Christian Churches of God

No. F056




Commentary on Titus


(Edition 1.0 20201023-20201023)


The Commentary on Titus is the first of the three Pastoral Epistles.



Christian Churches of God

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  Commentary on Titus


The Epistle to Titus is traditionally classified as one of the three Pastoral Letters being the letters to Titus and 1 and 2 Timothy. They are similar in style and are addresses from Paul as a senior pastor and apostle giving guidance to his subordinate pastors.


Titus the person

Most of the information concerning Titus comes from Galatians (2:1-10) and 2Corinthians and a brief mention in 2Timothy. Many modern academics consider the references in 2Timothy and Titus come from a time later than Paul. Some have attempted to identify Titus with Titius Justus in Acts 18:7, but quite inconclusively. The historical view has been that Paul wrote the letters and we see no reason to disagree with this view and nor does Bullinger.


When Paul left Antioch he took Titus with him (Gal. 2:1-3). Acceptance of Titus (a gentile) as a Christian without circumcision vindicated Paul’s stand there (Gal. 2:3-5) Presumably Titus worked with Paul in Ephesus during his third missionary journey. From there the apostle sent him to Corinth to help that Church with its work (2Cor. 2:12-13; 7:5-6; 8:6).


Following Paul’s release from his first Roman imprisonment (Acts 28) he and Titus worked briefly in Crete (1:5) after which he commissioned Titus to remain there as his representative and complete some needed work (1:5; 2:15; 3:12-13). Paul asked Titus to meet him in Nicopolis when a replacement arrived (3:12). Later Titus went on a mission to Dalmatia (2Tim. 4:10), the last word we hear about him in the NT.

Book Overview - Titus

by E.W. Bullinger







The apostle Paul had no more highly esteemed fellow labourer than Titus, yet his name is not mentioned in the Acts. It has been suggested that this is owing to his being the authority to whom Luke is indebted for various portions of the book. A Gentile (Galatians 2:3), and possibly a native of Crete, the words "Titus, mine own son after the common faith" (Titus 1:4) indicate that he was led to the truth by Paul himself. The two were companions in Antioch prior to the council assembled at Jerusalem as recorded in Acts 15, for to this Council he accompanied the apostle (Galatians 2:1). Titus is repeatedly referred to in the two Epistles to the Corinthians, to which church he was apparently sent on two occasions: see 2Corinthians 8:6, and chapters 2 and 7. From this Epistle we learn that after Paul’s release from the Roman prison, the two journeyed together and preached in Crete (Titus 1:5Titus 1:11Titus 1:13), where the apostle left him to "set in order the things that are wanting, and ordain elders in every city". Later, he was instructed to join Paul at Nicopolis (Titus 3:12), and it is probable that from there he went to Dalmatia (2Timothy 4:10). The apostle’s affectionate regard for him is shown in 2Corinthians 2:132Corinthians 8:23. The Epistle was one of the latest written by Paul, probably in the end of A.D. 67.”


Note that Bullinger considers the Epistle to Titus as one of the latest written by Paul, ca. 67 CE, which is probably correct.


The first chapter deals with the first of three main topics. The chapter deals with what is expected of elders or bishops in the face of false teachers and local shortcomings.


Chapter 1

1Paul, a servant of God, and an apostle of Jesus Christ, according to the faith of God's elect, and the acknowledging of the truth which is after godliness; 2In hope of eternal life, which God, that cannot lie, promised before the world began; 3But hath in due times manifested his word through preaching, which is committed unto me according to the commandment of God our Saviour; 4 To Titusmine own son after the common faith: Grace, mercy, and peace, from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ our Saviour. 5For this cause left I thee in Crete, that thou shouldest set in order the things that are wanting, and ordain elders in every city, as I had appointed thee: 6If any be blameless, the husband of one wife, having faithful children not accused of riot or unruly. 7For a bishop must be blameless, as the steward of God; not selfwilled, not soon angry, not given to wine, no striker, not given to filthy lucre; 8But a lover of hospitality, a lover of good men, sober, just, holy, temperate; 9Holding fast the faithful word as he hath been taught, that he may be able by sound doctrine both to exhort and to convince the gainsayers. 10For there are many unruly and vain talkers and deceivers, specially they of the circumcision: 11Whose mouths must be stopped, who subvert whole houses, teaching things which they ought not, for filthy lucre's sake. 12One of themselves, even a prophet of their own, said, The Cretians are alway liars, evil beasts, slow bellies. 13This witness is true. Wherefore rebuke them sharply, that they may be sound in the faith; 14Not giving heed to Jewish fables, and commandments of men, that turn from the truth. 15Unto the pure all things are pure: but unto them that are defiled and unbelieving is nothing pure; but even their mind and conscience is defiled. 16They profess that they know God; but in works they deny him, being abominable, and disobedient, and unto every good work reprobate.


Paul's writings are subordinationist but confusing to Gentiles unfamiliar with the allocation of name by authority. For example, in Titus 1:3 he refers to God as the saviour of us. In Titus 1:4, he distinguishes from God the Father and Christ and refers to Christ as the saviour of us. Thus, Trinitarians assert that the function of God as saviour is here asserted as the aspect known as Son. This is incorrect. The authority of the Son is derived from the Father as we have seen in John 10:18. The adequacy of the sacrifice was determined by the Father, as it was to reconcile man to the Father that it was required to be made. God determines the adequacy of the sacrifice as it was to Him that the debt was owed.


There is no question that Paul makes clear distinction between God and Christ. Paul is an absolute and incontestable subordinationist. No apostle was a Trinitarian – not because they did not need to develop the theory but because it is blasphemy.


Those who profess to know God must demonstrate their knowledge by their deeds (Titus 1:16). Thus the law is kept from a knowledge of and love of God. The law must be kept because sin is the transgression of the law (1Jn. 3:4) and, if we sin deliberately after receiving the knowledge of truth, there no longer remains a sacrifice for sin (Heb. 10:26). Those sins are carried to judgment as a profanation of the blood of the covenant by which we are sanctified (Heb. 10:29) (cf. The Development of the Neo-Platonist Model (No. 017)).


Titus 1:7 shows the elders (the presbuterous or the episkopon) are stewards of God.


Titus 1:7  For a bishop must be blameless, as the steward of God; not selfwilled, not soon angry, not given to wine, no striker, not given to filthy lucre; (KJV)


The injunction against being self-pleasing (authade) and not being passionate (orgilon) or given to wine, striking or greedy of base gain (aischrokerde) shows an attitude in the people to whom and through whom the mysteries are revealed. The translation of the term huperatas meaning attendant, or servant, as minister of Christ in the KJV has obscured, or unnecessarily restricted, the application of the stewardship of the Mysteries of God to a priesthood, which is not the meaning. The elect are all given access to the understanding of the mysteries dependent upon their relationship to God in the Holy Spirit. It is however, quite inappropriate to be indiscriminate in the explanation of those mysteries.


The mysteries are given to those who are dedicated to God in Jesus Christ. None is blameless before baptism. That is not the meaning of Titus 1:7. The attitude for the revelation of the Mysteries of God is one of selfless devotion to duty (cf. John 4:34-38).


Christ’s food or meat in John 4:34-38 was the work of God. This work was the harvest in which we participate. Sower and reaper rejoice together. Thus Christ reaps where he did not sow. God through the Holy Spirit acting through the elect sows the seeds through the work. What one sows another reaps. God sows through the work of others and we reap. We also sow so that others may reap. Thus we all share in the joy that is given to Christ. None of us is of Paul or Apollos. Like Paul, we are all slaves (doulos) of God (Titus 1:1).


Paul reminds him in Titus 1:12 of what reputation the people of Crete have. The purpose of this letter is to not only encourage but instruct Titus in his ministry. Lastly, Paul wants Titus to visit him in Nicopolis.


The second chapter deals with the proper approach to dealing with the people in the church; i.e.  older men (vv. 1-2), older women (vv. 3-5), younger men (vv. 6-8), and slaves (vv. 9-10).


It concludes with a summary of what is expected of believers in view of God’s Grace (vv. 11-15)

Chapter 2

1But speak thou the things which become sound doctrine: 2That the aged men be sober, grave, temperate, sound in faith, in charity, in patience. 3The aged women likewise, that they be in behaviour as becometh holiness, not false accusers, not given to much wine, teachers of good things; 4That they may teach the young women to be sober, to love their husbands, to love their children, 5 To be discreet, chaste, keepers at home, good, obedient to their own husbands, that the word of God be not blasphemed. 6Young men likewise exhort to be sober minded. 7In all things shewing thyself a pattern of good works: in doctrine shewing uncorruptness, gravity, sincerity, 8Sound speech, that cannot be condemned; that he that is of the contrary part may be ashamed, having no evil thing to say of you. 9Exhort servants to be obedient unto their own masters, and to please them well in all things; not answering again; 10Not purloining, but shewing all good fidelity; that they may adorn the doctrine of God our Saviour in all things. 11For the grace of God that bringeth salvation hath appeared to all men, 12Teaching us that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, righteously, and godly, in this present world; 13Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ; 14Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works. 15These things speak, and exhort, and rebuke with all authority. Let no man despise thee.


The Glory of the God of Israel is identified in the New Testament here in Titus. This being is Jesus Christ. He left by the east gate and returns in the same way that he left.

(cf. The Ark of the Covenant (No. 196))


In this way, we await our blessed hope – the appearing of Jesus Christ, the Glory of our great God and Saviour as seen in Titus 2:11-13. The appearance of our God and Saviour is Jesus Christ.  He is not that being but rather His appearance or manifestation to humans as no man can see Him (1Tim 6:16).


Trinitarians read this text as Jesus Christ is our great God and Saviour whereas the Old Testament shows that the Glory of the God of Israel is a being in his own right who leaves the Temple and then returns to the Temple to establish this end time system. This being can be none other than Jesus Christ (Jn. 1:1,18).


Chapter 3 discusses the ethical problems and advises Christians to avoid hatred and wrangling. They are to be subject to the principalities and powers and obey magistrates otherwise no civil order would be possible. Later some espousing the faith were striking magistrates to obtain a higher resurrection through martyrdom. The brethren are to reflect the Laws of God in the calling and display the meekness, gentleness, obedience and courtesy made possible through God’s Mercy and Grace in Christ.

 Chapter 3

1Put them in mind to be subject to principalities and powers, to obey magistrates, to be ready to every good work, 2To speak evil of no man, to be no brawlers, but gentle, shewing all meekness unto all men. 3For we ourselves also were sometimes foolish, disobedient, deceived, serving divers lusts and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hateful, and hating one another. 4But after that the kindness and love of God our Saviour toward man appeared, 5Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost; 6Which he shed on us abundantly through Jesus Christ our Saviour; 7That being justified by his grace, we should be made heirs according to the hope of eternal life. 8This is a faithful saying, and these things I will that thou affirm constantly, that they which have believed in God might be careful to maintain good works. These things are good and profitable unto men. 9But avoid foolish questions, and genealogies, and contentions, and strivings about the law; for they are unprofitable and vain. 10A man that is an heretick after the first and second admonition reject; 11Knowing that he that is such is subverted, and sinneth, being condemned of himself. 12When I shall send Artemas unto thee, or Tychicus, be diligent to come unto me to Nicopolis: for I have determined there to winter. 13Bring Zenas the lawyer and Apollos on their journey diligently, that nothing be wanting unto them. 14And let ours also learn to maintain good works for necessary uses, that they be not unfruitful. 15All that are with me salute thee. Greet them that love us in the faith. Grace be with you all. Amen.


(As per chapter 1 above); We should do our best to speed the work of God on its way. We must learn to be fruitful.

Titus 3:13-14 Do your best to speed Zenas the lawyer and Apol'los on their way; see that they lack nothing. 14And let our people learn to apply themselves to good deeds, so as to help cases of urgent need, and not to be unfruitful. (RSV)


Here we see that the Church is being shown that those who would have made divisions in the work by following men are being rebuked by being told to aid one of the elect by Paul who was being held to be of another division. The work of God is not of any man so that no flesh should glory (1Cor. 1:29). Let no man glory in the works of men. Let each man take care how he builds upon the work of God (1Cor. 3:10). (cf. The Mysteries of God (No. 131)).


There are many texts which state that Jesus Christ is our Saviour. In like fashion, there are many texts that state that God is our Saviour. Trinitarians infer from this that God and Christ are the same thing and that they are merely hypostases or sub-elements of the one Being called God (Jude 24-25; 2Peter 1:1,11; 2:20).


John is clear that God sent the Son to be the Saviour of the world (1Jn. 4:14).


Paul refers to God our Saviour in Titus 1:3. Christ is then referred to as Saviour in verse 4.


The brethren are to avoid disputes and contentions about genealogies and disputations over the Law of God which stands and is reflected in their good works (v. 9, 14) (cf. Commentary on James (F059)).


A heretic is to be warned twice and then rejected.


The common usage can be seen from the above and it is not a contradiction nor is it any confirmation of a Triune God.


This sense is repeated in Titus 2:10-13. Here Christ is not referred to as Saviour but as the appearing of our great God and Saviour. Thus the words Jesus Christ here refer to the appearance and not to God per se. From the word order in the Greek it is inferred that Christ here is meant as God and Saviour when that is not the case and the appearance of The Glory of God is here given to Christ as it was reflected in the Cherubim (cf. The Ark of the Covenant (No. 196); God Our Saviour (No. 198)).


The sense of Titus 1:3-4 is repeated in Titus 3:4-6. Again we see the same delegated thought process found in the prophets and obviously used by Paul to explain the relationship.


Thus we can understand from the Old Testament prophets the terms and duality of usage in application from God to Jesus Christ. God is our Saviour and He appointed Christ to die for us as our Saviour so that both God and Christ could live in us, and through the Holy Spirit God could become all in all. Thus we could have one God and Father of us all.


Ephesians 4:6 … one God and Father of us all, who is above all and through all and in all. (RSV)



Bullinger’s Notes on Titus


Chapter 1

Verse 1

servant of God. Nowhere else does Paul so designate himself

servant. App-190.,

God. App-98.

apostle. App-189.

Jesus Christ. App-98.

according to. App-104.

faith. App-150.

acknowledging = full knowledge. App-132.

truth. Greek. aletheia. Compare App-175.

after. Same as according to.

godliness. Greek. eusebeia. Compare App-137.


Verse 2

In. Greek. epi, App-101.

hope. See Titus 3:7. Compare Co Titus 1:3Titus 1:41 Timothy 1:1.

eternal. App-151.

life. App-170, I.

that cannot lie. Literally, the unlying. Greek. apseudes. Only here.

promised. Greek. epangellomai. Compare App-121Titus 5:8.

before . . . began. App-151.


Verse 3

hath. Omit.

in. No preposition.

times. Gr. kairos, the fit

season. Figure of speech Heterosis of number. App-6. See App-195.

manifested. App-106.

word. App-121.

through. Greek. en. App-104.

preaching. App-121.

is = was.

committed. App-150.

commandment. Greek. epitage. Occurs: Titus 2:16Romans 16:261 Corinthians 7:61 Corinthians 7:252 Corinthians 8:81 Timothy 1:1.

Saviour. Greek. solter. Six times in this short Ep. Here, Titus 1:4Titus 2:10Titus 2:13Titus 3:4Titus 3:6.


Verse 4

mine own son. See 1 Timothy 1:2mine own. App-175.

son = child. App-108.

common. Greek. koinos. Compare Acts 2:44. as. Jude 1:3.

Grace, &c. See 1 Timothy 1:2. Figure of speech Synonymia. App-6.

from. App-104.

Father. App-98.

Lord. The texts omit.

Jesus Christ. The texts read "Christ Jesus".


Verse 5

For. . . cause. Greek. charin, occurrence Titus 1:11. See Ephesians 3:1Ephesians 3:14.

left. Greek. kataleipo. The texts read apoleipd, as 2 Timothy 4:20.

in. App-104.

Crete. The island lying in the Aegean Sea still bears the ancient name. It is about 140 miles long by about 30 wide.

that = in order that, Gr, hina,

set in order. Greek. epidiorthoo. Only here.

the . . . wanting. Literally the loft things. Compare Titus 3:13.

ordain = appoint. Greek. kathistemi. First occurrence Matthew 24:45.

elders. See Acts 20:17. Compare 1 Timothy 5:17, App-189.

in every city = city by city, Gr, kata (Ale 104. x. 2) polin.

appointed, Greek. diatasso. Occurs sixteen times, generally "command".


Verse 6

If. App-118.

any. App-123.

blameless. Greek. anenkletos. Elsewhere, Titus 1:71 Corinthians 1:81 Corinthians 1:221 Timothy 3:10, Compare 1 Timothy 3:2.

husband, App-123.

faithful. App-150.

children. App-108.

not. App-105. IL

accused. Greek. en (App-104.) kategoria. See John 18:29,

unruly. Greek. anupotaktos, Occ, Titus 1:10, and elsewhere, 1 Timothy 1:9Hebrews 2:8.


Verse 7

a = the

bishop. App-189.

steward, Greek. oikonomos. Occurs ten times; "steward", except Romans 16:23Galatians 1:4Galatians 1:2.

selfwilled. Greek. authades. Only here and 2 Peter 2:10

soon angry. Gr, orgilos. Only here.

given to wine. Greek. peroinos, Only here and 1 Timothy 3:3.

no. App-105.

striker. Greek. plektes. Only here and 1 Timothy 3:3.

given . . . lucre. Gr, aischrokerdes. Occur. 1 Timothy 8:31 Timothy 8:8, and the adverb in 1 Peter 5:2. See also Titus 1:11.


Verse 8

lover of hospitality, Greek. philoxenos. Occurs: 1 Timothy 3:21 Peter 4:9. The noun in Romans 12:13, and Hebrews 13:2.

lover of good men = lover of the good (thing). Greek. philegathos. Only here.

sober = right-minded. Greek. sophron, Occurs: Titus 2:2Titus 2:51 Timothy 3:2. Compare Mark 5:13.

just. App-191.

holy. Greek. hosios. See on Acts 2:27.

temperate. Greek. enkrates. Only here. See on Acts 24:23.


Verse 9

Holding fast, Greek. antechomai, Elsewhere, Matthew 6:24Luke 16:131 Thessalonians 5:11.

as. taught = according to (App-104.) the teaching (didache, occurs thirty times, always "doctrine" except here),

able, Greek. dunatos, Compare App-172.

by, Greek. en. App-104.

sound doctrine. See 1 Timothy 1:10, and ep. 2 Timothy 1:13.

doctrine. Greek. didaskalia. Occurs twenty-one times, always doctrine, save Romans 12:7 (teaching); Titus 15:4 (learning).

exhort. App-134. Read, "exhort (the believers)".

convince = convict. Greek. elenche. See Titus 1:13, and first occ, Matthew 18:15.

gainsayers = the contradicters. Occurs ten times. See first occurance: Luke 2:34.


Verse 10

and. Omit.

vain talkers. Greek. mataiologos. Only here. Compare 1 Timothy 1:6.

deceivers. Greek. phrenapates. Only hare. Not peculiar to N.T. The verb occurs Galatians 1:6Galatians 1:3,

of. App-104.

circumcision. Those here referred to were Jewish Christians.


Verse 11

mouths . . . stopped. Greek. epistomizo. Only here.

subvert = overthrow. Greek. anatrepo. Only here and 2 Timothy 2:18.

houses = households. Greek. oikos. Figure of speech Metonymy (of Subject). App-6.

for . . . sake. Greek. churin, as in Titus 1:5.

filthy. Greek. aischros Only here. See Titus 1:7.

lucre"s = gain"s. Only here; Philippians 1:1Philippians 1:21Philippians 3:2.


Verse 12

One. App-123.

prophet. App-189. Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct). App-6. To Paul, a prophet by repute only. It is supposed that the reference is to Epimenides.

The . . . bellies. Figure of speech Gnome. App-6(8).

alway. App-151.

evil. App-128.

beasts = wild beasts.

slow. Gr, argos. Occurs eight times, generally "idle".

bellies = persons. Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Part). App-6.


Verse 13

witness = testimony.

true. App-175.

Wherefore = on account of (Greek. dia App-104. Titus 1:2) which.

rebuke. Greek. elencho. See Titus 1:9. Occurs also Titus 2:15.

sharply. Greek. apotomos. Elsewhere only 2 Corinthians 13:10; the noun in Romans 11:22.

faith. See Titus 1:1. Here, doctrine of the gospel. Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct). App-6.


Verse 14

giving heed. Greek. prosecho. Compare 1 Timothy 1:4.

Jewish fables. Compare Colossians 2:16-221 Timothy 1:4.

commandments. Greek. entole,

men. App-123.

turn from. Greek. apostrepho. Compare 2 Timothy 4:4.


Verse 15

Unto . . . are pure. Figure of speech Paroemia. App-6.

Unto = To.

pure. Greek. katharos. First occurrence Matthew 5:8.

all, &c. The use of all things, i.e. meats. Compare Romans 14:14Romans 14:20.

are. Figure of speech Ellipsis (Absolute). App-6.

defiled. Greek. miaino. Elsewhere, John 18:28Hebrews 12:15Jude 1:8. Compare the adjective in 2 Peter 2:10, and noun 2 Peter 2:20.

unbelieving. Greek. apistos. Compare App-150.

nothing. Greek. oudeis.

mind = understanding (Greek. nous), as in first oec. Luke 24:45.

conscience. Greek. suneidesis. First sec. John 8:9. See Acts 23:1.


Verse 16

profess. Greek. homologea. Compare Romans 10:9Romans 10:10.

know, App-132.

in = by. No preposition.

deny. Greek. arneomai. See Titus 2:12. Compare 2 Timothy 2:122 Timothy 3:5.

abominable. Greek. bdeluktos. Only here. The noun in Matthew 21:15, &c.

disobedient. Compare App-128. Titus 1:1.

unto. App-104.

good work. See Titus 2:7Titus 3:1Titus 3:8Titus 3:14,

reprobate. Greek. adokimos. See Romans 1:28.


Chapter 2

Verse 1

speak. App-121.

become. Greek. prepei. Occurs seven times. First occurance: Matthew 3:15.

sound doctrine. See Titus 1:9.


Verse 2

That = (Erhort) that. Figure of speech Ellipsis (of Repetition). App-6.

aged men. Greek. presbutes. Elsewhere, Luke 1:18, Phm. Titus 1:9.

sober. Greek. nephalios. Elsewhere, 1 Timothy 3:2, 1 Timothy 3:11.

grave, Greek. semnos. Occurs: Philippians 1:4, Philippians 1:8. 1 Timothy 3:8, 1 Timothy 3:11. The noun in Titus 2:7, 1 Timothy 2:2; 1 Timothy 3:4,

temperate. Greek. sophron. See Titus 1:8.

faith = the faith. See App-150.

charity = the love, App-135.

patience = the patience. Greek. hupomone. Occurs about thirty times, first in Luke 8:15.


Verse 3

aged women. Greek. presbutis. Only here.

in. App-104.

behaviour. Greek. katastema. Only here.

as . . . holiness. Greek. hieroprepes. Only here.

not. App-105.

false accusers. Figure of speech Idioma. App-8. Greek. diabolos. Occurs thirty-eight times, always "devil", except here, 1 Timothy 3:11. 2 Timothy 3:3.

not. The texts read "nor", Gr, mede.

given. Greek. douloo. App-190.

teachers, &c. Greek. kalodidaskalos. Only here.


Verse 4

That = In order that. Greek. hina.

teach. . . to be sober. Greek. sophroniao. Only here. Op. Titus 2:6, Titus 2:12; 1 Timothy 2:9.

young women. Feminine of Greek. neos. See John 21:18.

love. . . husbands. Greek. philandros. Only here.

love . . . children. Greek. philoteknos. Only here.


Verse 5

discreet. Greek. sophron. Compare verses: Titus 2:1, Titus 2:4, Titus 2:1, B.

chaste. Greek. hagnos. Elsewhere, 2 Corinthians 7:11; 2 Corinthians 11:2. Philippians 1:4, Philippians 1:6. 1 Timothy 5:22. James 3:17. 1 Peter 5:2. 1 John 3:3.

keepers at home. Greek. oikonras. Only here.

obedient. Greek. hupatasso, as in Titus 2:9; Titus 3:1.

husbands. App-123.

word. App-121.

God. App-98.,

not. App-105.

blasphemed. Greek. blasphemeo. Occurs: Titus 3:2.


Verse 6

Young men = The younger. Greek. neoteros, as in 1Ti 5.

exhort. App-134.

sober minded. Greek. sophroneo. Compare verses: Titus 2:4, Titus 2:5, Titus 2:12, and see Romans 12:3.


Verse 7

In. App-104.

shewing. Greek. parecho. Elsewhere, offer, give, minister, &c.

pattern. Greek. tupos. See John 20:25.

good works. See Titus 1:16.

doctrine. See Titus 1:9.

uncorruptness. Greek. adiaphthoria. The texts read aphthoria. Only here.

gravity. he. semnotes. " Elsewhere, 1 Timothy 2:2; 1 Timothy 3:4. The adjective in Titus 2:2.

sincerity. The texts omit.


Verse 8

Sound. Greek. hugies. Occurs fourteen times, always "whole", except here. Compare verses: Titus 2:1, Titus 2:2; Titus 1:9, Titus 1:13.

speech. App-121.

that . . . condemned. Greek. akatagnostos. Only here.

of. App-104.

contrary part. Greek. enantios. Occurs eight times, first in Matthew 14:24.

ashamed. Greek. entrepo. See 2 Thessalonians 3:14.

no. Greek. medeis.

evil. Greek. phaulos. Only here; John 3:20; John 5:29. James 3:16.

say. Greek. lego. Compare App-121.

of. App-104.


Verse 9

servants. App-190.

unto = to.

masters, App-98.

please., well, Greek. euarestos. See Romans 12:1.

answering again. Greek. antilego. Compare Titus 1:9.


Verse 10

purloining. Greek. nosphizomai. Only here; Acts 5:2, Acts 5:3.

shewing. Greek. endeiknumi. Occurs: Titus 3:2.

fidelity. App-150.

adorn. Greek. kosmeo. Occurs ten times, first in Matthew 12:44.

Saviour. See Titus 1:3,


Verse 11

grace. Greek. charis, App-184.

that bringeth salvation. Greek. soterios. Only here.

hath. Omit.

appeared. App-106.

men. App-123.


Verse 12

Teaching. Greek. paideuo. Elsewhere, twelve times, genitive "chasten", "chastise".

denying. Greek. arneomai. Occurs thirty-one times, always "deny", save Acts 7:35, Hebrews 11:24, See Titus 1:16.

ungodliness. App-128.

worldly. Greek. kosrnikos. Only here and Nehemiah 9:1. Compare App-129.

lusts. See Ephesians 2:3, Philippians 1:1, Philippians 1:23 (desire).

live. Greek. zao. Compare App-170.

soberly. Greek. sophronos. See verses: Titus 2:2, Titus 2:5, Titus 2:2, Titus 2:6.

righteously. See App-191,

godly. See App-137.

this present. Literally the now (Greek. nun).

world. App-129., and App-151.


Verse 13

Looking for. See Luke 19:36.

that = the.

blessed. See 1 Timothy 1:11.

hope. appearing. Figure of speech Hendiadys. App-6.

hope. Compare Titus 1:2; Titus 3:7. "Blessed object

of hope, "Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct). App-6.

glorious appearing = appearing (App-106. ) of the glory (see p. 1511). Figure of speech Aetimereia (of Noun). App-6. Compare 2 Corinthians 4:4.

great, &c. = our great Saviour God.

Jesus Christ. App-98.


Verse 14

for. App-104.

redeem. Greek. lutroo. Only here; Luke 24:21. 1 Peter 1:18.

from. App-104.

iniquity, App-128.

peceliar people = a people as an acquisition. Greek. periousios. Only here. Compare 1 Peter 2:9. Occurs in Septuagint Exodus 19:5. Deuteronomy 7:6; Deuteronomy 14:2; Deuteronomy 26:18;

and in kindred forms, 1 Chronicles 29:3. Psalms 135:4. Ecclesiastes 2:8, Malachi 3:17.

zealous. Greek. zelotis. Elsewhere, Acts 21:20; Acts 22:3. 1 Corinthians 14:12. Galatians 1:1, Galatians 1:14.

of Genitive of relation; "with respect to". App-17.


Verse 15

rebuke. See Titus 1:9, Titus 1:13.

with. App-104.

authority. The same Greek. word in Titus 1:3 is translated "commandment".

no mom = no one. Greek. medeis.

despise. Greek. periphroneo. Only here.


Chapter 3

Verse 1

Put, &c. Figure of speech Association. App-6.

Put. in mind. Greek. hupomimntsko. Elsewhere, Luke 22:60John 14:262 Timothy 2:142 Peter 1:123 John 1:10Jude 1:5.

subject. See Titus 2:5Titus 2:9.

principalities, powers. See App-192and App-5.

obey magistrates. Greek. peitharcheo. Elsewhere, Acts 5:29Acts 5:32Acts 27:21.

to. App-104.,

good work. See Titus 1:16 with Titus 2:7.


Verse 2

speak evil. See Titus 2:5.

no man = no one. Greek. medeis.

no brawlers. Greek. amachos Only here and 1 Timothy 3:3.

gentle. Greek. epieikes. See Philippians 1:4Philippians 1:4. Elsewhere, 1 Timothy 3:3James 3:171 Peter 2:18.

shewing. See Titus 2:10.

meekness. Greek. praotes. Compare 2 Corinthians 10:1.

unto. Greek. pros, App-104.

men. App-123.


Verse 3

sometimes = at one time.

foolish. Greek. anoetos. See Romans 1:14.

disobedient. See Titus 1:16.

serving. Greek. douleuo; the condition of being a slave. Compare Titus 2:3. App-190.

lusts. See Titus 2:12.

pleasures. Greek. hedone. Elsewhere, Luke 8:19James 4:1James 4:32 Peter 2:13,

living. Greek. diagd. Only here and 1 Timothy 2:2.

in. App-104.

malice, envy. See Romans 1:29.

hateful. Greek. stugetas. Only here.


Verse 4

after that = when.

kindness. App-184.

love . . . toward man. Greek. philanthropia. Only here and Acts 58:2. The adverb in Acts 27:3.

God. See App-98.

Saviour. See Titus 1:3.

appeared. See App-106.


Verse 5

Not. App-105.

by. Greek. ek, App-104.

of. Greek. en. App-104.

righteousness. App-191.

have done = did,

according to. App-104., with texts.

by. App-104. Titus 3:1.

the washing . . . Ghost. Figure of speech Hendiadye. App-8. Two things mentioned but only one thing meant. A reference here to the gifts abundantly bestowed on us" before the truth was announced regarding the believer"s completeness in Christ, apart from ordinces.

washing. Greek. loutron. Only here and Ephesians 5:26. The word means, primarily, a vessel for bathing.

regeneration. Genitive of Apposition. App-17. Greek. palingenesia. The reference is to the new man. Only here and Matthew 19:28.

renewing. Greek. anakainosis. Only here and Romans 12:2. The verb in Colossians 3:10.

off = by.

Holy Ghost. App-101.


Verse 6

shed. Greek. ekcheo. See Acts 2:17Acts 2:18Acts 2:33. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. App-6. "Pouring out" attributed to God, and the Spirit spoken of as if water.

on. App-101.

abundantly. Greek. plousios. Elsewhere, Colossians 3:161 Timothy 6:172 Peter 1:11.

through. App-104.

Jesus Christ. App-98.


Verse 7

That-In order that. Greek. hina.

justified. App-191.

grace. See Titus 2:11. App-184.

be made = become.

hope. See Titus 1:2.

eternal. App-151.

life. App-170


Verse 8

This, &c. = Faithful the saying. Figure of speech Ellipsis (of Repetition). App-6. See 1 Timothy 1:15. Figure of speech Hyperbaton. App-6.

faithful. App-150.

saying. App-121.

and = and concerning (App-104).

will. App-102.

affirm constantly = affirm strongly. Greek. diobebaioomai. Only here and 1 Timothy 1:7.

believed. App-150.

in. Omit.

careful. Greek. phrontizo. Only here.

maintain. Greek. proistemi. Occurs: Titus 3:14Romans 12:81 Thessalonians 5:121 Timothy 3:41 Timothy 3:51 Timothy 3:121 Timothy 5:17.

good works. See Titus 1:16,

profitable. Greek. ophelimos. Elsewhere, 1 Timothy 4:82 Timothy 3:16.

unto = to.

men. App-123.


Verse 9

avoid., Greek. periistemi. Elsewhere, John 11:42Acts 25:72 Timothy 2:16.

foolish questions. Compare 2 Timothy 2:23.

genealogies. Greek. genealogia. Only here and 1 Timothy 1:4,

contentions. Greek. eris. See Romans 1:29.

strivings. Greek. mache. Elsewhere, 2 Corinthians 7:52 Timothy 2:23James 4:1.

about the law. Greek. nommikos. Elsewhere (eight times) translated "lawyer",

unprofitable. Greek. anopheles. Only here and Hebrews 7:18.

vain. Greek. mataios. See Titus 1:10


Verse 10

man. App-123.

heretiek. Greek. hairetikos. Only here. See Acts 5:17.

after. App-104.

the = a.

admonition Sr. nouthesia. Elsewhere, 1 Corinthians 10:11Ephesians 6:4.


Verse 11

Knowing. App-132.

subverted. Greek. ekstrephomai. Only here.

sinneth. App-128.

condemned, &c. Greek. autokatakritos. Only here.


Verse 12

send. App-174.

Artemas. Not mentioned elsewhere.

Tychicus. See Acts 20:4Ephesians 6:21Colossians 4:72 Timothy 4:12.

diligent. Greek. spoadazd. Compare Titus 3:13.

to. App-104.

Nicopolis. It is uncertain which of the cities bearing this name is here referred to.

determined. App-122.

winter. Greek. paracheimazo. Elsewhere, Acts 27:12Acts 28:111 Corinthians 16:6.


Verse 13

Bring . . . journey. Greek. propempo. See Acts 15:3. Compare App-174.

Zenas. Not referred to elsewhere.

Apollos. Mentioned Acts 18:24Acts 19:1, and seven times in 1 Corinthians.

diligently. Compare Titus 3:12

nothing. Greek. medeis.

wanting. See Titus 1:5.


Verse 14

ours = one people.

for. App-104,

necessary. Greek. anankaios. As in Acts 13:46.

uses. Literally needs, Greek. chesia.

not. App-106.

unfruitful. Greek. eskarpos. Elsewhere, Matthew 18:22Mark 4:191 Corinthians 14:14Ephesians 5:112 Peter 1:3Jude 1:12.


Verse 15

with. App-104.

salute, Greet. Greek. aspazomai.

love. App-135.

the. Omit.

faith. App-150.

Grace = The grace. Greek. charis. App-184.

Amen. Omit.