Christian Churches of God


No. 164F




Forgeries and Additions/Mistranslations in the Bible


(Edition 2.5 20130317-20130826-20180201-20240711)


It has been said before that there were several forgeries and mistranslations in certain Bibles. We will list these for our reference and identify what is the correct translation.  We will try to deal with these and at least examine the implications of the most important errors or forgeries.




Christian Churches of God

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(Copyright © 2013, 2018, 2024  Wade Cox)



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Forgeries and Additions/Mistranslations in the Bible

Most reputable theologians have admitted that the Bible is Unitarian and subordinationist. Calvin and Harnack both admit this and Brunner also confirms it and identifies them as doing so.


In order to deal with that problem, as they see it, the fundamentalist Trinitarian approach has been, from the Reformation, to alter the translation of the biblical texts to disguise the concepts, and to deny the plurality and extent of the word elohim. Joshua 22:22 is an example. The RSV renders the text:

The Mighty One, God the Lord! The Mighty One, God the Lord!


What is of importance is that no serious scholar denies that, at the time of Christ, the Bible was understood to refer to a Council of the Elohim or Elim and that the term extended way beyond the concept of a duality or a Trinity. A significant work on the subject is The Psalms: Their Origin and Meaning by Leopold Sabourin, S.J., (Alba House, NY; revised and updated version (post-1974)). Sabourin demonstrates the concept of the Council of the Elohim in his work. On pages 398f., Sabourin lists the usage of Eloah but avoids dealing with the significance. From pages 72-74, Sabourin addresses Psalm 86:8-10, 95:3, 96:4, and 135:5. The Bene Elim are identified as the Sons of God as are the Bene Elyon (Sons of the Most High). On pages 102-104, he mentions the saints or Holy Ones (qedosim) from Psalm 89:6-8 who are God’s celestial attendants and that the term is used also of the human faithful. These supra-terrestrial beings are of the Bene Elim or the Bene HaElohim. The Bene HaElohim are the Sons of the God. Sabourin, noting also Coppens comment (ETL, 1963, pp. 485-500) that the noun qedosim in the Masoretic Text designates the supra-terrestrial Court of YHVH, who are held to be elohim (pp. 102-103), says of this:

The concept of a heavenly assembly is not a purely literary form, but is an element of the living pattern of Israelite faith (p. 75).


Now this word rendered angels in Psalm 8 and Hebrews, is, as we see in the Hebrew elohim and means gods. It was translated as ‘aggelos (for messengers) in the Septuagint, and also from that into the Greek text in Hebrews, and retained in that sense in the Vulgate, the Syriac and the Arab. It was translated as angels in the English. The reason it was retained in this sense is that it suited the original Hebrew translators to render it messengers, because it was dealing with the plurality of the sons of God as elohim, rather than Eloah. Trinitarians have followed this to have it as "angels" and omit the "for a little while" sense, and also in that sense in the later Syriac and the Arabic. The reason appears to be that none of them wanted to acknowledge that the elohim were an extended order of beings.

However, the text is definitely elohim in the original Hebrew, and Bullinger makes note of that in the note to the verse in the Companion Bible. The priests knew that the son of man was an elohim who became Son of God as the monogenes theos, or the only born God of John 1:18 (cf. Marshall's Greek English Interlinear RSV). The notes to the Companion Bible in the texts examine these aspects (see also the paper On The Words: Monogenes Theos in Scripture and Tradition (B4)).


John 1:18 No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him. (KJV)

They were referring to him making himself equal to the elohim, and as this was not spoken in Greek, but in Aramaic, we get the text as elohi then rendered as angels.

The sons of God were all elohim as the OT texts show by their usage. These elohim were understood as 'aggelos, or messengers, and translated as angels in the English and other texts. However, the Temple priests had not been hampered by the traditions of Roman pagans masquerading as Christians for a few centuries at this time, and so they understood the implications perfectly


The term sons of God is pantes uioi theou. This is literally all the sons of God and these beings are not Christ but the other sons of God that are distinct from the Gentiles and the Israelites and thus can only be the spiritual Host also referred to in Job 1:6, 2:1 and 38:4-7. These texts were also forged by the Sopherim in the Masoretic Text (MT).


Job 1:6 Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them (KJV).


Job 2:1 Again there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them to present himself before the LORD. (KJV)


Job 38:4-7 Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth? declare, if thou hast understanding. 5Who hath laid the measures thereof, if thou knowest? or who hath stretched the line upon it? 6Whereupon are the foundations thereof fastened? or who laid the corner stone thereof; 7When the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy? (KJV)


Deuteronomy 32:8 was also forged by the Sopherim in the Masoretic Text (MT) which was changed from the words according to the number of the sons of God to the words according to the number of the Sons of Israel.


It is corrected in the RSV and a few others based on the LXX and the DSS finds of the ancient texts.

Deuteronomy 32:8 When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, when he separated the sons of men, he fixed the bounds of the peoples according to the number of the sons of God. (RSV)


Deuteronomy 32:43 "Praise his people, O you nations; for he avenges the blood of his servants, and takes vengeance on his adversaries, and makes expiation for the land of his people." (RSV)


They took the text out of this verse 43 to disguise the following facts: The sons of God in verse 8 not only had the nations allocated to them and Israel was given to the Yahovah of Israel, but, from verse 43, that salvation was open to the Gentiles, as well as Israel and also to the sons of God in the Host. We had the truth in the LXX text to confirm the text in Hebrews, but the Trinitarians did not draw attention to the forgeries, as it suited them. The Ditheists of Herbert Armstrong’s WCG system simply do not know enough to deal with it. There is, however, no doubt whatsoever that Hebrews is quoting directly from the LXX and the full text sheds light on the meaning of Hebrews. The Dead Sea Scrolls (DSS) also confirm the text in the LXX and show that the MT is a later Jewish forgery. The RSV has corrected the text in verse 8 on that basis.


Genesis 23:6 has "prince of El" in the Hebrew and this is translated as "mighty prince."

Genesis 23:6 "Hear us, my lord; you are a mighty prince among us. Bury your dead in the choicest of our sepulchres; none of us will withhold from you his sepulchre, or hinder you from burying your dead." (KJV)

It is actually:

Genesis 23:6 "Hear us, my lord; you are prince of El among us. Bury your dead in the choicest of our sepulchres; none of us will withhold from you his sepulchre, or hinder you from burying your dead."


The Temple codex taken to Rome by Titus, and handed over to the Jewish Community by the Emperor Severin ca 220 CE, had thirty-two passages that differed from other texts. The lists are preserved and the Companion Bible lists them in Appendix 34 (see below) and also makes notes in the margin of the verses. The Companion Bible notes are indispensable to any real study of the KJV. The Annotated Oxford RSV is also important. We hope that this paper will assist all those studying the KJV usage in theology.



There are occasional errors in the Psalms but the blatant misuse of the psalm to confuse the issue of the New Moon as a Feast Day has been done by both “Jews” and “Christians.”


Psalm 81:3 Blow up the trumpet in the new moon,

In the time appointed, on our solemn feast day.

This is the Passover as it is set at the time of the exodus from Egypt. The text has been mistranslated to read full moon so it is misconstrued to the Feast of the Seventh Month.


A further mistranslation of the OT text to mislead the Christian faith is in Daniel 9:25. God had spoken, through His servant Daniel, of the anointed ones of the building of the Temple. The prophecy in Daniel 9:25 is mistranslated in the KJV to refer to Messiah as the anointed one and the text is obscured. The text, in fact, refers to two anointed ones; one at the end of seven weeks of years and the other at the end of sixty-two weeks of years. The timing refers to the construction of the Temple and its cessation as the instrument of God. The Hebrew texts confirm the translation in the RSV in the Jewish translations. Daniel 9:25-27 actually says:

Daniel 9:25-27 Know therefore and understand that from the going forth of the word to restore and build Jerusalem to the coming of an anointed one, a prince, there shall be seven weeks. Then for sixty-two weeks it shall be built again with squares and moat, but in a troubled time. 26And after the sixty-two weeks, an anointed one shall be cut off, and shall have nothing; and the people of the prince who is to come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary. Its end shall come with a flood, and to the end there shall be war; desolations are decreed. 27And he shall make a strong covenant with many for one week; and for half of the week he shall cause sacrifice and offering to cease; and upon the wing of abominations shall come one who makes desolate, until the decreed end is poured out on the desolator. (RSV)


Note the true text here refers to the seven weeks of years from the order to construct the Temple to the anointed one. This anointed one, which is what the term Messiah means and hence the application to Jesus Christ (Christ being the Greek form meaning anointed one), is actually Nehemiah. He is seen by Jewish history as a second Moses. He restored the law and the testimony. He finalised the canon with Ezra and their work is the last of the Old Testament. The time of the construction commences not from the reign of Darius I or Darius Hystaspes but from Darius II. Artaxerxes I stopped construction on the Temple (Ezra 4:23-24). The construction commenced in the second year of the reign of Darius II (Ezra 4:24 to 6:12). The Temple was finished in the sixth year of his reign (Ezra 6:13-15).


Seven weeks of years from the decree of this king takes us to the year of the provisioning of Nehemiah by Artaxerxes II (not Artaxerxes I as is commonly taught). This period saw the end of the Old Testament canon in this sequence of the construction of the Temple. This was the restoration of the law under the last Old Testament prophet of God. He was the last anointed one of the Old Testament system.


The sequence of the construction and the history are dealt with in the paper The Sign of Jonah and the History of the Reconstruction of the Temple (No. 013).


The next anointed one, referred to in Daniel 9:25-27, refers to the anointed one after the sixty-two weeks of years. Thus seven weeks of years plus sixty-two weeks of years equals sixty-nine weeks of years. This period ends in 63/4 CE. The anointed one cut off but not for himself was James, bishop of Jerusalem and brother of Jesus Christ. He was martyred in 63/4 CE for the faith and from this year the final week of years commenced, leading to the destruction of the physical Temple. The end of the seventy weeks of years coincided with the forty years allocated for repentance to Judah. The nation did not repent and indeed, in this last week of years, the High Priests fought pitched battles in the streets for retention of power and the system was entirely corrupt.


This text in Daniel was mistranslated and chronologically misrepresented in order to place Christ within Daniel’s text and end it with his ministry in 27 CE which it cannot possibly do. However, since when has truth and accuracy bothered a Trinitarian Apologist.



The use of YHVH is also confused and used misleadingly elsewhere in the OT text to support false theology.  There are two beings referred to in Zechariah chapter 2. One of these beings is the One True God Yahovah of Hosts while the other is the subordinate Elohim of Psalm 45:6-7 and Hebrews 1:8-9 which is Jesus Christ.


Zechariah 2:3-12 And, behold, the angel that talked with me went forth, and another angel went out to meet him, 4And said unto him, Run, speak to this young man, saying, Jerusalem shall be inhabited as towns without walls for the multitude of men and cattle therein: 5For I, saith the LORD, will be unto her a wall of fire round about, and will be the glory in the midst of her. 6Ho, ho, come forth, and flee from the land of the north, saith the LORD: for I have spread you abroad as the four winds of the heaven, saith the LORD. 7Deliver thyself, O Zion, that dwellest with the daughter of Babylon. 8For thus saith the LORD of hosts; After the glory hath he sent me unto the nations which spoiled you: for he that toucheth you toucheth the apple of his eye. 9For, behold, I will shake mine hand upon them, and they shall be a spoil to their servants: and ye shall know that the LORD of hosts hath sent me. 10Sing and rejoice, O daughter of Zion: for, lo, I come, and I will dwell in the midst of thee, saith the LORD. 11And many nations shall be joined to the LORD in that day, and shall be my people: and I will dwell in the midst of thee, and thou shalt know that the LORD of hosts hath sent me unto thee. 12And the LORD shall inherit Judah his portion in the holy land, and shall choose Jerusalem again. (KJV)

It is clear from this text that there are two angels involved here. One is superior to the other and the superior one is the pre-incarnate Messiah. He speaks for Yahovah (or Jehovah) of Hosts who has sent him. Verse 5 is rendered as For I saith the Lord but is in fact For I, Yahovah’s oracle (see Companion Bible fn. to v. 5). This angel who is Yahovah’s oracle will deliver Israel from the nations (v. 9) and, by that, many nations will know that Yahovah of Hosts has sent that being to them. The apple of his eye is actually the apple of my eye. My was changed to His by the Sopherim regarding the word as derogatory to Yahovah (see Comp. Bible fn. to v. 8. The incorrect Jehovah is used in the English text). The change was probably because the apple of my eye made it the apple of the eye of a subordinate entity. Many nations shall be joined to the Lord (Yahovah) in that day. He will dwell in the midst of them and they will know that Yahovah of Hosts has sent him to them. In other words the Yahovah (or Jehovah) here is the angel sent to Israel by Yahovah of Hosts. This angel or messenger of Yahovah of Hosts was the elohim of Israel. Zechariah 12:8 shows clearly that the Angel of Yahovah was an elohim and that the elect will also be elohim as he was.


The Literal New Testament is important, as is also the Marshall’s Greek English Interlinear. Green’s Interlinear Bible is also of use for the Old Testament.


The New Testament is based on the Receptus, which has serious problems. The most important alteration, or forgery and mistranslation, in the KJV is the forged text of 1John 5:7 which makes the Trinitarian reference, and which is not in any ancient manuscript.


The verse at 1John 5:7 occurs only in the Textus Receptus, and hence the King James. It says: "For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one," was a known forgery. It was included in the later writings, because there was no verse in the Bible that supported the concept of the Egyptian triads, which had been incorporated into Roman Christianity. Three is also significant in the ancient earth mother religion, which was evident as a feminine subculture involving nature worship and other forms of naturalism, later identified with witchcraft. So having no biblical basis for the Trinity they forged one.


Another blatant fraud, 1Timothy 3:16 in the KJV, is based on the forged text in Codex A found in the British museum. It has the Uncial O altered by the addition of a bar making it "theta" and another scribe added "sygma," making the letters "theta sygma," and this was interpreted as an abbreviation for the word "theos" and hence translated "God" instead of "he who." That was the obvious aim of the forgery. The forgeries are even in two different kinds of ink.

1Timothy 3:16 And without controversy great is the mystery of godliness: God [He who] was manifest in the flesh, justified in the Spirit, seen of angels, preached unto the Gentiles, believed on in the world, received up into glory. (KJV)


The manuscript reads ΘC "God was manifested in the flesh," employing the usual abbreviation ΘC for ΘEOC, with a stroke over the letters to indicate an abbreviation. However, textual critics believe that the ink in the center of the Θ and the stroke above were added by a corrector in modern times. Reasons for this belief are the colour of the ink, and the fact that a "dot" has been placed in the Θ instead of a line. Tregelles writes, "The ink in which this has been done in Codex A is sufficiently modern and black to declare its recent application" (An Account of the Printed Text of the Greek New Testament, London, 1854). Without these marks, the manuscript originally read ΟC "He who was manifested in the flesh."


Further, John 1:18 was changed in the Receptus (and hence in the KJV) to read “only born son” or “monogenes uion” and then translated as “only begotten son.” This was done to disguise the distinction between the fact that there were many sons of God in the host, of which Christ was the “prototokos”, but only one of those sons had been born and hence, he was the only born  god” or “theos.” Most Trinitarians carry on that incorrect translation, being dependent upon it and the other forged texts for their apologies (cf. Marshall’s Interlinear; see also the text On the Words: Monogenes Theos in Scripture and Tradition (No. B4)).

John 1:18 No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him. (KJV)


The sense of the charge of equality with God by claiming sonship was rejected by the Apostles. There are various texts that deny the equality of Christ with God and which show his relationship with the Father. Many of these were altered by the Trinitarians in the English texts.


Also Philippians 2:6 in the KJV has been muddied up and is clearer in the RSV.

Philippians 2:6  Who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God: (KJV)


Here the sense is made out to be that Christ did not think it robbery to be equal with God. The sense is, however, that it was not something to be grasped after to become equal with God. In other words, the fallen Host wanted to grasp equality with God (cf. Isa. Ch. 14; Ezek. Ch. 28). Christ did not do so but became obedient unto death. We see this sense from the RSV and other texts (see also Marshall’s Interlinear Greek-English New Testament).

Philippians 2:6 who, though he was in the form of God, did not count equality with God a thing to be grasped (RSV)


There is no indefinite article (i.e. a) in the Greek and it must be deduced and applied where necessary. This is the problem in the text in John 1:1. Many translators consider it should apply in John 1:1 and translate it and the word was a God. This view has merit as we will see from John 1:18 and other texts where he is referred to as the “only born God” from “monogenes theos.” In any case, John 1:1 is incorrect as we see it normally portrayed. The correct translation even if the word order is preserved involves the concept of towards and not with as is taught by Trinitarians.

John 1:1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God (KJV).

It should read: John 1:1 In the beginning was the word and the Word was towards God and the word was a God.


Another serious forgery is in Ephesians 3:9 which has the words "by Jesus Christ" added to the end of the text: "In God, who created all things." 

Ephesians 3:9  And to make all men see what is the fellowship of the mystery, which from the beginning of the world hath been hid in God, who created all things [by Jesus Christ in the  (KJV) is an added text].


The words diaIesou Christou or by Jesus Christ are incorrect. The words have been added to the Receptus and hence appear in the KJV but they do not appear in the ancient texts. They do not appear in the modern versions of the Bible. The RSV correctly relates the text:

Ephesians 3:9 and to make all men see what is the plan of the mystery hidden for ages in God who created all things; (RSV)


This additional forgery is done to promote the illusion that the creation was done by Christ and hence he is above the others sons of God or elohim despite the texts on the OT at Deut. 32:8; Job 1:6; 2:1; 38:4-7; and in Col. 1:15. Also The KJV has an "alpha omega" inclusion in the KJV at Revelation 1:8, which is omitted in the ancient texts.


The Trinitarian forgeries carry over into the NT and seriously distort the theology of the Christian Faith even more so than did the OT misuse.


1John 4:2-6 Hereby know ye the Spirit of God: Every spirit that confesseth that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is of God: 3And every spirit that confesseth not that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is not of God: and this is that spirit of antichrist, whereof ye have heard that it should come; and even now already is it in the world. 4Ye are of God, little children, and have overcome them: because greater is he that is in you, than he that is in the world. 5They are of the world: therefore speak they of the world, and the world heareth them. 6We are of God: he that knoweth God heareth us; he that is not of God heareth not us. Hereby know we the spirit of truth, and the spirit of error. (KJV)

Interpretations of this verse obscure the meaning of “the spirit of antichrist.”


The correct ancient text for 1John 4:1-2 is reconstructed from Irenæus, Chapter 16:8 (ANF, Vol. 1, fn. p. 443).

Hereby know ye the spirit of God: Every spirit that confesseth Jesus Christ came in the flesh is of God; and every spirit which separates Jesus Christ is not of God but is of Antichrist.


Socrates the historian says (VII, 32, p. 381) that the passage had been corrupted by those who wished to separate the humanity of Jesus Christ from his divinity.


The Receptus, hence the KJV, has the erroneous rendering.


Another serious example in the Receptus and hence the KJV is found in Revelation. The text of Revelation 1 is constructed in five paragraphs or sections: verses 1-3, 4-6, 7-8, 9-11, 12-20. God is before the throne and this Being is distinct from Christ, the third element in this chapter. The distinction is made between "the one who is and was and is to come" and Jesus Christ. The former or first Being has a throne in front of the seven spirits. This Being, the Lord God who is the Father, is the Being whose coming is described in Revelation 21. The structure is thus introduced in chapter 1 and concluded in chapter 21, being explained in the intervening chapters. The Alpha and the Omega is shown as being God Almighty and not Jesus Christ, from verse 8. The text at verse 17 shows the term the first and the last (protos and eschatos; the first-born of a series). This is derived from the meaning of the delegation by God of the process of the first and last to Christ. He was not Alpha and Omega but he was the first-born from the dead. He was alive and dead and alive again forevermore. The text shows the concept more correctly in the RSV.


In the KJV, we can see that this concept was resisted by the compilers of the Receptus, who inserted the words Alpha and Omega in the text at verse 11 where no such concept or words existed in the ancient texts. The following became the text in the KJV.

Revelation 1:11  Saying, I am Alpha and Omega, the first and the last: and, What thou seest, write in a book, and send it unto the seven churches which are in Asia; unto Ephesus, and unto Smyrna, and unto Pergamos, and unto Thyatira, and unto Sardis, and unto Philadelphia, and unto Laodicea. (KJV)


This wording does not appear in the ancient texts (e.g. not in NU or M texts, not in Vatican manuscript #1209 Emphatic Diaglott, hence also not in other Bibles). The Companion Bible notes that the texts omit the words I am the Alpha and Omega, the first and the last, and as referring to Christ and also the words which are in Asia (see fn. to v. 11). Verse 8 is also translated as simply the Lord and not the Lord God (Greek: the Lord The God) as is evident from the RSV and also the New English Bible, Phillip’s and the Jerusalem Bible. The KJV version of Revelation 1 is a distortion involving false insertions in the Receptus. The purpose is to assert Christ as the Alpha and the Omega as seemingly ignoring God rather than by delegation from God. Ditheists and Binitarians also ignore the forgeries for this reason.


All of these alterations or forgeries to key texts were by Trinitarians in order to distort the theology to assert their false position. The Alpha was the primary source. He also retains the first and last structure. Christ came from this source. He was not the Alpha. However, he was the first and he will be the last (eschatos). God is, however, the Omega. He is thus the end result of the activity of the creation. Christ is dedicated to the establishment of the Kingdom of God where God will become all in all. As Omega, God becomes the product of His own (God’s) creation. We become individual aspects of the Holy Spirit as it is a monotheist web of living entities coming from and interacting with God the Father and each other.


Revelation 21:6 shows the point when this event happens. Christ becomes the Alpha and the Omega and the arche and the telos. He is stated as arche or the beginning of the creation of God from Revelation 3:14. Here we have arche as beginning and telos as end. The word occurred is the collective neuter plural gegonan (cf. Rev. 16 and 17 and Marshall's Interlinear RSV). It is translated as it is done. However it means, and Marshall renders it as, it has occurred.

Revelation 21:6  And he said to me, "It is done! I am the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end. To the thirsty I will give from the fountain of the water of life without payment. (RSV)


It has occurred is translated as it is done to conceal the concept that this process of God becoming all in all commences with Christ who was not that way in the beginning.


We are thus dealing with a progressive concept of the activities of Messiah and the elect. "Behold I make all things new."


God is becoming all in all. Thus God is the Omega or end result of His own creation. The Trinitarian translators of the KJV deliberately hide this fact and concept from its readers.


Notes on the texts from the various chapters.

As we will see there are many changes and mistranslations. Fortunately, we know about them. The KJV has many more forgeries and additions to the texts and the Companion Bible is useful in listing the details in the margins. Bullinger makes notes on the ancient texts and what is omitted from them in the notes to each verse. We will add to these explanations.


Also, in the appendices there is a list of the 134 alterations by the Sopherim from "Yahovah" to "Adonai" (Appendix 32). The Appendix has the texts of the alterations to "Elohim", and the print in the KJV Companion Bible reflects the alterations to elohim. The AV renders the texts in 2Samuel 5:19-25 and 6:9-17 as "Lord." Where the AV and the Revised Versions still have "God" in the texts in 1Chronicles and Psalms, it appears that way in the Companion Bible but with a print mark that differs with the words used.



(Appendix 32 Companion Bible from Bullinger)

Out of extreme (but mistaken) reverence for the Ineffable Name "Jehovah" [Yahovah], the ancient custodians of the Sacred Text substituted in many places "Adonai" (see Ap. 4. viii. 2).  These, in the A.V. and R.V., are all printed "Lord".  In all these places we have printed it "LORD*", marking the word with an asterisk in addition to the note in the margin, to inform the reader of the fact.


The three titles: Adon, Adonai and Adonim are all generally rendered "Lord" but each has its own peculiar usage and association. They all denote headship in various aspects. They have to do with God as "over-lord."

The three may be thus briefly distinguished:-

Adon is the Lord as overlord or ruler.

Adonim is Lord as owner.

Adonai is the Lord as blesser.

(see Appendix 4. viii. 2).


[The function of the Yahovah as Adonai denotes the distinction between the subordinate Yahovah of Israel and his elohim or Yahovih (SHD 3069).  It is important to look at how the alterations affect the theology of the text and its meaning between the entities. That is why the words Yahovah and Yahovih are read as Adonai and Elohim respectively by Jews to preserve the distinction between the entities. This is an important study in its own right.]

·       Genesis 18:3,27,30,32; 19:18; 20:4.

·       Exodus 4:10,13; 5:22; 15:17; 34:9,9.

·       Numbers 14:17.

·       Joshua 7:8.

·       Judges 6:15; 13:8.

·       1Kings 3:10,15; 22:6.

·       2Kings 7:6; 19:23.

·       Isaiah 3:17,18; 4:4; 6:1,8,11; 7:14,20; 8:7; 9:8,17; 10:12; 11:11; 21:6,8,16; 28:2; 29:13; 30:20; 37:24; 38:14,16; 49:14.

·       Ezekiel 18:25,29; 21:13; 33:17,29.

·       Amos 5:16; 7:7,8; 9:1.

·       Zechariah 9:4.

·       Micah 1:2.

·       Malachi 1:12,14.

·       Psalm 2:4; 16:2; 22:19,30; 30:8; 35:3,17,22; 37:12; 38:9,15,22; 39:7; 40:17; 44:23; 51:15; 54:4; 55:9; 57:9; 59:11; 62:12; 66:18; 68:11,17,19,22,26,32; 73:20; 77:2,7; 78:65; 79:12; 86:3,4,5,8,9,12,15; 89:49,50; 90:1,17; 110:5; 130:2,3,6.

·       Daniel 1:2; 9:3,4,7,9,15,16,17,19,19,19.

·       Lamentations 1:14,15,15;

2:1,2,5,7,18,19,20; 3:31,36,37,58.

·       Ezra 10:3.

·       Nehemiah 1:11; 4:14.

·       Job 28:28.


(See Ginsburg's ed. of The Massorah, §§ 107-115.)


To these may be added the following, where "Elohim" was treated in the same way :--


·       Where the A.V. has "LORD." --

·       2Sam. 5:19-25.

·       2Sam. 6:9-17.


·       Where in A.V. and R.V. it still appears as "God".  It is printed "GOD*" in the Companion Bible.

·       1Chron. 13:12.

·       1Chron. 14:10, 11, 14, 16.

·       1Chron. 16:1.

·       Ps. 14:1, 2, 5.

·       Ps. 53:1, 2, 4, 5.

(see Companion Bible, Appendix33.htm)



There are fifteen words which present an abnormal appearance in the printed Hebrew Bibles.  These are of the utmost importance, as they represent the most ancient result of Textual Criticism on the part of the Sopherim.


Ten of these words are in the Pentateuch, and five occur in the Prophets and Hagiographa.  Some are without effect as to translation or interpretation; others are more important, and will be noted in the passages where they occur.  The following is the list.  (For further information see Dr. Ginsburg's Introduction to the Hebrew Bible, pp. 318-34.)  


·       Genesis 16:5. 18:9. 19:33,35. 33:4. 37:12.

·       Numbers 3:39. 9:10. 21:30. 29:15.

·       Deuteronomy 29:29.

·       2Samuel 19:29. Isaiah 44:9.

·       Ezekiel 41:20. 46:22.

·       Psalm 27:13.


As we saw this compilation was made possible from 220 CE because the Temple codex taken to Rome by Titus, and handed over to the Jewish Community by the Emperor Severin ca 220 CE, had thirty-two passages that differed from other texts.



Chapter 1:

Verse 1: omit in the


Omit God in the following verses (= Elohim)

1:1-2:3; 3:1; 4:25; 6:2;

6:4; 6:9-13; 6:22; 7:9; 7:16;

8:1; 8:15; 9:1,6,8,12,17,27;

14:22; 17:1; 21:33; 24:3; 26:24;

27:20; 28:13,21; 32:9; 44:7,16; 45:8,9


Omit Lord God in the following verses

(= YHVH / Yahovah Elohim)

2:4-3:1; 3:8-3:23; 9:26; 15:2,8;

24:7,12,27,42,48; 28:13


Omit Lord in the following verses (= YHVH / Yahovah)

3:23; 4:1-4:24; 4:26; 6:3,5(God);

6:6-8; 7:1, 5, 16; 8:20-21;

14:22; 17:1; 21:33; 24:3,27,48;

26:24; 27:20; 28:13,21; 32:9


Omit God in the following verses (= El)

14:18,19,20,22; 16:13; 17:1; 21:33;

28:3; 31:13,39; 35:1,3,11; 43:14,

46:3, 48:3; 49:25


Omit My Lord / Lord in the following verses (= YHVH / Yahovah)

18:3,27,30,32; 19:18; 20:4


The Texts that differ in the OT between the LXX and the MT are not discussed here. The additions to the LXX in the time periods in Genesis and the reasons are discussed in the paper The Outline Timetable of the Age (No. 272).
New Testament


Chapter 1

Verse 6: the king. (omitted by all the critical Greek texts enumerated and named in Ap. 94. VII.)

Verse 18: Jesus (omitted by Tr. [WH] Rm.) Christ

Verse 25: her firstborn Son (omitted in Vatican and Sinaitic cent. 4) All the texts omit «her firstborn» on this weak and suspicious evidence.


Chapter 2

Verse 22: in = over. Gr. epi. See Ap. 104. ix. 1. L T [Tr.] [A] WH omit epi.


Chapter 3

Verse 10: also. Omitted by all the texts (Ap. 94. VII.)


Chapter 5

Verse 22: without a cause. Omitted by L T [Trm. A] WH R.

Verse 37: communication = word Gr. logos. Omit «be». Yea, yea = Yes, [be] yes. Fig. Epizeuxis. Ap. 6. Nay, Nay = Nay, [be] nay.

Verse 44: bless them … hate you. This clause is omitted by all the critical Greek texts. See Ap. 94. VII.

Verse 48: your … heaven. All the texts read «your heavenly Father».


Chapter 6

Verse 4: openly. Omitted by all the Gr. texts. Ap. 94. VII.

Verse 10: earth = the earth. Gr. ge. Ap. 129. 4. All the texts (ap. 94. VII) omit the article.

Verse 13: For, &c. All the critical texts wrongly omit this doxology; for, out of about 500 codices which contain the prayer, only eight omit it. It is also found in the Syriac, Ethiopic, Armenian, Gothic, Sclavonic, and Georgian Versions.

Verse 33: His. i.e. God. L T [A] WH R omit, and read «His righteousness and kingdom».

Verse 34: the things of. All the critical texts omit these words.


Chapter 7

Verse 2: again. All the critical texts omit. Ap. 94. VII.

Verse 21: heaven = heavens. All the texts read «the heavens».


Chapter 8

Verse 3: Jesus. All the texts (Ap. 94. VII.) read «He».

Verse 29: Jesus. All the texts (Ap. 94. VII.) omit «Jesus» here.


Chapter 9

Verse 13: to repentance. All the texts omit: also wanting in Syr. and Vulg. both here and in Mark 2. 17.

Verse 35: among the People. All the texts omit these words.

Verse 36: fainted = were wearied. All the texts (Ap. 94. VII.) read «were harassed».


Chapter 10

Verse 25: have called. All the texts read «have surnamed».


Chapter 11

Verse 2: two. All the texts read dia = by means of (Ap. 104. V. 1), instead of duo = two, as in Luke 7. 18.


Chapter 12

Verse 8: even. All the texts omit this word.

Verse 18: in. Gr. eis (Ap. 104. vi.); but L A WH omit. Tr. reads en (Ap. 104. viii.).

Verse 21: in. All texts omit this, and read «on».

Verse 25: Jesus = He. All texts omit «Jesus» here.

Verse 31: unto men. Omit LT Tr. [A] WH R

Verse 35: the heart. All the texts omit «the heart».


Chapter 13

Verse 1: out of. Gr. apo, as in 12. 43. But Tr. reads [ek] and apo in marg. WH omit apo and read ek in marg. L and R read ek (104. vii.) in text.

Verse 25: sowed = sowed upon [and therefore among]. Gr. epispeiro = sowed. Occ. only here. All the texts read «sowed over».

Verse 51: Jesus saith unto them. All the texts omit this clause.

Lord. All the texts omit «Lord» here.

Verse 52: unto. All the texts omit eis (Ap. 104. vi.), L reads en, reading «in the kingdom», for «unto the kingdom».


Chapter 16

Verse 2: It will be. Omit


Matthew 16:13-19

Catholics claiming Peter as the Rock etc.

Matthew 16:18 And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build My church;


Bullinger’s notes: “I say also” = I also say (as well as the Father) looking back to a preceding agent with Whom the Lord associated Himself.

“Thou art Peter …one of 3 important passages where “this” stands for the speaker (see notes on Jn 2:19; 6:58) see more of Bullinger’s notes on v. 18.


Christ was the rock that was with them in the wilderness and it was this rock on which the church in the wilderness that was Israel initially,  was built (1Cor. 10:4).  Thus the church was built on the Father as its object of worship and on Christ as the Rock of the Church and the cornerstone of the Temple of God.


Catholics also use the following as proof of Peter being in Rome: 

1Peter 5:12-13 I write you this briefly through Silvanus ... The chosen one at Babylon sends you greeting, as does Mark, my son.


"Peter's presence in Rome is indicated in his first letter. The name "Babylon" is used here as a cryptic name for the city of Rome, a characteristic of writings done during times of persecution. During Peter's time (witnessed by his own martyrdom) and most New Testament times (witness the Book of Revelation--classic persecution literature), Rome took on the characteristics of the most outstanding example of a world power hostile to God--ancient Babylon."


However we know from Hippolytus that Peter was in Italy as a minor part of his mission and it is possible that he was never in Rome. His major mission was from Antioch to Parthia and the tribes of the dispersion into the Caucasus (see the papers The Fate of the Twelve Apostles (No. 122B) and Establishment of the Church under the Seventy (No. 122D)).


Verse 20: Jesus. All the texts omit this, with Syr.

Verse 21: be raised again. Omit «again».


Chapter 17

Verse 20: unbelief. All the texts read «little faith», or  «littleness of faith».

Verse 21: T Tr. [A] WH R omit this verse; but not the Syr.


Chapter 18

Verse 6: about. Gr. epi = upon. Ap. 104. ix. 3. But all the texts read «peri» = around. (Comp. Bible Ap. 104. xiii. 3).


Chapter 19

Verse 16: Good. All the texts omit.

Verse 30: many. Connected with «last» as well as «first». Omit the italics «that are», and connect this verse with 20.1 as evidenced by the word «For» (20.1) and «So» in v. 16.


Chapter 20

Verse 23: but it shall be given to him for whom, &c. Omit all these italics, and read «but [to those] for whom». Cp. Mark 10. 40


Chapter 21

Verse 2: unto = toward. Gr. pros. Ap. 104. xv. 3. All the texts read «eis» as in the preceding cause.

Verse 46: for. Gr. as; but all the texts read «eis» = for


Chapter 23

Verse 3: that. Omit this word as not being in the Greek, or required by the Fig. Ellipsis.

Verse 8: Master = Leader, Guide, or Director. Gr. kathgetes.  Occ. only here and in v. 10. All the texts read didlaskalos, Teacher.

even Christ. All the texts omit, with Syr.; but, Scrivener thinks, on insufficient authority.

Verse 13: All the texts (with Syr.) transpose vv. 13 and 14.


Chapter 24

Verse 2: shall not. All the texts omit the «me», and read simply «ou» as in the first clause.

Verse 17: anything. All the texts read «the things».

Verse 27: also. All the texts omit «also».


Chapter 25

Verse 1: to meet. … Gr. apanantesis. Occ. only here, v. 6.  Acts 28. 15, and 1 Thess. 4. 17. But all the texts read hupanteeis, as in John 12. 13.

Verse 9: not. Gr. ou. Ap. 105. I. But all the texts read «ou me». Ap. 105. III.


Chapter 26

Verse 55: L [Tr.] A WH omit «with you».

Verse 60: yet found they none. All the texts omit these words, but Scrivener thinks on insufficient authority.


Chapter 27

Verse 5: in. Gr. en. Ap. 104. viii. But all the texts read eis = into (vi) the Sanctuary, over the barrier into the Sanctuary.

Verse 27: band. Render «cohort» and omit «of soldiers».

Verse 29: in. Gr. epi. Ap. 104. ix. 3. But all the texts read in (as in vv. 5, 60).

Verse 42: If he be, &c. The condition is assumed. See Ap. 118. 2. a. All the texts omit «if», and read «he is» (in irony).

Verse 52: arose. Were waked. All the texts read «were raised».


Chapter 28  
Verse 1: the end of. Gr. opse = late.  began to dawn. Gr. epiphoskouse = drawing on. (Marshall's Interlinear Translation) These are correct translations of the Greek in determining the timing of the resurrection of Christ.



Chapter 1

Verse 2: before thee. Omitted by L T Tr. WH R.

Verse 16: casting a net. The word ‟net” in included and implied in the Verb. All the texts omit the noun.

Verse 19: thence. Omitted by [L] T Tr. A WH R.


Chapter 2

Verse 2: straightway = immediately. See note on 1. 12: Omitted by [L Tr.] T WH R.

Verse 27: and. All the texts omit ‟and”. In that case, note the Fig. Asyndeton (Ap. 6).


Chapter 4

Verse 11: know = get to know. Gr. ginõskõ. Ap. 132. I. ii. Cp. 1 Cor. 2. 14. All the texts omit ‟to know” and read ‟has been given the secret” of the Kingdom, &c.

Verse 38: in. = Gr. epi. All the texts prefer Gr. en = in.


Chapter 5

Verse 36: heard. T Tr. A WH R (not Syr.) read parakousas (instead of akousas, Which A translates ‟overheard”).


Chapter 7

Verse 16: If any man = If any one.  See Ap. 118.2.a. and Ap. 142. Assuming the hypothesis, the result being yet unfulfilled. T WH R omit v. 16. Tr. And A put it in brackets. But the Structure requires it; and the Syr. has it.


Chapter 8

Verse 31: of. Gr. apo, as in v. 15. But all the texts read hupo = at the hands of. Ap. 104. xviii. 1.


Chapter 9

Verse 23: believe. Omitted by T Tr. [A] WH R; not by the Syr.

Verse 29: and fasting. Omitted by LT [Tr.] A WH R; not by the Syr.

Verse 44: Where, &c. This verse and v. 46 are omitted by T [Tr.] WH R, not the Syriac.

Verse 49: every sacrifice, &c. Some texts omit this clause, but not the Syr. Ref. to Pent. (Lev. 2:13). This is introduced by “For”, as a reason why the lesser (finite and temporal) evil is “good” compared with the greater (and final) evil. Every sacrifice is salted (to assist the burning), Deut, 29:23. It is better therefore to endure the removal of the stumbling-block now, than to be altogether destroyed for ever.


Chapter 10

Verse 21: take up the cross. [L] T Tr. WH R omit these words.


Chapter 11

Verse 26: But if, &c. Verse 26 is omitted by T Tr WH R; but not by the Syr.


Chapter 12

Verse 4: at him, &c . = him they stoned. This word “stoned” is omitted by all the texts.

Verse 6: therefore.  Omitted by [L] T Tr. A WH R with Syr.

Verse 32: there is one God. All the texts read ‟that He is One” (omitting the word ‟God”).


Chapter 13

Verse 14: spoken by Daniel the prophet. Omitted by [L] T Tr. A WH R, but not the Syriac.


Chapter 14

Verse 22: eat. All the texts omit this word.

Verse 27: because … night. All the texts omit.


Chapter 15

Verse 3: nothing = not (Gr. ou, Ap. 105. I.) anything.  All the texts omit this clause.

Verse 8: crying aloud. All the texts read ‟having gone up”.

Verse 45: body. Gr. sõma = body. But all the texts read ptõma = corpse.



1.3. 1611 ed. Of AV omitted "all"

1.28. Blessed art thou among women, texts omit

1.29. When she saw him, texts omit

2.14.  among men of, &c. All texts read: “among men of good pleasure”, "eudokias" instead of "eudokas"

2.38. All the texts read "God" not "Lord"

2.40. In spirit, texts omit

4.8. get thee, &c. (but the devil did not do so, and left of his own accord v.12) See App 116.  Most  texts omit this; The Lord = Yahovah (Jehovah),

4.18. To heal the broken hearted, texts omit

4.41. Christ (Messiah), texts omit

5.15. by him, texts omit

5.19. because, texts omit

6.1. Gr. text omits

6.9. All the texts read “I ask”

7.10. That had been sick....omitted by L T Tr

7.21. Same (omit)

7.22. Jesus (omit)

7.31. All the texts omit "And the Lord said"  

8.8. 1611 edition omits "had"

8.38. All texts omit "Jesus"

8.48. All the texts omit "be of good comfort”

9.1. Most of the texts omit..."His disciples”

9.7. Omit: by him

9.43. Most of the texts omit... Jesus

9.54. even as Elias did…. Omitted by T Trm A

9.55. and said… save them. Omitted by all texts

10.21. Jesus. Om. by all the texts;  rejoiced in spirit; all the texts read:  by the Spirit, the Holy Spirit

10.36. now = therefore; thinketh thou = seems to thee

10.39. Jesus’ feet. All the texts read: pros = against; Jesus’ feet. All the texts read: the Lord’s feet.

11.33. secret place. All the texts read: crypt;  under a bushel = corn measure; (light) candle stick = lampstand. All the texts read cf  App.  130.5.

12.27. They grow..T Tr. A....omit and read "how they toil not"

12.36. will.  All the texts read "may”

13.7. AV omits "also" but it stands in the Gr. text

13.19. Great. Omit [L] T (Tr.A0

13.35. until, Gr. heos an All the texts omit "an" but it does not alter the conditional sense, which is in the verb. ass. All the texts read...huios = a son, instead of onos = an ass, which latter has no MS authority.

15.17….and I perish with hunger, the texts add: hode = here

16.23. Tatian (AD 170) & the Vulgate/ & Syr, omit the second "and", and read "and was buried in Hades"

17.34. and. 1611 omitted this "and"

17.36. The texts omit: this verse

18.13. upon. Gr.eis: but all the texts omit.

20.10. At. Gr. en: but all the texts omit.

22.42. Verses 43 & 44 are omitted or marked as doubtful by most texts, but the Syr, includes them

23.17. Most texts omit this verse

23.42. Lord. most texts omit this, but not the Syr. which reads "my Lord"

Luke 23:43: wrongly placing the comma after ‘you’ instead of ‘today’ indicates one of the malefactors hanged with Christ would be with him in heaven.

Luke 23:43 And he said to him, "Truly, I say to you, today [= I say unto you today] you will be with me in Paradise." (RSV)



Chapter 1

John 1:1 is a Trinitarian rendering and is incorrect as we see it normally. The correct translation even if the word order is preserved involves the concept of towards and not with as is taught by Trinitarians.


Verse 16: The texts read “For”, but not the Syr.

Verse 18: the only begotten Son. Lm Tr. WH Rm., with the Syr. read “God (i.e. Christ) only begotten”.

Verse 28: Bethabara. All the texts read Bethania (with the Syr.). Identified by Conder and Wilson with Makht-Abachbarah, near Jericho. Not uncommon then or now for two or more places to have the same name.

Verse 30: of. All the texts read huper (Ap.104. xvii 1), instead of peri (xiii. 1).

Verse 39: see. Gr. eidon. Ap. 133. I. 1, but all the texts read “Ye shall see”.

Verse 51: Hereafter = From henceforth. But omitted by all the texts (not the Syr.). It was conditional on the repentance of the nation, and will yet be seen.


Chapter 3

Verse 13: Which is, &c = Who is &c, and was there when John wrote. This clause is in the Syr., but is omitted by WH, and put by R.V. in the margin. Omit “even”.

Verse 15: believeth in. L reads epi; LmT Tr A WH and R read en.

Verse 25: The Jews. All the texts read “a Jew”. Gr. Ioudaion, with Syr. But it has suggested that Iou was the primitive abbreviation for Iesou (=Jesus), and being repeated (by inadvertence) led to the reading Iou[daion] (=a Jew). This would agree better with vv. 22-24; with “Therefore” in v. 25, and with the action of John’s disciples, and John’s answer. See the Structure 27-36, above.


Verse 34: God. [L] T [Tr.] A WH R., not Syr., omit “God” here.


Chapter 4

Verse 15: come hither. Some texts read dierchomai (as in v.4) = come all the way hither (through, or across the plain).

Verse 18:  in. Omit.

Verse 27: marveled. All the texts read “were wondering”. Gr. thaumazo.

Verse 30: Then. All the texts omit.

Verse 32: of. Omit “of”.

Verse 42: Christ = All texts omit “the Christ”, but not the Syr. See Ap. 94. v, note3.

Verse 51: Gr. apantao, but all the texts read hupantao.


Chapter 5

Verse 3: waiting. From this word to the end of v. 4 is omitted by T Tr. A WH R, but not the Syriac (sse Ap. 94. V. ii note 3). If it be an addition it must have been a marginal note to explain the “troubling” of v. 7, which gradually got into the text.

Verse 16: sought = were seeking. Most texts, not Syr., omit this clause.

Verse 30: the Father. All the texts read “Him”.


Chapter 6

Verse 2: saw = beheld. Gr. horao. … L Tr A WH R read theore.

His. All the texts omit “His”.

Verse 11:  to the disciples, and the disciples. Omitted by all the texts and Syr.

Verse 17: not. Gr. ou, but all the texts read oupo, “not yet”.

Verse 24: took shipping = entered into (Gr. eis, v. 3) the boats (ploia), but all the texts read ploiaria.


Chapter 7

Verse 26: very. All the texts omit “very”, but not the Syr.

Verse: From 7:53-8:11 is omitted by some of the older Manuscripts. WH place it in double brackets at the end of the Gospel, &c. It is contained in the Vulgate, and is found in many Greek and Latin Codices. &c. We may ask: How is it that all the MSS. which do contain it (including 300 Cursives) agree in placing it here? It was another attempt following on 7:32, and referred to in 8:15.


Chapter 9

Verse 4: I. T Tr WH read “We”; but not the Syr.


Chapter 10

Verse 13:  The hired servant fleeth. [L] Tm. Trm. WH R omit, but not the Syr.


Chapter 12

Verse 1:  which had been dead” [L Tr. A] T WH R and Syr. Omit these words.

Verse 4: Simon’s son. These words are omitted by T TR. WH R here, but found in all the texts in 6:71, 13:2, and 26. In some places the word Iscariot is made to agree with Simon.


Chapter 13

Verse 32: If. [L Tr. A] WH R omit the conditional clause.


Chapter 14

Verse 26: He (Gr. Ekeinos) in reference to Holy Spirit; Bullinger notes: He = that one


Chapter 15

Verse 26: He (Holy Spirit) same as 14:26 above.


Chapter 16:

Verse 13: He (Holy Spirit) same as 14:26 and 15:26.


Chapter 17

Verse 12: those that. As in v. 11, all the texts put the relative in the sing., and read “in Thy name that Thou gavest Me, and I kept them”.


Chapter 21

Verse 25:  …Amen. All the texts omit. In that case, only the double “verily” found in John. This chapter is a supplement, of the highest value, to the Gospel formally concluded in 20:31. The use of the first person singular in v. 25, contrasted with the Evangelist’s modest self-effacement elsewhere, has led some to doubt the Johannine authorship of this chapter. But the evidence of the Manuscripts and versions, and the attestation clause at verse 24 is so closely allied to that in 19:35 as to leave little room for doubt. &c.



2:31 His soul: He

3:18 Christ: His Christ

5:24 the high priest and: omit

6:3 Holy: omit

7:30 of the Lord: omit

7:37 Him shall ye hear: omit

7:48 Temples: houses

8:22 God: the Lord

8:37 omit verse

9:5 it is hard for thee to kick against the pricks, 9:6 And he trembling and astonished said, Lord, what wilt Thou have me to do? And the Lord said unto him: omit text

9:8 no man: nothing

9:20 Christ: Jesus

10:6 he shall tell thee what thou oughtest to do: omit

10:12 and wild beasts: omit

10:21 which were sent unto him from Cornelius: omit

10:30 fasting: praying

10:38 add: how God anointed Him

12:4 Easter: Passover

13:14 sabbath day: day of the Sabbaths

13:42 the Jews: they

13:42 the Gentiles: they

15:11 Christ: omit

15:18 Known unto God are all His works: who makes these things known

15:34 omit verse

15:40 God: the Lord

16:7 add: of Jesus

16:10 the Lord: God

16:13 on the Sabbath: on the [first] of the Sabbaths

16:13 city: gate

16:31 Christ: omit

18:5 spirit: word

18:21 I must by all means keep this feast that cometh in Jerusalem: omit

19:4 Christ: omit

19:10 Jesus: omit

19:20 God: the Lord

20:7 first day of the week: first [day] of the Sabbath

20:28 to feed the church of God, which He has purchased with His own blood: to feed the church of God, which He purchased through the blood of His own [son].

21:20 the Lord: God

21:25 that they observe no such thing, save only: The texts omit

22:16 of the Lord: of Him

23:9 let us not fight against God: omit

28:16 the centurion delivered the prisoners to the captain of the guard: omit

28:29 omit verse



Chapter 1

Verse 2: had. omit

Verse 3: Jesus …Lord. In the Greek these words follow after “dead” in V.4

Verse 14: The. omit

Verse 16: Of Christ. All texts omit

Verse 17: The. omit

Verse 19: Hath. omit

Verse 24: Also. omit

Verse 31: Implacable. Texts omit


Chapter 2

Verse 9: [ should read] also omit

Verse 12: Have. omit; The omit

Verse 14: The omit

Verse 15: Also. omit

Verse 29: The omit


Chapter 3

Verse 13: The omit

Verse 28: The omit    


Chapter 4

Verse 11: Also omit

Verse 14: The omit

Verse 18: The omit

Verse 25: Again omit


Chapter 5

Verse 12: Have omit

Verse 15: Hath omit

 Verse 21: Hath omit.


Chapter 6

Verse 11: Our Lord. The texts omit

Verse 12: The texts omit “it in” and read obey its desires”

Verse 14: The omit


Chapter 7

Verse 24: O omit


Chapter 8

Verse 1: Who…Spirit. All the texts omit

Verse 9: The omit.

Verse 15: Have omit.

Verse 26: For us  All texts omit


Chapter 9

Verse 5: As, &c. Read “is the Christ as to the flesh”

Verse 13: Have omit

Verse 15: Will omit


Chapter 10

Verse 9: Hath omit

Verse 16: Hath omit

Verse 17: God texts read Christ


Chapter 11

Verse 3: Have omit

Verse 7: Hath Omit

Verse 19: the omit


Chapter 12

Verse 19: Dearly omit   


Chapter 13

Verse 7: therefore omit

Verse 10: the, the,  omit


Chapter 14

Verse 1: But omit

Verse 9: Both omit

Verse 15 : Thy omit

Verse 22: Thing omit


Chapter 15

Verse 8: Jesus omit; The omit

Verse 29: of the gospel; Texts omit

Verse 30: Your omit


Chapter 16

Verse 20: Amen the texts except B.E., omit

Verse 26: The omit


1 Corinthians

Chapter 1

1:15 “had” should be omitted

1:19 This quotation agrees with the Sept. except that it reads “hide”(krupto) instead of “bring to nought”.

1:22 “the” should be omitted and for sign, the texts reads “signs”.

1:23 “the” should be omitted and for “Greeks” the texts read Gentiles (ethnos)


Chapter 2 

2:4 “man’s” the texts omit

2:9 “hath” in the last sentence should be omitted

2:12 “have” should be omitted

2:13 “Holy” the texts omit


Chapter 3

3:3 “and divisions” should be omitted

3:10: “have” should be omitted

3:17: “temple” in the last clause omit


Chapter 4

4:9 “hath” should be omitted

4:17 “which be” should be omitted


Chapter 5

5:1 “named” omit.  Supply the word “found”

5:3 “as” omit; “concerning” omit

5:4 “Christ” omit.  The first mention of Christ in the verse.

5:5 “the” should be omitted

5:7 “for us” should be omitted

5:13 “therefore” omit


Chapter 6

6:14 “hath” omit

6:20 “and in your spirit” omit


Chapter 7

7:5 “fasting and” omit

7:13 “if” omit

7:20 “same” omit

7:22 “also” omit

7:33 “that are” omit

7:39 “by the law” omit


Chapter 8

8:4 “other” omit


Chapter 9

9:18 “of Christ” omit

9:19 “have” omit


Chapter 11

11:18 “the” omit (In church means in assembly)

11:23 “have” omit

11:24 “take eat” omit; “broken” omit


Chapter 12

12:18 “hath” omit

12:24 “hath” omit


Chapter 13

13:8 “faileth” all the texts read “falleth”


Chapter 14

14:26 “of you” omit

14:32 “spirits” should read “spiritual gifts”

 14:37 “the” omit


Chapter 15

15:2 “have” omit

15:15 “have” omit

15:20 “and become” omit

15:32 “have” omit

 15:46 “and” omit

15:47 “the Lord’ omit

15:55 “grave” should read “death”


Chapter 16

16:15 “have” omit

16:17 “have” omit

16:22 “Jesus Christ” omit


2 Corinthians

Chapter 1

1:8 “to us” omit

1:13 “even’ omit

1:14 “have” omit

1:21 “hath” omit

1:22 “hath” omit


Chapter 2

2:3 “unto you” omit


Chapter 4

4:1 “have: omit

4:4 “unto them” omit

4:6 “Jesus” omit

4:13 “and” omit

4:14 “by” text reads “with”


Chapter 5

5:5 “also” omit

5:14 “if” omit

5:17 “all things” texts read “they”

5:18 “hath” omit; “Jesus” omit

5:21 “for” omit; “the” omit


Chapter 6

6:1 “with him” omit; “you” omit

6:2 “have” omit


Chapter 7

7:16 “therefore” omit


Chapter 8

8:4 “that we would receive” omit

8:19 “same” omit; “your” all the texts read “our”

 8:21 “providing for” all the texts read “for we provide”


Chapter 9

9:2 “hath” omit

9:3 “have” omit

9:4 “boasting” omit


Chapter 11

11:2 “have” omit

11:7 “have” omit

11:13 “the” omit

11:31 “Christ” omit

11:32 “desirous” omit


Chapter 12

12:9 “my” omit

12:11 “in glory” omit

12:14 the 2nd “to you” omit


Chapter 13

13:2 “I write” omit

13:4 “though” omit



Chapter 1                              

1:8  omit have


Chapter 2

2:16 omit the; omit  have       


Chapter 3

3:1       omit hath

3:2       omit the

3:17     The texts omit in Christ         

3:27     omit “have”


Chapter 4

4:4       omit”the

4:6       omit “hath”

4:12     omit “have”

4:26     “all” - the texts omit


Chapter 5

5:1       omit “hath”

5:4       omit “the”

5:19     “Adultery” - The texts omit.


Chapter 6

6:6       omit “in”

6:17     Lord”  - The texts omit.



Chapter 1

1:8       omit “hath”

1:9       omit “hath”

1:10     omit “both”; omit “even”

1:11     omit “have”

1:22     omit “hath”; omit “the”


Chapter 2

2:3       omit “the; even as”. Add "also".

2:5       omit “hath”

2:11     omit “the”

2:14     omit “between us”

2:20     omit “the”

2:21     omit “the”


Chapter 3

3:2       omit “have”

3:3       “He”. All the texts read "was"

3:9       The texts omit “By Jesus Christ”

3:14     “of . . . Christ.” The texts omit.

3:18     “what . . . height.” Omit "is". After "height" read "of love is", i.e. God's love in Christ. In breadth, boundless : in length, endless: in depth, fathomless, exhaustless: in height, measureless.


Chapter 4

4:6       The texts omit “you”

4:8       omit “up”

4:21     omit “have;” omit “the”


Chapter 5

5:2       “us”. The texts read "you".

5:21     “God.” The texts read "Christ".

5:29     omit “yet”

5:30     “of . . . bones.” The texts omit.

5:31     omit “cause”


Chapter 6

6:6       omit “the”

6:10     “my brethren.” The texts omit.

6:12     “of . . . world.” The texts omit.

6:24     “Amen.’ Omit, with all the texts



Chapter 1

1:8 “Jesus Christ”. The texts read Christ Jesus.

1:14 “…word…” . The texts add “of God”.

1:16 “add…to”. But the texts read “raise”.

1:23 “far better”. All the texts read “for it is very far better”.


Chapter 2

2:6 was altered significantly in the KJV but and is clearer in the RSV (see above)

2:9 “hath”. omit.

2:9 “…a…” . The texts read “…the…”.

2:22 “hath”. omit.


Chapter 3

3:3 “God”. All texts have Theou, instead of Theo, …and reading , “worship by the Spirit of God”, i. e. the new nature.

3:5 “..the Hebrews”.  Omit “the”.

3:11 “of the dead”. All texts read, “the one from the dead”, making the expression emphatic.

3:12 “had”. omit; 3:12 “also”. Read after “apprehended”.

3:13 “not”. Many texts read “not yet”.

3:16 “rule”. Some texts omit “rule”, &c.

3:21 “that it may be”. The texts omit.


Chapter 4

4:2 “Euodias”. This should be “Euodia” (fem).

4:9 “have” omit.

4:11 “have” omit.

4:13 “Christ”. Ap. 98. IX, but the texts read “Him”.

4:23 “ all” All the texts read “your spirit”;  “Amen” Most texts omit.



Chapter 1

1:1       Jesus Christ. The texts read. Christ Jesus – see also Comp. Bible App. 94

1:2       and, &c. Omit, with most of the texts:  and the Lord Jesus Christ.

1.7       also. omit.

1:12     hath. omit; to be partakers = for (Ap. 104. vi) the share; light = the light.

1:13     hath. omit.  

1:14     through His blood. All the texts omit 1:19     Instead of "the Father" supply the ellipsis with "God"

1:21     “hath” omit.  alienated [estranged from].

1:23     “have” omit. 

1:28     “Jesus” The texts omit.


Chapter 2

2:11     “also” should follow "circumcised" – omitted in some other texts.

2:12     hath. Omit.

2:16   (from (No. 205): The expression in meat or in drink in verse 16 (KJV) is an I  words en brõsei kai en posei. A better translation is “eating and in drinking” not food and drink, for which Paul would have used brõma and poma (Expositor's Greek Testament, by W. Robertson Smith, vol. 3, p 530).


Also from (No. 205). We now encounter yet another misleading translation. Most versions give the impression that the nouns festival, new moon and sabbaths are objects of a preposition regarding (NKJV). There are several problems with this misconception. If Paul had meant to use a preposition, he could have used peri (concerning) as in 1Corinthians 8:1. Instead the Greek word is meros which is not a preposition but a noun, derived from the verb merizo, which means to cut in portions. Meros is nearly always translated part or portion elsewhere in the New Testament. It denotes a sharp division or separating off from something. When used conceptually it sets up a dichotomy by drawing a distinction between what it represents and that to which it is contrasted, emphasizing the need for separate consideration of the two matters. In this passage meros is the object of the preposition en (in), whereas festival, new moon and sabbaths have the genitive case ending, which connects them to meros in the sense of portion of a Festival or a New Moon or Sabbaths. The anarthrous construction of the nouns (i.e. not preceded by the definite article, the in English) implies quality or nature rather than identity, although the identity as Jewish days is not in question

2:17     mistranslated – the Body of Christ    Text reads     17, Which are a shadow of things to come; but the body is of Christ.   [see also P205  p.5]

2:18     not. Most texts omit.


Chapter 3

3:13     “Christ” Most texts read "the Lord".

3:16     “the Lord” The texts read "God"

3:17     “and” omit.

3:22     “God” The texts read "the Lord",


Chapter 4

4:7       “a” omit.

4:8       “have” omit.

4:18     “Amen” omit.


1 Thessalonians

Chapter 1

1:1       “from... Christ” This last clause is omitted in most texts.

1:8       “also” The texts omit.


Chapter 2

2:12     “hath” omit.

2:14     “have” omit.


Chapter 3

3:5       “have” omit.


Chapter 4

4:7       “hath” omit.

4:8       “us” The texts read "you".

4:14     “in Jesus” = through (Ap. 104. 4:1) Jesus. This stands in the Gr. between the words "sleep" and "bring". To which does it belong? "Sleep in Jesus" is an expression not found elsewhere. In 4:16 the "dead in Christ" are spoken of, with which may be compared 1Cor. 15:18. And the proper meaning of dia with the Genitive is "through", though it is wrongly transl. "in" Mat 26:61. Mk 14:58. 1Tim. 2:15. Heb. 7:9; 13:22, and "among" 2Ti 2:2. The context will show that "through" is the meaning, as the R. V. renders it in margin. "Through" the Lord Jesus Christ we have peace, reconciliation, sonship, the Holy Spirit's gifts, victory, and many other blessings; Rom. 5:1, 10; 8:37. 1Cor. 15:57. 2Cor. 5:18. Eph. 1:5. Col. 1:20. Tit. 3:6. Death is not a blessing, but an enemy. Inflicted by the Lord (Rev. 2:23; 19:21), and permitted by Him, it is the work of the devil (Heb 2:14. Rev 2:10), whose works He came to destroy. It is better, therefore, to take the words "through Jesus" with "bring", and read, "God will through Jesus bring with Him", in harmony with Jn. 5:25; 11:25. Phil. 1:3, 21.

4:15     “the” omit.

4:17     “the” omit.


Chapter 5

5:3  For” The texts omit; “shall” omit.


2 Thessalonians

Chapter 1

1:8       “Christ” The texts omit.


Chapter 2

2:13     “hath” omit.

2:16     “even” omit; “hath” omit.


Chapter 3

3:18     “Amen” omit.



Chapter 1

Verse 6: “have” omit.

Verse 10: “there be” omit; “that” omit.

Verse 12: “and” omit; “hath” omit.

Verse 17: “wise” The text omit, (the word having crept in from Rom. 16:27).

Verse 19: “have” omit.

Verse 20: “have” omit.


Chapter 2

Verse 4: “to” omit.

Verse 7: “in Christ”  the texts omit ″in Christ″.

Verse 9: “also” The texts omit.


Chapter 3

Verse 3: “not greedy, &c.” The texts omit, the idea being expressed at the end of the verse.

Verse 13: “have” omit.

Verse 16: “God” The R.V. prints “He Who” and adds in the margin “Theos (God) rests on no significant evidence.” The probability is that the original reading was ho (which) with the Syriac and all the Latin versions, to agree with muterion (neut.). See above for more information.

“The” omit.


Chapter 4

Verse 3: “hath” omit.

Verse 9: “and” omit.

Verse 12: “in spirit” The texts omit.


Chapter 5

Verse 8: “own” omit.

Verse 21: “Lord” The texts omit.


Chapter 6

Verse 5: “withdraw thyself” Same as ″depart″,  The texts omit ″from such″, &c.

Verse 7: “certain” The texts omit.

Verse 12: “hast” omit.

Verse 15: “Who is omit.

Verse 16: “the” omit.

Verse 17: “the living” The texts omit.

Verse 20: “and omit.

Verse 21: “have” omit; “Amen” omit.



Chapter 1

Verse 5: “that is” omit.

Verse 9: “hath” omit.

Verse 18: “unto me” omit


Chapter 2

Verse 8: “that” omit; “was” omit

Verse 18: “have” omit.


Chapter 3

Verse 16: “righteousness” It will be noticed that in the earlier part of the verse the word ″is″ appears in italics, showing that there is no word for it in the Greek and it has therefore to be supplied. The R.V. omits ″is″ in the first case and reads, ″Every Scripture inspired of God is also profitable″, thus suggesting that some Scriptures are not inspired. There are eight other passages which present exactly the same construction, and not one of these has been altered by the Revisers. Had they done so in the same manner as they have done in this case, the result would have been as follows:  -- Rom. 7:12. The holy commandment is also just. 1Cor. 11:30. Many weak are also sickly. 2Cor. 10:10. His weighty letters are also powerful. Similarly with other passages, which are 1Tim. 1:15; 2:3; 4:4, 9; Heb. 4:13, &c.


Chapter 4

Verse 1: “the” omit.

Verse 12: “have” omit.

Verse 22: “Jesus Christ” The texts omit; “Amen” omit.



Chapter 1

Verse 3: “hath” omit

Verse 4: “Lord” texts omit; Texts read “Christ Jesus”

Verse 5: “left” Gr. kataleipo; texts read apoleipo as 2Tim 4:20

Verse 10: “and” omit


Chapter 2

Verse 3: “not” texts read “nor”

Verse 7: “sincerity” texts omit

Verse 11: “hath” omit

Verse 13: that =  the

Titus 2:13 refers to Christ as the appearance of the Glory of the great God and Saviour.

Titus 2:13 Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ; (KJV)

It is rendered in the KJV to make it appear that Christ is being referred to as the great God, when he is the glory of God our Saviour. Christ was the Angel of the Presence as the glory of the Lord in the pillar of fire and smoke. He is the anointed elohim of Israel as the premier focus of the plan of Salvation. This text in English in the KJV was a misconstruction deliberately made to support Trinitarianism.


Chapter 3

Verse 3: “sometimes” = at one time

Verse 8: “in” omit

Verse 10: the = a

Verse 14: ours = our people

Verse 15: “the” omit; “amen” omit



Chapter 1

1:2 “beloved” The texts read “sister”

1:6 “That” supply the ellipsis by “(Praying) that”; “you” The texts read “us”, “Jesus”-omit

1:7 “we have” The texts read “I had”

1:9 “Yet” omit

1:12 “have”omit, “thou therefore receive”-The texts omit and read “sent again to thee”.

1:14 “it were”omit

1:18 “hath”omit

1:20 “the Lord” The texts read “Christ”



Chapter 1

1:2 “hath”omit

Note: “worlds” is Gr. aion = “ages”

1:3 “by Himself”omit, “our”omit

1:4 “being made” is more correctly “Having become”

1:6 “worship” is more correctly “pay obeisance” or “prostrate”

1:9 “hath”omit


Chapter 2

2:3 “and”omit

2:7 “the” omit.  This verse cited from Psalm 8:4-6 in which the words rendered “the angels” is from the Hebrew word “Elohim” meaning “the gods”, and not the Hebrew word for “angels” which is “malak”.

2:9 omit the comma (,) after “death”.  Again, the word rendered as “angels” as cited from Ps 8:4-6 was translated into the Septuagint as “angellos” instead of a more correct translation from the Hebrew word “Elohim” or (gods).

2:14 “flesh and blood”- The texts read “blood and flesh”


Chapter 3

3:1 “Christ.” The texts omit.

3:2 The word rendered “appointed” is from the Greek word “poieo” which is more correctly “made”.  Bullinger does not mention this.

3:6 “own” omit.

3:9 “proved”, but the texts read “in, or by, a testing”

3:10 “that” the texts read “this”

3:17 “had” omit


Chapter 4

4:2 “mixed”  The texts prefer the acc. pl. of this word, agreeing with “them”, rather than the nom. sing. agreeing with “word”.  There is the addition of one letter in the Gr.

4:3 “have” omit

4:10 “own” omit


Chapter 5

5:3 “For” the texts read “concerning”

5:4 “he that is” The texts omit.

5:5 “an” omit

5:8 “a” omit


Chapter 6

6:4 “have” omit

6:10 “labour of” The texts omit. “have” omit.

6:16 “verily” omit

6:18 “have” omit

6:20 “an” omit


Chapter 7

7:8 “here” Add “indeed” omit “receiveth them.” omit

7:14 “priesthood” The texts read “priests”

7:18 “thereof” omit


Chapter 8

8:2 “and” omit

8:4 “priests” The texts omit. “the” omit

8:5 “that, &c.” The texts read, “thou shalt make”.

8:11 “neighbor” The texts read “fellow-citizen


Chapter 9

9:6 “of God” omit

9:8 “of all” omit

9:9 “then” omit, “the” omit

9:11 “an” omit

9:19 “the” omit


Chapter 10

10:2 “had” omit

10:9 “O God” The texts omit.

10:20 “hath” omit

10:30 “hath” omit

10:34 “of me, &c.” The texts read “of prisoners”.  “in” omit, “in heaven” The texts omit.


Chapter 11

11:3 Note: “worlds” is Gr. aion = “ages”

11:13 “and were persuaded of” The texts omit.

11:16 “hath” omit

11:26 “in” The texts read “of”.


Chapter 12

12:2 “is set” all the texts read “hath sat”.  “cross” is rendered from Gr. stauros meaning “stake”

12:7 “If” Gr. ei, but the texts read eis, i.e. “Ye are suffering patiently for (eis) discipline.

12:9 “have” omit, “them” omit

12:16 “his” The texts read “his own”.

12:18 “mount” The texts omit. 

12:20 “or thrust through, &c.” all the texts omit.


Chapter 13

13:9 “carried about” The texts read “carried away”.



Chapter 1

1:3. “Faith” read “your tested faith”

1:4. “That” = in order that; nothing = in [nothing]

1:5. “If” = but if; “of” = from

1:9. “the brother, &c” = the lowly brother;

1:11. “a” = the; “but, &c.” = and withered; “fashion” Lit. presence or face; “also shall, &c.” = shall the rich man also

1:13. “of “= from;

1:14. “every man” = each one;

1:16. “do not err” = be not deceived

1:17. “neither” = or; of, i.e. cast by, or due to

1:18. “that” = to the end that; a kind of “firstfruits” = a certain firstfruit

1:22: “be” = become;

1:23. “unto” = to; beholding. Gen. Rendered “consider”;

1:25. “whoso” = he that; “he” the  texts omit; the. omit; “this man” = this one;

1:26. “man” = one; “among you” the texts omit; “seem” = thinks himself;


Chapter 2

2:1. “have” = hold

2:2. “goodly” = bright or shining; “also, &c.” = a poor man also

2:3. “unto” = to;

2:5. “this” = the; “hath” Omit;

2:6. “have” omit; “draw” = themselves drag; “before” = to

2:7. “that” = the; “by the which, &c.” = which is called upon

2:9. “and are, &c.” = being convicted;

2:10. “offend” = stumble;

2:13. “he.....judgment” = (there shall be) judgment to him;

2:14. “though” = if; “a man” = one;

2:25. “also” should follow “harlot”

2:26. "the” omit; “so, &c.” = so faith also;


Chapter 3

3:2. offend all = all stumble; any man = any one; also, should come after “body”

3:3. “behold” but the texts read “but if”; “that” = to the end that), but the texts read eis

3:4. “also the ships” =  the ships also; “fierce” Gr. skleros, elsewhere trans. “hard”; 

3:5. “great, &c.” = much wood; “a little” = how little a;

3:6. “a” = the; “is” = is constituted or takes its place; “and setteth, &c.” = setting on fire; “it is” = being;

3:7. “kind” = nature; “of” = by;

3:8. “no man” = no one; “unruly” but the texts read “unstable, restless”

3:9. “God” but the texts read “the Lord”;

3.11. at = out of; place = hole;

3:12. “so, &c.” the texts read “neither can salt water bring forth, or produce, “sweet”

3:13. “a” = his;

3:14. “not” Does not appear in the Gr. text

3:18. “of” = by or for;


Chapter 4

4:1. the texts add “whence”

4:3. “upon” = in

4:4. “Ye adulterers and” Texts omit; “is” = is constituted or constitutes himself

4:5. “do ye” = or do ye

4:11. “speak evil” = speak against;

4:12. “another” = the other – the texts read “neighbour”


Chapter 5

5:3. “cankered” = rusted; “a” = for;

5:4. “have” omit; “of” = on the part of; “LORD of Sabaoth” = Lord of Hosts

5:5. “have” omit;

5:7. “unto” = until

5:9. “condemned” the texts read “judged”

5:10 “for” = as;

5:11. “have” omit;

5:12. “above” = before; “heaven” = the heaven; “into” the texts read “under”

5:16. “faults” but the texts read “sins” “effectual, fervent” = inwrought or energised

5:17. “subject, &c.” = of like feelings; “by the space of” omit

5:19. “of” = among; “one” = any one;


1 Peter

Chapter 1

1:10.have” omit

1:22. “through the Spirit” all texts omit; “pure” the texts omit; reads “from the heart”;

1:23. “forever” all texts omit


Chapter 2

2:3. “have” omit

2:4. “as unto” omit

2:24. “own” omit; “tree” (cf. Acts 5:30; 10:39; 13:29; Gal. 3:13)


Chapter 3

3:6. “even” omit

3:18. “hath” omit; “suffered” the texts read “died”

3:22. “and” omit


Chapter 4

4:1. “for us” texts omit;

4:3. “of our life” the texts omit; “us” texts omit

4:10. “hath” omit

4:14. “on their part .... glorified”. This clause omitted by all the texts

4:19. “as” texts omit


Chapter 5

5:10. “hath” texts omit; “Christ Jesus” texts omit “Jesus”;

5:11. “glory and” texts omit

5:12. “ye stand” all texts read the imp. “stand ye”

5:14. “Amen” texts omit


2 Peter

Chapter 1

1:1. “have” omit

1:3. “hath” omit

1:14. “hath” omit, and supply “also”

1:21. “holy” omit; “Holy Ghost” = Divine Power

Chapter 2

2:4. “the” omit; “chains” texts read “pits”; “to be” omit


Chapter 3

3:1. “which” (pl) hence the insertion of “both”

3:5. “the” omit;

3:10. “in the night” texts omit



Chapter 1

11. Omit: “have” (looked upon); “have” (handled)

Chapter 2

2:7. “have” omit; “from the beginning” Texts omit

2:11. “hath” omit

2:18. “have” omit

2:25. “hath” omit

2:27. “ye shall” omit


Chapter 3

3:2. “the” (children) omit; “but” omit

3:5. “our” omit;

3:12. “own” omit

3:14. “his brother” texts omit


Chapter 4

4:2. “that” omit;  the” omit

4:19. “him” the texts omit


Chapter 5

5:2. “keep” the texts read do

5.7 & 8. “bear record” = bear witness in heaven, &c. The texts read “The spirit and the water” omitting all the words from “in heaven” to “in earth” (v 8) inclusive. The words are not found in any Gr. MS before the sixteenth century. They were first seen in the margin of some Latin copies. Thence they have crept into the text.

5:13. “That believe, &c” this clause is omitted by all the texts and by the Syriac;

5:16. “a” Omit

5:21.  Amen” omit


2 John

1:1. “the” omit;

1:3. “Lord” texts omit

1:4. “have” omit

1:6. “have” omit

1:9. “of Christ” the texts omit

1:12. texts read your (joy)

1:13. “Amen” omit


3 John thou walkest in ... truth”.

1:3. “the” omit;



1:1. all texts incl Syriac read beloved;

1:4. “there are” omit; “God” texts omit;

1:15. among = of. The texts omit; have omit

1:20. “Holy Ghost” = Holy Spirit

1:23. “with” the texts read “in”

1:25. “wise” all the texts omit; “now, &c.” texts read “before every age and now and unto all the ages”



Chapter 1

1:6  hath”  Omit

1:8 “the ... ending” the texts omit. “LORD”  the Texts read “LORD God”

1:9 (“Who also am” – Omit, “in the”-Omit, “Christ”-Omitted twice, “for” omit); (“of” The texts read “in”)

1.10 ….“in the Spirit on the Lord’s Day….”

on = in (Greek en) Referring to the future event of the Day of the Lord.

1:11 “I am Alpha and Omega, the first and the last: and” The texts Omit; “which are in Asia”  the texts omit.

1:13 “the” omit.

1:17 “unto me” omit.

1:18 “Amen” omit.

1:20 “the” omit.


Chapter 2

2:2 “thy” omit; “say they” The texts read “call themselves”

2:5 “from” omit; “will” omit; “quickly” omit

2:9 “works, and” the texts omit

2:13 “thy works, and” the text omits; “wherein” most texts omit

2:15 “which thing I hate” The texts omit, and read “in like manner”

2:16 “will” omit.

2:17 “to eat of” The texts omit.

2:20 “a few things” omit

2:21 “and she”, (& c.) the texts read, “and she is not willing to repent of her fornication”

2:24 “and” omit

2:25 “already” omit.


Chapter 3

3:3 “on thee” The texts omit

3:4 “Thou”. The texts read “But thou”; “even” the texts omit

3:5 “the same”. The texts read “thus”

3:9 “have” omit

3:11 “Behold” omit.

3:18 “the” omit


Chapter 4

4:1 “it were” omit; “which” omit.

4:4 “I saw” the texts omit; “they had” the texts omit.

4:6 “there was…glass. The texts read “as it were a glassy sea”; “were” omit.

4:11 “O LORD”. The texts read “our LORD and our God”; “glory, honour, power”. The texts place article “the” before each; “are”. The texts read “were”.

The word that is most often mistranslated in Rev. 1:10 is the Greek word: en, which means: in.

Chapter 5

5:4 “and to read” texts omit.

5:5 “hath” omit; “to loose” the texts omit.

5:6 “and lo” omit.

5:7 “the book” The texts read “it”.

5:9 “us” most texts omit “us”, and find object in v. 10, “them”.

5:10 “us”. See verse 9; “kings” = “a kingdom”, with all the texts; “we”. All texts read “they”.

5:13 “such as are” omit; “in” the texts read “on

5:14 “four and twenty” the texts omit; “Him…ever” the texts omit.


Chapter 6

6:1 “seals” read “seven seals”, with texts; “and see”all the texts omit.

6:3 “had” omit

6:6 “heard” the texts add “as it were”; “see” omit, and read the clause “and hurt thou not

6:12 “lo” omit; “moon” the texts add “whole”, i.e. the full moon

6:15 “every” omit.


Chapter 7

7:1 “And” some texts omit; “these things” the texts read “this”.

7:5 “were sealed” omit.

7:14 “Sir” most texts read “My Lord”; “have”. omit.

7:17 “living, &c” the texts read “fountains of waters of life”.


Chapter 8

8:1 “had” omit; “the space of” omit.

8:7 “angel” omit

8:10 “waters” the texts read “the waters”.

8:13 “angel” the texts read “eagle”.


Chapter 9

9:4 “only” the texts omit.

9:6 “not” the texts read “in no wise”, the strong negative.

9:7 “were” omit.

9:11 “and” the texts omit.

9:12 “and” omit.

9:13 “four” omit

9:16 “and” omit.

9:18 “three” the texts add “plagues”; “by”. Gr. ek. the texts omit the last two occ. of ek (by).

9:19 “their power” the texts read “the power of the horses”.


Chapter 10

10:1 “was” omit.

10:3 “had” omit.

10:4 “their voices” the texts omit; “unto me” the texts omit.

10:5 “hand” the texts read “right hand”.

10:7 “finished” (add “also”.)

10:9 “and” omit.

10:11 “he said” the texts read “they say”.


Chapter 11

11:1 “and….stood” the texts omit; “and them” read “and (record) them”, Fig. Ellipsis

11:4 “standing” the texts read “which stand”; “God” the texts read “Lord”.

11:6 “in” Gr. en, but the texts omit; “with”. the texts read Gr. en.

11:8 “shall lie” read “lie”; “our” the texts read “their” the Holy Spirit thus points to the city in the plainest way.

11:9 “shall” omit.

11:10 “shall” omit.

11:14 “and” omit.

11:15 “kingdoms”. The texts read “kingdom”, i.e. sovereignty.

11:17 “ and…come” the texts omit. “Now, here, He has come” see 1: 4; “to Thee” omit.

11:19 “was…heaven” the texts read “which is in heaven was opened”.


Chapter 12

12:4 “did” read “he”.

12:7 “fought against” the texts read “(going forth) to war with”.

12:10 “cast down” as “cast out”, v. 9, with the texts

12:11 “the” omit.

12:12 “the….of” the texts omit.

12:17 “Christ” the texts omit.


Chapter 13

13:1 “having, &c” the texts read “having ten horns and seven heads”; “the name” read “names”. See 17. 3.

13:3 “I saw” the texts omit; “after” read, “(and followed) after”.

13:4 “which” the texts read “because he”; “who” the texts read “and who”.

13:6 “blasphemy”. The texts read “blasphemies”; “and” omit, and supply ellipsis with “that is”.

13:7 “kindreds=ever tribe” the texts add “and people”.

13:8 “names” all texts read “name”.

13:13 “fire” addalso”.

13:16 “both” omit, and read “and” before “the rich” and “the free”; “foreheads” the texts read  sing.

13:17 “or” omit.


Chapter 14

14:1 “a=the”, as all the texts; “His Father’s name” the texts read “His name and His Father’s name”. 

14:2 “a” omit; “I heard &co.” the texts read “the voice which I heard (was that) of harpers”, &c.

14:4 “being” read “to be”.

14:5 “before the throne of God” the texts omit.

14:6 “the” omit.

14:7 “the” omit.

14:8 “there, &c” read “another (v. 6), a second angel followed”; “city” the texts omit.

14:8 “because she” the texts read “which”.

14:9 “the third”, &c” read “another (v.6), a third”.

14:12 “here are” omit.

14:13 “unto me” omit; “and” the texts read “for”; “follow” add “with

14:15 “for Thee” omit.


Chapter 15

15:2 “over….mark” the texts omit.

15:3 “saints” the texts read “nations”.

15:4 “Thee” the texts omit.

15:5 “behold” the texts omit.

15:6 “in…linen” the texts read “with precious stone pure and bright”.


Chapter 16

16:2 “upon them” omit.

16:3 “angel” omit.

16:5 “O Lord” the texts omit; “and shalt be” the texts read “Thou Holy One”.

16:6 “have” omit; “for” the texts omit.

16:7 “another out of” the texts omit. Supply the ellipsis with “the angel of”; cp. angel of the waters, v.5

16:9 “power” the texts add “the

16:11 “And”add “they”; “and” add “because of” (ek, as above)

16:12 “kings”supplythat come”.

16:13 “like=as it were”, with texts

16:14 “the” omit; “of the earth and” the texts omit; “Almighty” add “the”. See v.7.

16:16 “the” omit; “tongue” omit.

16:17 “of heaven” the texts omit.

16:18  voices, &c” the texts read “lightings, and voices, and thunders” see 4. 5.; “and” read “or”.


Chapter 17

17:1 “unto me” the texts omit.

17.2  have” omit; the inhabiters, &c. The texts read "they that inhabit the earth were made drunken", &c.

17:5 The verse should be read, "And upon her forehead (she had) a name written, a secret symbol (musterion), BABYLON THE GREAT, the mother of the harlots and of the abominations of the earth".

17:8  names” the texts read "name".

17: 9 and omit

17:10 and omit;  and omit

17:11 is omit

17:13 “shall give” the texts read "they give"

17:16 “upon” Gr. epi; but the texts read "and"


Chapter 18

18:1 and. omit.

18:2 “mightily” the texts read "with (Gr. en) a mighty voice (Gr. phone)".

18:3 have omit

18:5 “have, hath” omit; “reached” The texts read "joined" or "built together".

18:6 “you” omit, and supply "others"; “unto her” omit.

18:7 “hath” omit

18:8 “judgeth” the texts read "judged"

18:9 “have” omit; “shall” omit

18:11 “shall” omit.

18:14 “departed” most texts read "perished"; “thou, &c” most of the texts read "and they (men) shall never more at all (Gr. ouketi ou me) find them"

18:16 “and” omit.

18:17 “all . . . ships” the texts read "every one that saileth any whither", indicating travellers of all kinds.

18:18 “unto” omit.

18:23 “the, the” omit.


Chapter 19

19:4 “that sat” Lit. the (One)sitting on. 

19:5 “out of” = from Gr. ek, but the texts read apo; “and, bothomit

19:6 “God” most of the texts read "our God".

19:8 “clean and white” the texts read "bright and pure" See 15: 6.

19:10 “said” Lit. saith

19:12 “His” read "And His"; “were ,as = are. The texts omit "as"

19:15 “rule” Lit. "shepherd"; and. The texts read here "of the Almighty" (v. 6).

19:17 “gather ... together” the texts read "be gathered together"; “the supper . . . God” the texts read "the great supper of God".

19:18 “the” omit; “men, men” omit.

19:19 “war” The texts add "the". See 16. 14.

19:21 “proceeded” the texts read "came forth"


Chapter 20

20:3 “and” omit.

20:4 “I saw” omit.

20:5  But” the texts omit; “the rest, &c” the texts read "the rest of the dead lived not until (i.e. again until)", which presumes that the rest of the dead" are not living during the thousand years.

20:6 “a” Some texts read "the".

20:8 “battle” = the war the texts add the article. Ref. to the war predicted and determined

20:10 “where” the texts add "also"; “are” no verb. Read "were", or "were cast".

20:12 “small, &c” read "the great and the small"; “God” the texts read "the throne"; “the” omit.

20:14 “death” the texts add "the lake of fire".


Chapter 21

21:2 “John” the texts omit.

21:3 “heaven” the texts read "the throne"

21:4 “for” the texts omit

21:5 “unto me” the texts omit; “true, &c” the texts read "faithful and true".

21:6 “It is done” the texts read " They are come to pass".

21:7 “all” the texts read "these"

21:9 “unto me” the texts omit.

21:10 “that great” the texts omit, and read "the holy city Jerusalem".

21:11 “and” omit.

21:12 “and” omit.

21:15 “golden reed, &c” the texts add metron here, as v. 17, and read "for a measure".

21:17 “according to omit.

21:19 “and” omit

21:23 “in it” the texts omit "in", reading "on (dat. case) her"

21:24 “of . . . saved” the texts omit; “do” omit;  and honour” the texts omit.


Chapter 22

22:1 “pure” the texts omit.

22:5 “there” the texts read "longer"; “the” omit

22:6 “of ... prophets” the texts read "of the spirits of the prophets"

22:7 “Behold” the texts read "And behold"

22:8 “saw, &c” the texts read "am he that heard and saw these things"; “had” omit.

22:9 “for” the texts omit.

22:11 “be righteous” the texts read "do (or work) righteousness"

22:12 “and” the texts omit; “according” omit; “shall be” the texts read "is"

22:15 “for” the texts omit.

22:16 “and, and” omit.

22:17 “and” the texts omit.

22:18 “For” omit; “these things” the texts read "them".

22:19 “book of life” the texts read "tree of life"; “and . . . things?” the texts omit.

22:20 “even so” the texts omit; and link "Amen" with John's response, as R.V.

22:21 “our” the texts read "the"; “Christ” Most texts omit; “you all” many texts read "all the saints."



The use of one word “GOD” for the multiple terms used for the beings in the Bible. This practice hides the identity of who these beings are.


Hebrew names have been changed or modified by Greek and English to obscure the meaning of the names, i.e.;

·       Iesus – has no meaning but is the Greek translation in the LXX for Yahoshua or Yoshua =Joshua (English)

·       Jesus – has no meaning other than an English transliteration.

·       Yahoshua – means God Saves


Use of the word “Cross” in the New Testament






From the base of G2476; a stake or post (as set upright).  It was a stake or unhappy tree of capital punishment initiated by the Phoenicians.  It was never a cross until the Romans added a cross piece to prolong the death of the person being tortured.  If Christ had been killed on a cross he would have taken much longer to die.


The term when used of the saints means to engage in self denial in taking up the cause of the faith. 


A stauros or stake is no more a cross than stick is a crutch (cf. Bullinger’s comments). Christ was not killed on a cross. Thus he was not “crucified” He was nailed to a stake or stauros with his hands and feet together, above and below, thus also collapsing his lungs.


He was killed at the Passover on the afternoon of 14 Abib when the lambs were to be sacrificed. The use of the term Easter in English is a mistranslation using the name for the Goddess in Anglo-Saxon which is Ishtar or Ashteroth consort of Baal or the goddess in the Sun cults. Hence the introduction of Sunday into Christianity from the Sun Cults and the worship of Attis in Rome, Adonis in the East and Osiris in Egypt.






A prolonged form of a primary word στάω staō (of the same meaning, and used for it in certain tenses); to stand (transitively or intransitively), used in various applications (literally or figuratively): - abide, appoint, bring, continue, covenant, establish, hold up, lay, present, set (up), stanch, stand (by, forth, still, up). Compare G5087.