Christian Churches of God
Commentary on 1Peter
(Edition 1.0 20200821-20200821)
This First Epistle of Peter was written to the Israelite exiles in the dispersion regarding the Salvation of the elect under Jesus Christ.
Commentary on 1Peter
The text in James was written to the Twelve Tribes in the dispersion. The text in this First Epistle of Peter (or 1Peter) is also to the same group of the dispersion, that is, the Twelve Tribes of Israel. Peter was sent to the Gentiles (Acts 15:7,14) among whom were scattered the Twelve Tribes and he was based at Antioch where he appointed three bishops there over his ministry. These Jews/Israelites were scattered as we see in Acts 2:5-11. His areas of mission were through Asia Minor into Parthia and Asia generally and his areas of ministry are recorded in the text Establishment of the Church under the Seventy (No. 122D).
“1. Peter preached the Gospel in Pontus, and Galatia, and Cappadocia, and Betania, and Italy, and Asia, and was afterwards crucified by Nero in Rome with his head downward, as he had himself desired to suffer in that manner.
These areas are identifiable as part of the ancient Parthian Empire from what is now Turkey and Mesopotamia (now Iraq).
2. Andrew preached to the Scythians and Thracians, and was crucified, suspended on an olive tree, at Patrae, a town of Achaia; and there too he was buried.
Here we see that Andrew (brother of Peter) was preaching to the Parthians and the Scythians in the north and to the Thracians to the west. This shows a division of area working in conjunction with Peter and the other apostles.”
The Trinitarian system deliberately misrepresents his ministry to foster the illusion that Peter was bishop of Rome which he was not. This view was to advance the patrimony of Peter fiction based on the misuse of the text in Matthew 16:18. It is only assumed that he was killed in Rome but he is asserted to have gone to Italy towards the end of his ministry and only assumed to have done so under the reign of Nero. It was Paul that was executed under Nero and also Linus the First Bishop of Rome appointed by Paul. This followed the poisoning of Claudius and Caradog by the family of Nero.
His ministry was to the Exiles of the Dispersion there in Asia Minor and further into Asia. Here he again refers to the predestination and calling by God the Father as stated in Romans 8:29-30 and repeated here and again in 2Peter and in Jude (cf. Commentary on Jude (F065)).
The Israelites were taken into captivity in 722 BCE by the Assyrians and settled north of the Araxes among the northern Hittites or Celts. The Jews with some of Benjamin and Levi were taken from 586 BCE by the Babylonians. However, Peter’s mission was to the Israelites of the Dispersion, in Parthia and surrounds, and his brother Andrew’s mission was to Parthia, Scythia and Thrace, seemingly in support of that mission. Both were killed on stakes or trees (also later crucified), Peter upside down, and Andrew, symbolised as saltire, on an olive tree, as portrayed by his symbol among the Scythians who moved into Scotland (cf. Descendants of Abraham Part VI: Israel (No. 212 F)).
The majority of those who say they are Jews now are a mixture of Hg. E3b Canaanites, and Egyptians Hg. E1a North Africans, Hg J. Edomites and Arabs and R1a Khazars with some R1b Hittites. Less than ten percent are of the tribes of Judah, Benjamin, and Levi (cf. Descendants of Abraham Part V: Judah (No. 212E)).
Peter describes himself first as Petros, an apostle of Jesus Christ, rather than Cephas as he was termed in the writings. Both terms refer to a rock and the Aramaic for Cephas has the meaning of “Rockhead” as stubborn (cf. Lamsa).
The people in the tribes in the dispersion were the “Aliens and Exiles” to whom he refers of the Twelve Tribes in the nations that were to the north scattered throughout Parthia and Asia. Parthia was the empire north of Israel and was adjoining Israel. This was the same area that was originally comprised of Hittites after the fall of Troy and then the remnants gave way to and became the Assyrian Empire and then the Babylonians, but the majority were in fact remnants of the origins of the European Celts that occupied all of Britain and Europe and through the Ashkenazi Khazars across into Scythia (cf. Descendants of Abraham Part VI: Israel (No. 212F)). The Gauls came back and occupied Galatia being named for the Gauls that resettled there.
Peter was claimed as the bishop of Rome by the Romans after they had ordered the extermination of the Desposyni or “those belonging to the Lord” of the family of Jesus Christ. The men of the family of Jesus Christ were ordered to Rome by Constantine to conduct discussions with Bishop Alexander who ordered their extermination in 312 CE. They then set about exterminating Christ’s family and for that reason they had to disguise the mission of Peter and the existence of the Family of Christ and the churches over Asia Minor (cf. The Unitarian/Trinitarian Wars (No. 268) and The Virgin Mariam and the Family of Jesus Christ (No. 232)).
When the major cities of Asia Minor were converted and established there were people with the Seventy and also later with the descendants of Messiah (cf. 122D above). This did not suit the idolaters of the Mother Goddess Cults of the Baal worshippers in the Roman Empire and elsewhere. Baal worship was divided into a number of different deities with various aspects and names. They were Baal and Ashtoreth, Attis and Cybele, Adonis, Mithras and Osiris and Isis, Ishtar or Easter and Cato or Dercato. The days of worship of these idolatrous groups were Sunday and also Christmas and Easter (cf. Origins of Christmas and Easter (No. 235)).
These idolaters penetrated Christianity and destroyed it. They then set about killing and torturing the Churches of God that insisted on maintaining the basis of Christian worship under the Laws of God (L1) and the Temple or God’s Calendar (No. 156).
Peter saw all this happening and he then wrote his two epistles (cf. Commentary on 1Peter (F060)). The First was to warn of the coming persecution and the Second was to warn of the Antinomianism that would undermine the faith and destroy the faith of the majority and turn them into the great purge of the faith that they would become. This is covered in the text Commentary on 2Peter (F061).
Remember, it has always been the practice of the adversary to claim those of the faith as his own and then use the practices he established with the heathens and then enforce those practices under so-called “Christian” names. For example, Christmas was established and transferred from the birth of the Sun God and its presentation of the infant son from the cave or grotto on the evening of 23 December as the new Christ child as “Christmas” and the Goddess Easter as the object of worship at the Passover festival. Both are completely idolatrous practices and will be stamped out along with those keeping them at the return of the Messiah. Christmas did not even enter Christianity until 375 CE at the commencement of the Dark Ice Age which lasted for approximately another 450 years (cf. Global Warming – Historical Cycles (No. 218B)).
It is of significance to review John Gill’s work in His Bible Expository under the section on:
the strangers scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia: He refers to them as Jews but they were in fact Israelites in the systems of Parthia and Scythia and throughout Arabia into Asia. He says that “they are called strangers; not in a metaphorical sense, either because they were, as the wicked are, estranged from the womb, and alienated from the life of God, as all unconverted men are, and as they were before conversion; for now they were no more strangers in this sense: or because of their unsettled state and condition in this life; having no continuing city, and seeking one to come, an heavenly country; and living as pilgrims and strangers, in which respect they are indeed so styled, 1Pe_2:11 but in a civil sense, and not as the Gentiles were, aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers to the covenants of promise, for these were Jews; but on account of their not being in their own land, and in a foreign country, and therefore said to be "scattered", or "the strangers of the dispersion"; either on account of the persecution at the death of Stephen, when multitudes of the converted Jews were scattered abroad, not only throughout the regions of Judea and Samaria, but as far as Phenice, and Cyprus, and Antioch; see Act_8:1 and so it may be afterwards throughout the places here mentioned; or else these were some remains of the ten tribes carried captive by Shalmaneser, and of the two tribes by Nebuchadnezzar; or rather the dispersion of the Greeks, mentioned in Joh_7:35 under the Macedonians, by Ptolemy Lagus: however, there were Jews of Pontus, who inhabited that place, and of such we read in Act_2:9 who came to worship at the feast of Pentecost, some of which were converted to the Christian faith, and being mentioned first, has occasioned this epistle to be called, both by Tertullian (a), and Cyprian (b), "the epistle to the Pontians". Perhaps these Jews converted on the day of Pentecost, on their return hither, laid the first foundation of a Gospel church state in this country: it is a tradition of the ancients, mentioned by Eusebius (c), that Peter himself preached here, and so, very likely, formed the Christians he found, and those that were converted by him, into Gospel churches; and it appears by a letter of Dionysius, bishop of Corinth (d), that there were churches in Pontus in the ‘second’ century, particularly at Amastris, the bishop of which was one Palma, whom he commends, and Focas is said to be bishop of Syncope, in the same age; and in the "third" century, Gregory and Athenodorus, disciples of Origen, were bishops in this country (e); the former was a very famous man, called Gregory Thaumaturgus, the wonder worker, and was bishop of Neocaesarea: in the ‘fourth’ century there was a church in the same place, of which Longinus was bishop, as appears from the Nicene council, at which he and other bishops in Pontus were present; and in this age, in the times of Dioclesian, many in this country endured most shocking sufferings, related by Eusebius (f); and in the same century Helladius is said to govern the churches of Pontus; and in the "fifth" century we read of churches in Pontus, reformed by Chrysostom; in this age Theodorus was bishop of Heraclea, and Themistius of Amastris, both in this province, and both these bishops were in the Chalcedon council; and in the ‘sixth’ century there were churches in Pontus, whose bishops were in the fifth synod held at Rome and Constantinople; and so there were in the ‘seventh’ and ‘eighth’ centuries (g).
Galatia, next mentioned, is that part of the lesser Asia, called Gallo Graecia, in which were several churches, to whom the Apostle Paul wrote his epistle, called the epistle to the Galatians; See Gill on Act_16:6, Gal_1:2.
Cappadocia, according to Ptolomy (h), was bounded on the west by Galatia, on the south by Cilicia, on the east by Armenia the great, on the north by part of the Euxine Pontus; it had many famous cities in it, as Solinus (i) says; as Archelais, Neocaesarea, Melita, and Mazaca. The Jews oftentimes talk (k) of going from Cappadocia to Lud, or Lydda; so that, according to them, it seems to be near to that place, or, at least, that there was a place near Lydda so called; of this see Gill on Act_2:9. From this country also there were Jews at Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost, some of whom were converted; and here likewise the Apostle Peter is said to preach, as before observed of Pontus, and who probably founded a church or churches here in the "first" century; and in the ‘second’ century, according to Tertullian (l), there were believers in Christ dwelling in this country; and in the ‘third’ century, Eusebius (m) makes mention of Neon, bishop of Larandis, and Celsus, bishop of Iconium, both in Cappadocia; there was also Phedimus of Amasea, in the same country, in this age, and at Caesarea, in Cappadocia, several martyrs suffered under Decius; and in this century, Stephen, bishop of Rome, threatened to excommunicate some bishops in Cappadocia, because they had rebaptized some that had been heretics: in the ‘fourth’ century there were churches in Cappadocia, of one of which, namely, at Sasimi, the famous Gregory Nazianzen was first bishop, and afterwards of Nazianzum, as was also the famous Basil of Caesarea, in the same country; hither the persecution under Dioclesian reached, and many had their thighs broken, as Eusebius relates (n); from hence were sent several bishops, who assisted at the council of Nice, under Constantine, and at another held at Jerusalem: in the ‘fifth’ century there were churches in Cappadocia, in several places, the names of whose bishops are on record; as Firmus, Thalassius, Theodosins, Daniel, Aristomachus, Patricius, and others: in the ‘sixth’ century there were many famous churches in this country, whose bishops were in the fifth synod held at Rome and Constantinople; and in the ‘seventh’ century there were several of them in the sixth synod of Constantinople; and in the ‘eighth’ century mention is made of bishops of several churches in Cappadocia, in the second Nicene synod; and even in the ‘ninth’ century there were Christians in these parts (o),
Asia here intends neither the lesser nor the greater Asia, but Asia, properly so called; and which, according to Solinus (p), Lycia and Phrygia bounded on the east, the Aegean shores on the west, the Egyptian sea on the south, and Paphlagonia on the north; the chief city in it was Ephesus, and so it is distinguished from Phrygia, Galatia, Mysia, and Bithynia, in Act_16:6 as here from Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, and Bithynia, and from Pontus and Cappadocia, in Act_2:9 though they were all in lesser Asia. Here also were Jews converted on the day of Pentecost; and here likewise Peter is said to preach; and by him, and by the Apostle John, who also lived and died in this country, churches were planted; and churches there were here, even in the "seventh" century, as distinct from the other Asia, greater or less; for out of it bishops were sent to, and were present at, the sixth council at Constantinople, whose names are recorded; yea, in the ‘eighth’ century there were churches and bishops, one of which persuaded Leo to remove images from places of worship; and another was in the Nicene synod (q). The last place mentioned is
Bithynia, of which See Gill on Act_16:7. And though the Apostle Paul, and his compassions, were not suffered at a certain time to go into Bithynia, and preach the Gospel there, yet it is certain that it was afterwards carried thither; and as Peter is said to preach in Pontus, Asia, and Capadocia, so likewise in Bithynia; here, according to the Roman martyrology, Luke, the evangelist, died; and, according to tradition, Prochorus, one of the seven deacons in Act_6:5 was bishop of Nicomedia, in this country; and Tychicus, of whom the Apostle Paul makes frequent mention, was bishop of Chalcedon, another city in it; and who are both said to be of the seventy disciples; see Gill on Luk_10:1, and it is certain, from the testimony of Pliny (r), an Heathen writer, in a letter of his to Trajan the emperor, written about the year 104, that there were then great numbers of Christians in Bithynia; not only the cities, but the towns and villages were full of them; and in the ‘third’ century, the persecution under Dioclesian raged, particularly at Nicomedia, where Anthimus, the pastor of the church in that place, had his head cut off as Eusebius (s) relates: in the beginning of the ‘fourth’ century, Nice, in Bithynia, became famous for the council held there under Constantine, against Arius; and in this century, bishops from Bithynia assisted at a synod held at Tyre, in Phoenicia; and in the ‘fifth’ century was held a synod at Chalcedon, a city in this country, against the Nestorinan heresy; and the names of several bishops of Chalcedon, Nicomedia, and Nice, who lived, in this age, are on record; and in the ‘sixth’ century there were bishops from these several places, and others, who were present in the fifth synod at Constantinople; as there were also in the ‘seventh’ century, at the sixth synod held at the same place, whose names are particularly mentioned; and in the ‘eighth’ century bishops from hence were in the Nicene synod; and even in the ninth century there were some that bore the Christian name in Bithynia (t). In these places however, it seems, dwelt many Jews, who were converted to Christ, to whom the apostle inscribes this epistle, and whom he further describes in the following verse,
(a) Scorpiace, c. 12. (b) Testimon. ad Quirin. l. 3. c. 36, 37, 39. (c) Eccl. Hist. l. 3. c. 1. (d) Apud Euseb. ib. l. 4. c. 23. (e) Ib. l. 7. c. 14. Hieron. Script. Eccles. Catalog. sect. 75. (f) Ib. l. 8. c. 12. (g) Hist. Eccl. Magdeburg. cent. 2. c. 2. p. 3. cent. 4. c. 2. p. 3. c. 7. p. 289. cent. 5. c. 2. p. 4. c. 1O. p. 602. cent. 6. c. 2. p. 4. cent. 7. c. 2. p. 3. cent. 8. c. 2. p. 5. (h) Geograph. l. 5. c. 6. (i) Polyhist. c. 57. (k) Zohar in Gen. fol. 51. 3. & in Exod. fol. 33. 2. & 35. 4. (l) Adv. Judaeos, c. 7. ad Scapulam, c. 3. (m) Eccl. Hist. l. 6. c. 19. (n) lb. l. 8. 12. (o) Eccl. Hist. Magdeburg. cent. 3. c. 2. p. 2. c. 3. p. 11. c. 7. p. 117. cent. 4. c. 2. p. 4. c. 9. p. 350, 390. cent. 5. c. 2. p. 4. c. 10. p. 605, 859. cent. 6. c. 2. p. 5. cent. 7. c. 2. p. 3. c. 10. p. 254. cent. 8. c. 2. p. 5. cent. 9. c. 2. p. 3. (p) C. 53. (q) Ib. cent. 7. c. 2. p. 3. c. 10. p. 254. cent. 8. c. 2. p. 5. (r) Epist. l. 10. ep. 97. (s) Eccl. Hist. l. 8. c. 5, 6. (t) Hist. Eccl. Magdeburg. cent. 4. c. 2. p. 3. c. 9. p. 390. cent. 5. c. 2. p. 4. c. 10. p. 601, 602. cent. 6. c. 2. p. 4. cent. 7. c. 2. p. 3. c. 10. p. 254. cent. 8. c. 2. p. 5. cent. 9. c. 2. p. 3.”
We see here that Peter deals with the doctrines of the calling and Predestination (No. 296) of God stated by Paul in Romans 8:29-30.
Peter ties the faith to the hope in which we are sanctified by the Holy Spirit and for the sanctification by the sprinkling with his blood and the Resurrection. The blood is the blood of Atonement for the sanctification of the priesthood of Melchisedek as detailed in Hebrews (cf. Commentary on Hebrews (F058)).
This is the inheritance we are promised as coheirs with Christ. Note that he refers here to the Last Days so this text is meant as long term prophecy for the Churches of God. It is an exhortation to the faith in the First Resurrection and the reward that awaits us.
Chapter 1 (RSV throughout)
1Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, To the exiles of the Dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappado'cia, Asia, and Bithyn'ia,2chosen and destined by God the Father and sanctified by the Spirit for obedience to Jesus Christ and for sprinkling with his blood: May grace and peace be multiplied to you.3Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ! By his great mercy we have been born anew to a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead,4and to an inheritance which is imperishable, undefiled, and unfading, kept in heaven for you,5who by God's power are guarded through faith for a salvation ready to be revealed in the last time.6In this you rejoice, though now for a little while you may have to suffer various trials,7so that the genuineness of your faith, more precious than gold which though perishable is tested by fire, may redound to praise and glory and honor at the revelation of Jesus Christ.8Without having seen him you love him; though you do not now see him you believe in him and rejoice with unutterable and exalted joy.9As the outcome of your faith you obtain the salvation of your souls.10The prophets who prophesied of the grace that was to be yours searched and inquired about this salvation;11they inquired what person or time was indicated by the Spirit of Christ within them when predicting the sufferings of Christ and the subsequent glory.12It was revealed to them that they were serving not themselves but you, in the things which have now been announced to you by those who preached the good news to you through the Holy Spirit sent from heaven, things into which angels long to look.13Therefore gird up your minds, be sober, set your hope fully upon the grace that is coming to you at the revelation of Jesus Christ.14As obedient children, do not be conformed to the passions of your former ignorance,15but as he who called you is holy, be holy yourselves in all your conduct; 16since it is written, "You shall be holy, for I am holy."17And if you invoke as Father him who judges each one impartially according to his deeds, conduct yourselves with fear throughout the time of your exile.18You know that you were ransomed from the futile ways inherited from your fathers, not with perishable things such as silver or gold,19but with the precious blood of Christ, like that of a lamb without blemish or spot.20He was destined before the foundation of the world but was made manifest at the end of the times for your sake.21Through him you have confidence in God, who raised him from the dead and gave him glory, so that your faith and hope are in God.22Having purified your souls by your obedience to the truth for a sincere love of the brethren, love one another earnestly from the heart.23You have been born anew, not of perishable seed but of imperishable, through the living and abiding word of God;24for "All flesh is like grass and all its glory like the flower of grass. The grass withers, and the flower falls,25but the word of the Lord abides for ever." That word is the good news which was preached to you.
Here we see that our predestination is like Christ’s determined from the foundation of the world but kept for us so that we are born anew through the word of God in the Holy Spirit. It is through Christ and the faith that we have faith in the Salvation of God and by the purification of our breath (Psuche (SGD 5590). Breath being the animal sentient principle only as the spirit which returns to God on death. Here it is purified to an obedience to truth which is to the sincere love of the brethren earnestly from the heart. In that is the key and mark of the faith.
In chapter 2 Peter goes on to identify the characteristics of the brethren that run counter or undermine that love. These aspects, prevalent today, are malice, all guile. Insincerity and slander which are the marks of the dead and lukewarm churches of the last days under Sardis and Laodicea (Rev. Chapter 3). Here we are called as living stones like Christ to be used in the Spiritual Temple in Zion as Holy Priests offering spiritual sacrifices.
1So put away all malice and all guile and insincerity and envy and all slander.2Like newborn babes, long for the pure spiritual milk, that by it you may grow up to salvation; 3for you have tasted the kindness of the Lord. 4Come to him, to that living stone, rejected by men but in God's sight chosen and precious; 5and like living stones be yourselves built into a spiritual house, to be a holy priesthood, to offer spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ.6For it stands in scripture: "Behold, I am laying in Zion a stone, a cornerstone chosen and precious, and he who believes in him will not be put to shame." 7To you therefore who believe, he is precious, but for those who do not believe, "The very stone which the builders rejected has become the head of the corner," 8and "A stone that will make men stumble, a rock that will make them fall"; for they stumble because they disobey the word, as they were destined to do. 9But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, God's own people, that you may declare the wonderful deeds of him who called you out of darkness into his marvelous light.10Once you were no people but now you are God's people; once you had not received mercy but now you have received mercy.11Beloved, I beseech you as aliens and exiles to abstain from the passions of the flesh that wage war against your soul.12Maintain good conduct among the Gentiles, so that in case they speak against you as wrongdoers, they may see your good deeds and glorify God on the day of visitation.13Be subject for the Lord's sake to every human institution, whether it be to the emperor as supreme,14or to governors as sent by him to punish those who do wrong and to praise those who do right.15For it is God's will that by doing right you should put to silence the ignorance of foolish men.16Live as free men, yet without using your freedom as a pretext for evil; but live as servants of God.17Honor all men. Love the brotherhood. Fear God. Honor the emperor.18Servants, be submissive to your masters with all respect, not only to the kind and gentle but also to the overbearing.19For one is approved if, mindful of God, he endures pain while suffering unjustly.20For what credit is it, if when you do wrong and are beaten for it you take it patiently? But if when you do right and suffer for it you take it patiently, you have God's approval.21For to this you have been called, because Christ also suffered for you, leaving you an example, that you should follow in his steps.22He committed no sin; no guile was found on his lips.23When he was reviled, he did not revile in return; when he suffered, he did not threaten; but he trusted to him who judges justly.24He himself bore our sins in his body on the tree, that we might die to sin and live to righteousness. By his wounds you have been healed.25For you were straying like sheep, but have now returned to the Shepherd and Guardian of your souls.
Note that we are a chosen people and a royal priesthood. We are to obey God’s laws so that we are examples to the gentiles among whom we live. We are examples like Christ. Being reviled he did not revile in return. He committed no sin and no guile was found on his lips. He committed no slander and no malice was found in him and none is to be found in us.
Peter then turns to the women and exhorts them in the faith also. The same sins of malice and guile and slander occupies them also and brings down the Churches of God in the face of all men. There is no distinction in the faith in the calling of the brethren, male or female, for in the First Resurrection we shall be as angels (Lk. 20:36) neither marrying nor giving in marriage.
1Likewise you wives, be submissive to your husbands, so that some, though they do not obey the word, may be won without a word by the behavior of their wives,2when they see your reverent and chaste behavior.3Let not yours be the outward adorning with braiding of hair, decoration of gold, and wearing of fine clothing,4but let it be the hidden person of the heart with the imperishable jewel of a gentle and quiet spirit, which in God's sight is very precious.5So once the holy women who hoped in God used to adorn themselves and were submissive to their husbands,6as Sarah obeyed Abraham, calling him lord. And you are now her children if you do right and let nothing terrify you. 7Likewise you husbands, live considerately with your wives, bestowing honor on the woman as the weaker sex, since you are joint heirs of the grace of life, in order that your prayers may not be hindered.8Finally, all of you, have unity of spirit, sympathy, love of the brethren, a tender heart and a humble mind.9Do not return evil for evil or reviling for reviling; but on the contrary bless, for to this you have been called, that you may obtain a blessing.10For "He that would love life and see good days, let him keep his tongue from evil and his lips from speaking guile;11let him turn away from evil and do right; let him seek peace and pursue it.12For the eyes of the Lord are upon the righteous, and his ears are open to their prayer. But the face of the Lord is against those that do evil."13Now who is there to harm you if you are zealous for what is right?14But even if you do suffer for righteousness' sake, you will be blessed. Have no fear of them, nor be troubled,15but in your hearts reverence Christ as Lord. Always be prepared to make a defense to any one who calls you to account for the hope that is in you, yet do it with gentleness and reverence; 16and keep your conscience clear, so that, when you are abused, those who revile your good behavior in Christ may be put to shame.17For it is better to suffer for doing right, if that should be God's will, than for doing wrong.18For Christ also died for sins once for all, the righteous for the unrighteous, that he might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh but made alive in the spirit;19in which he went and preached to the spirits in prison,20who formerly did not obey, when God's patience waited in the days of Noah, during the building of the ark, in which a few, that is, eight persons, were saved through water.21Baptism, which corresponds to this, now saves you, not as a removal of dirt from the body but as an appeal to God for a clear conscience, through the resurrection of Jesus Christ,22who has gone into heaven and is at the right hand of God, with angels, authorities, and powers subject to him.
So we are to suffer under the persecution of the nations even though we do right and obey the commandments of God without sin as sin is transgression of the law (1Jn. 3:4). Here Peter ties baptism to the salvation and it is not sprinkling of infants but baptism by water of a repentant adult necessary for entry to the First Resurrection.
Then Peter carries on in the concept of suffering in the flesh showing we are free and have ceased from sin and live by the will of God according to His commandments. It is made obvious here that he refers to the sins of Gentiles contrary to the laws of God (v. 3). The end is at hand and so the church will face these problems to the end and in doing so they must practise hospitality and be generous to one another. For each will suffer in the fiery ordeal that will face the elect over their calling. Some will be martyred others just persecuted but none further then they are able to stand. Many however in the last days will not stand and fall back like dogs to their own vomit as Peter says in 2Peter.
1Since therefore Christ suffered in the flesh, arm yourselves with the same thought, for whoever has suffered in the flesh has ceased from sin,2so as to live for the rest of the time in the flesh no longer by human passions but by the will of God.3Let the time that is past suffice for doing what the Gentiles like to do, living in licentiousness, passions, drunkenness, revels, carousing, and lawless idolatry.4They are surprised that you do not now join them in the same wild profligacy, and they abuse you;5but they will give account to him who is ready to judge the living and the dead.6For this is why the gospel was preached even to the dead, that though judged in the flesh like men, they might live in the spirit like God.7The end of all things is at hand; therefore keep sane and sober for your prayers.8Above all hold unfailing your love for one another, since love covers a multitude of sins.9Practice hospitality ungrudgingly to one another.10As each has received a gift, employ it for one another, as good stewards of God's varied grace:11whoever speaks, as one who utters oracles of God; whoever renders service, as one who renders it by the strength which God supplies; in order that in everything God may be glorified through Jesus Christ. To him belong glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.12Beloved, do not be surprised at the fiery ordeal which comes upon you to prove you, as though something strange were happening to you.13But rejoice in so far as you share Christ's sufferings, that you may also rejoice and be glad when his glory is revealed.14If you are reproached for the name of Christ, you are blessed, because the spirit of glory and of God rests upon you.15But let none of you suffer as a murderer, or a thief, or a wrongdoer, or a mischief-maker;16yet if one suffers as a Christian, let him not be ashamed, but under that name let him glorify God.17For the time has come for judgment to begin with the household of God; and if it begins with us, what will be the end of those who do not obey the gospel of God?18And "If the righteous man is scarcely saved, where will the impious and sinner appear?"19Therefore let those who suffer according to God's will do right and entrust their souls to a faithful Creator.
Judgment begins with the Household of God. We will all be tested as Christians and in the name of Christ and it is gearing up to that now more that is had been for some time.
If it begins with us where will the weak and the lazy and self righteous stand in the eyes of God in all this; let alone those who sin without care.
As we are tried as Christ was tried suffer according to God’s Will and entrust our souls to a faithful creator. Be ready to support the leaders among us and tend all the flock of our people. Do it readily and not for gain but to help all of us survive and gain the Glory of God in the Resurrection.
1So I exhort the elders among you, as a fellow elder and a witness of the sufferings of Christ as well as a partaker in the glory that is to be revealed.2Tend the flock of God that is your charge, not by constraint but willingly, not for shameful gain but eagerly,3not as domineering over those in your charge but being examples to the flock.4And when the chief Shepherd is manifested you will obtain the unfading crown of glory.5Likewise you that are younger be subject to the elders. Clothe yourselves, all of you, with humility toward one another, for "God opposes the proud, but gives grace to the humble."6Humble yourselves therefore under the mighty hand of God, that in due time he may exalt you.7Cast all your anxieties on him, for he cares about you.8Be sober, be watchful. Your adversary the devil prowls around like a roaring lion, seeking some one to devour.9Resist him, firm in your faith, knowing that the same experience of suffering is required of your brotherhood throughout the world.10And after you have suffered a little while, the God of all grace, who has called you to his eternal glory in Christ, will himself restore, establish, and strengthen you.11To him be the dominion for ever and ever. Amen.12By Silva'nus, a faithful brother as I regard him, I have written briefly to you, exhorting and declaring that this is the true grace of God; stand fast in it.13She who is at Babylon, who is likewise chosen, sends you greetings; and so does my son Mark.14Greet one another with the kiss of love. Peace to all of you that are in Christ.
Peter sends his greetings from his wife and his son Mark.
This is the true Grace of God and it does not mitigate the Law of God one jot or tittle. After we are made to suffer a little God will restore and strengthen us.
The end is about to burst upon us. Stand firm.
Bullinger’s Notes on 1Peter (for KJV)
Jesus Christ. App-98.
throughout = of.
Pontus . . . Cappadocia, Asia. See Acts 2:9.
Bithynia. See Acts 16:7.
Elect. Read before "strangers". See 1 Peter 1:1.
foreknowledge. See Acts 2:23.
sanctification, &c. See 2 Thessalonians 2:13.
sprinkling. See Hebrews 12:24.
blood. Figure of speech Metalepsis. App-6. Blood put for death, and death for the redemption it brings.
hath begotten . . . again = begat . . . again. Greek. anagennao. Only here and 1 Peter 1:23.
lively = living. The hope of living again, because it is by His resurrection.
from the dead. App-139.
incorruptible. See Romans 1:23.
undefiled. See Hebrews 7:26.
that fadeth, &c. = unfading. Greek. amarantos. Only here. Compare 1 Peter 5:4.
kept. See 2 Corinthians 11:32.
through. App-104. 1 Peter 1:1.
to be revealed. App-106.
last time. Compare Acts 2:17.
Wherein = In (App-104.) which (salvation).
greatly rejoice. See Matthew 5:12.
in heaviness = grieved.
manifold, &c. See James 1:2.
That = In order that. Greek. hina.
the trial of your faith = your tested faith, as in James 1:3.
perisheth. Greek. apollumi. See first occurance: Matthew 2:13.
glory. See p. 1511.
unspeakable. Greek. aneklaletos. Only here.
full of glory. Literally glorified.
prophets. See James 5:10.
enquired. Greek. ekzeteo. See Acts 15:17.
searched diligently. Greek. exereunao. Only here.
Searching. Greek. ereunao. See John 5:39.
what = unto (App-104.) what.
of Genitive of Relation. App-17.
Christ. App-98. These words "of Christ" should come after "signify".
signify = point. Greek. delco. See 1 Corinthians 1:11.
testified beforehand. Greek. promarturomai. Only here.
of = with reference to. App-104.
that should follow = after (App-104.) these things.
us. The texts read "you".
reported. Same as "shew" in Acts 20:20.
have preached . . . you. Literally evangelized (App-121.) you.
Holy Ghost. No art. App-101.
which . . . into = into (App-104.) which.
look = stoop down (to look). Greek. parakupto. See John 20:5.
gird up. Greek. anazonnumi. Only here.
be sober, and = being sober. Greek. nepho. See 1 Thessalonians 5:6.
to the end = perfectly. Greek. teleios. Only here. See App-125.
to be = being.
revelation. Same as "appearing", 1 Peter 1:7.
obedient children = children (App-108.) of (App-17.) obedience.
fashioning, &c. See Romans 12:2.
as, &c. Literally according to (App-104.) the (One) having called you (is) holy.
so, &c. = become ye yourselves also.
all manner of = all.
without respect, &c. Greek. aprosopoleptos. Only here.
every man"s = each one"s.
sojourning. See Acts 13:17.
Forasmuch, &c. = Knowing. App-132.
redeemed. See Titus 2:14.
with = by. No preposition.
corruptible. See Romans 1:23.
received, &c. = handed down from your fathers. Greek. patroparadotos. Only here.
Lamb. See John 1:29.
without spot. See 1 Timothy 6:14.
Who verily, &c. = Foreknown indeed. App-132.
manifest = manifested. App-106.
these last. Read "the last of the".
Seeing ye have = Having.
purified. Greek. hagnizo. See Acts 21:24.
obeying = the obedience of.
through the Spirit. All the texts omit.
unfeigned. Greek. anupokritos. See Romans 12:9 (without dissimulation).
love, &c. Greek. Philadelphia. See Romans 12:10.
pure. The texts omit. Read "from the heart".
Being = Having been.
born. Same as "begotten", 1 Peter 1:3.
seed. Greek. spora. Only here.
which liveth, &c. = living (App-170.) and abiding (see p. 1511).
forever. All the texts omit.
man. The texts read "it", referring to "flesh".
withereth = withered. Compare James 1:11, where the verbs are in the past tense, as here.
word. Greek. rhema. See Mark 9:32.
endureth. Greek. meno. Same as "abide", 1 Peter 1:23.
for ever. App-151. The above is quoted from Isaiah 40:6-8. App-107.
which . . . preached. Literally evangelized, as 1 Peter 1:12.
laying aside = having put away. Greek. apotithemi. See Romans 13:12.
evil speakings. Greek. katalalia. See 2 Corinthians 12:20.
newborn. Greek. artigennetos. Only here.
sincere. Greek. adolos = without guile. Only here.
milk. Compare 1 Corinthians 3:2.
that = in order that. Greek. hina.
thereby = in (App-104.) it. Compare 2 Peter 3:18. The texts add "unto (App-104.) salvation".
If so be = If. App-118.
as unto. Omit.
disallowed = having been rejected. Greek. apodokimazo, as Matthew 21:42.
of = in the sight of. App-104.
lively = living. App-170.
spiritual. See 1 Corinthians 12:1.
priesthood. Greek. hierateuma. Only here and 1 Peter 2:9.
offer up. Greek. anaphero. See Hebrews 7:27.
acceptable. Greek. euprosdektos. See Romans 15:16.
Jesus Christ. App-98.
Wherefore also. The texts read "Because", as 1 Peter 1:16.
chief corner. See Ephesians 2:20.
Unto = To.
He is precious. Greek. time = the honour, or preciousness. The verb to be supplied is "belongs", or "attaches". The preciousness in Christ is reckoned unto you that believe. Compare 1 Corinthians 1:30.
is made = became.
the head = for (App-104.) the head.
stumbling. Greek. proskomma. See Romans 9:32.
stumble. Greek. proskopto. See Romans 9:32.
at the word, &c. = being disobedient to the word.
whereunto = unto (App-104.) which.
also, &c. = they were appointed also.
generation = race. Greek. genos. See 1 Corinthians 12:10 (kind).
nation. Greek. ethnos. Plural, usually translated "Gentiles", in Plural
shew forth. Greek. exangello. Only here.
in time past = once, at one time. Greek. pote.
pilgrims. Same as "strangers", 1 Peter 1:1.
fleshly. Greek. sarkikos. See Romans 7:14.
war. Greek. strateuomai. See 1 Corinthians 9:7.
honest. See Romans 12:17.
whereas = wherein, or, in (App-104.) what.
speak against. Greek. katalaleo. See James 4:11.
evildoers. See John 18:30.
good. Same as "honest", above.
which, &c. = beholding (them). App-133.
visitation. Greek. epiakope. See Acts 1:20.
Submit. Same word in 1 Peter 2:18 (subject).
ordinance. Greek. ktisis. Always translated "creature" or "creation", except Hebrews 9:11 and here.
of man = human. Greek. anthropinos. See Romans 6:19.
for, &c. = on account of (App-104. 1 Peter 2:2) the Lord.
supreme. Same as "higher", Romans 18:1.
governors. Greek. hegemon. Elsewhere, only in the Gospels and Acts. The title of Pilate, Felix, and Festus.
punishment of = vengeance on. Greek. ekdikesis See Acts 7:24.
them, &c. Greek. agathopoios. Only here. Compare 1 Peter 4:19.
well doing. Greek. agathopoieo. See Acts 14:17.
put to silence . Same as "muzzle", 1 Corinthians 9:9.
ignorance. Greek. agnosia. See 1 Corinthians 15:34.
foolish. See Luke 11:40.
using = having.
cloke. Greek. epikalumma. Only here. The word kalumma only in 2 Corinthians 3:13-16.
brotherhood. Greek. adelphotes. Only here and 1 Peter 5:9.
be subject = submit, 1 Peter 2:13.
also, &c. = to the froward also.
froward. Greek. skolios. See Acts 2:40.
conscience. See Acts 23:1.
toward = of.
endure. See 2 Timothy 3:11.
wrongfully. Greek. adikos. Only here.
glory. Greek. kleos. Only here.
when, &c. = sinning (App-128.) and being buffeted (see 1 Corinthians 4:11).
even hereunto = un to (App-104.) this.
us. All the texts read "you".
leaving. Greek. hupolimpano. Only here.
example. Greek. hupogrammos. Only here.
follow = diligently follow. See 1 Timothy 5:10.
steps. See Romans 4:12.
neither. Greek. oude. verse quoted from Isaiah 53:9.
reviled. Greek. loidoreo. See John 9:28.
reviled . . . again. Greek. antiloidoreo. Only here.
threatened. See Acts 4:17.
committed. See John 19:30.
righteously. Greek. dikaios. See 1 Corinthians 15:34.
His own self = Himself.
bare. Same as "offer up", 1 Peter 2:6.
being dead. Greek. apoginomai, to be away from, to die. Only here.
bruise. Greek. molops. Only here, but in the Septuagint in several places, one of which is Isaiah 53:5.
healed. Greek. iaomai. See Luke 6:17.
be in subjection = submit, as 1 Peter 2:13.
that = in order that. Greek. hina.
any. Plural of tis. App-123.
obey not = are disobedient to. Greek. apeitheo. See 1 Peter 2:7.
also. Read as "even", before "if", "even if".
by = through. App-104. 1 Peter 3:1.
conversation. See 1 Peter 1:15.
While, &c. = Having beheld. App-133.
chaste. Greek. hagnos. See 2 Corinthians 7:11.
coupled with = in. App-104.
fear. Here used in the sense of reverence. Compare Ephesians 5:33, where the verb is used.
adorning. Greek. kosmos. Elsewhere translated "world". See App-129.
that, &c. = the outward one.
plaiting. Greek. emploke. Only here.
wearing = putting around. Greek. perithesis. Only here. Referring to putting coronets, bracelets, &c, round the head, arms, &c.
gold = gold (ornaments).
putting on. Greek. endusis. Only here.
that which, &c. the incorruptible (Greek. aphthartos. See Romans 1:23). Supply "ornament" again here.
of great price. See 1 Timothy 2:9.
after this, &c. = thus in the old time = thus once.
trusted = hoped.
adorned = used to adorn (Imperfect). Greek. kosmeo. See 1 Timothy 2:9.
lord. Greek. kurios. Compare App-98.
daughters = children. App-108.
are = are become.
do well. See 1 Peter 2:15.
any = no. Greek. medeis. A double negative here.
dwell with. Greek. sunoikeo. Only here.
giving = dispensing. Greek. aponemo. Only here. In the Septuagint in Deuteronomy 4:19 (divided). The word nemo is not found in N.T., but is frequent in the Septuagint of feeding cattle and sheep.
honour. This is part of the wife"s daily portion.
wife. Greek. gunaikeios. Only here. An adjective.
the, &c. Read "the female vessel as weaker".
heirs together. See Romans 8:17.
that = to the end that. App-104.
hindered. Greek. enkopto. See Acts 24:4.
love, &c. = loving as brethren. Greek. philadelphos. Only here. Compare 1 Peter 1:22.
pitiful. Greek. eusplanchnos. Only here and Ephesians 4:32.
contrariwise. See 2 Corinthians 2:7.
knowing. The texts omit and read "for ye", &c.
are = were.
thereunto = unto (App-104.) this.
refrain = cause to cease. Greek. pauomai.
that, &c = not (App-105) to speak (App-121)
ensue = pursue.
harm = ill-treat. Greek. kakoo. Acts 7:6.
be = become.
for, &c. = on account of (App-104. 1 Peter 3:2) righteousness (App-191.)
happy. Greek. makarios. Genitive translation "blessed".
sanctify. i.e. separate. Give Him His right place.
the LORD God. The texts read "the Christ as Lord". There is no art. before Lord, which shows that it is the predicate. Compare Romans 10:9. Philippians 1:2, Philippians 1:6. The quotation is from Isaiah 8:12, Isaiah 8:13.
to give = for. App-104.
answer. Greek. apologia. See Acts 22:1.
a reason = an account. App-121.
a good conscience. See Acts 23:1.
whereas = in (App-104.) what.
speak evil. Greek. katalaleo. See James 4:11.
Christ. App-98. IX
be so = should will. App-102.
for, &c. = as well doers (1 Peter 3:6).
for, &c. = - as evildoers. Greek. kakopoieo. See Mark 3:4.
suffered. The texts read "died".
in the flesh = in flesh. No art. or preposition. Dative case.
quickened. See Romans 4:17.
by the Spirit = in spirit. No preposition. (Dative case), and though the Authorized Version has the art. it is rejected by all the texts. App-101. The reference is to the resurrection body, and the contrast is between His condition when He was put to death and when He rose from the dead.
By which = In (Greek. en) which (condition).
also, &c. = having gone, He even preached.
preached = heralded. App-121. Not the Gospel, which would be App-121. He announced His triumph.
wherein = into (App-104.) which.
were saved = (entered and) were saved. Figure of speech Ellipsis. App-6.
The like figure, &c. Literally Which (i.e. water; the relative, being neuter, can only refer to the word "water") being antitypical (Greek. antitupos, here and Hebrews 9:24).
also, &c. = now save you (all the texts read "you") also.
putting away. Greek. apothesis. Only here and 2 Peter 1:14.
filth. Greek. rupos. Only here. Compare J as. 1 Peter 1:21.
answer = inquiry, or seeking. Greek. eperotema. Only here. The verb erotao (App-134.) and eperotao (Acts 1:6) always mean "to ask".
Jesus Christ. App-98.
is = having.
for us. The texts omit.
in the flesh. Greek. sarki, as 1 Peter 3:18.
arm yourselves . . . with = put on as armour. Greek. hoplizomai. Only here. Compare Romans 6:13.
likewise = also.
mind. Greek. ennoia. See Hebrews 4:12.
in the flesh. The Received text (App-94) has en, but the texts omit.
sin. App-128. Compare Romans 6:7.
That = To (App-104.) the end that.
no longer. Greek. meketi.
live. Greek. bioo. Only here. Compare App-170.
rest of his = remaining, Greek. epiloipos. Only here. Compare App-124.
of our life. The texts omit.
us. The texts omit.
will. App-102., as above, but the texts read App-102.
Gentiles. Greek. ethnos.
lasciviousness. See Romans 13:13.
excess of wine. Greek. oinopldugia. Only here.
revellings. Greek. komos. See Romans 13:13.
banquetings. Greek. potos. Only here.
abominable = unlawful. See Acts 10:28.
idolatries. See 1 Corinthians 10:14.
Wherein = In (App-104.) which.
think, &c. See Acts 17:20.
excess. Greek. anachusis. Only here.
riot. Greek. asotia. See Ephesians 5:18.
speaking evil of. Greek. blasphemeo.
give = render. As in Hebrews 13:17.
is ready. See Acts 21:13.
for this cause = unto (App-104.) this (end).
was the gospel preached. App-121.
also, &c. = to the dead also.
that = in order that. Greek. hina.
they might = though they might. The particle men, marking the contrast, is ignored in the Authorized Version and Revised Version.
according to. App-104. Supply "the will of".
is at hand = has drawn near. Compare Matthew 3:2.
be . . . sober. See Romans 12:3.
watch. See 2 Timothy 4:5.
above = before. App-104.
have, &c. = having your love toward (Greek. eis) one another intense.
one, &c. = to one another.
grudging = murmuring. See Acts 6:1.
gift. App-184. See 1 Corinthians 7:7.
one to another = among yourselves (1 Peter 4:8).
stewards. See 1 Corinthians 4:1.
manifold. See 1 Peter 1:6.
as. i.e. in harmony with, according.
oracles. See Acts 7:38.
through. App-104. 1 Peter 4:1.
Jesus Christ. App-98.
be = is.
praise = the glory. Greek. doxa. See p. 1511.
dominion = the dominion. App-172.
for ever, &c. App-151. a. A summary of the Divine operations in their finality.
the fiery trial, &c. Literally the fire (of persecution) which is among (App-104.) you, coming to you for (App-104.) trial. Not coming in the future, but a present condition.
some = a.
strange. Greek. xenos. See Acts 17:18.
when, &c. = in (App-104.) the revelation (App-106.) also of His glory (see p. 1511).
reproached. Greek. oneidizo. See Romans 15:3.
for = in. App-104.
happy. See 1 Peter 3:14.
Spirit, &c. Figure of speech Hendiadys (App-6). The glorious Spirit of God. App-101.
on their part . . . glorified. This clause is omitted by all the texts.
But = For.
none = not (Greek. me) any one (App-123.)
evildoer. See 1 Peter 2:12.
busybody in, &c. Greek. allotrioepiskopos. Only here. An overseer in things concerning another. See App-124. Compare 1 Thessalonians 4:11. 2 Thessalonians 3:11. 1 Timothy 5:13, and see Luke 12:13. John 21:22.
Christian. See Acts 11:26.
behalf = respect, literally part, but the texts read "name".
the time, &c. = (it is) the season.
that judgment, &c. Literally of judgment (App-177.) beginning.
obey not = are disobedient to. See 1 Peter 2:7.
gospel of God. App-140.
scarcely. See Acts 14:18.
ungodly. Greek. asebes. Compare App-128.
appear. App-106. Compare Proverbs 11:31 (Septuagint)
them. Add "also".
commit the keeping of. Greek. paratithemi. See Acts 17:3.
well doing. Greek. agathopoiia. Only here. Compare 1 Peter 2:14.
as. The texts omit.
unto = to.
Creator. Greek. ktistes. Only here.
who, &c. = the fellow-elder. Greek. sumpresbuteros. Only here.
a = the.
partaker. See 1 Corinthians 10:18.
glory. See p. 1511.
that shall = about to.
revealed. App-106. Compare 1 Peter 4:13.
flock. Greek. poimnion. See Acts 20:28.
taking, &c. Greek. episkopeo. Only here and Hebrews 12:15. Compare App-189.
by constraint. Greek. anankostos. Only here.
not = neither. Greek. mede
for filthy lucre. Greek. aischrokerdos. Only here. Compare 1 Timothy 3:3.
of, &c. = readily. Greek. prothumos. Only here. Compare Acts 17:11.
Neither. Greek. mede, as above.
being, &c. See Acts 19:16.
chief Shepherd. Greek. archipoimen. Only here. See John 10:11.
a = the.
crown. Greek. Stephanos. The victor"s crown. Compare Revelation 12:3 (diadema).
submit. As 1 Peter 2:13, &c.
unto = to.
be subject . . . and = submitting The texts omit.
one to, &c. = to one another.
be clothed with = gird yourselves with. Greek. enkomboomai. Only here.
proud. See Romans 1:30.
Humble yourselves. See 2 Corinthians 11:7.
mighty. Greek. krataios. Only here. Compare 1 Corinthians 16:13 and App-172.
that = in order that. Greek. hina.
exalt. See John 12:32.
due time = season.
Casting . . . upon. Greek. epirripto. Only here and Luke 19:35.
upon. Greek. epi. App-104. The same prep, as is seen in the verb.
Be sober. See 1 Peter 1:13.
be vigilant. Greek. gregoreo. Translated "watch", except here and 1 Thessalonians 5:10 (wake).
devour = swallow up. See 1 Corinthians 15:54.
stedfast. Greek. stereos. See 2 Timothy 2:19.
afflictions. Same as "sufferings", 1 Peter 5:1.
brethren = brotherhood. See 1 Peter 2:17.
grace. App-184. Compare Acts 7:2.
us. The texts read "you".
Christ Jesus. App-98. but the texts omit "Jesus".
after that ye have = having.
a while-a little (time). The contrast is between the affliction now and the glory hereafter. Compare 2 Corinthians 4:17.
make you, &c The texts read "shall Himself perfect you", &c
perfect. Compare Hebrews 13:21. See App-125.
strengthen. Greek. sthenoo. Only here.
glory and. The texts omit.
for ever, &c. App-151. a.
Silvanus. See 2 Corinthians 1:19.
suppose = reckon. Greek. logizomai, as Romans 4:3, &c.
briefly. Literally by means of (App-104. 1 Peter 5:1) few (words).
testifying = earnestly testifying. Greek. epimartureo. Only here.
wherein = in (App-104.) which
church. The adjective "elected together with" is feminine, singular, and the ellipsis must be supplied by some noun of that gender. Hence, some have thought that the reference is to Peter"s wife (1 Corinthians 9:5.) This would accord with the inclusion of an individual (Marcus) in the same salutation, and would agree with Paul"s custom of sending salutations from individuals; but he also sends salutations from churches (Romans 16:16, Romans 16:23; 1 Corinthians 16:19), and from all the saints, or brethren, i.e. in the place where he was writing (2 Corinthians 13:13. Galatians 1:1, Galatians 1:2. Philippians 1:4, Philippians 1:22. 2 Timothy 4:21. Titus 3:15). So Peter may be uniting all the brethren with him here, and the ellipsis should be supplied, not with ekklesia, which occurs nowhere in either of his epistles, but with diaspora, the dispersion, whom he addresses as elect (1 Peter 1:1). Those in Babylon were elect with them.
Babylon. A great many sojourners of the dispersion were in Babylon. See Josephus , Ant., XV. ii. 2.
elected together with. Greek. suneklektos. Only here.
Greet. Same as "salute", 1 Peter 5:13.
charity = love. App-135. In Paul"s epistles the epithet "holy" (hagios) is used.
with = to.
Jesus. The texts omit.