Christian Churches of God


No. F026iv






Commentary on Ezekiel

Part 4


(Edition 1.0 20221227-20221227)


Commentary on Chapters 13-16.



Christian Churches of God

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Commentary on Ezekiel Part 4

Chapter 13

1The word of the LORD came to me: 2"Son of man, prophesy against the prophets of Israel, prophesy and say to those who prophesy out of their own minds: 'Hear the word of the LORD!' 3Thus says the Lord GOD, Woe to the foolish prophets who follow their own spirit, and have seen nothing! 4Your prophets have been like foxes among ruins, O Israel. 5You have not gone up into the breaches, or built up a wall for the house of Israel, that it might stand in battle in the day of the LORD. 6They have spoken falsehood and divined a lie; they say, 'Says the LORD,' when the LORD has not sent them, and yet they expect him to fulfil their word. 7Have you not seen a delusive vision, and uttered a lying divination, whenever you have said, 'Says the LORD,' although I have not spoken?" 8Therefore thus says the Lord God: "Because you have uttered delusions and seen lies, therefore behold, I am against you, says the Lord GOD. 9My hand will be against the prophets who see delusive visions and who give lying divinations; they shall not be in the council of my people, nor be enrolled in the register of the house of Israel, nor shall they enter the land of Israel; and you shall know that I am the Lord GOD. 10Because, yea, because they have misled my people, saying, 'Peace,' when there is no peace; and because, when the people build a wall, these prophets daub it with whitewash; 11say to those who daub it with whitewash that it shall fall! There will be a deluge of rain, great hailstones will fall, and a stormy wind break out; 12and when the wall falls, will it not be said to you, 'Where is the daubing with which you daubed it?' 13Therefore thus says the Lord GOD: I will make a stormy wind break out in my wrath; and there shall be a deluge of rain in my anger, and great hailstones in wrath to destroy it. 14And I will break down the wall that you have daubed with whitewash, and bring it down to the ground, so that its foundation will be laid bare; when it falls, you shall perish in the midst of it; and you shall know that I am the LORD. 15Thus will I spend my wrath upon the wall, and upon those who have daubed it with whitewash; and I will say to you, The wall is no more, nor those who daubed it, 16the prophets of Israel who prophesied concerning Jerusalem and saw visions of peace for her, when there was no peace, says the Lord GOD. 17"And you, son of man, set your face against the daughters of your people, who prophesy out of their own minds; prophesy against them 18and say, Thus says the Lord GOD: Woe to the women who sew magic bands upon all wrists, and make veils for the heads of persons of every stature, in the hunt for souls! Will you hunt down souls belonging to my people, and keep other souls alive for your profit? 19You have profaned me among my people for handfuls of barley and for pieces of bread, putting to death persons who should not die and keeping alive persons who should not live, by your lies to my people, who listen to lies. 20"Wherefore thus says the Lord GOD: Behold, I am against your magic bands with which you hunt the souls, and I will tear them from your arms; and I will let the souls that you hunt go free like birds. 21Your veils also I will tear off, and deliver my people out of your hand, and they shall be no more in your hand as prey; and you shall know that I am the LORD. 22Because you have disheartened the righteous falsely, although I have not disheartened him, and you have encouraged the wicked, that he should not turn from his wicked way to save his life; 23therefore you shall no more see delusive visions nor practice divination; I will deliver my people out of your hand. Then you will know that I am the LORD."


Intent of Chapter 13

13:1-16 Lying prophets in Israel

Here the issue is of Israel and Judah being beset with lying prophets who are concealing the visions of the Lord God of Israel or uttering divination to curry favour when they do not receive any prophetic message, or conceal what they do see. As above in Part III the people thought that prophetic visions could be safely ignored (Hos. 12:10; Jer. 14:14-15; 23:28-29). Also the view that these prophecies would be far distant was shown to be false as with those of Jeremiah (Jer. 5:12-13, 17:15). The absence of any objective criteria (Jer. 28:8-9) gave rise to the ever present problem of identifying a true prophet  (1Kgs. Ch. 22; Mic. 3:5; Isa. 9:15; Jer. Chs. 14-15) compare Ch. 13 with Jer. 29:9-32).


Re: Divination (Ex. 28:30: 1Sam 28:6) played practically no role other that the Urim and the Thummin in the great prophets of Israel but was common among non Israelite prophetism and among underground witchraft in Israel. God declared the false prophets’ messages to whitewash on a mud brick wall (cf Jer. Chs. 28 -29) (12:5; 13:10-16). This problem was to increase over time and ultimately it was to result in the killing of the Messiah at his Incarnation as foretold by Isaiah and the other key prophets. It was to lead to the final destruction of the Temple priesthood and the Temple itself in 70 CE (see War with Rome and the Fall of the Temple (No. 298)) and by 135 CE Judah was to be sent into dispersion and was to stay that way until the rehabilitations in the 20th century (see Habakkuk (F035) and Haggai (F037)) and on into the  21st Century and the return of the Messiah in the Day of the Lord and the Last Days (No. 192) as mentioned in the text here (see also Ezekiel’s prophecies (with Daniel’s) regarding the Fall of Egypt (No. 036) and the Wars in the Last Days (No. 036_2);  Amos (F030); The Sign of Jonah and the History of the Reconstruction of the Temple (No. 013) and Completion of the Sign of Jonah (No. 013B)).


Significance of the Cherubim

We saw in Part III from Chapter 10 building on Chapter 1 in Part I the sequence of the Cherubim.

The establishment of Israel was symbolised by the First Cherubim and the establishment of the Law of God under the Tabernacle in the Wilderness. The Second Cherubim was of the Temple under Solomon (#282C) and the Kings in which the laws and the Testimony was established under the prophets many of whom were killed by the corrupted priesthood as were the Apostles of the Church (#122C). The sins of Israel under the Sanhedrin caused the captivity of Israel under the Assyrians completely by 722 BCE north of the Araxes River. These sins continued in breach of the Law and the Covenant (see 8:16 and 11:1 (Part III) and God sent Judah into captivity to the Babylonians, in Babylonia, in two phases.  There many became further corrupted, but Judah was restored to the Holy Land and Jerusalem by decrees of Cyrus, Darius II and Artaxerxes II (see # 013 above and #250). This was to enable the creation of the Fourth Cherubim under Christ and the Church from 27 CE to the present under the ordination of the Seventy (Lk. 10:1,17 ) (see Establishment of the Church under the Seventy (No. 122D); #122; #070; #283 and Daniel F027ix; F066v). The false religions of the Mystery and the Sun Cults killed the Saints for centuries (F044vii). The corruption continued under the influence of the Demons and false religion to the Last Days under the Completion of the Sign of Jonah (No. 013B). The false religions of the Sun and Mystery Cults will be stamped out by Messiah (##141E and 141E_2) who will restore the law of God and kill all who oppose it (#141F). Ezekiel prophesies how this will come about in the Last Days from Part V following. Also Jeremiah deals with this aspect in Jeremiah 4:15-27 re the last prophet of the church also referred to in John 1:19ff. This last phase of the Churches of God is followed by the Witnesses of Rev. 11:3ff (F066iii).


v. 9 Register Ezra ch 2; Ex. 32:32-33.

13:17-23 The text condemns the sorceress’ in Israel and the mediums who are always present in Israel to this day (vv. 18,20; 1Sam. 28:7-25). The Temple priesthood provided few opportunites for women except as genuine prophets (see Miriam, Ex. 15:20; Deborah Jg. 4:4; Huldah 2Kgs. 22:14). These were scattered OT examples (comp. Lk. 2:36; 1Cor. 14:34). The magic bands and veils for all types (v. 18) were processes for concealing the actions and thoughts from discernment and as amulets which gave rise to the headresses today that are in fact designed to limit access from the Deity/deities as well as from public scrutiny. These actions for trivialities miscarried justice and God says here that He will stamp the practices out from all of Israel and deliver the people from their hands, which looks forward to the time of the Return of Messiah.


Chapter 14

1Then came certain of the elders of Israel to me; and sat before me. 2And the word of the LORD came to me: 3"Son of man, these men have taken their idols into their hearts, and set the stumbling block of their iniquity before their faces; should I let myself be inquired of at all by them? 4Therefore speak to them, and say to them, Thus says the Lord GOD: Any man of the house of Israel who takes his idols into his heart and sets the stumbling block of his iniquity before his face, and yet comes to the prophet, I the LORD will answer him myself because of the multitude of his idols, 5that I may lay hold of the hearts of the house of Israel, who are all estranged from me through their idols. 6"Therefore say to the house of Israel, Thus says the Lord GOD: Repent and turn away from your idols; and turn away your faces from all your abominations. 7For any one of the house of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn in Israel, who separates himself from me, taking his idols into his heart and putting the stumbling block of his iniquity before his face, and yet comes to a prophet to inquire for himself of me, I the LORD will answer him myself; 8and I will set my face against that man, I will make him a sign and a byword and cut him off from the midst of my people; and you shall know that I am the LORD. 9And if the prophet be deceived and speak a word, I, the LORD, have deceived that prophet, and I will stretch out my hand against him, and will destroy him from the midst of my people Israel. 10And they shall bear their punishment--the punishment of the prophet and the punishment of the inquirer shall be alike--11that the house of Israel may go no more astray from me, nor defile themselves any more with all their transgressions, but that they may be my people and I may be their God, says the Lord GOD." 12And the word of the LORD came to me: 13"Son of man, when a land sins against me by acting faithlessly, and I stretch out my hand against it, and break its staff of bread and send famine upon it, and cut off from it man and beast, 14even if these three men, Noah, Daniel, and Job, were in it, they would deliver but their own lives by their righteousness, says the Lord GOD. 15If I cause wild beasts to pass through the land, and they ravage it, and it be made desolate, so that no man may pass through because of the beasts; 16even if these three men were in it, as I live, says the Lord GOD, they would deliver neither sons nor daughters; they alone would be delivered, but the land would be desolate. 17Or if I bring a sword upon that land, and say, Let a sword go through the land; and I cut off from it man and beast; 18though these three men were in it, as I live, says the Lord GOD, they would deliver neither sons nor daughters, but they alone would be delivered. 19Or if I send a pestilence into that land, and pour out my wrath upon it with blood, to cut off from it man and beast; 20even if Noah, Daniel, and Job were in it, as I live, says the Lord GOD, they would deliver neither son nor daughter; they would deliver but their own lives by their righteousness. 21"For thus says the Lord GOD: How much more when I send upon Jerusalem my four sore acts of judgment, sword, famine, evil beasts, and pestilence, to cut off from it man and beast! 22Yet, if there should be left in it any survivors to lead out sons and daughters, when they come forth to you, and you see their ways and their doings, you will be consoled for the evil that I have brought upon Jerusalem, for all that I have brought upon it. 23They will console you, when you see their ways and their doings; and you shall know that I have not done without cause all that I have done in it, says the Lord GOD."


Intent of Chapter 14

14:1-11 Prophesy Against Idolaters.

Israel as a nation was beset by idolatry and religious duplicity and so also it has continued to this day. God has stated here through the prophet that He will Himself punish these people.


Idols translates Ezekiel’s term gillulim (literally

“dung balls” found thirty-nine times in Ezekiel compared with nine times for the rest of the OT texts.

Strangers probably refers to proselytes who were considered equal with Israelites (47:22; Lev. 17:8).


vv. 12-23 One is saved only by their own righteousness and such righteousness is not cumulative or transferrable.


Noah and Job are also known in the Bible for their righteousness. Some sholars consider that Ezekiel’s reference to Daniel (see 28:3 n  OARSV) suggests the Canaanite Dan’el (as also spelled in Ezekiel). Ezekiel’s prophecies do however refer to the time frames of Daniel also (cf. F027iv re No. 036). The literature of the ancients regarding the patriarchs is not well known.


Chapter 15

1And the word of the LORD came to me: 2"Son of man, how does the wood of the vine surpass any wood, the vine branch which is among the trees of the forest? 3Is wood taken from it to make anything? Do men take a peg from it to hang any vessel on? 4Lo, it is given to the fire for fuel; when the fire has consumed both ends of it, and the middle of it is charred, is it useful for anything? 5Behold, when it was whole, it was used for nothing; how much less, when the fire has consumed it and it is charred, can it ever be used for anything! 6Therefore thus says the Lord GOD: Like the wood of the vine among the trees of the forest, which I have given to the fire for fuel, so will I give up the inhabitants of Jerusalem. 7And I will set my face against them; though they escape from the fire, the fire shall yet consume them; and you will know that I am the LORD, when I set my face against them. 8And I will make the land desolate, because they have acted faithlessly, says the Lord GOD."


Intent of Chapter 15

15:1-8 Allegory of the Vine

Vines and vineyards are common themes (Jg. 9:8-15; Isa. 5:1-7).  God says in Isaiah that He has made Israel His Vineyard and that is part of His Plan of Salvation (No. 001A). It is important also to understand how that fits into the taking of the Promised Land (see Commentary on Joshua (F006, ii, iii, iv, v). See also Israel as the Plan of God (No. 001B) and Israel as the Vinyard of God (No. 001C).


Israel’s failure to complete the Plan of God renders it unfit, and especially Jerusalem unfit, for any other purpose than to be burnt as refuse as the vine is virtually useless for any other purpose.


Chapter 16

1Again the word of the LORD came to me: 2"Son of man, make known to Jerusalem her abominations, 3and say, Thus says the Lord GOD to Jerusalem: Your origin and your birth are of the land of the Canaanites; your father was an Amorite, and your mother a Hittite. 4And as for your birth, on the day you were born your navel string was not cut, nor were you washed with water to cleanse you, nor rubbed with salt, nor swathed with bands. 5No eye pitied you, to do any of these things to you out of compassion for you; but you were cast out on the open field, for you were abhorred, on the day that you were born. 6"And when I passed by you, and saw you weltering in your blood, I said to you in your blood, 'Live, 7and grow up like a plant of the field.' And you grew up and became tall and arrived at full maidenhood; your breasts were formed, and your hair had grown; yet you were naked and bare. 8"When I passed by you again and looked upon you, behold, you were at the age for love; and I spread my skirt over you, and covered your nakedness: yea, I plighted my troth to you and entered into a covenant with you, says the Lord GOD, and you became mine. 9Then I bathed you with water and washed off your blood from you, and anointed you with oil. 10I clothed you also with embroidered cloth and shod you with leather, I swathed you in fine linen and covered you with silk. 11And I decked you with ornaments, and put bracelets on your arms, and a chain on your neck. 12And I put a ring on your nose, and earrings in your ears, and a beautiful crown upon your head. 13Thus you were decked with gold and silver; and your raiment was of fine linen, and silk, and embroidered cloth; you ate fine flour and honey and oil. You grew exceedingly beautiful, and came to regal estate. 14And your renown went forth among the nations because of your beauty, for it was perfect through the splendor which I had bestowed upon you, says the Lord GOD. 15"But you trusted in your beauty, and played the harlot because of your renown, and lavished your harlotries on any passer-by. 16You took some of your garments, and made for yourself gaily decked shrines, and on them played the harlot; the like has never been, nor ever shall be. 17You also took your fair jewels of my gold and of my silver, which I had given you, and made for yourself images of men, and with them played the harlot; 18and you took your embroidered garments to cover them, and set my oil and my incense before them. 19Also my bread which I gave you--I fed you with fine flour and oil and honey--you set before them for a pleasing odor, says the Lord GOD. 20And you took your sons and your daughters, whom you had borne to me, and these you sacrificed to them to be devoured. Were your harlotries so small a matter 21that you slaughtered my children and delivered them up as an offering by fire to them? 22And in all your abominations and your harlotries you did not remember the days of your youth, when you were naked and bare, weltering in your blood. 23"And after all your wickedness (woe, woe to you! says the Lord GOD), 24you built yourself a vaulted chamber, and made yourself a lofty place in every square; 25at the head of every street you built your lofty place and prostituted your beauty, offering yourself to any passer-by, and multiplying your harlotry. 26You also played the harlot with the Egyptians, your lustful neighbors, multiplying your harlotry, to provoke me to anger. 27Behold, therefore, I stretched out my hand against you, and diminished your allotted portion, and delivered you to the greed of your enemies, the daughters of the Philistines, who were ashamed of your lewd behavior. 28You played the harlot also with the Assyrians, because you were insatiable; yea, you played the harlot with them, and still you were not satisfied. 29You multiplied your harlotry also with the trading land of Chalde'a; and even with this you were not satisfied. 30"How lovesick is your heart, says the Lord GOD, seeing you did all these things, the deeds of a brazen harlot; 31building your vaulted chamber at the head of every street, and making your lofty place in every square. Yet you were not like a harlot, because you scorned hire. 32Adulterous wife, who receives strangers instead of her husband! 33Men give gifts to all harlots; but you gave your gifts to all your lovers, bribing them to come to you from every side for your harlotries. 34So you were different from other women in your harlotries: none solicited you to play the harlot; and you gave hire, while no hire was given to you; therefore you were different. 35"Wherefore, O harlot, hear the word of the LORD: 36Thus says the Lord GOD, Because your shame was laid bare and your nakedness uncovered in your harlotries with your lovers, and because of all your idols, and because of the blood of your children that you gave to them, 37therefore, behold, I will gather all your lovers, with whom you took pleasure, all those you loved and all those you loathed; I will gather them against you from every side, and will uncover your nakedness to them, that they may see all your nakedness. 38And I will judge you as women who break wedlock and shed blood are judged, and bring upon you the blood of wrath and jealousy. 39And I will give you into the hand of your lovers, and they shall throw down your vaulted chamber and break down your lofty places; they shall strip you of your clothes and take your fair jewels, and leave you naked and bare. 40They shall bring up a host against you, and they shall stone you and cut you to pieces with their swords. 41And they shall burn your houses and execute judgments upon you in the sight of many women; I will make you stop playing the harlot, and you shall also give hire no more. 42So will I satisfy my fury on you, and my jealousy shall depart from you; I will be calm, and will no more be angry. 43Because you have not remembered the days of your youth, but have enraged me with all these things; therefore, behold, I will requite your deeds upon your head, says the Lord GOD. "Have you not committed lewdness in addition to all your abominations?  44Behold, every one who uses proverbs will use this proverb about you, 'Like mother, like daughter.' 45You are the daughter of your mother, who loathed her husband and her children; and you are the sister of your sisters, who loathed their husbands and their children. Your mother was a Hittite and your father an Amorite. 46And your elder sister is Sama'ria, who lived with her daughters to the north of you; and your younger sister, who lived to the south of you, is Sodom with her daughters. 47Yet you were not content to walk in their ways, or do according to their abominations; within a very little time you were more corrupt than they in all your ways. 48As I live, says the Lord GOD, your sister Sodom and her daughters have not done as you and your daughters have done. 49Behold, this was the guilt of your sister Sodom: she and her daughters had pride, surfeit of food, and prosperous ease, but did not aid the poor and needy. 50They were haughty, and did abominable things before me; therefore I removed them, when I saw it. 51Sama'ria has not committed half your sins; you have committed more abominations than they, and have made your sisters appear righteous by all the abominations which you have committed. 52Bear your disgrace, you also, for you have made judgment favorable to your sisters; because of your sins in which you acted more abominably than they, they are more in the right than you. So be ashamed, you also, and bear your disgrace, for you have made your sisters appear righteous. 53"I will restore their fortunes, both the fortunes of Sodom and her daughters, and the fortunes of Sama'ria and her daughters, and I will restore your own fortunes in the midst of them, 54that you may bear your disgrace and be ashamed of all that you have done, becoming a consolation to them. 55As for your sisters, Sodom and her daughters shall return to their former estate, and Sama'ria and her daughters shall return to their former estate; and you and your daughters shall return to your former estate. 56Was not your sister Sodom a byword in your mouth in the day of your pride, 57before your wickedness was uncovered? Now you have become like her an object of reproach for the daughters of Edom and all her neighbors, and for the daughters of the Philistines, those round about who despise you. 58You bear the penalty of your lewdness and your abominations, says the LORD. 59"Yea, thus says the Lord GOD: I will deal with you as you have done, who have despised the oath in breaking the covenant, 60yet I will remember my covenant with you in the days of your youth, and I will establish with you an everlasting covenant. 61Then you will remember your ways, and be ashamed when I take your sisters, both your elder and your younger, and give them to you as daughters, but not on account of the covenant with you. 62I will establish my covenant with you, and you shall know that I am the LORD, 63that you may remember and be confounded, and never open your mouth again because of your shame, when I forgive you all that you have done, says the Lord GOD."


Intent of Chapter 16

16:1-63 The Allegory of the Unfaithful Wife

16:1-7 Jerusalem the foundling. God uses a folk tale through Ezekiel as an allegory to show that Jerusalem’s origin was as a pagan centre not related to the covenant in spite of its place in Eden as the centre of the seat of Melchisedek (No. 128) F058 under the priesthood of Shem.


The Canaanites were the Hamitic people under a curse from the family of Noah after the flood. They were to forfeit their lands to the sons of Abraham through Jacob.   The Jebusites appear to be a clan of the Amorites who moved into the fertile crescent in the early Second Millennium BCE. The Hittites were a composite trading group that were of northern and southern groups living in Canaan (Gen. Ch. 23; Joshua 3:10 (F006) comp. 2Sam. 11:3). The northern groups were R1b Celtic in origin. The southern groups gained dominion in the 18th Ahmosid dynasty in Egypt and were composite in DNA structure. Their leaders were also R1b Hittites. Here God portrays Jerusalem as unwanted as a child and abandoned to die. She was saved by God to grow into maturity.


16:8-14 As a maiden she was adopted by marriage into God’s Covenant (comp. 2Sam. 5:6-10) and became queen (see F006v), receiving lavish adornment and being generously nourished as we saw in the Rule of the Kings Part III: Soloman and the Key of David (No. 282C).


16:15-22  The degenerate  Israel and Jerusalem became the harlot with cult prostitution and also with idolatrous practices that became endemic in all Israel. Jerusalem’s unfaithfulness (Hos. 4:13-14) was widespread in the days of Manasseh  (687-642 BCE; 2Kgs. 21:1-18) and Zedekiah (ch 8). She notoriously used her garments to make shrines on which she played the harlot (Am. 2:7-8) fashioning her jewellery into idols (Jg. 8:24-27) and also amulets. The text shows that God’s gifts were used as offerings to other gods.


16:23-34 Jerusalem is condemned for her religious infidelty and for her foreign alliances which was a major factor in her degeneration and especially under Solomon and subsequent kings.

She was worse than a common prostitute. They were paid for their services but Jerusalem invited her lovers and paid them (Isa. 30; Hos. Ch.  2:8:9;  Jer. Chs.  2 and 3).


16:35-43 God will force her lovers to turn against her and strip her. God will divorce her and expose her to be stoned (Deut. 22:21,24). They shall burn her houses and execute judgments upon her in the sight of many women and her beauty will be destroyed and she will find herself ignoble and ignored.


16:44-52 Here we see God declare Jerusalem to be worse than her elder sister Samaria and her younger sister Sodom (Jer. 3:6-11). Both these cities were destroyed which shows the fate of Jerusalem. She was so bad that the other two appeared righteous by comparison.


16:53-63 The prophecy is also concerns Edom that occupied Judahite territory after 587 BCE. All three are to be restored (Jer 12:14-17 and a new covenant established (Jer. 31:31-34).


v. 62  I will establish my covenant (see also v.60 and The Covenant of God (No. 152) and First and Second Statements of the Covenant (No. 096B)). Some sholars also attribute the phrase to what they consider the P source in the Pentateuch (see Gen.18; 9:9,11; 17:7, 19 etc OARSV n).


Bullinger’s Notes on Ezekiel Chs. 13-16 (for KJV)


Chapter 13

Verse 1

the LORD . Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4 .


Verse 2

Son of man. See note on Ezekiel 2:1 .

against = concerning. Some codices, and the special reading called Sevir ( App-34 ), with Aramaean, Septuagint, and Syriac, read "against".

the prophets. See the Structure, "M", above. The reference is to the false prophets of Israel. Compare Jeremiah 5:30 , Jeremiah 5:31 ; Jeremiah 5:23 , Jer 5:9-32 ; Jeremiah 27:14 ; Jeremiah 29:8 , Jeremiah 29:9 , Jeremiah 29:22 , Jeremiah 29:23 .


Verse 3

the Lord GOD . Hebrew Adonai Jehovah. See note on Ezekiel 2:4 . foolish. Hebrew. nabel. See note on Proverbs 1:7 .

their own spirit . Not the Holy Spirit.

spirit. Hebrew. roach. App-9 .


Verse 4

foxes = jackals.

deserts = ruins.


Verse 5

gaps = breaches.

hedge = fence or wall of a vineyard (Numbers 22:24 .

Psa. Eze 80:12 .Isaiah 5:5Isaiah 5:5 ).

saying, ' The LORD saint '

= saying [it] is Jehovah's oracle.

they would confirm the word = their word would be confirmed.


Verse 7

saith it; albeit, &c. A solemn warning as to some of the changes made in tbe Vulgate versions. Compare Ezekiel 2:5-7 . Jeremiah 23:21 .


Verse 8

saith the Lord GOD = [is] Adonai Jehovah's oracle.


Verse 9

assembly = secret council.

writing = register.

land = soil. Hebrew. 'admath. See note on Ezekiel 11:17 .

ye shall know, &c. This formula occurs only here, Ezekiel 23:49 ; and Ezekiel 24:24 (not the same as Ezekiel 13:14 ; Ezekiel 6:7 , &c.)


Verse 10

Because, even because . Figure of speech Epizeuxis. App-6 .

one built = be: i.e. one = a false prophet.

a wall = the outer wall of a house.

lo. Fig, Asteriemos. App-6 .

others : i.e. the false prophets. Compare Ezekiel 13:16 .

daubed = coated,

untempered mortar = whitewash. Compare Mat 28:29 . Acts 23:3 .


Verse 11

shower = rain. Compare Matthew 7:25 , Matthew 7:27 .

wind . Hebrew ruach. App-9 .


Verse 14

it. Feminine, referring to ruach (the wind in Ezekiel 13:11 ),

ye shall know ,&c. See note on Ezekiel 6:7 .


Verse 16

visions = a vision.

peace . Reference to meaning of the word Jerusalem.


Verse 17

set thy face against , &c. This required Divine courage on the part of Ezekiel. Compare Ezekiel 14:8 ; Ezekiel 20:46 ; Ezekiel 21:2 ; Ezekiel 29:2 ; Eze 29:38 , Ezekiel 29:2 .

their own heart . Compare verses: Ezekiel 13:2 , Ezekiel 13:3 and a similar transition from men to women in Isaiah 3:16 , Isaiah 3:17 .


Verse 18

sew pillows to all armholes = sew together coverings upon all the joints of My hands: i.e. hide from the People the hands of Jehovah lifted up and stretched forth in judgment (Isaiah 26:11 ; Isaiah 5:2 , Isaiah 5:10 ).

pillows coverings for purposes of concealment. Hebrew. Kesathoth (occurs only here and in Ezekiel 13:20 ), from kasah, to conceal, to hide. First occurrence (of kasah) Genesis 7:19 , Genesis 7:20 ; Genesis 9:23 ; Genesis 18:17 ; Genesis 24:65 ; Genesis 37:26 ; Genesis 38:14 , Genesis 38:15 , &c . The object is shown in Isaiah 26:11 .

armholes = My hands; referring to the judgments they were to execute (Ezekiel 14:9 , Ezekiel 14:13 ). Compare verses: Eze 9:21 , Eze 9:22 , Eze 9:23 . The Septuagint renders it proskephalaia = for the head.

make kerchiefs upon the head of every stature = make mantles to cover the heads (and therefore the eyes) of those on whom the judgments of God's hand were about to fall, lest they should see.

kerchiefs = wraps that cleave close round the head. Hebrew. mispahoth (occurs only here), from saphah, to join, or cleave closely. Saphah occurs 1 Samuel 2:36 (put = attach); Ezekiel 26:19 (abiding = cleaving). Job 30:7 (gathered together). Iea. Ezekiel 14:1 (cleave). H ab. Eze 2:15 (puttest = holdest). The object being to cover the head so that God's hand may not be seen (Isaiah 26:11 ).

stature = tall figure. Hebrew komah = height. First occurrence Genesis 6:15 . Compare 1 Samuel 16:7 (his stature); Eze 25:20 , &c. Put, here, for every man of high or lofty station: i, e. for the princes or rulers in Jerusalem, whose eyes were blinded by these false prophetesses.

hunt = harry, or ensnare.

souls. Hebrew. nephesh. App-1 B. Put hereby Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the Part), App-6 , for the People.

Will ye . . . ? This is not a question, but a statement.


Verse 19

to slay , &c. to prophesy (falsely) that they should be slain. Figure of speech Metonymy (of Subject). App-6 .

to save, &c. = to promise life to those who should not live. Figure of speech Metonymy (of Subject), App-6 .

your. Masculine suffix, indicating unwomanly character.


Verse 20

Behold . Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6 .

fly = escape.

I will tear . So that these wraps could be torn away.


Verse 21

your . Feminine suffix.


Verse 22

the righteous = a righteous one.

the wicked = a lawless one. Hebrew. rasha. App-44 .

his wicked way = his wrong way. Heb raa . App-44 .

by . . . life . Here the Figures in Ezekiel 13:20 are translated.

life. Continuance in life: i.e. escape from the judgments announced by Jehovah.


Chapter 14

Verse 1

Then came certain of the elders of Israel. These are to be distinguished from the elders of Judah (Ezekiel 8:1 ). They had no knowledge (probably) of what was transpiring in Judaea. They had travelled from Tel = abib.

the elders . See the Structure (p. 1097).

Israel . See Ezekiel 8:11 , Ezekiel 8:12 ; Ezekiel 8:6 , Ezekiel 9:6 . in Ezekiel 8:1 we have Judah's elders.


Verse 2

the LORD . Hebrew. Jehovah . App-4 .


Verse 3

Son of man . See note on Ezekiel 2:1 .

men. Hebrew, plural of 'enosh . App-14 .

idols = manufactured idols.

iniquity = perversity. Hebrew ' dvah. App-44 .

before their face . Instead of God's law, according to Deuteronomy 6:8 ; Deuteronomy 11:18 ; and Proverbs 3:21-23 .


Verse 4

the Lord GOD . Hebrew Adonai Jehovah. See note on Ezekiel 2:4 .

Every man. Hebrew. ish, 'ish . App-14 .

before = in front of, or right before.

will answer , &c. = have been replied to for him; he hath come amid [the] multitude of his idols: i.e. he hath answered My claims by classing his idols with Me. The form is Niphal which in all its three occurances is rendered Passive, except here and Ezekiel 14:7 . See Job 11:2 ; Job 19:7 , and Proverbs 21:13 .


Verse 6

turn yourselves = turn ye.


Verse 7

will answer, &c. = and being replied to for him in Myself: i.e. by his comparing his idols with Me. See note on Ezekiel 14:4 .


Verse 8

I will set My face , &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 17:10 ; Leviticus 26:17 ). App-92 .

man . Hebrew. 'ish . App-14 .

will make him, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Numbers 26:10 . Deuteronomy 28:37 ). Some codices, with eight early printed editions, read "will make him desolate, for a sign and a proverb".

I will cut him off , &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 17:14 .Exodus 12:15 , Exodus 12:19 ; Exodus 30:33 , Exodus 30:38 . Leviticus 7:20 , Leviticus 7:21 , Leviticus 7:25 , Leviticus 7:27 ; Leviticus 17:4 , Leviticus 17:9 ; Leviticus 19:8 ; Leviticus 23:29 . Numbers 9:13 , &c.) App-92 .

ye shall know , &c. See note on Ezekiel 6:7 .


Verse 9

have deceived. Hebrew idioms = have permitted him to be deceived: i.e. as a judicial punishment for his own deception of the People.

I will stretch out , &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 6:20 , &c.)


Verse 10

they shall bear the punishment , &c. Heb to Pentateuch (Exodus 28:38 . Leviticus 5:1 , Leviticus 5:17 . Numbers 14:34 , &c.)


Verse 11

transgressions = rebellions. Hebrew. pasha '. App-44 ,

God. Hebrew. Elohim . App-4 .

saith the Lord God, = [is] Adonai Jehovah's oracle.


Verse 13

the land = a land.

sinneth. Hebrew. chata. App-44 .

trespassing . Hebrew ma'al. App-44 . Note the Figure of speech Polyptoton ( App-6 ). Hebrew - to trespass a trespass i.e. to trespass exceedingly. See note on Genesis 26:28 . Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 5:16 ; Leviticus 6:2 ; Leviticus 26:40 . Numbers 5:6 , Numbers 5:12 , Numbers 5:27 ). App-92 .

break the staff of the bread. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 26:26 . &c.) App-92 .

of = that is to say. Genitive of Apposition. App-17 .

man . Hebrew. 'adam. App-14 .


Verse 14

three men . In Jeremiah 15:1 , we have two men, "Moses and Samuel", as intercessors. See note there. Here we have "three men", also as intercessors. All three prevailed in saving others. Noah (1 Peter 3:20 ). Daniel (Ezekiel 2:5 ; Eze 2:48-49 ). Job (Ezekiel 42:8-10 ).

Noah, Daniel, and Job . This order is determined by the Structure, which is an Introversion, in order to separate the true Israelite (of the nation of Israel) from the two who lived before the nation was formed (which is the subject of the book of Exodus).

Noah. Earlier than Job, but before Israel was a nation.

Daniel . A true Israelite.

Job . Later than Noah, but before Israel was a nation. Noah prevailed in saving others (the whole human race). Gen 6-9. Daniel prevailed in saving his fellow wise men (Daniel 2:24 ). He is mentioned again in 28.:3. While Ezekiel bears witness to Daniel (already fourteen years in Babylon) Daniel bears witness to Jeremiah (Daniel 9:2 ).

souls = soul. Hebrew nephesh. App-13 .


Verse 15

If I cause noisome beasts , &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 26:22 ). App-92 .

noisome = annoying, hurtful.


Verse 17

if I bring a sword , &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 26:25 ). See Ezekiel 5:17 .


Verse 21

How much more, &c. National judgments are thus sent for national sins. Compare Ezekiel 14:13 .


Verse 22

behold. Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6 . remnant. This is always used in a good sense.

their way &c.: i.e. their good way and doings.

evil . Hebrew raa. App-44 .


Verse 23

they: i.e. the remnant of Ezekiel 14:22 .


Chapter 15

Verse 1

the LORD . Hebrew. Jehovah . App-4 .


Verse 2

Son of man . See note on Ezekiel 2:1 .

than a. Supply the Ellipsis [What is a vine] branch"

is = hath come to be.


Verse 3

pin = peg.


Verse 4

Behold. Figure of speech Asterismos . App-8 .

cast into the fire. Compare John 15:6 .

Is it meet. ? Figure of speech Erotesis. App-8 .


Verse 6

the Lord God . Hebrew. Adonai Jehovah . See note on Ezekiel 2:4 .

so will I give . Fulfilled in 2 Kings 25:9 .


Verse 7

I will set My face. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 17:10 ). ye shall know, &c. See note on Ezekiel 6:7 .


Verse 8

committed a trespass . Figure of speech Polyptoton . App-6 . Hebrew "trespassed a trespass" for emphasis = committed a great trespass, as in Ezekiel 14:13 .

trespass . Hebrew. ma'al , App-44 .

saith the Lord GOD = [is] Adonai Jehovah's oracle.


Chapter 16

Verse 1

the LORD . Hebrew. Jehovah . App-4 .


Verse 2

Son of man. See note on Ezekiel 2:1 .

Jerusalem is the subject of this chapter by interpretation. Note the Figure of speech Prosbpographia ( App-6 ). Not the nation as such. By application, the reader may, by grace, refer it to himself.


Verse 3

the Lord GOD. Hebrew. Adonai Jehovah . See note on Ezekiel 2:4 .

birth , &c. = excisions and kinships. Compare Isaiah 61:1 . Only other occurrences, Ezekiel 21:30 ; Ezekiel 29:14 .

thy father , &c. i.e. thy founder. This refers to the first builders of Jebus; not to Abraham and his seed. Jebus was a Canaanite city. See App-68 . Thus Satan occupied in advance both land and capital as soon as the promise to Abraham was known. See App-23 and App-26 .


Verse 4

to supple = to cleanse.

salted : i.e., rubbed, or washed with salt. This is the custom in the Land to = day.


Verse 5

person = soul. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13 .

in the day. See App-18 .


Verse 6

when. This word is not in the Hebrew text.

polluted = trodden under foot. Referring to the city, of course.

when thou . . . blood , &c. Note the Figure of speech Epizeneia ( App-6 ), for emphasis. Canaanite cities were founded in blood, as proved to-day by human sacrifices discovered on the foundations. See note on s Kings Eze 9:15-17 .

Verse 7

hast increased = didst increase. This does not refer to the increase in Egypt, but to the city. All the tenses in this verse should be past tenses.

fashioned = developed.


Verse 8

behold. Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6 .

thy . . . thee : i.e. the city. Not the nation at Sinai,

thy time , &c. Of this covenant nothing has been recorded. The secret is here first revealed.

I spread My skirt , he. The symbolic act to-day, signifying the taking under one's protection. Common in the East for marrying. Compare Ruth 3:9 .

saith the Lord God [is] Adonai Jehovah's oracle.


Verse 10

badgers' skin . Similarly so used to present day. Reference to Pentateuch Exodus 25:5 , Exodus 26:14 .Numbers 4:6 . App-92 . Occurs elsewhere, only here no reference to the tabernacle.


Verse 12

on thy forehead = in thy nose. Referring to the decorations, &c., of the city after being occupied by David.


Verse 13

fine flour, &c. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the Part), App-6 , for all kinds of delicacies,

exceeding beautiful . Hebrew. me od meod. Figure of speech Epiz euxis ( App-6 ), thus well rendered.

a kingdom. Hence the expression, "Judah and Jerusalem", the latter being reckoned as a separate kingdom.


Verse 14

heathen = nations.


Verse 15

trust = confide . Hebrew. batah . App-69 .

playedst the harlot. All these expressions that follow are to be interpreted of idolatry, and not to sins of the flesh, to which they are likened.

fornications : i.e. idolatrous acts.


Verse 16

the like things. Supply the Ellipsis better thus: "thereupon: [saying] they (the curses) come not, and it (the threatened judgment) will not be. "


Verse 17

of men = of the male: i.e. the Phallus, referring to the Asherah. See App-42 .

whoredom = idolatry.

them = i.e. these images.


Verse 19

meat . Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the Part), App-6 , for all kinds of food.

for a sweet savour. Reference to Pentateuch. A legal phrase, found only in Ezekiel outside the Pentateuch. But in Ezekiel four times: via Ezekiel 6:13 ; Ezekiel 16:19 ; Ezekiel 20:28 , Ezekiel 20:41 . See notes on Genesis 8:21 .Leviticus 1:9 . App-92 .

thus it was = [so] it became.


Verse 20

sacrificed, &c. As offerings to idols. Compare Ezekiel 16:36 ; Ezekiel 20:26 , Ezekiel 20:31 ; Ezekiel 23:39 . 2 Kings 16:3 .Psalms 106:37 , Psalms 106:38 . Isaiah 57:5 .Jeremiah 7:31 ; Jeremiah 32:35 , &c.

whoredoms = idolatries. See notes on Ezekiel 16:15 .


Verse 21

slain My children . See note on Ezekiel 16:20 , above. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 18:21 ). App-92 .

children = sons.


Verse 22

abominations . Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6 , for that which Jehovah abominated,

polluted = wallowing, or weltering.


Verse 23

wickedness. Hebrew. ra'a' . App-44 .

woe, woe . Note the Figures of speech Cataplace and Epiaeuxie ( App-6 ), for emphasis.


Verse 24

eminent places = brothel house. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Subject), App-6 , for the idol's temple.


Verse 27

I have stretched out My hand, &c. Reference to Petit. (Exodus 7:19 , &c.) App-92 .

over = against.

ordinary food = allowance. Referring to food as measured out to captives or slaves.

will = desire. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13 .


Verse 28

great of flesh = lustful. Referring to their idolatries.


Verse 29

unto Chaldea = Assyrian idolatry as well as Egyptian (Ezekiel 16:26 ). See the Structure, above.



Verse 30

imperious = headstrong, or without shame.

woman = wife. Compare Ezekiel 16:32 .


Verse 31

hire . See note on "reward", Ezekiel 16:34 .


Verse 32

But as = [Thou halt been].


Verse 33

give gifts = give fees.

gifts = presents.

hirest = bribest.


Verse 34

reward = hire. Used especially for the hire of fornication. Hebrew. ethnan . Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 23:18 ). App-92 . Used outside the Pentateuch only in Ezekiel 16:31 (hire), Ezekiel 16:33 , Ezekiel 16:41 .Isaiah 23:17 (hire), Isaiah 23:18 (hire). Hosea 9:1 (reward). Micah 1:7 (hire).


Verse 35

harlot = idolatress.


Verse 36

filthiness . Hebrew = brass. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6 ,

for money's worth : i.e. the money of the brothel. See Ezekiel 16:31 .

idols = manufactured gods.

and by = even as.


Verse 37

gather = gather out.


Verse 38

as = with the judgments meted out to: i.e. by death (Leviticus 20:20 . 2 John 1:82 John 1:82 John 1:8 :5 ). Compare Genesis 38:24 .

Verse 40

a company = a military host.


Verse 41

women : i. e idolaters, or idolatrous cities.


Verse 43

fretted Me = chafed at Me: i.e. at my laws. Aramaean, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate read "enraged Me". thou shalt not, &c.: i.e. I will not allow this greatest evil by suffering it to go unpunished, and thus conniving at it (referring to Leviticus 19:29 . App-92 .


Verse 44

proverb = derisive proverb. Figure of speech Paroemia. App-6 .


Verse 46

thine elder: or, thy greater.

daughters. Put by Figure of speech Prosopopoeia ( App-6 ), for villages or neighbouring towns.

younger : or, lesser.


Verse 47

as if that were . . . thing . The Ellipsis is wrongly supplied. See further note

a very little = a very little time, or quickly. See note on "almost" (Proverbs 5:14 ).


Verse 48

as thou hast done. Sodom does not mean Jerusalem here, but it refers to the Sodom of Genesis 19:0 . Sodom had not Jerusalem's privileges: hence her transgression was less. Compare Ezekiel 16:46 , and Matthew 11:20-24 .


Verse 49

was = came to be.

abundance of = luxurious: i.e. security of ease. Compare Deuteronomy 11:21 .


Verse 50

as I saw good. Some codices read "when I saw it", with margin "as thou sawest". Better to omit "good". Compare Genesis 18:21 .

as = according to what.


Verse 51

sins . Hebrew. chata'. App-44 .

they : i.e. Samaria and Sodom,


Verse 52

are = will prove.

more righteous. See note on Ezekiel 16:49 .

sisters. Samaria and Sodom.


Verse 53

When I : or, When therefore I.

bring again their captivity = restorethem; referring not to any return of captives, but to a restoration of prosperity. See notes on Deuteronomy 30:3 , Job 42:10 . Psalms 126:1 .

Sodom . If the waters of the Dead Sea are to be healed, there is no reason why there should not be a restoration as here stated. Compare Ezekiel 47:8 . Zechariah 14:8 .

will I bring again . Aramaean, Septuagint, and Vulgate read these words in the text.


Verse 57

discovered = unveiled.

as at the time of thy . Septuagint and Vulgate read "as now [thou] art". Compare Ezekiel 23:43 .

Syria . Hebrew. aram. Some codices, with two early printed editions, read " adam " = men (Daleth = D), being road for Resh = R).


Verse 58

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah . App-4 . Some codices, with three early printed editions, read " Adonai ". App-4 .


Verse 59

oath . . . covenant. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 29:12 , Deuteronomy 29:14 ). These words are thus found together here, and in Ezekiel 17:13 , Ezekiel 17:16 , Ezekiel 17:18 , Ezekiel 17:19 ; but nowhere else in Scripture.


Verse 60

everlasting covenant . See notes on Genesis 9:16 and lsa. Ezekiel 44:7 .

Verse 63

am pacified toward thee = have accepted a propitiatory covering for thee.