the Lord, and all the exiles.”

He then reminded Hananiah that the prophets that preceded them from ancient times had prophesied war, famine and pestilence against many countries and great kingdoms (v. 8), as for the prophet who prophecies peace, when then the word of that prophet comes to pass, then will it be known that the Lord has truly sent that prophet.

28:10-11 Not deterred by Jeremiah's gentle rebuke, after the open refutation of God's prophecy through Jeremiah, Hananiah took the yoke bars God commanded Jeremiah to make and carry to the Temple (27:2-7) and to give the message to the envoys of the Kings of Edom, Moab and the sons of Ammon, of Tyre and Sidon in front of Zedekiah king of Judah.

Jeremiah some time later received another directive from God. Hananiah was to be told that he had broken wooden bars but God would replace them with bars of iron; For thus says the Lord of Hosts, the God of Israel. I have put upon the neck of all these nations an iron yoke of servitude to Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, and they shall serve him for I have given to him even the beasts of the field.”

28:15-16 Jeremiah then pronounces the punishment for a false prophet that presumes to speak contrary to a prophet of God and one also

given the powers of Jeremiah. God had not sent Hananiah and he was told so and that he had made the people trust in a lie. That very same year he was to die because he had uttered rebellion against the Lord. Thus appointed prophets have a very narrow road to travel.

If they fail to do what God tells them they will, at the very least, be replaced, and probably killed.

If they are not sent and make pronouncements contrary to a prophet who is sent, they will be killed also. If anyone slanders or defames, or attempts to kill a living prophet of God on a mission they will also be killed as an example. Examples of the prohibition are common, as with Samuel in Israel (1Sam. 16:4-5), Elijah (2Kgs. 1:9-15); Elisha (2Kgs. 2:23-24) and also in the Last Days with the last prophets (Jer. 2:15-27) (F024) and Rev. 11:3ff (F066iii) and 19:17-20:6 (F066v). Elijah will be sent forward in time with Enoch and anyone trying to kill these prophets of the Last Days will be killed in the same manner (Mal 4:5).

Chapter 28 in the LXX is in the Later MT actually Ch. 51.


Intent of Chapter 29

29:1-32 Jeremiah's Letters to Babylon

29:1-23 Letters to the Exiles The exiles in Babylon were being misled by the same false assurances of  a speedy return as uttered by Hananiah in Jerusalem (Ch. 27). Jeremiah sent a letter by Elasah (perhaps the brother of Ahikam (26:24) and Gemariah (36:10) to the elders of the people. They had been warned of punishment by God (Ezek. 8:1; 14:1). His advice to them was the reverse of what they had been told by these false prophets. They were to even establish homes in Babylonia and assist in the welfare of the state. He said that God would be with them and ultimately restore them after the period, of seventy years (25:11; 27:7). The two colleagues of Hananiah, Ahab and Zedekiah (v. 21). were condemned by Jeremiah (see Ezek. Ch. 13). He predicted their execution, which the Babylonians saw as political subversion of the state, and not for the reasons in v. 23. “Jeremiah 29:18-19 also notes the concept of warning the nation. Note the fact that the punishments here are the same as the second, third and fourth seals of Revelation Ch. 6. Thus the end-time duality of application is also evident. The comments also appear in Jeremiah 44:4-5.” The Warning of the Last Days (No. 044)

We can read about God’s thoughts in Jeremiah 29:11;

vv. 21-23 might perhaps follow v. 15.

vv. 16-20 are sometimes considered an editorial comment on the letter.

29:24-32  Jeremiah and Shemaiah Another supporter of Hananiah, Shemaiah wrote a vitriolic letter to the new Temple Overseer (comp. 20:1). He charged Zephaniah with dereliction of duty in not arresting Jeremiah for his letter to Babylon here mentioned. Instead Zephaniah read the letter to Jeremiah. Thus Jeremiah sent another letter to the exiles condemning Shemaiah and stating that God has said He did not send him and that he lied to the people. As a result there would be none of His people that would live to see the good that God would do to his people; as Shemaiah had talked rebellion against the Lord. This is all in accord with the punishment of Hananiah in 28:12-17 and will carry on into the Last Days. Enoch and Elijah and the prophets of the Last Days will be opposed by these religious authorities and false prophets of the pseudo-Christians and other faiths. They will succeed in killing the Two Witnesses in the evening of the 1260th day. They will all be killed by Messiah and the Host (see Rev. Ch. 11 (F066iii) and 20 (F066v) and 141E.


It is important to note that Chapter 29 in the Modern MT has no relationship to the LXX which deals with a letter to the Philistines. The first part of the text appears in Chapter 47 over seven verses. However the seventh verse in Ch. 47 bears no relationship to the Seventh verse of the LXX here in 29. Ch. 48 of the MT goes on to deal with Moab rather than the Idumea of the LXX here in v. 7. The Jews rewrote the MT after the fall of the Temple and their relocation in Jamnia and well on after 220 CE.


29 Chapter:7-22 is relocated in the MT in Ch. 49:7-22. The comments of the texts are made in the Intent of the chapters of the MT as they occur in the RSV in the commentary here.


Intent of Chapter 30

30:1-31:40 The Book of Consolation

30:1-4  Initially collected by Baruch, most of the

Chs. 30-31 deal with the period 622-609 BCE (3:1-4:4).

30:5-9 Oracles concerning Israel

The text concerns the Day of the Lord and the Last Days (No. 192) and God's impending judgment (Am. 5:18-20). God will restore Israel, and Messiah and David (Zech. 12:7-8) will rule Israel from Jerusalem (23:5-6; Hos. 3:5).

30:10-11 Fear Not This is a common phrase in God's address to man (Gen. 15:1; Isa. 35:4;  Lk. 2:10).

Not make a full end; God says He will make full end of the Nations in which he scattered Israel but he will not make a full end of Jacob (this was the promise of Jeremiah 4:15-27 when God commissions the final prophetic voice (in Dan-Ephraim) of the Churches of God before the arrival of the Witnesses (see also 5:10,18; comp. 46:27-28). These nations north of the Araxes into which Israel was scattered in 722 BCE, by the Assyrians,  are to come to an end and they will retain their identity as part of the restored nation of Israel and dwell in the tents of Shem (Gen. 9:27)  (see 212E; 212F).

Although ostensibly incurably wounded (8:22; 14:17) and being deserted (4:30; 13:21) due to her unrepented sins, Israel will be healed (Hos. 14:4). Assyria will be despoiled (9:25-26; 25:13-14). But it will also be restored and come out of the north with Israel and be restored north of the Euphrates as part of a trading triumvirate with Israel and Egypt under Messiah (Isa. 11:16; 19:24).

30:18-22 The city refers to the rebuilding of the city of Jerusalem which will be left as an elevated plateau after the great earthquake of the Mount of Olives (Zech. 14:4 F038). The restoration is described in Ezekiel Chs. 40-48 (F026x, xi, xii; see also Rev. Ch. 21-22 (#300; F066v).

v. 21 Make him draw near refers to the danger of approaching God or the Elohim in their glorified state (Ex. 19:21; 33:20; Num. 8:19).

30:22 7:23; 11:4; 24:7

30:23-31:1  The Storm of the Lord

30:23-24 see 23:19-20


 The LXX has its chapter 30:1-16 as the text of 49:1-6 in the MT and 49:7-22 places 29:7-22 as its text. The text of 30:23-27 was relocated to MT Ch. 49:23-27.


The Text of Jeremiah was thus virtually rewritten by the post Temple Masoretes. They were thus scattered in the dispersion before they could do more damage to the Temple system and the Church who used the LXX as its Bible.


Intent of Chapter 31

31:1 Israel

This text emphasises the inclusiveness of the term “Israel” in embracing all the families that are within it and God will be their God (30:22). And they His People. This inclusiveness of the term Israel (meaning He shall rule as God) is to extend Salvation to the Gentiles under Messiah (see the Elect as Elohim (No. 001).

31:2-6 This text resembles the Exodus narrative (Found grace (favour); see Ex. 33:12-17 Comp. Jer. 23:7-8 and the covenant promises of ever lasting love and faithfulness. God here promises the joyful restoration of all Israel. The text includes the restoration of the pilgrimage to the Jerusalem Temple (see Zion: 41:5) (see also Zech. 14:16-21; Isa. 66:23-24) with compulsory participation and representation all over the world.

31:7-14 Homecoming God will assemble the dispersed in their own land in another exodus (Isa. 35:5-10; 65:17-66:24; Ps. 23:2-3).

Israel...Ephraim my first born (Ex. 4:22). As Ephraim is restored, so is all Israel, including Judah (2:3; 3:19);

v. 12 Praises to God shall be raised far and near; From the coast lands (Ps. 72:10-11; Isa. 41:1,5) and near in the promised land for deliverance (shepherd Isa. 40:11; redeem Isa. 48:20). This New Age will be marked by bountiful produce (Isa. 58:11).

31:15-22 Rachel She is the mother of Joseph and Benjamin (Gen. 30:22; 35:16-20; 1Sam. 10:2) laments their (the northern tribes) exile (Ramah 1Sam. 8:4). In Matt. 2:18 we see massive grief, but here we see the verse depict the joy of the restoration.

31:18 Ephraim, Joseph's son (Gen. 41:50-52) repents (3:22-25; Hos. 6:1-3). To prevent repeating his past errors he is admonished to set up the waymarks or guide posts leading to his punishment (as a warning).

31:22  A new thing comp. Isa. 43:19.

A woman protects a man, comp. Isa 11:6-9 for the reversal of the normal in the new age.

31:23-40 Restoration and the New Covenant

The following oracles are after 587 BCE.

31:23-30 As God depopulated Judah (1:10) He will also restore it (Ezek. 36:8-11) and reunite it with Israel (vv. 2-14; Isa. 11:11-16).

31:29-30 probably reflects the problem (Deut. 24:16) discussed in Ezekiel Ch. 18.

31:21-34 To oppose an increasingly limited view of the Sinai Covenant, here God gives warning of the coming era where Messiah was to come and qualify for mankind to be given the Holy Spirit (No. 117) and enable the Covenant to be written on the minds and hearts of all men (The Covenant of God (No. 152) and First and Second Statements of the Covenant (No. 096B) (see also 32:38-40; Heb. 8:8-12; 10:16-17).

v. 33 “These servants of God in the last days are sealed on their foreheads because they have the laws of God in their minds, and, by extension they keep these laws by their actions. These are they that were prophesied by Jeremiah.

The congregation of God in the end times are those of the renewed covenant. They are those within whom God has put His law. This was the purpose of the symbolism of the Ark of the Covenant. That Ark, which God had Moses and the people construct, was to point towards the elect. As Paul said the elect are the temple of God.” The Mark of the Beast (No. 025)

vv. 31-40 “God foretold the coming of the New Covenant through His servants the prophets. The coming of the Messiah and the restoration of Israel were foretold in Isaiah 11:1 to 12:6. The return from the exile is also foretold in Jeremiah 30:1-24. In the latter days the activity and purpose will be understood. The text refers both to Israel and Judah, and concerns the restoration under a New Covenant. Judah is converted to the elect at the end so that the elect and the city of Jerusalem do not exalt themselves against Judah (Zech. 12:7). The return to Israel on a permanent basis was foretold.


The New Covenant here shows a fundamental distinction between the first and the second statements of the covenants (No. 096B). The second statement of the covenant is written on the hearts and the minds of the people so that the law can be kept by the people without assistance and without fault. It does not eliminate the law; it merely perfects the application of it within the individual such that they are able to execute the will of God through His law. This capacity and asserted “New Covenant” involves Judah prior to the rebuilding of Jerusalem, which is the mark of the completion of the sequence. Thus the restoration of Israel will not be complete until the placement of Judah in and to the New Covenant.


The word for New Covenant in Jeremiah is chadash (SHD 2319) meaning fresh or a new thing, which is derived from chadash (SHD 2318) the prime root to be new meaning to cause to rebuild meaning to renew or repair. Thus God renews His covenant with the nation but renews or restores it so that it can be kept from the heart through the intervention of Messiah. The covenant is, however, still with Israel as we see. Modern teaching that the New Covenant does away with God’s law simply misapprehends the nature of the covenants and the activity of God. Those who diminish the law in the least form and teach men so are counted least in the Kingdom of God. (Mat 5:17-20)”

The Covenant of God (No. 152)

The Covenant is inscribed in the hearts of Men.

(17:1; Ezek. 11:19; Hos. 2:20)

31:35-37 God uses the fixed cycle of nature to emphasise the continued existence of Israel as an entity before Him (Isa. 44:24; 54:9-10).

31:38-40  This passage is thought to come after the period of Jeremiah and perhaps in the compilation of Baruch (some compare Zech. 14:10-11) describes Jerusalem's four corners: Northeast (Hananel Neh. 3:1); Northwest (Corner Gate 2Kgs. 14:13); Southeast and Southwest Gareb and Goah (both unidentified) and Southern (Hinnom 7:31-32) and the Eastern (Kidron 2Kgs. 23:4,6) boundaries. The Horse Gate is in the Southeastern Corner (Neh. 3:28).


Chapter 31 of the LXX is actually Chapter 48:1-44 of the post-Temple MT which has an additional three verses from 48:45-47.


Intent of Chapter 32

32:1-44  Jeremiah Purchases Land in Anathoth

32:1-5  For background see Ch. 37; (date 587 BCE). Some scholars think that chronologically the account should follow Chapter 37. Its placement here emphasises the validity of the preceding oracles concerning Judah's restoration.

32:6-15 This text is the most detailed account of a business transaction in the Bible (comp. Gen. 23:1-16). Jeremiah's cousin Hanamel offered to sell his land to Jeremiah, to prevent the loss of family property (Lev. 25:25-28). Seventeen shekels (approx. 7 ounces) refers to weight, not coins. The official copy of the deed was written on papyrus and rolled up and sealed. The open copy was for easy reference. Similar storage of deeds in earthen jars is known from Elephantine in Egypt. Baruch was Jeremiah's secretary or scribal house (Ch. 36).  Jeremiah's purchase illustrates His trust in God and his confidence in the future of Israel and Judah.

32:16-44 Some think that this section is editorial as an expansion of the preceding theme of the future of Judah. First is a formal prayer (vv. 16-25). The OARSV scholars n, think it may have been drawn from liturgical sources (Neh. 9:6-38), Jeremiah praises God's Omnipotence (10:10,16; 27:5), His Omniscience (17:10) and His Wondrous Deeds on Israel's behalf (11:5). Jeremiah then proceeds to question the wisdom of His purchase in view of the circumstances (vv. 24-25). God answers him in vv. 26-44 which summarizes Jeremiah's interpretation of the contemporary critical events. God produces a summary of Judah's Idolatry in offering oblations and offering to other gods on the rooftops (19:13); the comparative sinfulness of Israel and Judah (3:6-11); human sacrifice (7:30-32). Judah stubbornly ignored (and ignores) God's Warnings (17:21-23). Her destruction was imminent, i.e. by the sword, pestilence and famine (14:11-12; 21:7), as stated by God. The section concludes with God's assurance of restoration, firstly with reference to the Everlasting Covenant, that he has made with them, and will restore under Messiah, and in using the Holy Spirit. They will then be planted in the Holy Land in faithfulness.

32:42-44  God say that the land which is now a desolation will be restored and fields will be bought and sold in all the areas of Judah from the Negeb, in the south, to the hill country in the north.


Israel and Judah are rotten with idolatry and sin and lawlessness to this very day and we are about to see God act again and send Messiah and the Host to end this sinful system and establish the Millennium under the Messiah enforcing the Law of God.

The LXX omits the first 14 verses contained in the later MT. The text also does not contain the last verses of 39-44. These verses appear to be additions to the MT made after the dispersion ca 135 and probably after 220 CE after Emperor Severin returned the Temple scrolls.


Intent of Chapter 33

33:1-26 The Messiah as the Branch of the Line of David

33:1 Connecting the previous chapter, and when Jeremiah was shut up in the Court of the Guard. It continues the Book of Consolation but, most powerfully, prophesies the coming of the Messiah as the “Branch” (vv. 14-16),

v. 2 is the liturgical doxology (Am. 4:13; Is. 45:18),

v. 3 God promises that He will answer and reveal things not yet known.

33:4 In siege defense, houses abutting the walls were demolished to aid defense and troop movements (Isa. 22:10).

33:5-9  The Law of God (L1) has to be kept and incurs sin as debt and thus punishment. After punishment comes repentance and healing (3:22; 30:17), forgiveness, and then the city will be to God, peace and joy, and an example to the Nations  (13:11; Deut. 26:19).

33:10-11  The theme is that the silence of death (7:34) will be broken by the sounds of life (30:19) and the songs of praise (Ps. 136).

33:12-13 God says that shepherds will again find pasture in a once desolate land (31:12; Ezek. 20:37).

33:14-26 Is considered a commentary on 23:5-6, from the time of Haggai and Zechariah (ca 520 BCE. OARSV n. says “These verses are lacking in the Septuagint”: The reality is that the LXX is vastly different in all verses of 33 and others. See the Brenton translation of the LXX att. In fact the text of Jer. 33:20-24 in the LXX has the texts concerning the execution of Uriah the prophet under Jehoiakim that is contained in 26:20-24 in the MT (RSV and Soncino). Thus indicating a significant rewrite of Jeremiah by the Masoretes after the LXX was translated ca 160 BCE.

vv. 14-18 The text here refers to the righteous “Branch” who will spring forth for David. This is the Messiah and should not be confused with Davidic Rulers of 2Sam. 7:16; 1Kgs. 9:5). The Deuteronomic reference (Deut. 18:1-5) to Levitical priests is also followed up in Ezekiel regarding the function of the Zadokites in the reconstruction of the Temple under Messiah.

v. 16 The new name of Jerusalem is “The Lord is our Righteousness” (see also Isa. 1:26 n.)

vv. 20-21 “These verses show that the covenant with David and his seed, and also the Levites, could not be broken. Any conspiracy to do away with the House of David, such as we see from Isaiah 7:5-6, was prophesied to fail. The prophesied failure was to preserve the kingdom so that Scripture could not be broken. Messiah will return to take up that kingdom in accordance with Daniel 2:35, 44-45.”  (see F027ii)

Genealogy of Messiah (No. 119).

33:22 is considered a reinterpretation of Gen. 22:17-18

33:23-26 As night follows day (31:35-37; Gen. 1:5; 8:22). This was God's promise to the patriarchs (comp. Rom. 4:13) and to David and it will be kept.


The text of Ch. 33 in the LXX is found in the MT as Ch. 26 and follows the intent of the LXX translation of the early MT of 160 BCE.


Intent of Chapter 34

34:1-7 Warning to Zediekiah

“The Sabbath under Zedekiah (No. 195B)

God gave King Zedekiah a command to obey the Law and to release the slaves of Israel in the Sabbath year. The Sabbath year was in 589/8 BCE, the tenth year of his reign. He was told to release all the slaves in that year, and the wealthy families did release them but they took them back again. Thus God said He would send Nebuchadnezzar against Jerusalem and destroy it. The Sabbath year had already started when the release and the re-enslavement happened, and that was all before the siege was laid in the tenth year, 589/8 [Jan. 588 BCE]. Jeremiah chapter 34 is quite clear on that fact. [The text from 34:8-22 concerns the Manumission of Slaves and sins of the Jerusalemites. Most scholars are not aware of the Calendar dates and the effects of the Laws governing the Sabbath and they assume the orders was given by Zedekiah on the advance of the Egyptians which is incorrect (see OARSV n. ]

The siege lasted the remainder of the Sabbath and through the first year of the next cycle in 588 BCE, and ended with the fall of the city. So we see the Sabbath was in force, the Babylonians had withdrawn after besieging some of the cities of Judah, and God said He would cause them to return against Jerusalem - which He did that same year. The section in Jeremiah 34:17-22 is God’s sentence. They were restored but they again went back on His will and word. The sentence is still in force and is the direct cause of the tragedies and misfortunes that have occurred to Judah over the last two millennia, and these punishments will now be increased in full measure until backsliding Judah repents along with those that follow her errors and traditions.”

Distortion of God’s Calendar in Judah (No. 195B)

34:6 In the early part of the siege only Lachish (23 miles SW of Jerusalem) and Azekah (11miles north of Lachish) held out.

34:12-14 God declares through Jeremiah, the Law relating to the Sabbath Years and the Manumission of slaves at the end of the Sixth year for the freedom guaranteed under the law for the Sabbath and Jubilee years (see Ex. 21:2; Deut. 15:12).

They went back on their undertakings under the law (v. 18; Gen. 15:9-17; the transgressors suffer the same fate as the slaughtered animal) (see also the use of “Cut a covenant”(Lit.) (v. 8, 13, 15 etc.) (see 31:31 n.);  God condemned them all, through Jeremiah here; and Zechariah was to die at the hands of the king of Babylon which God would bring back to the city (v. 21-22).


The text of Ch. 34 in the LXX appears in Ch. 27 of the MT. Verses 13 and 21 of the MT are absent in the earlier LXX.


Intent of Chapter 35

The Rechabites were effectively a religious order similar to but not having endorsement under the law as did the Nazirites (Num. 6:1-21). They were founded by Jonadab son of Rechab, during the reign of Jehu (842-815 BCE). Considered by some as religious fanatics, they assisted Jehu in the slaughter following the revolt against Omri (2Kgs. 10:15-28). They considered that the sedentary and sophisticated life in Canaan jeopardised the purity of the worship of the Lord. As a result of these views they were shepherds and lived in tents and abstained from wine for symbolic adherence to the wish of their ancestor and not for religious reasons (see Wine in the Bible (No. 188)).


The reference to them here does not condone their views but merely shows the approbation of their faithfulness to their principles in comparison to Judah's faithlessness. The occasion was thought to be the crisis of 601 BCE (see 12:7-13 n.) (cf. OARSV n.)

Maaseiah is perhaps the father of Zephaniah (comp. 21:1).


Ch. 35 in the LXX is on Jeremiah 28:1-17 of the MT. It follows the LXX reasonably well.


Intent of Chapter 36

36:1-45 The trials and sufferings of Jeremiah

36:1-32 Jeremiah, Jehoiakim and the Scrolls

1-4 The Lord God commanded that Jeremiah reduce all the words of God concerning His prophecies and what He intended to do to Judah to a Scroll for record. Jeremiah then commissioned Baruch son of Neriah and brother of Seraiah (32:12; 51:59) of the Scribal House to take down all the words of the Lord that Jeremiah dictated to him. The Fourth year was 605 BCE which was the first year of Nebuchadrezzar's joint rule with his father (cf. also F027, i, ii).

5-10. Jeremiah had been barred from entering the Temple, as he was after all a prophet of God and Judah, and especially the Levites, did not wish to hear bad news regarding their sins, from the real messengers of God.  On the occasion of the fast proclaimed by Jehoiakim on the occasion of Nebuchadrezzar's advance against Ashkelon (ca Nov. 604 BCE when he had also proclaimed Daniel ruler of the province of Babylon (F027ii)); Jeremiah appointed Baruch to take the scroll and read it in the Temple in front of the Priests and rulers there in his stead. Shaphan was a friend of Jeremiah (26:24)

11-19 Baruch was asked to re-read the scroll in front of an assembly of royal officials. They were deeply impressed, but before they read it before Jehoiakim they advised Baruch and Jeremiah to go into hiding.

20-26  Jehoiakim ordered the scroll be brought from the court scribes office. Despite protests from some of his officials, he burned the scroll as it was read, three or four columns at a time. He was irritated by its contents and ordered the arrest of Jeremiah and Baruch. However, the Lord hid them (v. 26) Penknife was the knife used to sharpen the point of a scribe’s reed pens. 

27-32 Jeremiah used the destruction of the Scroll as a symbol (v. 29). Jeremiah then announced the

complete death and destruction of Jehoiakim (22:18-19; 2Kgs. 24:6-15) and then dictated an expanded copy of the scroll (probably contained in chs. 1-25 (see also OARSV n).


Ch. 36:1-32 of the LXX is covered in Chap. 29:1-32 of the MT. Verses 16-20 of the MT are absent in the LXX. This covers the prophecy of the condemnation of God which is an important addition to the later MT seemingly after 70 CE.


Intent of Chapter 37

37:1-38:28 Jeremiah, Zedekiah and the Siege.

37:1-2 Zedekiah was made king of Judah by Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon. However, neither he, nor his servants, nor the people of the land listened to the words of the Lord uttered through the mouth of Jeremiah the prophet.

37:3-10 Shortly after Zedekiah's accession (during the spring 588 BCE), the Eyptian Army under Pharaoh Hophra (Apries) came from Egypt to relieve besieged Jerusalem (34:21). The Chaldeans were forced to retire. The inhabitants thus concluded a deliverance similar to that of the days of Hezekaiah (2Kgs. 19:32-37) was under way. Zedekiah sent Jehucal and Zephaniah the priest (later to be killed by the Chaldeans) to enquire of Jeremiah, ostensibly requesting prayer.  Jeremiah had not as yet been put in prison. God told Jeremiah to say to Zedekiah that Pharaoh's force would return to Egypt. God told them, through Jeremiah, that the Chaldeans would return, and they would sack and burn the city (vv. 6-10).

37:11-15 Jeremiah left the city by the Benjamin Gate (20:2). Jeremiah was arrested on suspicion of desertion (38:18-19). Perhaps that was based on the declaration of 21:1-14. The princes were enraged with Jeremiah and had him beaten and imprisoned in the house of Jonathan the secretary which had been made a prison.

37:12 To receive his portion seems to be the completion of 32:6-15.

37:16-21 In a secret interview Zedekiah asked for reassurance over his ill advised revolt but to no avail (21:2). Jeremiah's imprisonment was modified to arrest in the court of the guard with a minimum food ration while supplies lasted (v. 21).


The LXX for Chapter 37 is missing vv. 10-11. The text for Chapter 37 is found in the RSV at Ch. 30 as in the later altered MT as seen in the RSV.


Intent of Chapter 38

38:1-13 Jeremiah was trying to save the lives of his people in Jerusalem. He was telling them what God had instructed but the king and his servants, the pro-Egyptian counsellors, would not listen. These were Gedaliah son of Pashhur (20:1), Jucal or Jehucal (37:3), Pashhur (21:1). They persuaded the undecided Zedekiah that Jeremiah was subverting the war effort (There is a report of similar terminology or phraseology in a letter written eighteen months earlier found in the excavations at Lachish see OARSV n.).

38:6 The term the cistern was nearly dry indicates a time shortly before the Chaldeans final assault over August/September 587 (52:5-7; #250B). Based on the comments of Jeremiah relaying the Word of God (v. 2) the princes demanded that Jeremiah be put to death. Zedekiah was weak and let them do as they wanted to, so they took him and put him in the cistern of Malchiah the king’s son, in the court of the guard, to die. Ebed-Melech the Ethiopian (here stated to be a eunuch (v. 7)) went to the king and told him what they had done to Jeremiah. Zedekiah told him to take three men and lift him out of the cistern and so saved his life. Thus a foreign court official was the one to save Jeremiah from the hands of Jeremiah's own countrymen.

38:14-28 Zedekiah asked for secret audience for he was afraid of the pro-Babylonian faction and he was also scared of the pro-Egyptian faction in his own court. Jeremiah faithfully told him what God had said. The reality was the king was weakened by the factions in his own court and was trapped by them with fatal consequences.

He repeated the counsel of “surrender and live” which God had given them (20:1-16; 21:4-10; 27:1-11). Jeremiah emphasised it by relating the vision of the capture of the royal household and the burning of Jerusalem.

In the mire refers to Jeremiah's own recent experience re 38:6 above.

Jeremiah assured Zedekiah of Safety from Judean deserters (39:9). Zedekiah failed to act and extracted a promise, from Jeremiah, of secrecy and returned him to house arrest (37:21).


The LXX for Chapter 38 is found in the Later Post Temple MT in Chapter 31 in the RSV and modern Bibles except for Knoch.


[Part 4:  chps. 39  to end]

Intent of Chapter 39

39:1-40:6 Jeremiah and the fall of Jerusalem

39:1-14  Verses 1-10 summarise 52:4-16 (2Kgs. 25:1-12) adding the names of Babylonian officials (v. 3). The OARSV n. has an alternative reading of v. 3 “Nergal-sherezer the Simmagir, Nebushazban the chief court official, Nergal Sherezer the Rabmag...: Simmagir and Rabmag are titles of Babylonian officials. According to 52:6-14 the sack of Jerusalem (v. 8) occurred a month after its capture.

39:15-18 This oracle of God assures Ebed -Melech, the Ethiopian, of his safety because of his trust in God. It appears to be a continuation of Ch. 38:13.


The text for the LXX Chapter 39 is found in Chapter 32 in the later Post Temple MT of the RSV and other Bible texts.


Intent of Chapter 40

40:1-6 Ramah (31:5) is considered to have been a transit point for deportees.  For reasons not stated, but probably because the oracles he spoke showed that his God favoured the Babylonians at that time, Jeremiah was allowed to be well treated and to either go with Nebuzaradan to Babylon or to remain here in Judah, in which case he was to report to Gedaliah son of Ahikam at Mizpah. He gave him a ration of food and a present when he chose to remain in Judah. Jeremiah had long been friendly with the family of Gedaliah (26:24; 36:10). 

40:7-41:18 The Third Revolt

40:7-12 Gedaliah was a member of a prominent Judean Family (2Kgs. 22:12-14). He assured his countrymen that he would represent them before the Babylonians (Chaldeans). He urged them to return to their fields and to their cities. From the text on 32:1-8, and Neh. Ch. 7, scholars assume Benjamin had been largely spared in the tribulation. Mizpah (probably Tel en-Nasbeh) seems to have become the provincial capital.

40:13-41:3 Judah had five prosperous years under Gedaliah, who was not of royal blood. Ishmael, one of the royal bloodlines, was encouraged by Baalis of Ammon for political reasons and because he was allegedly a “super patriot” planned Gedaliah's assassination (see OARSV n.). Gedaliah dismissed the report.


The results are in Part XI Ch 41.

The text of Chapter 40 of the LXX is found in Ch. 33 of the post Temple MT of the RSV and other modern Bible texts.


Intent of Chapter 41

Gedaliah served well as governor at Mizpah. He was not of the royal family. Ishmael was of the Royal family and, encouraged by Baalis of Amon for political reasons, he plotted the assassination of Gedaliah at Mizpah and the assassination of the Chaldean guard there. Gedaliah discredited the report as we saw in Ch. 40 (Part X). That was a fatal error by an honourable man who credited others with his integrity.

vv. 1-3 Massacre at Mizpah

v. 3  Murder of Gedaliah

vv. 4-10 In what is thought to have been September 582 BCE at approx. the Seventh Month (see also 52:30). The day after the slaughter of Gedaliah, his entourage and the Chaldean garrison, Ishmael intercepted a group coming from the north on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem.

He lured them into Mizpah and slaughtered all but ten of them who purchased their freedom with stores of food. They cast the bodies into an old cistern (1Kgs. 15:22). Ishmael's party took the remaining people in Mizpah and headed for Ammon.

41:11-18 An avenging group under Johanan overtook Ishmael at Gibeon (28:1; 2Sam. 2:13). The party was freed with only Ishmael and eight of his conspirators escaped to Ammon (40:14). Fearing Babylonian reprisals, Johanan's group turned towards Egypt. They camped en route at Geruth Chimham (thought to perhaps be “Chimham's Inn” near Bethlehem; see OARSV n).


The RSV Ch. 41 is Ch. 48 in the LXX.

Ch. 41 in the LXX is Ch. 34 in the MT of the RSV.


Intent of Chapter 42

42:1-43:7 Flight to Egypt.

42:1-6 Jeremiah was thought to possibly be one of the captives freed by Johanan (41:16). Jeremiah was asked to intercede (15:11) for the group who were uncertain as to the best course of action and where they might go. To remain they might suffer in the Chaldean reprisals that were sure to come from Babylon as they did (see 52:30). Their flight to Egypt would have been taken as an admission of guilt by the Babylonians.

42:7-22  After ten days Jeremiah brought God's reply to their request. It was God's will that they remain (29:1-14; 32:6-15). If they remained they would receive God's Blessing. To flee would only bring suffering on the fugitives.


Chapter 42 in the RSV is at Chapter 49 in the LXX.

Chapter 42 in the LXX is at chapter 35 in the RSV.


Intent of Chapter 43

43:1-7 Over the ten days the pro Egyptian party prevailed in the camp over the party who wished to abide by the Oracle of God through Jeremiah. They accused Jeremiah of being unduly influenced by Baruch, whom they distrusted as a prophet. It has been suggested and noted in the OARSV n. that 42:19-22 should come between vv. 3 and 4 as Jeremiah's response to Azariah and his colleagues since 42:19-22 may indicate that the decision had already been made to go to Egypt; Jeremiah reminded them of their earlier resolve and the danger of disobeying God's Will.

Nevertheless they decided to go, taking Jeremiah and Baruch with them, perhaps to ensure they continued to receive the Oracles of God, even though they treated them as mere suggestions.

v. 7  Tahpanhes  the Egyptian border fortress also known as Baal-Zephon, Gr. Daphne, the modern Tel el Defneh (2:16).

43:8-45:5 Jeremiah in Egypt

43:8-13 This oracle was intended to show that Egypt was no safe refuge from Nebuchadrezzar (referred to as My servant (25:9; 27:6). He defeated Necho in 605 BCE and led a successful raid against Amasis (Ahmosis II) in 568/567 BCE after this oracle (46:13-26);

Clean his cloak lit. “delouse” shows God's low opinion of Egypt.

Heliopolis (called ON in Gen. 41:45). It is six miles (9KM) North East of Cairo and was anciently the centre of Sun Worship as Re or Ra (see Isa. 19:18 n.)  God prophesied through Isaiah (19:19) that an altar would be constructed there and in the year 160 BCE, under Onias IV; the Temple was constructed there in anticipation of the Messiah being sent there ca 5 BCE, with his parents, to save him from Herod.

Obelisks are monuments of slightly tapered square granite shafts topped by a pyramidion. They are phallic symbols referred to as Ben-ben by sun worshippers and Satanists.


The RSV in Ch. 43 is found in the LXX in Ch. 50. The LXX Ch. 43 is at Ch. 36 in the MT of the RSV. (see also Summary)


Intent of Chapter 44

44:1-14 This Oracle is a warning to the Jewish Diaspora in Egypt. It is an expansion of the warning against repeating the mistakes of their fathers in Judah and suffering the consequences (see 42:14-18).

v. 1 Migdol  The present day Tell el-Heir east of Tahpanhes (43:7) Memphis (2:16) Pathros “land of the South”, upper, or Southern Egypt. There may have already been a Jewish Colony at Elephantine. There certainly was one well established there under the Persian Satrap Arsames well before 419 BCE and well before the completion of the Temple in Jerusalem under Ezra and Nehemiah (see No. 013).

(See also Bullinger’s notes on verse 1 below.)


44:15-28 The refugees returned to the worship of the “queen of heaven” (7:16-20). That was the Babylonian Assyrian goddess Ishtar, or Easter, as the goddess is known in the English speaking world.  She is the goddess of the star Venus. She is the Canaanite Astarte consort of Baal, the sun God, whose day is Sunday and the Solstice on 25 December and the festival of Easter named for the goddess; Greek Aphrodite; Roman Venus. The European peoples are entrenched with the festivals and the Cult of Baal (and those of Attis, Mithras, Adonis and Osiris and the consort Easter (and also as Isis), those of the Virgin brought into the churches in Syria. These festivals and days of worship of false gods are stated to be stamped out at the return of the Messiah and the Loyal Host (see ## 235; 141E, 141E_2; 141F and F066, ii, iii, iv, v).

Some scholars think it was first introduced presumably by Manasseh (2Kgs. 21:1-18), suppressed by Josiah (2Kgs. 23:4-14) and restored by Jehoiakim (2Kgs. 23:36-24:7) (see OARSV n.). However, the system was well entrenched in Egypt as we see from the Golden Calf (No. 222).

They originated in the Middle East from Assyria and Babylon and moved south into Canaan and Egypt, and east with the Sumerians into India and West with the Hittite Celts (see Mysticism B7_1).


44:29-30  Hophra  (Apries 588-569 BCE; 37:5) was assassinated by Ahmosis II (Amasis, 569-526 BCE). He was a former court official, co-regent for three years and founder of the Twenty-seventh (Libyan) Dynasty. For similar signs, see Isa. 7:11-17; Ex. 3:12.


Ch. 44 of the LXX is at Ch. 37 of the MT of the  RSV.


Intent of Chapter 45

This oracle was advised at the outset of the difficulties ahead (36:1-4; 1:10). Some scholars, (see OARSV n.), view this survey of the difficulties past as Baruch's reassurance to Jehoiakim of God's assurance to him of physical deliverance (39:15-18).  However, see also the notes re God's message in Ch. 13 (Pt. IV), condemning Babylonian influence.


This text in the RSV relates to Ch. 52:1 of the LXX. Jamieson-Faucett-Brown states: Jer. 52:1-34 written by some other than Jeremiah (probably Ezra) as an historical supplement to the previous prophecies.


Ch. 45 of the LXX is at Ch. 38 in the MT [RSV].


Intent of Chapter 46

46:1 to 51:64 God's Oracle Against Foreign Nations  This message was given through Isaiah Chs. 13-23; Jeremiah here and throughout; Ezekiel Chs. 25-32; Daniel Chs. 2-12 and see Epilogue. Modern Scholars denigrate Daniel because of the impact of the prophecies on the corrupted influence of pseudo-Christianity and its interrelationship with Revelation.

46:1 Introduction (1:2; 14:1); continues 25:15-38.

46:2-28 Against Egypt This also supports Ezekiel which ties both into the Last Days over the 20th century to the 120th Jubilee (No. 036; & 036_2) supported by Daniel (see F027 to F027xiii). 

46:2-12 In 605 BCE Nebuchadrezzar as Crown Prince of Babylon, reigning jointly with his father in this year, defeated the Egyptians under Neco (Necho) II at Carchemish on the Northern Euphrates sixty miles west of Haran (Gen. 11:31) the last capital of Assyria. This act was to commence the time sequence God gave to Daniel (F027ii) that would take the last sequence of prophecies of the latter prophets from Isaiah to the last days at the return of Messiah (F027xii, xiii) and the complete destruction of the Babylonian religious system (see ## 036; 036_2; F066v; #282E and Ch. 44 n. Part XI).

The Chaldeans pursued the Egyptian forces to the borders of Egypt which stopped the plans of Egypt in expanding its influence over Asia Minor. Humbled before his nation and the other African nations (Put, Lud, Cush and Cyrene or Syene) (see Ezek. 30:5-6) (see ##45A, 45B, 45C, 45D, 45E). Egyptian influence was curtailed for some time, and it was invaded by Cambyses in 525 BCE under the Prophecy of Pharaoh's Broken Arms (as in (#036 above).

46:13-26 This Oracle most probably comes as God's Prophecy against Egypt from 605 BCE at Carchemish and continues to the beginning of Chislev 601 BCE when Nebuchadrezzar and Necho fought to a standstill on the border of Egypt as recorded in the Babylonian Chronicle or perhaps in 43:8-13 n. Part XI.  


The text here is in two parts. The poetic text refers to Lower Egypt (Memphis) and the prose refers to Upper Egypt (Thebes).

Apis is the Bull god of Southern Egypt (Nah. 3:8). Tabor is the great mountain rising above the plain of Jezreel (Ezdraelon Jos. 19:22).

Carmel is the mountain at the end of the plain of Jezreel, projecting into the Mediterranean (see Jos. 19:26).

46:27-28  This text is a doublet of 30:10-11 and refers to the destruction of the nations in the Last Days and contrasts the destruction of Egypt and their deliverance into the hands of the Babylonian Beast and the systems that follow them (F027ii) with the reconstruction of Israel and the destruction of the national systems under Messiah.


Ch.46 of the MT [RSV] is contained in Ch. 26 of the LXX. vv. 4-13 are missing in the LXX, having been added later.

Ch. 46 of the LXX is in Ch. 39 of the MT [RSV]


Intent of Chapter 47

47:1-7 Against the Philistines

Other oracles against the Philistines are found at Isa. 14:29-31; Ezek. 25:15-17. This Oracle may be associated with Nebuchadrezzar's sack of Ashkelon (vv. 5,7; 36:9). The Phoenician cities of Tyre and Sidon are considered to perhaps also be allied with the Philistines (27:3). The Philistines are thought to be generally related to the Indo-European inhabitants of Crete (Capthor); (see Am. 9:7 and the n; 2Sam. 8:18 n.).

v. 5: Anakim (Jos. 11:21-22 (for other signs of Lamentation comp. 16:6; 41:5) (Re Anakim see also The Nephilim (No. 154)).


Ch. 47 of the MT [RSV] is in Ch. 29:1-7 of the LXX. Ch. 47 of the LXX is at Ch. 40 of the MT [RSV].


Intent of Chapter 48

48:1-47 Against Moab

This text is classed as a dirge (see OARSV n).

The occasion is thought to perhaps be the suppression of the revolt of Moab and the other western states by Assurbanipal ca. 650 BCE. This suppression was to continue for many centuries.  This instance is thought to refer to the punitive raids against Judah in 601 BCE (12:7-13). There was also an inconclusive plot to revolt in 594 BCE (27:1-11). The dirge is thought to be popular in Judah (Isa. 15:1-16:14). This chapter has many affinities with other prophetic oracles on Moab (Amos 2:1-3; Obadiah; Zeph. 2:8ff; and espec. Isa. 15 above).

48:1-10 Moab (east of the Jordan) Nebo Not the mountain of that name but the city built by the Reubenites, referred to in Num. 32:38 and named on the inscription (see Soncino n.). Other cities are also referred to in this chapter. The Moabite stone records how it was taken by Mesha king of Moab (ca. 895 BCE). Kiriathaim, Kerioth, Jahzah, Dibon, Aroer, Bozrah (Bezer), Beth-diblathaim, Baal-meon, and Horonaim (Num. 32:34-58) are also named on the inscription. Kiriathaim Probably Kureyat, ten miles north of the Dead Sea.

 Misgab of the MT is rendered the Fortress in the RSV. The Soncino says it is unknown and may be the High Fortress as translated in Isa. 25:12.

v. 2 In Heshbon they have devised...O Madmen shall be brought to silence

The Soncino says that the names of the cities are a play on words. Heshbon is related to the verb Chasab to devise and Madmen with the word Daman (to be silent) (Rashi, Kimchi). Heshbon was one of the chief cities of Moab NE of the Dead Sea. It marked the northern boundary of Moab until the Reubenites claimed the territory lying between it and the Arnon, which flows into the Dead Sea about the Middle of its Eastern border. Many of the cities in this text were assigned to the Reubenites by Moses (Num. 32:33ff. Josh. 13:15ff. The seizures proved a source of hostility in the early days (Judg. 3:12ff; 1Sam. 14:47). The sympathy of the prophet with Moab's misfortune (v. 31), (cf. Isa. 15:5) suggests they had long since acquiesced in the eyes of the Soncino rabbis. However the important thing to remember was that the Reubenites, Gadites and half of Manasseh had been taken into captivity, north of Syria well before Israel in 722 BCE (cf. #212F).

The site of Madmen is unknown; The Soncino says that so far as the name is concerned, it may be compared to Madmannah, a city of Judah (Josh. 15:31) and Madmenah Isa. 10:31, a Benjamite city.

Scholars are divided as to the location of Horonaim.

The ascent of Luhith is between Zoar and Rabbath-Moab.

48:10 The work of the Lord is a divine decree and thus must be carried out with zeal. 

v. 11 Moab has never experienced exile but remains in its place like wine settled on its lees. Jeremiah comments: neither has he gone into captivity (Metsudath David).

Moab was subject to the nations of the north in accordance with the Greeks, Romans and the Kingdoms of the North and under Parthia as foretold by Daniel (F027ii).

All his people are subjected for their idolatry to Chemosh. They became subject to the Baal worship of the Gods of the Babylonians.

Note that the restoration of Moab is for the Latter Days which is under the Messiah at his return. We dealt with this in Part XIII.

Moab is ashamed of Chemosh as Israel is ashamed of Bethel and the Babylonian influence that destroyed them also. All the Babylonian deities penetrated Israel and Judah (see Ch. 13) and are there to this day.


Ch. 48 of the MT [RSV] is at 31:1-44 of the LXX vv. 45-47 have been added to the MT [RSV] later. (Post 70 CE.)

Ch. 48 of the LXX is at Ch. 41 of the MT [RSV]


Intent of Chapter 49

49:1-6 Against Ammon The occasion for this comparatively mild oracle against Ammon is thought to perhaps be the Ammonite raid of 601 BCE (12:7-13 n.). Ammon the brother of Moab had its lands north of Moab (Gen. 19:30-38). It had previously occupied Transjordan lands of Israel (Judg. 10:6-12:6; 2Kgs. 15:29). It was Israelite territory under David (2Sam. 12:26-31; Am. 1:13-14) and is thought to reflect their war for independence. Ammon too must suffer for its idolatry and violence. Milcom was the ammonite national God. Idolatry always followed national political divisions.


Names of the gods of the area.


Chiun, Amo.5:26; Act.7:43

Molech, called also Moloch and Milcom.

An idol of the Ammonites; Act 7:43

Worshiped by the wives of Solomon, and by Solomon: 1Kgs. 11:1-8

Children sacrificed to: 2Kgs. 23:10; Jer. 32:35; 2Kgs. 16:3; 2Kgs. 21:6; 2Ch. 28:3; Isa. 57:5; Jer. 7:31; Ezek. 16:20-21; Ezek. 20:26; Ezek. 20:31; Ezek. 23:37; Ezek. 23:39; Lev. 18:21; Lev. 20:2-5

Chemosh, An idol of the Moabites and Ammonites

1Kgs. 11:7; 1Kgs. 11:33; 2Kgs. 23:13; Jer. 48:7; Jer. 48:13; Jer. 48:46

An idol of the Amorites

Jdg. 11:24


Milcom, the same as Molech.


So also Remphan was the name of the god whose symbol was the six pointed star associated with sacrifice. It is erroneously called the Magan David or “Star of David” and occupies the Israeli flag.


Rabbah is the capital of Ammon


49:7-22 Against Edom After 587 BCE the relationship between Israel and Edom deteriorated because of Edom's occupation of Southern Judea (Lam. 4:21-22; Ezek. 25:12-14). The occupation was caused by pressure from Arab tribes. Jeremiah and Obadiah (Ob. 1-9) share an oracle which may be original with neither (see OARSV n.) that describes the bleak future of Edom (see also v. 1-6 n).  

Teman Modern Tawilan, about three miles east of Sela (or Petra).

Bozrah a great fortress city in northern Edom

49:19-21 Editorial revision of 50:44-46

49:23-27 Against Damascus The occasion for this composite oracle (comp. v. 27; Amos. 1:4) is considered unidentifiable (see OARSV n.). Damascus lost its independence with the capture of Arpad by Tiglath-Pileser III in 740 BCE, Hamath in 738 BCE and Damascus in 732 BCE (Isa.10:9; 37:13).

Ben-hadad (1Kgs. 15:18,20).


vv. 28-39 Jeremiah speaks of Kedar under the Babylonians. (No. 212C)

vv. 28-33  Against Kedar and Hazor

In midwinter of 599/598 BCE Nebuchaddrezzar led a successful expedition against the Arab tribes in the desert east of Syria/Palestine. Perhaps that was the cause of the origin of this oracle (9:26; 25:23-24). The Chaldeans wide ranging attacks swept up the undefended desert people with no fortresses.

49:34-39 Against Elam

In 596 BCE Nebuchadrezzar attacked Elam east of Babylonia and was successful. Zedekiah became king in March 597 when Jehoiachin was deposed. Bow of Elam reflects the prowess of Elamite archers (Isa. 22:6).

 v. 39 This verse, like 46:26; 48:47; and 49:6 is considered an editorial addition (OARSV n.) .


Ch. 49 of the later MT [RSV] is in Ch. 30 of the LXX.  Note Ch. 30:6-21 MT are omitted from the LXX and the Chapter ends at v. 33.  vv. 34-39 deal with Elam.


Intent of Chapter 50

50:1-51:64 Against Babylon

As Babylon was the enemy from the north so too is Babylon destroyed by an enemy from the north. God raised up the Medes to destroy the Chaldeans and Babylon from the north.

This destruction will continue to the Last Days. The destruction of Babylon is tied to the Babylonian system as we see from Daniel chapter 2 (F027ii). The tying in of prophecy to the last days is explained in Ezekiel in the prophecy of Pharaoh's Broken Arms (No. 036) and No. 036_2). Tied in with the empire of the Babylonian system over the Seven Times of 2520 years from the Battle of Carchemish in 605 BCE; it brings us to the Twentieth Century to 1916 and the Time of Jacob's Trouble.  So also are we tied into the Last Days by the Sign of Jonah and the History of the Reconstruction of the Temple (No. 013) and in the Completion of the Sign of Jonah (No. 013B). God gave His final prophecy in the text of Revelation which ties all prophecy together. God gave another sign in the Last Days, which was hinted at in the last texts of Jeremiah, which was enacted in the capture of Babylon over the Medean invasion due to the reduction of the water levels of the Euphrates. In the Last Days prophecy says that Four great Angels are released from the pit of Tartaros at the Euphrates to kill a third of mankind (Rev. 9:14-19) (See F066ii). The structure of the prophecies includes also F066iii; iv, v. The Sign of this activity is the drying up of the Euphrates Basin to make way for the kings of the East. This was effected in 2022-2023 with the wars of the Fifth and Sixth Trumpets (see Wars of Amalek (No. 141C)).  The War of the Sixth Trumpet will involve a holocaust which is to occur between Pentecost 2023 and Passover 2024.  The Nuclear Holocaust will be followed by the arrival of the Two Witnesses, Enoch and Elijah (see No. 141D). They will be in Jerusalem for 1260 Days from the Holocaust designed to kill a third of mankind. This period will see the formation of the Empire of the Beast (No. 299A) which will rule the earth for 42 months. After 1264 days the Heavenly Host under Messiah will arrive and reclaim the earth and destroy all opposition to the Laws of God and God's Calendar  (No. 156).   Only those keeping God's Law will be under God's protection or can even expect to be given that security. Those keeping Satan's false religious system, including the worship of Baal, the Queen of Heaven or Easter and the virgin or Mother goddess will not be given God's protection and Satan will kill those serving him under the false system of the planet. He has no obligation to protect them. Only the Holy Seed is to be protected (Isa. 6:9-13; Am. 9:1-15).  Every single Ditheist (No. 076B), Binitarian or Trinitarian (No. 076) minister will be put to death as a matter of principle along with all other idolatrous systems (see also Daniel F027xiii). God does not have to send Messiah and the Host to kill the idolaters. He will use the Demons to do it all for him. They chose to worship these false gods. The Beast will turn on the Religious whore (see 299B). All those that claim the Law of God is done away will be put to death. All people will keep the Sabbaths and New Moons under the Temple Calendar or die (see also Isa. 66:23-24 and also Zech. 14:16-19).

The theme of Jeremiah is in two phases. The fall of Babylon as already accomplished and also as  still in the future at the return of the Exiles (24:6; 29:10) and also with the Return of the Messiah as we see also in texts of Ezekiel and also in Daniel and from Isaiah. We are about to go into the last phase of the Last Days.  The attitude to Babylon is somewhat harsher (50:14, 24) (see also 25:12-14) because the Babylonian system carries with it the utter destruction of the planet and has the responsibility for the deceit of the entire religious system of Israel and Judah and indeed the whole world as we see from F027xii, F027xiii. The idiom of the “Hand of Jeremiah” is also found in (Hag. 1:1; Mal. 1:1; contrast Jer. 46:1; 49:34).

50:2-3 The text refers to the destruction of the north (4:6). It may or may not refer to Cyrus and Persia. The fall was continuous over F027ii to F027xii and F027xiii. 

Bel (Baal) (51:44; Isa. 46:1), originally chief god of Nippur, identified with the cosmic god Marduk in Babylon (Merodach).

50: 4-5; 6-7.  Israel's homecoming (31:7-9). The sin is of Israel; for they sinned against the Lord their true habitation (2:20; 23:1-2).

50:8-16 The residents are urged to flee before Babylon's approaching doom (13:14) and desolation (18:16).  Not only is the city destroyed but food production is destroyed.

50:17-20 Israel was successively subject to Assyria and Babylon. Israel was to be restored (31:4-5; 33:8) and Babylon, as Assyria earlier, was destroyed (25:12).

50:21-32  God's Judgment against Babylon was Mera-Thaim (or double rebellion) being a play on the name of southern Babylonia (Mat marati) land of the Lagoons see OARSV n.). Pekod (or “punishment”) is a play on the name pukudu which is an East Babylonian tribe (Ezek. 23:23). Babylon is here described as a smashed hammer and a captured bird (cf. 5:26-27). The prophet sees the destruction of the Temple as an affront to God which must and will be avenged (21:14; Am. 2:2)

50:33-34 While Israel is helpless, God is her Redeemer (Isa. 47:4). God will deliver her and discomfit her oppressors. 

50:35-37 Oracles of the sword.

50:38-40 Babylon will lie as a desert, unproductive and inhabited by wild animals (Isa. 34:13-14).

50:41-46 Babylon once the foe from the North now stands in dread anticipation of the foe from the north. As Edom could not escape her fate (49:19-21), neither can Babylon.


The dried up Euphrates system will remain for the entire period from 2023 until 2027 so that the kings of the East can move into the Middle East  for the Battles of Armageddon and the Vials of the Wrath of God. There is no king or shepherd that can successfully defy God.


The Latter Prophets from Isaiah to Malachi show that those failing to keep the Law and the Testimony (Isa. 8:20) will be put to death and only the Elect as Elohim (No. 001) will be restored under the Law and the Calendar of God. All others including those who say they are Jews but keep Hillel and not the Temple Calendar (No. 156) will repent under the Witnesses or die. These are also the Ashekenazi over this text of Jeremiah. They will be punished.


Ch. 50 in the MT [RSV] is in Ch. 27 of the LXX.


Intent of Chapter 51

51:1-19  God's Judgment against Babylon

51:1-14  As grain is winnowed so will Babylon be cut down and winnowed (see 15:7 n.) Chaldea is written in the Hebrew text as “Leb-quamai” which is an atbash cipher (see 25:26 n).

51:5-10  This is a note reminding Israel that while they have hope, Babylon's case is hopeless (50:33-34). Babylon's religious system is hopeless and its influence on Israel is without hope. Babylon is the Golden cup from which the nations would drink of God's Wrath (25:15-29). In these latter days Babylon is smashed (46:11; Ezek. 27:27) as God delivers His people.

v. 7. “The Babylonian system will be destroyed and left desolate (as Sodom and Gomorrah) because it represents the antithesis of the covenant system God established. Thus the Day of the Lord is inextricably associated with the fall of Babylon (see also Jer. 51:6-10). Verse 11 associates the fall with the Medes, yet the wording is forward and prophetic. Note Jeremiah 51:7 uses the same language as Revelation 17:2.


51:11-19 The terse military commands in the text precede the attack by the Medes and the later Persians. The entire system is to be brought down as we see in Daniel.

The phrase Many waters refers to the system around Babylon. It is this system that is to be undone. The conflict is against this system and the demons that it represents. The oracle against the idols is as at 10:12-16; 50:38.

51:20-33 This oracle of the hammer describes Babylon as God's punitive instrument (27:6; 50:23).

51:24-26 As did Assyria (Isa. 10:5,15) so too Babylon will fall. The Great Ziggurat may well reflect the Temple systems of Baal in Babylon, thrusting into the heavens and symbolising the religion of Babylon itself. It is a burnt mountain of which nothing useful remains (Isa. 33:12). Babylonia will be a desert.

51:27-33 As Babylon subdued the Nations (25:15-26) so also the Nations will gather against Babylon in the last days. Ararat or modern Armenia, the Minni living south of Lake Urmia and all the Scythians of the North and the Ashkenazi will all be gathered together. Jerusalem's deliverance is a mighty act of God (50:34). Desolate Babylon is as barren as a threshing floor. The once mighty lion will become drunk (25:15-16) and fall into a helpless permanent sleep.

51:41-43 Babylon written as Sheshach (an atbash cypher 35:26 n.) will be inundated by the waves of her attackers (46:7-8; Isa. 8:7-8). When the flood recedes she will be a trackless wasteland.

51:44-49 In antiquity as here the fall of a land represented the fall of its gods so especially is it with Babylon.

51:50-58 The doubt raised by the destruction of the Temple, which problem Ezekiel also raises as a judgment against Israel and Judah and their sin and idolatry. The text is considered a compilation of other verses in this collection of oracles.

51:59-64 The Oracles are written in a Book and taken to Babylon. The scholars know of no such journey by Zedekiah. It is conceded that he may have done so after the abortive plot of 594 BCE to renew his fealty to the king (chs. 27-28), once it became known to Nebuchadrezzar. 

Seraiah, Brother of Baruch (32:12).


The message is that God has set aside a people to accomplish His purpose. All things work together for the good for those who love God and are called according to His purpose (Rom. 8:28). Israel, as the army of God, has no choice. It must fight or die according to the rules God has given. The nation will perish because of its iniquity. The elect cannot avoid judgment and involvement. They are in for the duration.” 

The Covenant of God (No. 152)

51:63 By a symbolic act the oracle against Babylon is emphasised. This may have been the causative factor of the compilation of 50:1-51:58.

The very purpose of the power of Babylon is listed in the texts of Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel and the Twelve Prophets.


Jamieson-Faucett-Brown state on Jer_51:64. [RSV] “Jeremiah, having already (thirty-ninth and fortieth chapters) given the history in the proper place, was not likely to repeat it here. Its canonical authority as inspired is shown by its being in the Septuagint version. It contains the capture and burning of Jerusalem, etc., Zedekiah’s punishment, and the better treatment of Jehoiachin under Evil-merodach, down to his death. These last events were probably subsequent to Jeremiah’s time. Written by some other than Jeremiah (probably Ezra) as an historical supplement to the previous prophecies.”

The real reason was also that this was a reiteration of the final destruction of the Babylonian system in the Last Days as given in Daniel at (F027ii, xi, xii, xiii) and Revelation Chs. 19-22 (F066v). Modern pseudo-Christianity appears unable to face the reality of Bible prophecy.


The LXX on Ch. 51 is contained in Ch. 44 of the RSV.  The RSV text of Ch. 51 is in Ch. 28 of the LXX.


Intent of Chapter 52

52:1-34 Historical Appendix

The text is considered a duplicate of 2Kgs. 24:18-25:30. This historical section, together with 39:1-10 and 40:7-43:7 provides much important complimentary information (cf. Isa. Chs. 36-39).

52:1-3 Reign of Zedekiah. (2Kgs. 24:18-20 (597-587 BCE). For details in the contemporary religious situation see Ezek. Ch 8.

52:4-27 Siege and Fall of Jerusalem (39:1-10; 2Kgs. 24:20b-25:26).

52:4-11 Jan. 588 BCE-Aug. 587 BCE. The last scene enacted before Zedekiah (37:1; Ez. 17:18-21) at Nechadrezzar's HQ at Riblah NW of Byblos was the slaughter of his sons and court officials. He was then blinded and taken to Babylon to die in prison.

52:12-16 (Aug. 587 BCE) The reasons for the actions of Nebuzaradan, Nebuchadnezzar's field general are not known.

52:17-23 (a detailed description of the booty taken from the Temple)

52:24-27 2Kgs. 25:18-21. Seraiah, perhaps the same as in 36:26. Zephaniah 21:1; 29:29.

52:28-30 The three deportations listed here coincide with the surrender of Jehoiachin, (597 BCE; 2Kgs. 24:12-16; the suppression of Zedekiah's revolt (587 BCE), and the reprisals for Gedaliah's assassination 582 BCE; 40:7-41:18; 2Kgs. 25:22-26).


52:31-34 2Kgs. 25:27-30  It is considered that the presence of this material proves that the editing of Jeremiah was later than 560 BCE.  Jehoiachin's restoration may well have been viewed by his contemporaries as the beginning of Judah's restoration (23:5-6) (see also OARSV n.).


Chapter 52 of the RSV is also in the LXX however the LXX omits vv. 28-30 which appear to be later additions.




Chart : LXX chapters in relation to MT texts.


LXX Text









Ch.  10 vv. 6-8 & 10 omitted






Ch. 17 vv. 1-4 omitted

17:1-4 added





Ch. 25 contains vv. 1-13;

vv. 34-39 here are found in the MT. at ch.48:34-39.

25:14-33 omitted.


Ch. 26 see note.

Ch. 27.

Ch. 28

Contains 25:1-38 but vv.34-38 here appear to be added.




Ch. 46 see note.

Ch. 50.

Ch. 51


29: 7-22



Ch. 31

Ch.32 vv. 1-14 omitted, also

vv. 39-44




48:1-44 plus 45-47.



Ch. 33:20-24

Ch. 34

34:13, 21 omitted

Ch. 35             

Ch 36:1-32

36:16-20 omitted


 Ch. 27





Ch. 37 (vv. 10-11 omitted)

Ch. 38

Ch. 39

Ch. 40

Ch. 30

Ch. 31

Ch. 32

Ch. 33


Ch. 41

Ch. 42

Ch. 43

Ch. 44

Ch. 34

Ch. 35


Ch. 37


Ch. 45

Ch. 46 (vv. 4-13 omitted)

Ch. 47

Ch. 48 (vv. 45-47 omitted)

Ch. 38


Ch. 40



Ch. 49

Ch. 50

Ch. 51

Ch. 52:1

Ch.  52 (vv. 28-30 omitted)


Ch. 42

Ch. 43

Ch. 44

Ch. 45

Ch. 52