Christian Churches of God
Commentary on John
Phase II: Part 4
(Edition 1.0 20220901-20220901)
Commentary on Chapters 13-16.
Commentary on John Phase 2: Part 4
Introduction to Phase II
Phase I of the Commentary on John covered the process from Chapter 1 in Part I to Chapter 12 in Part III. In that procedure John displayed the Pre-existence of Jesus Christ (No. 243) as the Only Born God of John 1:18 (cf. On Monogenese Theos in Scripture and Tradition (B4)). In phase I, we have seen that the text shows the world that Christ was the subordinate Elohim of Israel that was the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. He appeared to or led them all and spoke to Moses and Aaron and the prophets, through the Holy Spirit, and brought Israel out of Egypt as the Angel of YHVH (No. 024) and, as we see, from Acts and Paul, that Christ was the deity that destroyed the first born of Egypt in the First Passover (No. 098). He brought Israel through the Red Sea. He fed Israel on Manna and water from the Rock (1Cor. 10:1-4), and he gave The Law of God to Israel, via Moses, over Pentecost at Sinai (No. 115) (Acts 7:30-53), as Moses ascended Sinai to be given the Law of God (L1) (see the Ascents of Moses (No. 070)). Christ was the Subordinate God of Israel of Psalm 45:6-7; as Scripture tells us this deity was Jesus Christ (Heb. 1:8-9). His father was the One True God. The structure of the first 12 chapters deals with the deity that was Jesus Christ and his position as the prophesied Messiah that was sent into the world to explain the nature, purpose and Plan of God (see No. 001A) and the purpose of Israel as the Vineyard of God (No. 001C) and with the express purpose of making the Elect as Elohim (No. 001). This action includes the Salvation of the Gentiles through the Resurrections of the Dead, both the First Resurrection of the Dead (No. 143A) and the Second Resurrection of the Dead and the Great White Throne Judgment (No. 143B) and the Judgment of the Demons (No. 080) (see 1Cor: 6:3). Anyone who refuses to repent over this sequence will face The Second Death (No. 143C). God has left nothing to chance and all will be afforded salvation, even the Fallen Host and all humans of the Adamic creation that ever lived.
In chapter 12:44-50 we are given a summary by the Christ of his mission and teachings and the requirements of the keeping of the Commandments of God and the Faith and Testimony of Jesus (Rev. 12:17; 14:12). In chapter 13 we begin the process of his death and Resurrection and his ascent to the Father and the giving of Salvation through the Holy Spirit (No. 117) to mankind.
John Chapters 13-16 (RSV)
1Now before the feast of the Passover, when Jesus knew that his hour had come to depart out of this world to the Father, having loved his own who were in the world, he loved them to the end. 2And during supper, when the devil had already put it into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, to betray him, 3Jesus, knowing that the Father had given all things into his hands, and that he had come from God and was going to God, 4rose from supper, laid aside his garments, and girded himself with a towel. 5Then he poured water into a basin, and began to wash the disciples' feet, and to wipe them with the towel with which he was girded. 6He came to Simon Peter; and Peter said to him, "Lord, do you wash my feet?" 7Jesus answered him, "What I am doing you do not know now, but afterward you will understand." 8Peter said to him, "You shall never wash my feet." Jesus answered him, "If I do not wash you, you have no part in me." 9Simon Peter said to him, "Lord, not my feet only but also my hands and my head!" 10Jesus said to him, "He who has bathed does not need to wash, except for his feet, but he is clean all over; and you are clean, but not every one of you." 11For he knew who was to betray him; that was why he said, "You are not all clean." 12When he had washed their feet, and taken his garments, and resumed his place, he said to them, "Do you know what I have done to you? 13You call me Teacher and Lord; and you are right, for so I am. 14If I then, your Lord and Teacher, have washed your feet, you also ought to wash one another's feet. 15For I have given you an example, that you also should do as I have done to you. 16Truly, truly, I say to you, a servant is not greater than his master; nor is he who is sent greater than he who sent him. 17If you know these things, blessed are you if you do them. 18I am not speaking of you all; I know whom I have chosen; it is that the scripture may be fulfilled, 'He who ate my bread has lifted his heel against me.' 19I tell you this now, before it takes place, that when it does take place you may believe that I am he. 20Truly, truly, I say to you, he who receives any one whom I send receives me; and he who receives me receives him who sent me." 21When Jesus had thus spoken, he was troubled in spirit, and testified, "Truly, truly, I say to you, one of you will betray me." 22The disciples looked at one another, uncertain of whom he spoke. 23One of his disciples, whom Jesus loved, was lying close to the breast of Jesus; 24so Simon Peter beckoned to him and said, "Tell us who it is of whom he speaks." 25So lying thus, close to the breast of Jesus, he said to him, "Lord, who is it?" 26Jesus answered, "It is he to whom I shall give this morsel when I have dipped it." So when he had dipped the morsel, he gave it to Judas, the son of Simon Iscariot. 27Then after the morsel, Satan entered into him. Jesus said to him, "What you are going to do, do quickly." 28Now no one at the table knew why he said this to him. 29Some thought that, because Judas had the money box, Jesus was telling him, "Buy what we need for the feast"; or, that he should give something to the poor. 30So, after receiving the morsel, he immediately went out; and it was night. 31When he had gone out, Jesus said, "Now is the Son of man glorified, and in him God is glorified; 32if God is glorified in him, God will also glorify him in himself, and glorify him at once. 33Little children, yet a little while I am with you. You will seek me; and as I said to the Jews so now I say to you, 'Where I am going you cannot come.' 34A new commandment I give to you, that you love one another; even as I have loved you, that you also love one another. 35By this all men will know that you are my disciples, if you have love for one another." 36Simon Peter said to him, "Lord, where are you going?" Jesus answered, "Where I am going you cannot follow me now; but you shall follow afterward." 37Peter said to him, "Lord, why cannot I follow you now? I will lay down my life for you." 38Jesus answered, "Will you lay down your life for me? Truly, truly, I say to you, the cock will not crow, till you have denied me three times.
Intent of Chapter 13
13:1-38 The Passover of 30 CE
Jesus was baptised and he declared the Acceptable Year of the Lord at Atonement 27 CE to declare the Restoration under the Law of God and he began preparation by selecting the disciples for his mission in 27 CE, in the Fifteenth year of Tiberius (Lk. 3:1). The purpose of the three Passovers of John was to pinpoint the sequence of activities in the Gospel of John. The Passover of the First year of the First Cycle of the 81st Jubilee was in 28 CE and in that year after the Passover Jesus and the Disciples had begun baptising at the Jordan River (Christ himself did not baptise) and John and his disciples were baptising nearby at Aenon near Salim when John was arrested and imprisoned (John 3:23). This began Christ’s mission under the Sign of Jonah (No. 013). He spent the year to Passover 29 CE beginning the Second year of the cycle and then all year to the Passover of 30 CE beginning the Third year of the cycle on his ministry establishing the church and the Kingdom of God among the elect (see No. 001)). Christ and the disciples and the Seventy and the 500 were set aside in their temporary accommodation around Jerusalem in accordance with the Laws of God in Deut. 16:5-8 for the Passover. In accordance with the Temple Calendar (see No. 156) they went into Temporary accommodation on the afternoon of Tuesday 4 April before night fall to prepare the evening meal of 14 Abib which went over the next 24 hours to the slaughter of the Passover lambs at 3PM-5PM on Wednesday 5 April 30 CE and the Passover was cooked and eaten after dark on Wednesday 5 April, which began the First Holy Day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread in 30 CE.
Christ was killed on Wednesday 5 April 30 CE at 3PM when the first Passover Lamb was killed and presented to the High Priest (see the Timing of the Crucifixion and the Resurrection (No. 159)).
Christ spent three days and three nights over the evening of 5 April or beginning Passover night 15 Abib, the night of observation or watching, in the tomb, through Thursday 6 April and the Night through Friday 7 April and over the weekly Sabbath to his resurrection on late afternoon before dark on Sabbath 8 April 30 CE. He then waited all night until 9am on the Morning of 9 April as the Wave Sheaf Offering (No 106B) when he ascended to heaven and returned that afternoon and spent the next forty days with the brethren (see Forty Days Following Christ’s Resurrection (No. 159B)).
From this year onwards the church as well as Judah went into temporary accommodation from 14 Abib to 21 Abib every year, until the Jews developed the Hillel Calendar, based on the Babylonian intercalations. It was released in 358 CE under R. Hillel II. This Hillel abomination was never kept by the Churches of God until it was introduced to the Church of God (Seventh Day) in the 1940s by badly educated judaisers.
The festival of the goddess Easter or Ishtar or Ashtoreth consort of Baal, based on the worship of the god Attis at Rome, with a Friday death and Sunday Resurrection was introduced on the orders of Anicetus, when he was elected bishop there, ca. 154 CE and the festival was enforced by Bishop Victor in 192 CE, when he was elected bishop, causing the major division in the Churches of God throughout the world (see the Quartodeciman Disputes (No. 277); and the Unitarian/Trinitarian Wars (No. 268)). (See also Origins of Christmas and Easter (No. 235).) Over the wars, this was to cause the total alienation and destruction by false doctrine, of the Trinitarian Churches from the Body of Christ (see Binitarianism and Trinitarianism (No. 076); (see also Commentary on the Koran (No. Q001A, B, C, D). On no day in any of the weeks that Christ could have been killed did 14 Abib ever fall on a Friday (see No. 159 above). The Postponements were never in affect in the Temple Calendar (No. 156) either.
v. 1 The Last Supper established
This text begins the preparation for the teachings of chs 14-17 and the events of chs. 18-21 to follow. In this text the Second Sacrament of the Churches of God is established within the law (Sacraments of the Church (No. 150); The Lord’s Supper No. 103)). The conditions for the establishment of the activity were when Christ gave the Law to Moses in Deut. 16:5-8 for the entry to the Promised Land. The Passover cannot be kept within any of our gates and nor can the brethren return to their domiciles, nor to work within the Feast of Unleavened Bread (see also The Passover (No. 098); Pentecost at Sinai (No. 115); see also The Ascents of Moses (No. 070)).
vv. 1-20 Jesus washes the disciples’ feet
v. 1 to the end – to the utmost.
v. 5 Lk. 22:27
vv. 6-9 Though Peter objects he must let Christ wash his feet and the reason later emerges from the execution by the Stauros (see also The Cross: Its Origin and Significance ( No. 039)).
v. 11 The outward washing did not cleanse them all. One was unclean inwardly (Lk. 11:39-41; Heb. 10:22), see the Significance of the Footwashing (No. 099).
v . 15 1Pet. 2:21; v. 16 Mat. 10:24; Lk. 6:40.
v. 17 Lk. 11:28; Jas. 1:25; v. 18 Ps. 41:9.
v. 21 Jesus was troubled in Spirit and announced one of them would betray him. He placed him next to himself handing him a morsel (see also Ruth 2:14). He thus concealed his treachery from all but the beloved disciple. Refusal of light brings night (12:35).
To see what is to happen at the Lord’s Supper all four gospels must be viewed. The Bread and the Wine are given to all (see the Significance of the Bread and the Wine (No. 100)). One must partake of the Wine with the Bread at the Lord’s Supper, following the Footwashing. No grape juice can be taken in substitution for the wine in any of the genuine Churches of God. See also Wine in the Bible (No. 188). The bread must also be unleavened, as required for a sacrificial offering under the law (Lev. 2:11).
(The wafer and water under the Sun and Mystery Cults are also not permitted.) (See also the texts in the Links to the gospels above.) Both Bread and Wine must be consumed, after the Footwashing, to remain part of the Body of Christ.
vv. 31-38 Jesus predicts Peter’s denial (Lk. 22:31-38).
vv. 31-35 The death that Judas has gone to arrange will glorify (reveal the essence) of both Father and Son. The disciples are now the manifestation of this love. Their conversion will come at Pentecost 30 CE with the Holy Spirit (No. 117). vv. 36-38 Peter is not yet ready to follow Jesus to death. Afterwards, according to the history of the church (see (No. 122D)), he was martyred by the Romans along with many other disciples, in many locations (see also (No. 170)).
1"Let not your hearts be troubled; believe in God, believe also in me. 2In my Father's house are many rooms; if it were not so, would I have told you that I go to prepare a place for you? 3And when I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again and will take you to myself, that where I am you may be also. 4And you know the way where I am going." 5Thomas said to him, "Lord, we do not know where you are going; how can we know the way?" 6Jesus said to him, "I am the way, and the truth, and the life; no one comes to the Father, but by me. 7If you had known me, you would have known my Father also; henceforth you know him and have seen him." 8Philip said to him, "Lord, show us the Father, and we shall be satisfied." 9Jesus said to him, "Have I been with you so long, and yet you do not know me, Philip? He who has seen me has seen the Father; how can you say, 'Show us the Father'? 10Do you not believe that I am in the Father and the Father in me? The words that I say to you I do not speak on my own authority; but the Father who dwells in me does his works. 11Believe me that I am in the Father and the Father in me; or else believe me for the sake of the works themselves. 12"Truly, truly, I say to you, he who believes in me will also do the works that I do; and greater works than these will he do, because I go to the Father. 13Whatever you ask in my name, I will do it, that the Father may be glorified in the Son; 14if you ask anything in my name, I will do it. 15"If you love me, you will keep my commandments. 16And I will pray the Father, and he will give you another Counselor, to be with you for ever, 17even the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it neither sees him nor knows him; you know him, for he dwells with you, and will be in you. 18"I will not leave you desolate; I will come to you. 19Yet a little while, and the world will see me no more, but you will see me; because I live, you will live also. 20In that day you will know that I am in my Father, and you in me, and I in you. 21He who has my commandments and keeps them, he it is who loves me; and he who loves me will be loved by my Father, and I will love him and manifest myself to him." 22Judas (not Iscariot) said to him, "Lord, how is it that you will manifest yourself to us, and not to the world?" 23Jesus answered him, "If a man loves me, he will keep my word, and my Father will love him, and we will come to him and make our home with him. 24He who does not love me does not keep my words; and the word which you hear is not mine but the Father's who sent me. 25"These things I have spoken to you, while I am still with you. 26But the Counselor, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he will teach you all things, and bring to your remembrance all that I have said to you. 27Peace I leave with you; my peace I give to you; not as the world gives do I give to you. Let not your hearts be troubled, neither let them be afraid. 28You heard me say to you, 'I go away, and I will come to you.' If you loved me, you would have rejoiced, because I go to the Father; for the Father is greater than I. 29And now I have told you before it takes place, so that when it does take place, you may believe. 30I will no longer talk much with you, for the ruler of this world is coming. He has no power over me; 31but I do as the Father has commanded me, so that the world may know that I love the Father. Rise, let us go hence.
Intent of Chapter 14
14:1-17:26 Jesus’ Farewell Discourse and Prayer
An interpretation of Jesus’ completed work on earth, and relation to both believers, and the world after his Resurrection and Ascension (see also Forty Days Following the Resurrection of Jesus Christ (No. 159B)).
14:1-31 The believers relation to the Glorified Christ.
14: 1-14 Jesus is the way to the Father
v. 1 Belief in God has new meaning in, and through, Jesus.
vv. 2-3 For him to go through death and resurrection to his Father’s House (with rooms for all) was to prepare a place of permanent fellowship with him (13:33,36). The reality is that when he and the loyal host return at the end of the Age they will all be placed in the First Resurrection (143A) and become part of the Millennial Administration from the Temple of God and then all others from the Second Resurrection (No. 143B) and then enter the City of God (No. 180). People who say that when they die they go to heaven and others go to hell are not Christians. They are Antinomian Gnostics (see No. 143A) and also (No. 164D) (F066v)).
14:4-7 Access to God is only through Jesus
(Mat. 11:27; Jn 1:18; 6:46; Acts 4:12).
vv. 8-11 Knowledge of God is through the person, works and words of Christ and the Law and the Testimony of Scripture. The saints are those who have been baptised into the Body of Christ and Keep the Commandments of God and the Faith and Testimony of Jesus Christ (Isa. 8:20; Jn. 17:3; Rev. 12:17; 14:12) (see also Repentance and Baptism (No. 052); The Holy Spirit (No. 117)).
14:12-17 Greater works (through Redemption) are achieved through prayer (v. 13) and obedience (v. 15).
14:14 Prayer is to the Father only in the name of Christ. The application of the “me” in the Greek does not limit the application of all prayer to the Father in the name of Christ as the text itself says in my name. In other words, all requests even of and for the acts of Christ are to be to the Father in the name of Christ and never to Christ or anyone else as others, except Christ, are still awaiting the resurrection (see Teach us to Pray (No. 111); Praying to Christ or Beings other than the Father (No. 111B); The Power of Prayer (No. 111C)).
vv. 15-31 Jesus promises the Holy Spirit
v. 15 If we love Christ we will keep the Commandments he gave, from God, to Israel through Moses as we see above in (vv. 8-11 above; Acts 7:30-53; 1Cor. 10:1-4) and through the Holy Spirit which is the counsellor of v. 16 (same word also translated advocate in 1Jn. 2:1). Anyone who tries to do away with the Law of God (L1) is not a Christian (Rev. 12:17; 14:12), and will be consigned to the Second Resurrection and the Great White Throne Judgment (No. 143B) and will face the possibility of The Second Death (No. 143C), unless they repent. At the return of the Messiah the Law and the Testimony, incl. The Sabbath (No. 031), and New Moons (No. 125) and the Feasts and all the Law will be reinforced and restored for the millennial system and forever, on pain of death (see Isa. 66:23-24; Zech. 2:1-11; Zech 12:8; Zech. 14:16-19).
14:18-20 The Spirit imparts Christ’s life (Acts 2:33) and unites the baptised believer to God. The Spirit makes Christ of one mind with the Father as it makes all the elect one with the Father. Christ gives the teachings of the Father to the elect and the world and it makes them understand the teachings of the Father.
vv. 21-24 Fellowship with Christ is dependent on keeping the Commandments of God that Christ gave to Moses at Sinai (Acts 7:30-53; 1Cor. 10:1-4). That unites us in love with God and Christ.
vv. 25-27 The Holy Spirit interprets Christ’s teachings (v. 26) and imparts his peace (v. 27).
vv. 28-31 Jesus is to go to the Father on his death and Resurrection as the Father is greater than he and is the One True God who sent him (Jn. 17:3), see (No 002) and (No. 002B). From these texts we see clearly that Christ is neither Co-equal nor Co-eternal with the One True God (see also Binitarianism and Trinitarianism (No. 076)).
Christ does as the Father has commanded him so that the world knows that he loves the Father.
It is through this obedience that Christ has qualified to overcome the adversary.
1"I am the true vine, and my Father is the vinedresser. 2Every branch of mine that bears no fruit, he takes away, and every branch that does bear fruit he prunes, that it may bear more fruit. 3You are already made clean by the word which I have spoken to you. 4Abide in me, and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit by itself, unless it abides in the vine, neither can you, unless you abide in me. 5I am the vine, you are the branches. He who abides in me, and I in him, he it is that bears much fruit, for apart from me you can do nothing. 6If a man does not abide in me, he is cast forth as a branch and withers; and the branches are gathered, thrown into the fire and burned. 7If you abide in me, and my words abide in you, ask whatever you will, and it shall be done for you. 8By this my Father is glorified, that you bear much fruit, and so prove to be my disciples. 9As the Father has loved me, so have I loved you; abide in my love. 10If you keep my commandments, you will abide in my love, just as I have kept my Father's commandments and abide in his love. 11These things I have spoken to you, that my joy may be in you, and that your joy may be full. 12"This is my commandment, that you love one another as I have loved you. 13Greater love has no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends. 14You are my friends if you do what I command you. 15No longer do I call you servants, for the servant does not know what his master is doing; but I have called you friends, for all that I have heard from my Father I have made known to you. 16You did not choose me, but I chose you and appointed you that you should go and bear fruit and that your fruit should abide; so that whatever you ask the Father in my name, he may give it to you. 17This I command you, to love one another. 18"If the world hates you, know that it has hated me before it hated you. 19If you were of the world, the world would love its own; but because you are not of the world, but I chose you out of the world, therefore the world hates you. 20Remember the word that I said to you, 'A servant is not greater than his master.' If they persecuted me, they will persecute you; if they kept my word, they will keep yours also. 21But all this they will do to you on my account, because they do not know him who sent me. 22If I had not come and spoken to them, they would not have sin; but now they have no excuse for their sin. 23He who hates me hates my Father also. 24If I had not done among them the works which no one else did, they would not have sin; but now they have seen and hated both me and my Father. 25It is to fulfil the word that is written in their law, 'They hated me without a cause.' 26But when the Counselor comes, whom I shall send to you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, who proceeds from the Father, he will bear witness to me; 27and you also are witnesses, because you have been with me from the beginning.
Intent of Chapter 15
vv. 1-16 Jesus teaches about the vine and the branches
vv. 1-11 The Father is the vinedresser on the vineyard of Israel. The old Israel failed and Christ was sent to restore Israel under the Holy Spirit (see Isa. 5:1-7; Jer. 2:21; Ezek. 19:10-14). The fruit bearing (Gal. 5:22-23) of the elect as the New Israel of the Church of God springs from union (v. 5) in prayer to God in the name of Christ (v. 7), in loving obedience (vv. 9 -10), issuing in joy (v. 11).
See Israel as the Vineyard of God (No. 001C) for the purpose of the Creation was to make humans as Elohim or Gods (Jn. 10:34-36), and is a temporary process. See the Elect as Elohim (No. 001) with the Plan of Salvation (No.001A) and Scripture cannot be broken (10:34-35).
The relation of believers to one another in the vine is in love. The measure is determined by Jesus’ death (v. 13). Fellowship with Jesus (vv. 14, 15) in fruit bearing and prayer (v. 16). From v. 16 we see that we were all chosen by the Predestination (No. 296) of God. We bear fruit so that the Father may give us what we ask. In this Christ commands us to love one another.
v. 18 Jesus warns the elect about the world’s hatred
v. 19 If the elect were of the world, the world would love them, as the world would love its own.
The world hates the Church because it hates Christ who has judged it (vv. 18-25; Pss. 35:19; 69:4), and the elect bear witness to Christ in the power of the Holy Spirit (vv. 26-27; Acts1:21-22; 5:32).
v. 23 He who hates Christ hates the Father also.
v. 24 If Christ had not done among them the works no one else had done, then they would not have sin but now they have seen and hated both Christ and the Father. v. 25 This was to fulfil what was said in the law “They hated me without cause” (Pss. 35:19; 38:19; 69:4). In John, Christ classes Psalms under the Law (see also Jn. 10:34-35).
v. 26 When the Counselor (Holy Spirit or Spirit of Truth) comes (at Pentecost 30 CE) whom Christ will send to us from the Father as it proceeds from the Father, it will bear witness to Christ, and the elect of the Church because they were with the Messiah from the Beginning (in 27 CE). It is through the Holy Spirit (No. 117) that the Father directs the wills of all the creation and directs what Christ and the elect are to teach those being called so that they are Chosen, Called, Justified, and Glorified (Rom. 8:28-30) (see also Predestination (No. 296) and The Problem of Evil (No. 118)). For the creation waits with eager longing for the revealing of the Sons of God and obtains the glorious liberty of the Children of God (Rom. 8:19-21).
1"I have said all this to you to keep you from falling away. 2They will put you out of the synagogues; indeed, the hour is coming when whoever kills you will think he is offering service to God. 3And they will do this because they have not known the Father, nor me. 4But I have said these things to you, that when their hour comes you may remember that I told you of them. "I did not say these things to you from the beginning, because I was with you. 5But now I am going to him who sent me; yet none of you asks me, 'Where are you going?' 6But because I have said these things to you, sorrow has filled your hearts. 7Nevertheless I tell you the truth: it is to your advantage that I go away, for if I do not go away, the Counselor will not come to you; but if I go, I will send him to you. 8And when he comes, he will convince the world concerning sin and righteousness and judgment: 9concerning sin, because they do not believe in me; 10concerning righteousness, because I go to the Father, and you will see me no more; 11concerning judgment, because the ruler of this world is judged. 12"I have yet many things to say to you, but you cannot bear them now. 13When the Spirit of truth comes, he will guide you into all the truth; for he will not speak on his own authority, but whatever he hears he will speak, and he will declare to you the things that are to come. 14He will glorify me, for he will take what is mine and declare it to you. 15All that the Father has is mine; therefore I said that he will take what is mine and declare it to you. 16"A little while, and you will see me no more; again a little while, and you will see me." 17Some of his disciples said to one another, "What is this that he says to us, 'A little while, and you will not see me, and again a little while, and you will see me'; and, 'because I go to the Father'?" 18They said, "What does he mean by 'a little while'? We do not know what he means." 19Jesus knew that they wanted to ask him; so he said to them, "Is this what you are asking yourselves, what I meant by saying, 'A little while, and you will not see me, and again a little while, and you will see me'? 20Truly, truly, I say to you, you will weep and lament, but the world will rejoice; you will be sorrowful, but your sorrow will turn into joy. 21When a woman is in travail she has sorrow, because her hour has come; but when she is delivered of the child, she no longer remembers the anguish, for joy that a child is born into the world. 22So you have sorrow now, but I will see you again and your hearts will rejoice, and no one will take your joy from you. 23In that day you will ask nothing of me. Truly, truly, I say to you, if you ask anything of the Father, he will give it to you in my name. 24Hitherto you have asked nothing in my name; ask, and you will receive, that your joy may be full. 25"I have said this to you in figures; the hour is coming when I shall no longer speak to you in figures but tell you plainly of the Father. 26In that day you will ask in my name; and I do not say to you that I shall pray the Father for you; 27for the Father himself loves you, because you have loved me and have believed that I came from the Father. 28I came from the Father and have come into the world; again, I am leaving the world and going to the Father." 29His disciples said, "Ah, now you are speaking plainly, not in any figure! 30Now we know that you know all things, and need none to question you; by this we believe that you came from God." 31Jesus answered them, "Do you now believe? 32The hour is coming, indeed it has come, when you will be scattered, every man to his home, and will leave me alone; yet I am not alone, for the Father is with me. 33I have said this to you, that in me you may have peace. In the world you have tribulation; but be of good cheer, I have overcome the world."
Intent of Chapter 16
vv. 1-4 Jesus warns about the world’s hatred
Christ forewarns of persecution. He expected it from Jews but also the world in general. Whoever kills one of the elect will act as though they have done God a service. This was seriously so over the Unitarian/Trinitarian Wars (No. 268). See also No. 122; No. 122D and the Inquisitions (Role of the Fourth Commandment in the Historical Sabbath–keeping Churches of God (No. 170)). God foretold the entire persecutions until the death of the Witnesses in the End of the Age and the Coming of the Messiah (vv. 2-3; Acts 22:3-5; 26:9-11; Rev. Chs. 6 to 20 (F066ii, iii, iv, v) and F027ii, xi, xii, xiii); No. 210A and No. 210B).
16:4b-11 Christian relations with the world.
v. 4b Christ did not tell them of the persecutions while he was with them but now he is to return to The Father, The One True God who sent him (17:3), he speaks more openly.
vv. 5-16 Jesus teaches about the Holy Spirit and its work through the Church.
Christ had to go to the Father in order that he be accepted as the Wave Sheaf Offering (No. 106B) so that the Holy Spirit (No. 117) could be sent to mankind through the Church of God at Pentecost 30 CE. Christ’s death and resurrection was to make possible the work of the Spirit (vv. 6-7). It can then convince the world concerning sin and righteousness and judgment (v. 8); concerning sin because the world does not believe in Christ (v. 9); concerning righteousness because he goes to the Father and we will see him no more (v. 10); concerning judgment because the ruler of this world is judged (v. 11; 12:31; 14:30; 1Cor. 2:8; Col. 2:15; Judgment of the Demons (No. 080)). When the Spirit of truth comes it will guide the elect into all truth (v. 12); see also Gender of the Holy Spirit (No. 155). The Holy Spirit will not speak on its own authority but on what it hears from God and it will declare the things that are to come, as prophecy, to them (v. 13). The Spirit glorifies Christ by taking what is his and declaring it through, and to the elect, who are the body (vv. 14-15). In a little while they will see Christ no more (v. 16) (see F043v).
vv. 17-33 Jesus teaches about using His name in prayer
vv. 17-24 The apostles did not understand what Christ meant by this as they had not yet come to grips with the death and resurrection ahead (chs. 17-21).
Jesus explained to them that he would go to the Father and they would not see him and then he would return and they would see him again; see Forty Days following Christ’s Resurrection (No. 159B).(v. 19). They would weep and lament but the world will be filled with joy over his abiding presence over the time ahead (vv. 20-22) (see the Sign of Jonah… (No. 013) and Completion of the Sign of Jonah (No. 013B)).
v. 23 Christ says that if we ask anything of the Father he will give it to the elect in Christ’s name. Up until then the disciples had received nothing in Christ’s name. He then says they were to ask then through the Spirit that their joy may be full.
16:25-33 Christ’s pledge of Triumph
Christ came from the Father and came into the world; again I am leaving the world and going to the Father (Jn. 3:13 F043). Christ going to the Father (v. 28) and the sending of the Holy Spirit makes plain all his teachings.
v. 25 Christ says that he has said things to them in figures and the Hour is coming when he will no longer speak to them in figures. v. 26 In that day we will not longer ask Christ to pray to the Father but we will ask the Father directly because The elect loved and trusted Christ, the Father then loves the elect because the elect loved Christ and believed he came from the Father (see also 17:3 n); (vv. 27-28)).
v. 29 The disciples then said: Now you are speaking plainly, (not in any figure (or parable)). And by this they know he knows and came from God (v. 30). v. 31 Christ then said: Do you now believe?
v. 32 Christ then talks of the scattering of the disciples to their homes leaving Christ alone, but he will have the Father with him (Mk. 14:27; Zech. 13:7).
v. 33 Christ said this to them so that, in him, they may have peace. In the world, the elect have tribulation, but they are to be of good cheer as Christ has overcome the world (14:27; 15:18; Rom. 8:37; 2Cor. 2:14; Rev. 3:21). Christ said these things so that the elect may understand the Holy Spirit as the Power of God and the Comforter of the elect in the tribulations ahead.
Bullinger’s Notes on John Chs. 13-16 (for KJV)
before. Greek. pro. App-104 . The preparation day, the 14th day of Nisan, our Tuesday sunset to Wednesday sunset, the day of the Crucifixion. See App-156 ,
Passover . Aramaean pascha. See App-94 .
when Jesus knew = Jesus ( App-98 . X), knowing (Greek. oida, App-132 .)
out of. Greek. ek. App-104 .
world . Greek. kosmos. App-129 .
unto . Greek. pros. App-104 .
the Father . App-98 . See John 1:14 .
loved . Greek. agapao. App-135 .
in . Greek. en. App-104 .
unto . Greek. eis. App-104 .
end = furthest extent, referring not so much to a period of time, the end of His life, as to His readiness to descend to the humblest service in their behalf.
supper . The last supper recorded. See App-157 .
being ended. In view of John 13:26 , Alford's translation, "supper having been served, "is preferable to Authorized Version and Revised Version renderings. It means "supper being laid". Washing would naturally precede the meal Compare Luke 7:44 .
now = already.
into . Greek. eis. App-104 .
Judas . See John 6:71 .
had given . &c. These statements of His divine origin, authority, and coming glory, are made so as to enhance the amazing condescension of the service to which He humbled Himself to do the office of a bond-slave.
from . Greek apo. App-104 .
God. App-98 .
went = is going away.
to = unto. Greek. pros. As in John 13:1 .
riseth . App-178 . from. Greek. ek. App-104 .
supper = supper table (as we should say), i.e., after they had taken their places.
garments , i.e. the outer garment. Greek. himation, translated "robe "in John 19:2 , John 19:6 . This was removed for working, and for sleeping was often used as a coverlet. When removed, leaving only the chiton or tunic, the man was said to be naked.
towel . Greek. lention, a linen cloth (Latin. linteum).
After that = Then.
poureth = putteth, same word as in John 13:2 .
wash . Greek. nipto. App-136 .
Then. = Therefore.
Simon Peter . App-141 . Peter. No word for Peter. Some substitute ekeinos (he, - emphatic), but L T Trm. A WI R reject it.
Lord. Greek. kurios. App-98 .
thou . . . my . The pronouns are emphatic.
not. Greek. ou. App-105 .
now. Greek. arti = just now.
know = get to know. Greek. ginosko. App-132 .
hereafter = after (Greek. meta. App-104 .) these things.
never = by no means (Greek. ou me. App-105 )
unto the age (Greek. eis ton aiona. App-151 ).
If. Greek. ean, with subj. App-118 .
not . Greek me. App-105 .
no = not ( App-105 .) any.
with . Greek. meta. App-104 .
washed = bathed. Greek. louo. App-186 . Note the distinction between washing the whole body, and washing only a part of it. Compare 1 Corinthians 6:11 .
clean . Greek. katharos. Occurs twenty-seven times, translated ten times "clean", sixteen "pure", and once "clear "(Revelation 21:18 ) = free from impurity or dross. Used here of the eleven (Compare John 15:8 ), but not of Judas into whose heart Satan had "cast "the impure thought of John 13:2 .
should betray Him = the one who is betraying Him.
therefore = on account of (Greek. dia. App-104 .)
So after = When therefore.
what = what [it is].
Lord . App-98 .
ye say well. Would that Christians today would treat Him with the same respect which He here commends, instead of calling Him by the name of His humiliation, Jesus, by which He was never addressed by disciples, only by demons (Matthew 8:29 . Mark 1:24 ; Mark 5:6 . Luke 8:28 ) and those who only knew Him as a prophet (Mark 10:47 . Luke 18:38 ). The Holy Spirit uses "Jesus" in the Gospel narratives.
If then = Therefore if ( App-118 . a) L
your = the.
ought , &c. By Figure of speech Synecdoche ( App-6 ) the act of feet-washing is put for the whole circle of offices of self-denying love. Literal feet-washing was not known before the fourth cent. A.D.
neither . Greek. oude.
sent . Greek. pempo. App-174 .
concerning. Greek peri. App-104 .
He that, &c. Quoted from Psalms 41:9 .
bread . Greek. the bread, i.e. My bread. In a pastoral letter of an Egyptian bishop about 600 A. n. on a Coptic ostracon this verse is quoted from the Septuagint, "He that eateth My bread", &c. (Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East, p. 216).
against . Greek. epi. App-104 .
believe . App-150 .
troubled . See John 11:33 .
Spirit . App-101 .
of = out of. Greek. ek. App-104 .
looked . Greek. blepo. App-133 .
on = towards. Greek. eis. App-104 .
splice = is speaking.
leaning = reclining. Greek. anakeimai, generally translated "sat at meat"; Compare John 13:28 . Reclining on the divan, his head towards the Lord's bosom, John was in the favoured position, on the Lord's right hand, Judas being on His left.
on = in (Greek. en, as in John 13:1 ).
beckoned = signed or nodded. Greek neuo. Only here and Acts 24:10 . that he should ask who it should be. L T Tr. A H R read, "and saith to him,`Say who it is '".
lying = lying back. Not the same word as "leaning" in John 13:23 . Peter was beyond Judas, and leaning back signed to John behind the Lord.
on . Greek. epi. App-104 .
sop . Greek. psomion, a morsel. Only occurances here and verses: John 13:27 , John 13:30 . It was a mark of honour for the host to give a portion to one of the guests. The Lord had appealed to the conscience of Judas in John 13:21 , now He appeals to his heart.
after . Greek. meta. App-104 .
Satan . The only occurance of this title in John. Before this clause in the Greek is the word tote, then, marking the point of time; it is strangely ignored in the Authorized Version It is significant that the rejection of the Lord's last appeal hardened Judas, so that his heart became open to the entrance of Satan. Up to this moment Judas had been possessed by the evil thought, now he is obsessed by the evil one.
Then = Therefore. The Lord knew what had taken place, and that further appeal was useless. He dismisses him to the work he is set upon. See the terrible words in Psalms 41:6 , "His heart gathereth iniquity to itself; he goeth abroad, he telleth", exactly what Judas did.
no man at the table = no one (Greek. oudeis) of those reclining (Greek. anakeimai). See John 13:23 .
for what intent = with a view to (Greek. pros. App-104 .) what.
spake this unto him = spake to him.
thought = were thinking.
bag . See note on John 12:6 .
had said = saith.
against = for. Greek. eis. App-104 .
the feast : i.e. the feast beginning at the close of Passover, when the high day, 15th of Nisan, began ( App-156 ).
poor . Greek. ptochos. See 12. s and App-127 .
he = That One. Greek. ekeinos, emphatic. immediately. Greek eutheos, a very common word in Mark's Gospel. Occurance in John only here, John 5:9 ; John 6:21 and John 18:27 . L T Tr. A WI R read euthus, as in John 13:32 .
night : i.e. about the third hour of the night, 9pm, Tuesday night. See App-165 .
Therefore, when = When therefore.
he was gone out = he went out.
Now . Greek. nun. See John 12:27 .
the Son of man . App-98 .
If. App-118 . [L Tr. A) WH R omit the conditional clause.
straightway . Greek. euthus. See note on John 13:30 .
as = even as.
new. Greek. kainos. See note on Matthew 9:17 .
By = In. Greek. en. App-104 .
love . Greek agape. App-135 .
one to another = among (Greek. en) yourselves. Compare the only other place in the Gospels where en allelois occurs (Mark 9:50 ).
Me. All the texts omit.
now = just now. Greek. arti.
life . Greek. psuche. App-110 .
for Thy sake = on behalf of (Greek. huper. App-104 .) Thee.
answered him . All the texts read, "answereth". The = A.
not = by no means. Greek. ou me. App-105 .
crow. Greek. phoneo. Same word as in John 13:13 .
denied = utterly denied (Greek. aparneumai), always of denying a person, as in Mat 26:84 , Matthew 26:35 , Matthew 26:75 .Mark 14:30 , Mark 14:31 , Mark 14:72 .Luke 22:34 Luke 22:61 ; but L T Tr. A WH R read arneomai, the milder
form , without the intensive prefix.
not. Greek. me. App-105 .
ye believe . There is no reason for translating the two verbs differently. Both are imperative. "Believe in God, and believe in Me".
believe . App-150 .
in . Greek. eis. God. App-98 .
In. Greek. en. App-104 .
My Father's . In John's Gospel the Lord uses this expression thirty-five times, though in a few instances the texts read "the" instead of "My". It is found fourteen times in these three chapters 14-16. It occurs seventeen times in Matthew, six times in Luke (three times in parables), but not once in Mark.
mansions = abiding places. Greek. more (from meno, a characteristic word in this Gospel). Occurs only here and in John 14:23 ,
if it were not so = if not. Greek. ei me. There is no verb. I would, &c. All the texts add "that" (hoti), and read "would I have told you that I go", &c.
if . App-118 .
I will come , &c. = again I am coming, and I will receive you.
unto . Greek. pros. App-104 .
that = in order that. Greek hires.
yemay be also = ye also may be.
know . Greek. oida. App-132 . Most of the texts omit the second "ye know", and read, "whither, &c., ye know the way. "
Thomas. See App-94 and App-141 .
unto = to. Lord. App-98 . A.
not . Greek. ou. App-105 .
can , &c. The texts read, "know we".
Jesus . App-98 .
am. This affirmation used by our Lord at least twenty-five times in John. See John 4:26 ; John 6:20 ("It is I". Greek Ego eimi), 35, 41, 48, 51; John 8:12 , John 8:18 , John 8:23 , John 8:24 , John 8:28 , John 8:58 ; John 10:7 , John 10:9 , John 10:11 , John 10:14 ; John 11:25 ; John 13:19 ; John 15:1 , John 15:5 ; John 18:5 , John 18:6 , John 18:8 , John 18:37 .
the truth = and the truth. Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton to emphasize the Lord's statement.
truth. Greek aletheia. Compare App-175 . This word occurs twenty-five times in John, always in the lips of the Lord, save John 1:14 , John 1:17 and John 18:38 (Pilate). Only seven times in Matthew, Mark, and Luke.
life . App-170 ., a characteristic word in this Gospel, where it occurs thirty-six times. See first occurance (Matthew 7:14 ), "the way which leadeth unto life", and compare 1 John 5:11 , 1Jn 5:12 , 1 John 5:20 .
no man = no one. Greek. oudeis.
cometh. Compare John 6:44 .
the Father . See John 1:14 ,
but = if not. Greek ei me.
by = through. Greek dia. App-104 .John 14:1 .
If , &c. App-118 .
known . App-132 .
from henceforth = from (Greek. apo. App-104 . iv) now.
seen . App-133 . Compare 1 John 1:1 .
so long time . Philip, one of the first called. See John 1:43 .
with . Greek. meta. App-104 .
Believest . App-150 .
the words , &c. Supply the Ellipsis ( App-6 ) thus: "The words that I speak, I speak not of Myself, but the Father that dwelleth in Me speaketh them, and the works that I do, I do not of Myself, but the Father that dwelleth in Me doeth them".
words. Greek. rhema. See Mark 9:32 .
of = from, Greek. apo. App-104 .
abideth . Greek. meno. See p. 1511.
the works . The texts read "His works".
Believe Me that , &c. App-150 .
believe Me . App-150 .
for . . . sake = On account of. Greek. dia. App-104 .John 14:2 .
very works = works themselves.
Verily, verily . The twenty-second occurance. See on John 1:51 .
he do also = he also do.
greater . Not only more remarkable miracles (Acts 5:15 ; Acts 19:12 ) by the men who were endued with power from on high (pneuma hagion, App-101 .), but a more extended and successful ministry. The Lord rarely went beyond the borders of Palestine. He for-bade the twelve to go save to the lost sheep of the house of Israel (Matthew 10:5 , Matthew 10:6 ); after Pentecost they went "everywhere" (Acts 8:4 ), and Paul could say, "your faith is spoken of throughout the whole world" (Romans 1:8 ).
ask . App-134 . Compare Matthew 7:7 .
glorified. See John 12:16 .
love . Greek. agapao. App-135 ., and see p. 1511. keep. Most of the texts read, "ye will keep".
shall = will.
another . Greek. allos. App-124 .
Comforter . Greek. parakletos, rendered "Advocate" in 1 John 2:1 . Parakletos and the Latin Advocatus both mean one called to the side of another for help or counsel. The word is only found in John: here; John 14:26 ; John 15:26 ; John 16:7 and 1 John 2:1 . So we have one Paraclete (the Holy Spirit) as here, and another with the Father. The Rabbinical writings often refer to the Messiah under the title Menahem (= Comforter), and speak of His days as the days of consolation. Compare Luke 2:25 . See Dr. John Lightfoot's Works, vol. xii, p. 384.
abide . Greek. meno. Same as "dwelleth "in John 14:10 . See p. 1611.
for ever. Greek. eis ton aiona. App-151 .
the Spirit of truth = the Spirit ( App-101 .) of the truth. The definite article in both cases.
world . Greek. kosmos. App-129 .
cannot = is not ( App-105 ) able to.
seeth . Greek. theoreo. App-133 .
with = beside. Greek. para. App-104 .
comfortless = orphans. Greek. or phanos. Occurs only here and James 1:27 .
will come = am coming. As in John 14:3 .
to. Greek. pros. App-104 .
no more . Greek. ouk eti.
shall live also = also shall live.
At = In. Greek. en. App-104 .
At that day . Referring primarily to the forty days after His resurrection, but this well-known Hebrew term describes the day of the Lord, in contra- distinction to this present day of man (1 Corinthians 4:3 margin) See Isaiah 2:11-17 and Revelation 1:10 .
I in you. Fulfilled primarily at Pentecost, but looking on to the time when He will be among (Greek. en. App-104 .) His people, as Jehovah-Shammah. See Ezekiel 43:7 ; Ezekiel 48:35 .Zephaniah 3:15-17 .
of = by. Greek. hupo. App-104 .
manifest . Greek. emphanizo. App-106 .
Judas . App-141 . Brother or son of James (Luke 6:16 , Revised Version) Five others of this name. Judas Iscariot; Judas, the Lord's brother (Matthew 13:30 ); Judas of Galilee (Acts 5:37 ); Judas of Damascus (Acts 9:11 ); and Judas Barsabas (Acts 15:22 ). This is the only mention of this Judas. how is it . . . P = how comes it to pass?
wilt = art about to.
answered , &c. See note on Deuteronomy 1:41 and App-122 .
a man = any one. Greek. tis . App-123 .
abode. Same word as "mansions", in John 14:2 .
sayings = words. Greek. logos. Same as "word "in the next clause, and in John 14:23 . Compare John 8:51 , John 8:52 , John 8:55 , and see note on Mark 9:32 . Which sent Me. This expression (Greek. ho pempsas , App-174 .), Occurs twenty-four times, all in John. See John 4:34 ; John 5:23 , John 5:24 , John 5:30 , John 5:37 ; John 6:38 , John 6:39 , John 6:40 , John 6:44 ; John 7:16 , John 7:28 , John 7:33 ; John 8:16 , John 8:18 , John 8:26 , John 8:29 ; John 9:4 ; John 12:44 , John 12:45 , John 12:49 ; John 13:20 ; John 15:21 ; John 16:5 . In the third person, "that sent Him", twice, John 7:18 ; John 13:16 .
the Holy Ghost = the Spirit, the Holy. Greek. to Pneuma to Hagion. The only place in John where the two articles are found. Elsewhere Matthew 12:32 .Mark 3:29 ; Mark 12:36 ; Mark 13:11 .Luke 2:26 ; Luke 3:22 .Acts 1:16 ; Acts 5:3 , Acts 5:32 ; Act 7:61 ; Acts 8:18 ; Acts 10:44 , Acts 10:47 ; Acts 11:15 ; Acts 13:2 , Acts 13:4 ; Acts 15:8 ; Acts 19:6 ; Acts 20:23 , Acts 20:28 ; Acts 21:11 ; Acts 21:28 , Acts 21:25 .Ephesians 1:13 ; Ephesians 4:30 . Hebrews 3:7 ; Hebrews 9:8 ; Hebrews 9:10 . is. Twenty-eight times (7 x 4 = 28. App-10 ). See App-101 .
he = that One. Greek. ekeinos.
teach . Greek. didasko. Occurs 97 times, always rendered "teach". Compare 1 John 2:27 . Other words translated "teach "are katangello, Acts 16:21 ; katecheo, 1 Corinthians 14:19 . Galatians 1:6 , Galatians 1:6 ; matheteuo, Matthew 28:19 . Acts 14:21 ; and paideuo, Acts 22:3 .Titus 2:12 .
bring, &c. = put you in mind of. Occurs seven times: Luk 22:61 . 2 Timothy 2:14 . Tit 3:1 . 2 Peter 1:12 . 2 John 1:10 . Jude 1:5 . Compare John 2:17 , John 2:22 ; John 12:16 . Luke 24:6 , Luke 24:8 (a kindred word).
Peace. Figure of speech Synecdoche. Greek. eirene. Six times in John, always by the Lord. Compare Daniel 10:19 .
with you = to you.
unto = to,
world. Greek kosmos. App-129 . The world talks of peace, and we have Peace Societies, and Temples of Peace, while the nations are arming to the teeth. The world (Acts 4:27 ) slew Him Who came to bring peace, and now talks of creating a "World's Peace" without the Prince of Peace, in ignorance of Psalms 2:1 . Pro 1:25-27 . 1 Thessalonians 5:8 .
neither . Greek mede.
have heard = heard (Aor.)
come again = am coming (omit "again "). I said. All the texts omit.
greater . The Lord was not inferior as to His essential being (see verses: John 14:9-11 ; John 10:30 ), but as to His office, as sent by the Father. See 1 Corinthians 15:27 . Philippians 1:2 , Philippians 1:9-11 .
now . Greek. nee. See John 12:27 .
believe . App-150 .
Hereafter I will not = No longer (Greek. ouk eti) will I.
prince. See John 12:31 .
that = in order that. Greek. hina.
I love . The only place where the Lord speaks of loving the Father. Six times the Father's love to the Son is mentioned, John 3:35 ; John 10:17 ; John 16:9 ; John 17:23 , John 17:24 , John 17:26 . The adjective agapetos, beloved, does not occur in John's Gospel, but nine times in his Epistles. See App-135 .
as = even as.
arise. Implying haste . Greek. egeiro. App-178 .
let us go . Compare John 11:15 .
I am. See on John 14:6
true = real. App-175 .
vine . Three trees are used in the N.T. to teach important lessons. The fig is used by our Lord to show the causes of the doom of Israel. In Romans 11:0 , Paul applies the figure of the olive tree also to Israel, and utters a solemn warning to the Gentiles; i.e. all the Gentiles upon whom My name is called (Acts 15:17 ), now grafted in in Israel's place. The vine speaks of Israel's temporal and spiritual blessings (Psalms 8:0 0 and Isaiah 5:0 ). That vine failed. Henceforth there is no blessing for Israel as such till He comes Who is the true Israel (Isaiah 49:8 ), as He is the true vine. Then shall Isaiah 27:6 be fulfilled. The interpretation of this passage is for Israel alone, though many blessed lessons may be drawn from it, by way of application. Through reading the "Church" into these verses, great confusion has resulted and grievous distress been caused to the people of God.
My Father . See John 2:16 .
in . Greek en. App-104 . not. Greek. me. App-106 .
taketh away = raiseth. Greek. airo. Occurs 102 times, and translates more than forty times, take up, lift up, &c. Take away is a secondary meaning, see the Lexicons. Compare Matthew 4:6 ; Matthew 16:24 .Luke 17:13 .Revelation 10:5 ; Revelation 18:21 , and Psalms 24:7 , Psalms 24:9 (Septuagint)
purgeth = cleanseth. Greek kathairo. Occurs only here, and Hebrews 10:2 . Of the two kinds of branches, the fruitless and the fruitful, He raises the former from grovelling on the ground, that it may bear fruit, and cleanses the latter that it may bear more fruit.
that = in order that. Greek. hina.
bring forth = bear. Same word as in the two previous clauses.
through = on account of. App-104
word . Greek. logos. See on Mark 9:32 .
unto = to
Abide . Greek. meno. See p. 1511.
and I . Read "I also [abide] in you". Omit the full stop, and supply "for".
cannot = is not ( App-105 ) able to.
of. Greek. apo. App-104 .
except = if . . . not. Greek. ean me. App-118 and App-105 .
no more = even so neither. Greek houtos oude.
nothing . Greek. ou ouden, a double negative.
If a man . . . not . Greek. ean me tis. App-118 and App-123 . See "except" in John 15:4 . It is no longer "you "or "ye" but "any one", speaking generally.
a = the.
into . Greek. eis. App-104 .
If. App-118 .
words sayings. Greek rhema. See Mark 9:32 .
will . Greek. thelo. App-102 .
be done = come to pass. Greek. ginomai.
Herein = In (Greek. en. App-104 .) this.
is . . . glorified = was . . . glorified (Aorist). Greek doxazo. See p. 1511 and Compare John 13:31 .
so shall ye be = and (that) ye may become. Greek ginomai. See on "done "in John 15:7 .
As = Even as. Greek kathos.
the Father . See on John 1:14 .
hath loved = loved. Aor. as in second clause. App-135 .
continue = abide. Greek. meno, as in John 15:4 .
love. App-135 ., and see p. 1511.
remain = abide. Greek meno as above, but all the texts read "be".
your joy . As He gave them His peace (John 14:27 ), so He seeks to make them partakers of His joy.
might be full = may be fulfilled: i.e. filled full.
as = even as. have
loved = loved, as in John 15:9 .
no man = no one. Greek. oudeis.
a man = one. Greek. tis. App-123 .
life. App-110 .
for = in behalf of. Greek. huper. App-104 .
whatsoever . The texts read "the things which".
Henceforth . . . not = No longer. Greek. ouketi, compound of ou.
servants = bondservants.
knoweth . App-132 .
not. Greek. ou. App-105 .
lord. Greek kurios. App-98 .
of = with. Greek para. App-104 .
have made known = made known (Aor.)
y e have not , &c. = Not that ye chose Me, &c. Figure of speech Antimetabole. App-6 . Thus reversing the custom of the Jews for the disciple to choose his own master. See Dr. John Lightfoot, Works, vol. iii. p. 175.
have chosen = chose.
go = go forth.
ask of = ask, as in John 15:7 .
If . App-118 .
world . Greek. kosmos. See John 14:17 and App-129 .
ye know = know (imperative mood) Greek. ginosko. App-132 .
hated = hath hated. Therefore continues to hate.
of = out of. Greek ek. App-104 .
would love . Would love and continue loving (Imperfect). Greek. phileo. App-135 . have
chosen = chose.
out of . Greek. ek, as above.
Remember . Referring to John 13:16 .
have persecuted = persecuted (Aor.) Greek. dioko = to pursue (opposite to pheugo, to flee), here with malignant intent. It is translated thirty-one times "persecute", and thirteen times "follow", &c. in a good sense. Compare Acts 9:4 . In Luke 11:49 and 1 Thessalonians 2:18 a stronger word, ekdioko, is used.
also, &c. = persecute you also.
have kept = kept (Aor.)
saying. Greek logos. Same as "word" above, and in John 3:25 .
unto. The received text has the dative, but all the texts read eis ( App-104 .)
for My name's sake = on account of (Greek. dia. App-104 .John 15:2; John 15:2 ) My name. See Acts 4:7 , Acts 4:17 , Acts 4:18 ; Acts 5:40 , Acts 5:41 ; Acts 9:14 , Acts 9:16 , Acts 9:21 ; 1 Peter 4:14 , 1 Peter 4:16 , where all the texts read "name" instead of "behalf".
Him That sent Me. See on John 14:24 .
had . . . come , &c. = came and spake.
had not had sin = would not have (imperf.) sin, i.e. in rejecting Him as the Messiah. Figure of speech Heterasis. App-6 . sin. App-128 .
now. Greek. nun. See John 12:27 .
no = not ( App-105 ) any.
cloke = excuse. Greek. prophasis. Occurs seven times, rendered "pretence" in Matthew 23:14 .Mark 12:40 . Philippians 1:1 , Philippians 1:18 ; "shew", Luke 20:47 ; ' colour", Acts 27:30 , and "cloke", here and 1 Thessalonians 2:5 .
for = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104 .
among . Greek. en. App-104 .
seen . Greek horao. App-133 .
fulfilled. See note on "full" in John 15:11 .
their law . Compare John 8:17 .
without a cause . Greek dorean. Occurs eight times; translated "freely" in Matthew 10:8 . Rom 3:24 . 2 Corinthians 11:7 . Revelation 21:6 ; Revelation 22:17 , "in vain", Galatians 2:21 "for nought", 2 Thessalonians 3:8 .
the Comforter . See John 14:16 .
is come = shall have come.
send . Greek. pempo. App-174 .
from . Greek. para. App-104 .
the Spirit of truth . See on John 14:17 .
proceedeth = goeth forth.
he. Greek. ekeinos, as in John 14:26 .
shall = will; one of the many instances where both Authorized Version and Revised Version blur the sense of their translation by the misuse of "shall "and "will".
testify = bear witness. Greek. martureo. See note on John 1:7 .
of = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104 .
shall bear witness = testify, or are testifying (present).
ye have been = ye are.
with . Greek. meta. App-104 .
from the beginning . See note on John 8:44 .
unto = to.
that = in order that. Greek. hina.
not . Greek. me. App-105 .
offended : literally scandalized, or caused to stumble. See John 6:61 .Matthew 5:29 ; Matthew 11:6 ; Matthew 26:31 , Matthew 26:33 . Compare 1 Corinthians 1:23 .Galatians 1:3 , Galatians 1:13 . The Talmud speaks of Him as "the hung".
shall = will.
doeth , &c. = is presenting an offering to God. See Acts 26:9 .
God. App-98 .
service . Greek. latreia, technical word for an "offering". Occurs five times: here; Romans 9:4 ; Romans 12:1 .Hebrews 9:1 , Hebrews 9:6 . In the Septuagint five times: Exodus 12:25 , Exodus 12:26 ; Exodus 13:5 . Jos 22:27 . 1 Chronicles 28:13 .
unto you . All the texts omit.
have not known = knew not (Aor.),
not . Greek. ou. App-105 .
known . App-132 .
the Father . See p. 1511.
nor . Greek. oude .
shall come = shall have come.
at the beginning = from the beginning. Greek. ex arches. See note on John 6:64 . with. Greek. meta. App-104 .
now . Greek. nun. See John 12:27 .
go My way = am going away: i.e. withdrawing.
to . Greek. pros. App-104 .
Him That sent Me . See on John 14:24 .
sent. Greek. pempo. App-174 .
none = no one. Greek. oudeis.
of = out of. Greek. ek. App-104 .
asketh. Greek erotao. App-134 . They did not grasp the expediency of His going. So questioning had given place to sorrow. All else was excluded by the distress caused by "the things" foretold.
Nevertheless = But.
truth . Greek. atetheia. Compare App-175 ., and see p. 1511.
expedient = profitable. Greek. sumphero. Compare Matthew 5:29 , Matthew 5:30 . Acts 20:20 . Occurs in John here; John 11:50 ; and John 18:14 . The two last passages indicate what Caiaphas deemed "expedient".
go away : i.e. openly.
if . App-118 .
Comforter. See on John 14:16 .
unto. Greek. pros. Same as "to" in John 16:5 .
depart. Greek. poreuomai. Same word as in John 14:2 . Note the three different words used by the Lord. In this verse, aperchomai twice, translated "go away", expressing the fact; pareuomai, " depart", describing the change of sphere from earth to heaven, and in John 16:5 hupago, the manner, secretly, viz. by resurrection. It was in this way that Peter could not follow Him then (John 13:36 ).
And , &c. These four verses exhibit the Figure of speech Prosapodosis, App-6 .
when He is come = having come.
he. Greek. ekeinos. See John 14:26 .
world. Greek. kosmos. App-129 .
of = concerning. App-104 .
sin. App-128 .
judgment. App-177 .
because . The mission of the Holy Spirit was to bring the world in guilty in regard to three things: (1) SIN. In God's sight sin is refusal to believe the Gospel concerning His son (1 John 5:10 ). The Jews regarded only moral offences (as men do to-day) and infractions of the ceremonial law and the traditions of the elders (Matthew 15:2 ) as sin. (2) RIGHTEOUSNESS. Here also God's standard and man's differ. The Jews regarded the punctilious Pharisee (Luke 18:11 , Luke 18:12 ) as the ideal. The only righteous One, whose standard was the will of God (John 8:29 . Hebrews 10:7 ), was rejected and crucified, and now in righteousness was to be removed from the earth, the seal of the Father's approval being put upon Him by resurrection. In Him Who is made unto us righteousness (1 Corinthians 1:30 ), the Divine standard is revealed (Romans 1:17 ). (3) JUDGMENT. For the prince of this world has been already judged (John 12:31 ) and sentenced, and ere long the sentence will be executed (Romans 16:20 ).
believe . . . on. App-150 .
My Father . See on John 14:2 .
see = behold. App-133 .
no more . Greek. ouketi.
is judged = has been judged. App-122 .
I have , &c. Still there are many things I have.
cannot = are not ( App-105 ) able.
Howbeit = But.
the Spirit of truth. See on John 14:17 and App-101 .
is come = shall have come.
guide = lead on the way. Greek. hodegeo. Elsewhere in Matthew 15:14 .Luke 6:39 . Acts 8:31 .Revelation 7:17 . Used in the Septuagint for Hebrew. nahdh. Nehemiah 9:19 . Psa 23:8 ; Psalms 73:24 ; Psalms 139:24 , &c.
into. Greek. eis. App-104 .
all truth = all the truth: i.e. all the truth necessary for His people from Ascension to Descension; the truth concerning the Pentecostal Church, the blessed hope of His return, and the mystery or secret of' the Body of Christ, yet to be revealed to Paul.
of = from. Greek. apo. App-104 .
whatsoever = whatsoever things.
shall = will.
things to come = the coming things.
glorify . See p. 1511.
A little while . See on John 13:33 .
shall not see Me . Most of the texts read, "see ( App-133 .) Me no more".
see . App-133 :. a. Not the same word as in first clause.
because , &c. T Tr. A WI R omit this clause.
Then = Therefore.
among themselves = to (Greek. pros. App-104 .) one another.
cannot tell = do not (Greek. ou . App-105 .) know. App-132 .
Now. All the texts omit.
Jesus . App-98 .
were desirous = were wishing. Greek. thelo. App-102 .
among yourselves = with (Greek. meta. App-104 .) one another.
Verily, verily. Twenty-third occurrence. See on John 1:51 .
A woman = The woman. The article, in conjunction with the Hebraism "in that day", verses: John 16:23 , John 16:26 , in. dicates the woman (wife) of Revelation 12:0 . See Isaiah 66:7-11 .Micah 5:3 . Compare Psalms 22:31 .Hosea 13:13 .Micah 4:9 , Micah 4:10 . The time is the time of Jacob's trouble (Jeremiah 30:7 ), the birth -pangs (sorrows, Matthew 24:8 ) which will result in the birth of the new Israel, the nation of Isaiah 66:8 and Matthew 21:43 .
child. App-108 :
for = on account of. Greek. dia. App-104 .John 16:2 .
man. App-123 .
is born = was born.
heart . Compare John 14:1 .
no man = no one. Greek. oudeis.
taketh . Most of' the texts read "shall take".
from . Greek. apo. App-104 .
in that day . See John 14:20 . The use of this important Hebraism (Isaiah 2:11 , Isaiah 2:12 and note there) in connexion with the woman of John 16:21 shows that it refers to Israel and has nothing to do with the Church. The promise as to "asking in My name" was fulfilled as long as the offer of restoration on condition of national repentance continued; when that offer was withdrawn (Acts 28:28 ), the promises (and "gifts") were 'with-drawn also. They will be renewed "in that day".
in. Greek. en. App-104 .
nothing . A double negative. Greek. ouk ouden.
ask . Greek. aiteo. App-134 .
in My name . See on John 14:13 . The texts connect "in My name" with "give" instead of' "ask".
Hitherto = Until now.
have ye asked = asked ye.
full = fulfilled: i.e. filled full.
proverbs . Greek. paroimia, a wayside saying. Occurs five times: here (twice); John 16:29 ; John 10:6 (parable); and 2 Peter 2:22 . In the Septuagint it is found in Proverbs 1:1 and at the title of the book. Elsewhere parabole is used. In N.T. parabole is frequent, rendered "parable", save Mark 4:30 (comparison); Luke 4:23 (proverb); and Hebrews 9:9 ; Hebrews 11:19 (figure).
but . Omit.
the time = an hour.
plainly = in free speech, openly. See John 11:14 .
At = In. Greek. en. App-104 .
that day . See John 16:23 .
pray. Greek. erotao. Same as "ask" in John 16:5 .
for = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104 .
loveth. Greek. phileo. App-135 .
believed . App-150 .
go . Same word as "depart", John 16:7 .
said = say. The texts omit "unto Him".
Lo. Greek. ide. App-133 .
no . Greek. oudeis.
are we sure = we know. Greek. oida. App-132 . Same word as "tell "(John 16:18 ) and "knowest "in next clause.
by = in. Greek. en. App-104 .
believe . App-150 .
Behold . Greek. idou. App-133 .
the hour = an hour (no art.) All the texts omit "now".
every man = each.
to = unto. Greek. App-104 .
his own = his own (home). Greek. to idia. Compare John 1:11 , where it means his own possessions.
and yet = and.
tribulation . Same as "anguish", John 16:21 .
overcome = conquered. Greek nikao. Occurs twenty-eight times. Only here in John's Gospel, but six times in first Epistle. Always translated "overcome", except in Revelation 5:5 ; Revelation 6:2 ; Revelation 15:2 . The noun nike only in 1 John 5:4 , and nikos in Matthew 12:20 . 1 Corinthians 15:54 , 1 Corinthians 15:55 , 1 Corinthians 15:57 .