Christian Churches of God

No. F046iii






Commentary on 1Corinthians

Part 3

(Edition 1.0 20210205-20210205)




Commentary on Chapters 11-16.



Christian Churches of God

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Commentary on 1Corinthians Part 3



by E.W. Bullinger



1 Corinthians 11:2. Praise of the obedient.
1 Corinthians 11:3. A revealed principle.
1 Corinthians 11:4-6. Result.
1 Corinthians 11:7-12. Reasons.
1 Corinthians 11:13-15. Nature""s teachings.
1 Corinthians 11:16. Rejection of the contentious.

1 Corinthians 11:7-12. REASONS.
1 Corinthians 11:7 -. Man. His glory.
1 Corinthians 11:7. Woman. Her glory.
1 Corinthians 11:8 -. Man. His origin.
1 Corinthians 11:8. Woman. Her Origin.
1 Corinthians 11:9 -. Man. Purpose of his creation.
1 Corinthians 11:9-10. Woman. Purpose of her creation.
1 Corinthians 11:11. Mutual dependence in the Lord.
1 Corinthians 11:12. Mutual relationship by the ordinance of God.



1 Corinthians 11:17. Censure.
1 Corinthians 11:18-22 -. About coming together.
1 Corinthians 11:22. Censure.
1 Corinthians 11:23-34. About the Lord’s Supper.

1 Corinthians 11:23-34. ABOUT THE LORD’S SUPPER.

1 Corinthians 11:23-25. Revelation received.
1 Corinthians 11:26. Worthy partaking.
1 Corinthians 11:27. Unworthy partaking.
1 Corinthians 11:28. Discern oneself.
1 Corinthians 11:29-30. Not discerning the body.
1 Corinthians 11:31. Self-judgment.
1 Corinthians 11:32. The Lord’s chastening.
1 Corinthians 11:33-34. Counsel given.

1 Corinthians 12:1 - 1 Corinthians 14:40. THE PUBLIC EXERCISE OF SPIRITUAL GIFTS.
1 Corinthians 12:1-31. Spiritual Gifts.
1 Corinthians 13:1-13. Love more excellent than gifts.

1 Corinthians 14:1-40. Prophecy the best gift.

1 Corinthians 12:1-31. SPIRITUAL GIFTS.
1 Corinthians 12:1-3. Instructions as to spiritual gifts.

1 Corinthians 12:4-6. Diversities of gifts.
1 Corinthians 12:7-11. God""s gifts to saints.
1 Corinthians 12:12-20. The many members of the body.

1 Corinthians 12:21-27. Their mutual interdependence.
1 Corinthians 12:28. God""s provision for the church.
1 Corinthians 12:29-30. Diversities of gifts.
1 Corinthians 12:31. Exhortation as to spiritual gifts.

1 Corinthians 13:1-13. LOVE MORE EXCELLENT THAN GIFTS.

1 Corinthians 13:1-3. Love the pre-eminent grace.
1 Corinthians 13:4-8. Its characteristics.
1 Corinthians 13:8-12. Gifts only transient.
1 Corinthians 13:13. Love abides and is supreme.

1 Corinthians 14:1-40. PROPHECY THE BEST GIFT.

1 Corinthians 14:1-20. Prophecy better than tongues.
1 Corinthians 14:21-40. Reasons and cautions.

1 Corinthians 14:1-20. PROPHECY BETTER THAN TONGUES.

1 Corinthians 14:1. Every gift to be desired.
1 Corinthians 14:2-4. But prophesying best.
1 Corinthians 14:5 -. Tongues also to be desired.
1 Corinthians 14:5-20. But prophesying best.

1 Corinthians 14:5-20. PROPHESYING BEST.

1 Corinthians 14:5-6. Interpretation needed.
1 Corinthians 14:7-12. Otherwise gift of tongues useless.

1 Corinthians 14:13. Interpretation needed.
1 Corinthians 14:14-20. Otherwise gift of tongues useless.

1 Corinthians 14:21-40. REASONS AND CAUTIONS.
1 Corinthians 14:21-25. Divine prediction.
1 Corinthians 14:26 -. Remonstrance.
1 Corinthians 14:26. Exhortation. Let, &c.
1 Corinthians 14:27-35. Apostolic direction.
1 Corinthians 14:36-39. Remonstrance.
1 Corinthians 14:40. Exhortation. Let, &c.


1 Corinthians 15:1 -. Paul’s gospel. Declared.
1 Corinthians 15:1-2. Which they had received.
1 Corinthians 15:3 -. Paul’s gospel. Declared.
1 Corinthians 15:3-11. Which he had received.

1 Corinthians 15:12. Objection. What some say.
1 Corinthians 15:13-19. Answer.
1 Corinthians 15:20-28. Resurrection certain because Christ is raised.

1 Corinthians 15:29-32. Present conflict to no purpose, If Christ be not raised.

1 Corinthians 15:33-34. Exhortation.
1 Corinthians 15:35. Objection.
1 Corinthians 15:36-41. Answer.
1 Corinthians 15:42-49. Resurrection certain because Christ is raised.

1 Corinthians 15:50-57. Victory worth all present conflicts.

1 Corinthians 15:58. Exhortation.

1 Corinthians 15:13-19. ANSWER.
1 Corinthians 15:13. If no resurrection, Christ not risen.

1 Corinthians 15:14-15. Consequences. Our preaching vain. Your faith vain. We are false witnesses.
1 Corinthians 15:16. If no resurrection, Christ not risen.

1 Corinthians 15:17-19. Consequences. Your faith vain. The dead have perished. We most miserable.

1 Corinthians 15:20-22. Death counteracted.
1 Corinthians 15:23-24. Order. Firstfruits, &c.
1 Corinthians 15:25. Reason.
1 Corinthians 15:26-27 -. Death Destroyed.
1 Corinthians 15:27-28 -. Order. Father supreme.
1 Corinthians 15:28. Purpose.



Intent of the chapters


Chapter 11

The chapter deals with the structure of the church as comprised of families responsible to Christ. The responsibility is placed on the man as responsible head, to ensure accountability to Christ. That by no means reduces the accountability of the woman in the faith, but increases that of the man towards Christ. Verse 1 is regarded as ending chapter 10 rather than beginning chapter 11. Verses 2-16 present a discussion of the method and ways of worship which in reality extends through chapter 14. The traditions in verse 2 occur also in 2Thes. 2:15. Verses 3-5 deal with the head. The man dishonours his head if he prays and prophesies with his head covered, which was a tradition developed among the Pharisees and other sects (vv. 3-4). Verse 5 deals with a woman praying with her head uncovered dishonours her head as if her head were shaven.  The traditions were that the women should veil themselves.  Paul then states that the man was not created for the woman but the women for man (vv. 8-9). Verses 10-11 state that a woman ought to have a veil on her head because of the angels. This was because of the doctrine that the angels cohabited with women (Gen. 6:2-4). This doctrine was denied by Augustine and the fifth century Trinitarians and thus the explanations are offered by modern Trinitarians that the angels were thought of as administering the divine order, but that would not require females to wear veils (cf. also 1Tim. 5:2). Women wore veils in the areas that practised Temple prostitution such as Corinth and that was the real reason women wore veils in marriage. This practice came to be resisted when the custom was abolished with the pagan Temples.


Women must have long hair whereas it is shameful for a man to have long hair (v. 14) but a woman should have long hair and it is her pride.  Long hair is given to the women for a covering (vv. 15-16). (cf. also 14:36) It has been the tradition of the Pharisees to shave a woman’s head and thus they wear wigs and veils in many of the sects. The facts of the matter are that the Churches of God discontinued the practice in modern times. The Trinitarians replaced it with wearing hats in some nations and veils in others.      


From verse 17 Paul then begins to reprimand them for coming together not to eat the Lord’s Supper (on the night of 14 Abib) but in factions, to eat meals that vary in size and others have nothing and others are drunk (vv. 20-21).  In so doing they despise the Church of God and humiliate those who have nothing. The ideal is thus that they eat in common at Holy Days.  They did this by eating in common at what were termed Agape meals (Jude 12). He then says to eat at home before they come to the Lord’s Supper.  It is important to note that the Church in the First century kept the Temple Calendar and the Fourth Commandment, keeping the Sabbath, the New Moons and the Feasts and Holy Days of God’s Calendar (No. 156). They did this up until the 15th Century Reformation, and including in the churches in the Qur’an. The Trinitarian Churches abandoned the Temple Calendar and adopted Sunday worship from the Second Century at Rome with the weekly Sabbath as well, and then adopted Easter from 155 to 192 CE. They did not adopt Christmas until 375 CE at Syria and 386 at Jerusalem. They abolished the Sabbath from Laodicea in 366 CE in the Trinitarian churches, but not the Churches of God. 


Their Bible was the Septuagint (LXX) which was the Greek text of the OT Scriptures. This was the Bible of the NT churches.


At verses 23-34 Paul gives proper instructions for taking the Lord’s Supper on 14 Abib in correct manner and whoever eats the Lord’s Supper incorrectly brings judgment on themselves. For that reason many of them are ill. It is a requirement to discern the body for the Lord’s Supper, in other words to identify the correct Body of Christ with which you are to take the Lord’s Supper, or one brings judgment on oneself (23-25 cf. Mt. 26:26-29; Mk. 14:22-25; Lk. 22:14-20).


False Doctrine re Timing of the Lord’s Supper (No. 103C) (pp. 3-4)

The Lord's Supper also symbolises the Melchisedek/Melchizedek priesthood (Ps.110:4; Heb.5:6,10; 6:20; 7:17,21) that individuals enter when baptised and are placed into the body of Christ (1Pet.2:5,9; Rev. 1:6; 5:10; 20:6). It is this priesthood to which Christ became High Priest and to which we are to become priests; and to which Levi tithed whilst in the loins of Abraham. This important sequence is explained in the book of Hebrews. The Church of God has kept the Lord’s Supper as its primary annual event reserved for its baptized members and it has always been kept on the night of 14 Abib and Paul chastised the Corinthians for making it into a drunken party and told them to eat at home before attending that evening (1Cor. 11:34) which was on the Night that he was betrayed (1Cor. 11:23).


Passover is reserved for all to participate in, including the unconverted of the nation, alien sojourners, those who are not baptised, and the children. They are to partake in the commemorative Passover meal consisting of the roasted lamb or an animal from the herd (Ex. 12:5), bitter herbs, and unleavened bread at dark beginning of the 15th of Abib, and they are to observe the Night of Watching (Ex. 12:42).  Passover is the dynamic means for the nation(s) of this world or age to understand that it is through the nation Israel and Moses that God, through the angel of the Lord, gave His Laws for all mankind. Passover also symbolizes Israel's past deliverance from Egypt which points to the future deliverance of all nations from Babylon under Satan's rule. The Night of Watching not only points to the past when the death angel passed over the camp of Israel, but it also points to the future return of Christ and we are to be watching (see Mk. 13:32-37).


The converted baptised individuals, who are part of the Melchisedek priesthood, are also required to partake in the Passover observance including the commemorative meal and “Night of Watching” (or Observation) for reasons that will be explained in response to the fallacy below (see Melchisedek (No. 128)).


The Lord’s Supper (No. 103) (p.3)

Lord’s Supper symbolises the preparation of the Church for the millennial reign. See 1Corinthians 11:23-26 below.


This night proclaims the Lord’s death until he comes as an ordinance enjoined upon Christians.


The first element is ...And this is eternal life that they know thee the only True God and Jesus Christ whom thou hast sent (Jn. 17:3).


The second element of eternal life is faith in Jesus Christ through knowledge of the One True God.


The third element of eternal life is participation in the Passover and eating of the body and drinking of the blood of Jesus.


The first ceremony of the Lord’s Supper is the foot-washing. This whole process of foot-washing is not just service. It symbolises the laying aside of our own self. We see this from the concept of tithenai (the placing aside of the garment) and the girding by Christ with a towel. That whole process was the symbolism where Christ literally laid down all his trappings and apparel. He firstly laid aside his status as an elohim and became a man in order to serve us. He knew that he had to come down to Earth, not just to show us, because we lived under a system that the demons had set up, but to show the demons that he had to lay his life aside.


By their rebellion, the demons had no sacrifice to restore them to God. There was no sacrifice possible that Satan and the Host could have made to reconcile themselves to God for sin. Somebody had to die. So one of them had to assume human form and be killed to reconcile himself to God in order to show the way.

(cf. also The Forty Days Following Christ's Resurrection (No. 159A)).


The Lord’s Supper cannot be replaced as a weekly festival by the Mithras symbols of the bread (wafer) and water of the cult on the day of the Sun or Sunday.


A fuller explanation of the doctrines and the place of the Lord’s Supper in the Body of Christ are explained in the section The Body of Christ (P103). (p. 9)


By this symbolism we are set apart. The first Exodus was to take us out of Egypt and establish the nation of Israel, so that a place could be established in which God could reveal His Plan through His prophets (cf. Jeremiah 31:31-34).  We thus come to know God in the Holy Spirit.


This aspect is explained in chapter 10.


This covenant that had to be made required the sacrifice of blood (cf. the paper The Covenant of God (No. 152)). (cf. Matthew 26:26-28). This covenant with Christ required a blood sacrifice so he could act as High Priest (Heb. 8:3 cf. 1 Cor. 10:24).


This aspect is also explained in the text Significance of the Bread and Wine (No. 100) where the Wine is the Blood of Christ and the Bread is the body and grape juice or water will not suffice.


Hebrews 1:3 shows Christ reflects the glory of God and bears the stamp of His nature, upholding the universe by his word of power. When he had made purification for sins, he sat down at the right hand of Majesty on high. So too we are partakers of the divine nature (2Pet. 1:4). Christ acted as a vine in symbol. Wine comes from grapes from the vine. That is why the symbol of the vinedresser is in John 15:1-6.


The concept of the body and blood of Christ is central to the Lord’s Supper. We symbolise that process through the three elements of our knowledge of the One True God, and of His Son, Jesus Christ, by faith in Christ, and then by partaking of Christ’s body and blood. They are the three elements that give us eternal life. We cannot take eternal life except we have the Holy Spirit and exercise that process. We keep the Commandments of God because Scripture (and especially John) tells us it is necessary for the retention of the Holy Spirit. Therefore, we must keep the Sabbath and the Passover in order to retain the Holy Spirit and be in the First Resurrection.


Chapter 12

Verses 1-3 deal with the fact that they had pagan practices, being led astray to dumb idols and many used means such as ergot to obtain ecstatic rituals.  He then makes distinction that no one curses Christ or says Jesus is Lord except by the Holy Spirit.


From verse 4 he says that there are varieties of gifts but the same Spirit and varieties of service but the same Lord (v. 5), and varieties of working but the same Lord who inspires them all in every one (v. 6). To each is given the manifestation of the Spirit for the common good (v. 7). From verses 8-11 we see that the Spirit gives to some wisdom, others knowledge, another faith, another gifts of healing, another working of miracles, another the ability to discern or distinguish between spirits, to others various types of tongues. All these are by the same Spirit that gives to each one as He wills.


Just as the body is one with many members and all members though many are one body so it is with Christ. For by one Spirit we are all baptised into one body – Jews or Greeks, slaves or free and all were made to drink of one Spirit (vv. 12-13). For the body does not consist of one member but of many. From verses 15-24 he explains that many members of the body though diverse are still part of the same body whether hands, eyes, ears, nose etc.  As God arranged the organs in the body so he arranged the members of the church as the body of Christ, each one indispensible to the body in order to function. Some require more covering but each is placed where it does the most good in serving the body, giving the greater honour to the inferior part so that there is no discord in the body but so that all may each have the same care for the members.  If one member suffers all suffer, if one is honoured all rejoice together (vv. 24-26).


From verses 27-31 Paul states we are all the body of Christ and individually members of it.  God has appointed in the church, apostles, prophets, teachers, workers of miracles, healers, helpers, administrators, speakers in various kinds of tongues (i.e. linguists).  From verse 29 he says not all are the same. Each should earnestly desire the higher gifts, or strive for them (cf. Rom. 12:4-5; Eph. 4:14-16; Col. 3:14; Phil. 1:1).


Paul as we see in 1Corinthians 12 explains that different gifts are given to different people according to God's will.


In Chapter 13 Paul goes on to explain that all these gifts must be accompanied by Godly love or they are worthless.

 (Cf. also The Tongues Question (No. 109))


Chapter 13

So the gifts of the Holy Spirit are designed to fit within the Second Great Commandment which is to love your neigbour as yourself.

(cf. Fruit of the Holy Spirit (No. 146))


By-products of Love

The product of love through the Holy Spirit has many by-products that identify it.


Here the simple profession of the Faith is not enough. It is not enough to call Christ “Lord”. It must be followed by works. By our works we show our faith (Jas. 2:18). Faith without works is dead (Jas. 2:26). By works is faith made perfect (Jas. 2:20,22). The works that perfect the Faith are based on love.


In verses 2-3, the faith that is all knowing and able to move mountains is of no avail. Even the laying down of one’s life from the wrong motives, and not based on love but on self-advancement, is of no avail.


In verses 4-6, the patience and kindness that exemplifies the Holy Spirit does not display arrogance or rudeness to others. God acts through us by means of the Holy Spirit. People see what God is by looking at what we do, then they get an idea of what God wants them to be. So the world in general judges upon the actions of the Holy Spirit and basically the love of God. Love within the context of the Holy Spirit has to be the sort of love by which God can display Himself. Love does not insist on its own way. Nor is it irritable or resentful. To display the characteristics of patience and kindness requires a genuine regard for the other person.


Conversely, such negative characteristics of arrogance, rudeness, irritation and resentfulness do not display such regard. The concept of rejoicing at right is the sort of triumph shown when a friend does well at something. Thus the elect can show genuine pleasure when another is successful. When someone turns from error there is great rejoicing in Heaven; so too must it be with us. For this reason we bear all things, hope all things and believe all things. We endure all things to the greater glory of God because we are dedicated to God and our neighbour in love. If we do not love our neighbour whom we have seen, how do we love God whom we have not seen? We ought to demonstrate by the one aspect the potential and reality of the other aspect. We should serve one another and love our neighbour as our self (Gal. 5:13-14); and also love the truth and thereby be saved (2Thes. 2:10).


From verses 8-13 we see that Love never ends because it proceeds from the nature of God which is eternal. The ceaseless nature of our love for God is perfectly equal to the gift of eternal life. For without the continuation of the one there can be no continuation of the other. The concept of prophecy ceasing is tied to the perfect union and knowledge, which comes from participation in the Holy Spirit. From this aspect we share in the Divine Prescience. Thus, perfect foreknowledge will ultimately be shared by God with the elect. Hence from this aspect prophecy will cease. The perfect communion that comes from the divine nature makes tongues and speech irrelevant. We will be given a completely new language. Tongues will pass away because we will be given one language with which to communicate and it will be on a spiritual level. All language will pass away, but that love of God will be central to what we will be after prophecies, knowledge and tongues pass away.


Perfect knowledge will remove the concept of not knowing and hence knowledge as a term, which implies also the absence of it, will cease. We will know as we are known (1Cor. 13:12). Our knowledge and understanding is imperfect and immature. From the First Resurrection we will see God face-to-face in spiritual terms. The spiritual world will be exposed in all its power. This can only be seen and shared in love. Without love the individual is consigned to the Second Resurrection to relearn and retrain in order to participate.


Thus perfect understanding is predicated upon the love of God (v. 13) (1Jn. 4:19; Rom. 5:1-5; Phil. 1:9-10; Col. 1:4-5; 1Th. 1:3; 5:8). Through the Holy Spirit we are able to develop the true and perfect love that is required of us. This love is demonstrated by faith under adversity. Thus the aspects of faith, hope and love are interrelated aspects of the Holy Spirit, but love is the greatest of these aspects.


Chapter 14

Love is thus the aim and characteristic of the Church acting in faith. Chapter 14:1-18 continues (cf.  No. 109) in dealing with the Tongues question which was a doctrine of demons even then.  It does not demonstrate the Love of God and the love of one another in the Holy Spirit. The gift of tongues was the ability to speak in real languages that can be translated as necessary by accredited interpreters for the education of the church in differing areas. The gift of tongues was subordinate to the gift of prophecy (cf. 12:10). It is clear here that this gift has been given to Paul so he can speak in languages he has not learnt in order to preach the Gospel to those who would not otherwise be able to understand. There is here another aspect that Paul has brought in and that is its place in prayer. This is noted in 109 re the Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible as mentioned previously in (b) an aid to private devotion 1Corinthians 14:4 cf. Romans 8:26-28.


1Corinthians 14:19-33 continues showing that Paul would rather speak in well ordered speech than using massive quotes in other languages. Nevertheless, God will discipline and instruct His people by strange tongues as stated in the law (Is. 28:11-12) which shows that the prophets are part of the Law.


Specifically, the unordered use of tongues is seen as a sign of instability here. The most useful tool of conversion is clear prophecy. Paul goes on to explain the rules for the use of tongues or foreign language. It must be done in worship in clear speech in hymns, in lessons, in revelations or interpretation. Let all be done in education. Tongues are not to be used unless there is someone to interpret who knows the language. Otherwise they are to keep silent (vv. 26-33). God is not a God of confusion but of peace (v. 33).


Women are to be silent (vv. 34-36) but may ask questions when they have no husband to question. A prophet will acknowledge that what Paul is saying here is a command from the Lord (v. 37-9). Seek to prophesy and speak in tongues. However, all things are to be done decently and in order (vv. 39-40).


So it would appear that speaking in tongues is an acceptable part of preaching the Gospel, but it is given to individuals for specific purpose as are all of God's spiritual gifts. In a church area where all speak or at least understand to sufficient degree the language being spoken there is no need for this occurrence. 


We know that in the Church in Transcarpathia they are reported to speak in tongues. We understand that they speak in an ancient form of dialect in Church. Such a miracle may be necessary, or of importance there, where it is not elsewhere.


Paul placed it as a gift of lesser value and indicated that it could be misused and misunderstood by observers. It should only be used under the guidelines laid down by him for the edification of the church. Romans 12:6-9 is of relevance to this aspect. It then is both hearing and speaking. Its place, when correctly applied in Godly love, must be in the preaching of the Gospel to all nations.


Chapter 15

This chapter then deals with the Resurrection and is critical to an understanding of the Faith. The dead lay in the grave or sheol until the listed resurrection of the dead with the First Resurrection (No. 143A) at the Return of Messiah or the Second Resurrection (No. 143B) at the end of the Millennium for the retraining of mankind at the Great White Throne Judgment. Anyone in the First or Second Century that said that when they died they went to heaven was not recognised as a Christian but an antinomian Gnostic who held the Immortal Soul Doctrine (cf. Justin Martyr Dial, LXXX; No. 143A above; The Soul (No. 092); The Socratic Doctrine of the Soul (No. B6)).


Paul referred to the First Resurrection as the ex-anastasin or “out resurrection” because it took the elect out of the Human Host at the return of Messiah and made them spiritual entities (Phil. 3:11).


Paul reminds us that it is the gospel by which we stand and are saved provided we hold it fast, and do not believe in vain (vv. 1-2).


Christ died for our sins in accordance with the Scriptures (v. 3; Isa. 53:5-12; v 4: Ps. 16:10 (cf. Acts 2:31). This text was necessary to be restated as it was reported that some at Corinth denied the Resurrection, which was a Gnostic doctrine that taught that on death the Gnostics went to heaven. The evil god Jaldabaoth had given them the OT and the Law to prevent them making their way into heaven via the Milky Way. This doctrine came in via the Gnostics, from either the pagan forms in the Middle East or the Jewish forms from Alexandria and their trade routes. It was considered a godless and blasphemous doctrine.  We know for a fact from Corinthians 10:1-4 and Acts 7:33-53 that it was Christ that was the being that gave the law to Moses and was with Israel at Sinai and the Wilderness.


Christ was killed and then buried and raised on the third day. He was killed at Wednesday 5 April 30 CE on a stake (stauros) and buried at sundown just before dark and was resurrected on end Sabbath 8 April 30 CE and was taken before God on Sunday 9 April 30 CE as the Wave Sheaf Offering (cf. Timing of the Crucifixion and the Resurrection (No. 159)).  The god that was held to have been killed on a Friday and resurrected on Sunday was Attis. The goddess was Cybele who entered Hades and resurrected him (she was also referred to as Easter or Ishtar or Ashtoreth consort of Baal).  It was Attis’s body that was paraded around Rome on an equilateral sun cross in the first and second century. This doctrine does not comply with the Sign of Jonah (cf. Sign of Jonah and the History of the Reconstruction of the Temple (No. 013)). When Paul wrote this the Temple still stood and the Sign of Jonah in its second phase has not yet been completed. James was still alive and had not yet been killed in accordance with Daniel 9:25-27 as the Second Anointed one in 63/64 CE (Commentary on Daniel Chapter 9 (F027ix)).   


Christ is stated as returning and appearing to Cephas and James (the Lord’s Brother (Gal. 1:19)) and the rest of the Twelve (vv. 5-7) Last of all he appeared to Paul, as untimely born (v. 8) (cf. 9:1; Gal. 1:16; Acts 9:3-6).


If Christ is preached as raised from the dead how can we say there is no resurrection (vv. 12ff).  Thus we know the Gnostic doctrine had penetrated Corinth. What follows is a refutation of the Doctrine of Heaven and Hell of the Gnostics and the necessity of the Resurrection and Judgment. This doctrine is avoided by the Antinomian Gnostics among those who teach that when they die they go to heaven (cf. 143A). 


15:12-34 deals with the significance of the resurrection. (v. 18: 1Th. 4:16; vv. 21-22: Rom. 5:12-18; v. 23: The coming at the end of the age 1Th. 2:19; 4:13-17). Verses 24-27: Christ’s enemies are the demonic powers and death is caused by them. (v. 27: Ps. 8:6).


In verses 24-28 the text shows that Christ will deliver the kingdom to the Father after he has destroyed all rule and authority and place all under the feet of Christ. At this point (vv. 27-28) Paul strikes at the Binitarianism of Attis and makes clear distinction that God the Father is exempt from the things placed under Messiah and that Messiah hands the authority back to God when he comes after the Second Resurrection (No. 143B) and is himself subject to the Father in all things and God is then everything to everyone through the Holy Spirit.


Eternal Life is granted through the Holy Spirit (No. 117).  The Soul is not eternal and that is a godless and blasphemous doctrine.  Eternal Life (No. 133) is not possible without the Holy Spirit and is only granted after judgment and the final translations at either the First or Second Resurrections after judgment.


This was also explained in The Soul (No. 092) (p.2). The Bible states quite categorically that the dead remain so until the resurrection, either the First or Second Resurrection. Nobody has been resurrected other than Christ; the others of the elect are fallen asleep (1Thes. 4:13-18), but the dead will be raised as we see in 1Corinthians 15:16-18. For if the dead are not raised, then Christ has not been raised. If Christ has not been raised, your faith is futile and you are still in your sins. Then those also that have fallen asleep in Christ have perished.


In fact, Christ has been raised from the dead as the first-fruits of those who have fallen asleep (1Cor. 15:20). David died and was buried and his tomb is with us to this day (Acts 2:29).


John 3:13 No one has ascended into heaven but he that descended out of heaven, even the son of man who is in heaven.


The necessity of a physical or bodily resurrection follows from this position. The denial of the bodily resurrection, which became fashionable with Trinitarianism, is incorrect as it stems from a misunderstanding of the sequence of the Passover sacrifices and offerings. It is necessary to deal with the resurrection in some detail here to come to grips with the understanding of the relationship of Christ and humanity with God, and the manner in which the Bible says man is to inherit eternal life.


(Pages 6-7) Christ's life was given as a ransom for many (Mat. 20:28; Mk. 10:45). 1Peter 3:18 holds that Christ died for sins and the sheep (see Jn. 10:11). Paul held that Christ died and was resurrected and that the assertion of Christ's death and resurrection is fundamental to the Faith, as is the general resurrection of the dead (1Cor.15:12-14).


The Resurrection is General

The logic of this statement of Paul is that the mechanics of the death and resurrection of Christ are the same as that for the elect, for whom he died (1Jn. 3:16). The resurrection, from Revelation 20:4 et seq, then proceeds to humanity generally. Christ had life in himself by grant of the Father (Jn. 5:26). He was held to be the last Adam. Paul answers the query on the process of the resurrection in verses 35-49.


Paul states that flesh and blood cannot inherit the Kingdom of God, nor does the perishable inherit the imperishable (v. 50). The mechanics are understood to proceed from a human structure to a rebirth by baptism after repentance, as a conscious and repentant adult being called by God. Thus, baptism can only be after repentance as an adult. While the text in Mark 16 from verses 9-20 is generally agreed to be either an addition to the original or a restoration of the text (and which would had to have been removed at a very early date), the text at verse 16 demonstrates that the concept of repentance through faith was essential to salvation. But he who does not believe will be condemned shows that repentance and faith were the essential prerequisites to baptism. Thus an infant is precluded from receiving the right as it cannot exhibit repentance. Infant baptism is thus contrary to the mechanics of the structure and was so understood in the first few centuries.


The Bible itself tells us that the resurrection of the dead and the understanding of the spiritual structure were in dispute among the sects of the Jews. The Sadducees taught that there was no resurrection of the dead, nor were there angels or spirit (Acts 23:8). The Pharisees confessed both (Acts 23:8), and Christ held that it was the Pharisees who sat in Moses’ seat and had to be obeyed (Mat. 23:2).


The Sadducees appear to have taken in a form of materialist structure which sought to avoid any immaterial system. Paul developed the structure to incorporate the return of Christ. It is obvious to any Bible student that the span of two thousand years has seen many of the elect die. This process, because of the concept of the receipt of the Holy Spirit on baptism, was known as falling asleep. The old structure died at baptism, with the individual being reborn or born again in the spirit. Paul says in verses 51-53 that we will not all sleep but we shall all be changed in a moment at the last trumpet (see notes below on the Shofar and the Silver Trumpets). In other words there will be a resurrection of the dead and then all that are alive with them shall be transformed at the last Trumpet and taken to Messiah at Jerusalem.


The process being spoken of is the First Resurrection of the dead referred to in Revelation 20:4. (cf. ex anastasin Phil. 3:11) The Second Resurrection is that occurring after the thousand years of the earthly reign of Christ. This is the general resurrection of the dead referred to in Revelation 20:11-15. At 1Thessalonians 4:15, Paul says that we shall not ‘prevent’ or precede those who have fallen asleep. Christ will descend and the dead in Christ – those who are baptised and have died – will be raised first and then, together with those who are alive, will be transformed or translated into pure spirit. The mechanics of the process is examined in more detail in the Problem of Evil (No. 118). These spirit beings will then be gathered to Christ at Jerusalem from where the world will be governed under Christ for the Millennium or thousand years. Zechariah 14 deals with this period. The process of its establishment is noted in Zechariah 14:1-15. The requirements of the attendance at Jerusalem and the keeping of the Feast of Booths or Tabernacles for rain in due season are noted. There is, from these Scriptures, the existence of two classes of entities on the planet for one thousand years after the return of Christ. These are the spiritual elect under Christ, and the human survivors of the wars of the Last Days who will be given the guidance to re-establish the planet. The elect will be the guides of the remaining human structure (Isa. 30:21).


The Shofar and the Silver Trumpets (No. 047)

(page 8)

1Corinthians 15:52 referring to the sound of the shofar states that “in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump; for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed.”


Upon the giving of the law in the time of Moses, till the final judgment and resurrection of the last of God’s creation, the shofar was sounded to begin, and the shofar sounded to end. Like the bell that rings to announce school is in, and the bugle that blows reveille, the shofar is blown to rally the creation to action and change.


It is the responsibility of the church to blow the trumpets and to give clear messages. We must be ever at the ready listening for the trumpet of 1Thessalonians 4:16-17.


“For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first:


“Then we which are alive, and remain, shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with the Lord”


Chapter 16

The final chapter is for the administration of the church. The tithe and offerings may not be taken up on Sabbath, New Moons and Holy Days under the Law (Tithing (No. 161). For this reason Paul set aside both in Corinth and Galatia a financial collection on the First Day of every week following the Seventh Day Sabbath which was the day of Holy Worship under the Fourth Commandment. This was for the sustenance of the church at Jerusalem which was under persecution (v. 3). It was uncertain as to whether Paul would be required to go there with the nominated officers. The church did not meet for worship on this day and it was never holy except when it was a New Moon or a Holy Day under the Temple Calendar (No. 156). It only began to be introduced side by side with the Sabbath from Rome in 111 CE as a supplementary day for collections and to facilitate the worshippers of Attis and the Baal cults coming into Christianity.  


Anyone who wore a black cassock and met on Sundays as their day of worship and kept the festival of the 25 December and that of the Goddess Easter and taught that the law was done away and that when they died they went to heaven was a Khemarim or Priest of the Baal system and an Antinomian Gnostic Pagan. They were not Christians at all. By the end of the Fourth century they were complaining that the Roman Christians had stolen all their doctrines.


Paul states his intention to go to Macedonia (v. 5) (cf.  Acts 19:21). He says he may even spend the winter with them and use it as a central hub for his visits. He says he intends to stay at Ephesus until Pentecost. He says a wide door has opened to him but there are many adversaries (v. 9) (cf. Acts 18:19, 19:9).


He says that Timothy is coming to Corinth and says they are to put him at ease among them (v. 10) and he is to return to Paul (at Ephesus) with the brethren (v. 11) (cf. 1 and 2Tim.).


Apollos (cf. Acts 18:24-26) was to come but not as yet.  He will come as he has opportunity. In verse 13f. he exhorts them to be courageous and strong and stand together in love.


From verses 15ff. he establishes the house of Stephanas (1:16) as the first and key in leadership at Corinth; and work for those that work from there. He praises Stephanas, Fortunatus and Archaicus because they had supported him and made up for the absence of the Corinthian brethren. They were to be recognised for their service.


From verse 19 the churches of Asia also send greeting to Aquila and Prisca (Acts 18:2, Rom. 16:3, 2Tim. 4:19) and all in the church in their house (cf. Phil. 1). He says they are to all greet one another with a holy kiss (cf. Rom 16:16).


From verses 21ff. he says he writes this greeting with his own hand (cf. 2Thess. 3:17). Perhaps Sosthenes had been dictated the message (1:1) and served as his secretary (cf. Rom. 16:22).


In verse 22 he says “Our Lord Come” or maranatha which is a combination of two Aramaic words.


He ends with “The grace of the Lord Jesus be with you. My love be with you all in Christ Jesus.”



Chapter 11

1Be imitators of me, as I am of Christ. 2I commend you because you remember me in everything and maintain the traditions even as I have delivered them to you. 3But I want you to understand that the head of every man is Christ, the head of a woman is her husband, and the head of Christ is God. 4Any man who prays or prophesies with his head covered dishonors his head, 5but any woman who prays or prophesies with her head unveiled dishonors her head--it is the same as if her head were shaven. 6For if a woman will not veil herself, then she should cut off her hair; but if it is disgraceful for a woman to be shorn or shaven, let her wear a veil. 7For a man ought not to cover his head, since he is the image and glory of God; but woman is the glory of man. 8(For man was not made from woman, but woman from man. 9Neither was man created for woman, but woman for man.) 10That is why a woman ought to have a veil on her head, because of the angels. 11(Nevertheless, in the Lord woman is not independent of man nor man of woman; 12for as woman was made from man, so man is now born of woman. And all things are from God.) 13Judge for yourselves; is it proper for a woman to pray to God with her head uncovered? 14Does not nature itself teach you that for a man to wear long hair is degrading to him, 15but if a woman has long hair, it is her pride? For her hair is given to her for a covering. 16If any one is disposed to be contentious, we recognize no other practice, nor do the churches of God. 17But in the following instructions I do not commend you, because when you come together it is not for the better but for the worse. 18For, in the first place, when you assemble as a church, I hear that there are divisions among you; and I partly believe it, 19for there must be factions among you in order that those who are genuine among you may be recognized. 20When you meet together, it is not the Lord's supper that you eat. 21For in eating, each one goes ahead with his own meal, and one is hungry and another is drunk. 22What! Do you not have houses to eat and drink in? Or do you despise the church of God and humiliate those who have nothing? What shall I say to you? Shall I commend you in this? No, I will not. 23For I received from the Lord what I also delivered to you, that the Lord Jesus on the night when he was betrayed took bread, 24and when he had given thanks, he broke it, and said, "This is my body which is for you. Do this in remembrance of me." 25In the same way also the cup, after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covenant in my blood. Do this, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of me." 26For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord's death until he comes. 27Whoever, therefore, eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner will be guilty of profaning the body and blood of the Lord. 28Let a man examine himself, and so eat of the bread and drink of the cup. 29For any one who eats and drinks without discerning the body eats and drinks judgment upon himself. 30That is why many of you are weak and ill, and some have died. 31But if we judged ourselves truly, we should not be judged. 32But when we are judged by the Lord, we are chastened so that we may not be condemned along with the world. 33So then, my brethren, when you come together to eat, wait for one another-- 34if any one is hungry, let him eat at home--lest you come together to be condemned. About the other things I will give directions when I come.


Chapter 12

1Now concerning spiritual gifts, brethren, I do not want you to be uninformed. 2You know that when you were heathen, you were led astray to dumb idols, however you may have been moved. 3Therefore I want you to understand that no one speaking by the Spirit of God ever says "Jesus be cursed!" and no one can say "Jesus is Lord" except by the Holy Spirit. 4Now there are varieties of gifts, but the same Spirit; 5and there are varieties of service, but the same Lord; 6and there are varieties of working, but it is the same God who inspires them all in every one. 7To each is given the manifestation of the Spirit for the common good. 8To one is given through the Spirit the utterance of wisdom, and to another the utterance of knowledge according to the same Spirit, 9to another faith by the same Spirit, to another gifts of healing by the one Spirit, 10to another the working of miracles, to another prophecy, to another the ability to distinguish between spirits, to another various kinds of tongues, to another the interpretation of tongues. 11All these are inspired by one and the same Spirit, who apportions to each one individually as he wills. 12For just as the body is one and has many members, and all the members of the body, though many, are one body, so it is with Christ. 13For by one Spirit we were all baptized into one body--Jews or Greeks, slaves or free--and all were made to drink of one Spirit. 14For the body does not consist of one member but of many. 15If the foot should say, "Because I am not a hand, I do not belong to the body," that would not make it any less a part of the body. 16And if the ear should say, "Because I am not an eye, I do not belong to the body," that would not make it any less a part of the body. 17If the whole body were an eye, where would be the hearing? If the whole body were an ear, where would be the sense of smell? 18But as it is, God arranged the organs in the body, each one of them, as he chose. 19If all were a single organ, where would the body be? 20As it is, there are many parts, yet one body. 21The eye cannot say to the hand, "I have no need of you," nor again the head to the feet, "I have no need of you." 22On the contrary, the parts of the body which seem to be weaker are indispensable, 23and those parts of the body which we think less honorable we invest with the greater honor, and our unpresentable parts are treated with greater modesty, 24which our more presentable parts do not require. But God has so composed the body, giving the greater honor to the inferior part, 25that there may be no discord in the body, but that the members may have the same care for one another. 26If one member suffers, all suffer together; if one member is honored, all rejoice together. 27Now you are the body of Christ and individually members of it. 28And God has appointed in the church first apostles, second prophets, third teachers, then workers of miracles, then healers, helpers, administrators, speakers in various kinds of tongues. 29Are all apostles? Are all prophets? Are all teachers? Do all work miracles? 30Do all possess gifts of healing? Do all speak with tongues? Do all interpret? 31But earnestly desire the higher gifts. And I will show you a still more excellent way.


Chapter 13

1If I speak in the tongues of men and of angels, but have not love, I am a noisy gong or a clanging cymbal. 2And if I have prophetic powers, and understand all mysteries and all knowledge, and if I have all faith, so as to remove mountains, but have not love, I am nothing. 3If I give away all I have, and if I deliver my body to be burned, but have not love, I gain nothing. 4Love is patient and kind; love is not jealous or boastful; 5it is not arrogant or rude. Love does not insist on its own way; it is not irritable or resentful; 6it does not rejoice at wrong, but rejoices in the right. 7Love bears all things, believes all things, hopes all things, endures all things. 8Love never ends; as for prophecies, they will pass away; as for tongues, they will cease; as for knowledge, it will pass away. 9For our knowledge is imperfect and our prophecy is imperfect; 10but when the perfect comes, the imperfect will pass away. 11When I was a child, I spoke like a child, I thought like a child, I reasoned like a child; when I became a man, I gave up childish ways. 12For now we see in a mirror dimly, but then face to face. Now I know in part; then I shall understand fully, even as I have been fully understood. 13So faith, hope, love abide, these three; but the greatest of these is love.


Chapter 14

1Make love your aim, and earnestly desire the spiritual gifts, especially that you may prophesy. 2For one who speaks in a tongue speaks not to men but to God; for no one understands him, but he utters mysteries in the Spirit. 3On the other hand, he who prophesies speaks to men for their upbuilding and encouragement and consolation. 4He who speaks in a tongue edifies himself, but he who prophesies edifies the church. 5Now I want you all to speak in tongues, but even more to prophesy. He who prophesies is greater than he who speaks in tongues, unless some one interprets, so that the church may be edified. 6Now, brethren, if I come to you speaking in tongues, how shall I benefit you unless I bring you some revelation or knowledge or prophecy or teaching? 7If even lifeless instruments, such as the flute or the harp, do not give distinct notes, how will any one know what is played? 8And if the bugle gives an indistinct sound, who will get ready for battle? 9So with yourselves; if you in a tongue utter speech that is not intelligible, how will any one know what is said? For you will be speaking into the air. 10There are doubtless many different languages in the world, and none is without meaning; 11but if I do not know the meaning of the language, I shall be a foreigner to the speaker and the speaker a foreigner to me. 12So with yourselves; since you are eager for manifestations of the Spirit, strive to excel in building up the church. 13Therefore, he who speaks in a tongue should pray for the power to interpret. 14For if I pray in a tongue, my spirit prays but my mind is unfruitful. 15What am I to do? I will pray with the spirit and I will pray with the mind also; I will sing with the spirit and I will sing with the mind also. 16Otherwise, if you bless with the spirit, how can any one in the position of an outsider say the "Amen" to your thanksgiving when he does not know what you are saying? 17For you may give thanks well enough, but the other man is not edified. 18I thank God that I speak in tongues more than you all; 19 nevertheless, in church I would rather speak five words with my mind, in order to instruct others, than ten thousand words in a tongue. 20Brethren, do not be children in your thinking; be babes in evil, but in thinking be mature. 21In the law it is written, "By men of strange tongues and by the lips of foreigners will I speak to this people, and even then they will not listen to me, says the Lord." 22Thus, tongues are a sign not for believers but for unbelievers, while prophecy is not for unbelievers but for believers. 23If, therefore, the whole church assembles and all speak in tongues, and outsiders or unbelievers enter, will they not say that you are mad? 24But if all prophesy, and an unbeliever or outsider enters, he is convicted by all, he is called to account by all, 25the secrets of his heart are disclosed; and so, falling on his face, he will worship God and declare that God is really among you. 26What then, brethren? When you come together, each one has a hymn, a lesson, a revelation, a tongue, or an interpretation. Let all things be done for edification. 27If any speak in a tongue, let there be only two or at most three, and each in turn; and let one interpret. 28But if there is no one to interpret, let each of them keep silence in church and speak to himself and to God. 29Let two or three prophets speak, and let the others weigh what is said. 30If a revelation is made to another sitting by, let the first be silent. 31For you can all prophesy one by one, so that all may learn and all be encouraged; 32and the spirits of prophets are subject to prophets. 33For God is not a God of confusion but of peace. As in all the churches of the saints, 34the women should keep silence in the churches. For they are not permitted to speak, but should be subordinate, as even the law says. 35If there is anything they desire to know, let them ask their husbands at home. For it is shameful for a woman to speak in church. 36What! Did the word of God originate with you, or are you the only ones it has reached? 37If any one thinks that he is a prophet, or spiritual, he should acknowledge that what I am writing to you is a command of the Lord. 38If any one does not recognize this, he is not recognized. 39So, my brethren, earnestly desire to prophesy, and do not forbid speaking in tongues; 40but all things should be done decently and in order.


Chapter 15

1Now I would remind you, brethren, in what terms I preached to you the gospel, which you received, in which you stand, 2by which you are saved, if you hold it fast--unless you believed in vain. 3For I delivered to you as of first importance what I also received, that Christ died for our sins in accordance with the scriptures, 4that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day in accordance with the scriptures, 5and that he appeared to Cephas, then to the twelve. 6Then he appeared to more than five hundred brethren at one time, most of whom are still alive, though some have fallen asleep. 7Then he appeared to James, then to all the apostles. 8Last of all, as to one untimely born, he appeared also to me. 9For I am the least of the apostles, unfit to be called an apostle, because I persecuted the church of God. 10But by the grace of God I am what I am, and his grace toward me was not in vain. On the contrary, I worked harder than any of them, though it was not I, but the grace of God which is with me. 11Whether then it was I or they, so we preach and so you believed. 12Now if Christ is preached as raised from the dead, how can some of you say that there is no resurrection of the dead? 13But if there is no resurrection of the dead, then Christ has not been raised; 14if Christ has not been raised, then our preaching is in vain and your faith is in vain. 15We are even found to be misrepresenting God, because we testified of God that he raised Christ, whom he did not raise if it is true that the dead are not raised. 16For if the dead are not raised, then Christ has not been raised. 17If Christ has not been raised, your faith is futile and you are still in your sins. 18Then those also who have fallen asleep in Christ have perished. 19If for this life only we have hoped in Christ, we are of all men most to be pitied. 20But in fact Christ has been raised from the dead, the first fruits of those who have fallen asleep. 21For as by a man came death, by a man has come also the resurrection of the dead. 22For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ shall all be made alive. 23But each in his own order: Christ the first fruits, then at his coming those who belong to Christ. 24Then comes the end, when he delivers the kingdom to God the Father after destroying every rule and every authority and power. 25For he must reign until he has put all his enemies under his feet. 26The last enemy to be destroyed is death. 27"For God has put all things in subjection under his feet." But when it says, "All things are put in subjection under him," it is plain that he is excepted who put all things under him. 28When all things are subjected to him, then the Son himself will also be subjected to him who put all things under him, that God may be everything to every one. 29Otherwise, what do people mean by being baptized on behalf of the dead? If the dead are not raised at all, why are people baptized on their behalf? 30Why am I in peril every hour? 31I protest, brethren, by my pride in you which I have in Christ Jesus our Lord, I die every day! 32What do I gain if, humanly speaking, I fought with beasts at Ephesus? If the dead are not raised, "Let us eat and drink, for tomorrow we die." 33Do not be deceived: "Bad company ruins good morals." 34Come to your right mind, and sin no more. For some have no knowledge of God. I say this to your shame. 35But some one will ask, "How are the dead raised? With what kind of body do they come?" 36You foolish man! What you sow does not come to life unless it dies. 37And what you sow is not the body which is to be, but a bare kernel, perhaps of wheat or of some other grain. 38But God gives it a body as he has chosen, and to each kind of seed its own body. 39For not all flesh is alike, but there is one kind for men, another for animals, another for birds, and another for fish. 40There are celestial bodies and there are terrestrial bodies; but the glory of the celestial is one, and the glory of the terrestrial is another. 41There is one glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon, and another glory of the stars; for star differs from star in glory. 42So is it with the resurrection of the dead. What is sown is perishable, what is raised is imperishable. 43It is sown in dishonor, it is raised in glory. It is sown in weakness, it is raised in power. 44It is sown a physical body, it is raised a spiritual body. If there is a physical body, there is also a spiritual body. 45Thus it is written, "The first man Adam became a living being"; the last Adam became a life-giving spirit. 46But it is not the spiritual which is first but the physical, and then the spiritual. 47The first man was from the earth, a man of dust; the second man is from heaven. 48As was the man of dust, so are those who are of the dust; and as is the man of heaven, so are those who are of heaven. 49Just as we have borne the image of the man of dust, we shall also bear the image of the man of heaven. 50I tell you this, brethren: flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God, nor does the perishable inherit the imperishable. 51Lo! I tell you a mystery. We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed, 52in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised imperishable, and we shall be changed. 53For this perishable nature must put on the imperishable, and this mortal nature must put on immortality. 54When the perishable puts on the imperishable, and the mortal puts on immortality, then shall come to pass the saying that is written: "Death is swallowed up in victory." 55"O death, where is thy victory? O death, where is thy sting?" 56The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law. 57But thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ. 58Therefore, my beloved brethren, be steadfast, immovable, always abounding in the work of the Lord, knowing that in the Lord your labor is not in vain.


Chapter 16

1Now concerning the contribution for the saints: as I directed the churches of Galatia, so you also are to do. 2On the first day of every week, each of you is to put something aside and store it up, as he may prosper, so that contributions need not be made when I come. 3And when I arrive, I will send those whom you accredit by letter to carry your gift to Jerusalem. 4If it seems advisable that I should go also, they will accompany me. 5I will visit you after passing through Macedo'nia, for I intend to pass through Macedo'nia, 6and perhaps I will stay with you or even spend the winter, so that you may speed me on my journey, wherever I go. 7For I do not want to see you now just in passing; I hope to spend some time with you, if the Lord permits. 8But I will stay in Ephesus until Pentecost, 9for a wide door for effective work has opened to me, and there are many adversaries. 10When Timothy comes, see that you put him at ease among you, for he is doing the work of the Lord, as I am. 11So let no one despise him. Speed him on his way in peace, that he may return to me; for I am expecting him with the brethren. 12As for our brother Apol'los, I strongly urged him to visit you with the other brethren, but it was not at all his will to come now. He will come when he has opportunity. 13Be watchful, stand firm in your faith, be courageous, be strong. 14Let all that you do be done in love. 15Now, brethren, you know that the household of Steph'anas were the first converts in Acha'ia, and they have devoted themselves to the service of the saints; 16I urge you to be subject to such men and to every fellow worker and laborer. 17I rejoice at the coming of Steph'anas and Fortuna'tus and Acha'icus, because they have made up for your absence; 18for they refreshed my spirit as well as yours. Give recognition to such men. 19The churches of Asia send greetings. Aq'uila and Prisca, together with the church in their house, send you hearty greetings in the Lord. 20All the brethren send greetings. Greet one another with a holy kiss. 21I, Paul, write this greeting with my own hand. 22If any one has no love for the Lord, let him be accursed. Our Lord, come! 23The grace of the Lord Jesus be with you. 24My love be with you all in Christ Jesus. Amen.




Bullinger’s Notes on 1Corinthians Chs. 11-16 (for KJV)


Chapter 11

Verse 1

Be = Become.

followers = imitators. Greek. mimetes. See 1 Corinthians 4:16.

Christ. App-98.


Verse 2

praise. Greek. epaineo. Elsewhere, verses: 1 Corinthians 11:171 Corinthians 11:22Luke 16:8 (commend). Romans 15:11 (laud).

keep = hold fast. Greek. katecho, as in 1 Thessalonians 5:21Hebrews 3:6Hebrews 3:14Hebrews 10:23.

ordinances. Greek. paradosis. Elsewhere, twelve times, always translated "tradition".

delivered. Greek. paradidomi. See John 19:30.


Verse 3

have you = that you should.

know. App-132. Compare 1 Corinthians 10:1. In the rest of the verse are the Figures of speech Anaphora and Climax. App-6.

man. App-123.

woman. In this clause woman means wife, and man husband. Compare Ephesians 5:23.

God. App-98.


Verse 4

prophesying. App-189.

his head covered. Literally (something) upon (App-104.) the head.

dishonoureth. Greek. kataischuno. See Romans 5:5.

his head. i.e. Christ in Whom he has access to God with unveiled face (2 Corinthians 3:18).


Verse 5

uncovered = unveiled. Greek. akatakaluptos. Only here and 1 Corinthians 11:13.

even all, &c. = one and the same with a shaven (one). If she discards the covering which is the symbol of her position, she may as well discard that which nature has given.

shaven. Greek. xurao. See Acts 21:24.


Verse 6

covered. Greek. katakaluptomai. Only here and 1 Corinthians 11:7.

also be shorn = be shorn also.

shorn. See Acts 8:32.


Verse 7

forasmuch as he is = being originally. Greek. huparcho. See Luke 9:48.

image. Greek. eikon. See Romans 1:23. Compare Genesis 1:27Genesis 9:6.


Verse 9

Neither, &c. And truly the man was not (Greek. ou).

for = on account of. App-104. 1 Corinthians 11:2.


Verse 10

For this cause = On account of (as above) this.

power = authority (App-172.), i.e. the sign of authority, a veil, which betokened subjection to her husband. Compare Genesis 24:65.

because of = on account of, as above.

the angels. Compare Genesis 6:22 Peter 2:4Jude 1:6. Cannot refer to the bishop or other officer; for why should he be affected more than the other men in the congregation?


Verse 11

neither. Greek. oute.

without = apart from. Greek. choris.

the Lord. No art. App-98. Compare Galatians 3:28.


Verse 12

by = through. App-104. 1 Corinthians 11:1.

all things. Compare 1 Corinthians 8:62 Corinthians 5:18Ephesians 3:9.


Verse 13

Judge. App-122. Figure of speech Anacoenosis. App-6.

is it comely = is it becoming. Greek. prepei. Elsewhere, Matthew 3:15Ephesians 5:31 Timothy 2:10Titus 2:1Hebrews 2:10Hebrews 7:26.


Verse 14

not even. Greek. oude.

have long hair = let the hair grow. Greek. komao. Only here and 1 Corinthians 11:15.

shame. Greek. atimia. See Romans 1:26.


Verse 15

hair. Greek. kome. Only here.

is = has been.

for = instead of. App-104.

covering. Greek. peribolaion. Only here and Hebrews 1:12 (vesture).


Verse 16

any man = any one. App-123.

contentious = fond of strife. Greek. philoneikos. Only here.

custom. See John 18:39.

churches. App-186.


Verse 17

in this, &c. = declaring this. Greek. parangello. See Acts 1:4.

come together. Greek. sunerchomai. This was a voluntary assembling, not the authoritative "being gathered to His name" of Matthew 18:20.

for = unto. App-104.


Verse 18

the. All the texts omit. "In church" means "in assembly". No buildings were set apart for Christian worship so early as this.

be. Greek. huparcho. See Luke 9:48.

divisions. Greek. schisma. See 1 Corinthians 1:10.

among. App-104.

partly believe it = believe some part (of it), or believe it of some part of you.

believe. App-150.


Verse 19

also heresies = heresies also.

heresies = sects. See Acts 5:17.

that = in order that. Greek. hina.

approved. Greek. dokimos. See Romans 14:18.

be made = become. This is the reason why divisions are permitted, but is no justification of them. Compare 1 John 2:19.


Verse 20

into one place. Greek. epi to auto. See Acts 2:1. These were the social meals of the early church, called love feasts (2 Peter 2:13Jude 1:12), followed by the Lord"s Supper. According to the Greek custom, each brought his own provisions, and while the rich fared sumptuously, the poor sometimes had little or nothing; for the spirit of division led to the exclusion by some of all who were not of their own party. Thus sectarianism invaded even the Lord"s table.

Lord"s. Greek. kuriakos. Only here and Revelation 1:10. See note there.


Verse 21

every = each.

taketh before = first taketh. Greek. prolambano. Only here, Mark 14:8Galatians 1:6Galatians 1:1. Thus the over-indulgence of some unfitted them for the ordinance.


Verse 22

What? have ye not = For is it (Greek. me, introducing the question) that ye have not (Greek. ou).

shame. Greek. kataischuno. Same as in 1 Corinthians 11:4.

What shall I say, &c. Figure of speech Amphidiorthosis. App-6.


Verse 23

have. Omit.

of = from. App-104.

Lord. App-98.

also I delivered = I delivered also. Compare 1 Corinthians 15:1.

unto = to.

Jesus. App-98.

the same = in (Greek. en) the.

betrayed. Greek. paradidomi. Same as "delivered", 1 Corinthians 11:2. See John 19:30.


Verse 24

given thanks. Greek. eucharisteo. See Acts 27:35.

Take, eat. The texts omit.

is. See Matthew 26:26.

broken. The texts omit.

for = on behalf of. App-104.

in = for. App-104.

remembrance of Me = My memorial. Greek. anamnesis. Only here, 1 Corinthians 11:25Luke 22:19Hebrews 10:3.


Verse 25

After the same manner = Likewise.

also He took, &c. = He took the cup also.

when = after. App-104.

This cup, &c. Figure of speech Metaphor, as in 1 Corinthians 11:24. App-6. If, as Rome maintains, the wine is transubstantiated into the blood of Christ, can the cup be so too?

new. Greek. kainos. See Matthew 9:17.

testament = covenant. See Luke 22:20 and Hebrews 9:14-23.

as oft as. Greek. hosakis. Only here, 1 Corinthians 11:26Revelation 11:6.


Verse 26

shew = proclaim. App-121.


Verse 27

unworthily. Greek. anaxios. Only here and 1 Corinthians 11:29 (which see).

guilty. Greek. enochos, as Matthew 26:66

of = in regard to. The Genitive of Relation. App-17.


Verse 28

man. App-123.

examine = test or try. Greek. dokimazo. Often translated prove, or approve. Compare 1 Corinthians 11:19 with 1 Corinthians 9:27.

so. i.e. after this self-testing.


Verse 29

unworthily. The texts omit. In that case after "himself", read "since he does not discern", &c.

damnation = condemnation, or judgment. App-177.

discerning. App-122.

the Lord"s body. The texts read "the body". That is, he does not recognize the common membership of all the saints (1 Corinthians 10:17). This was the sectarian and selfish spirit rebuked in verses: 1 Corinthians 11:19-22. Note the Figure of speech Paregmenon. App-6.


Verse 30

many = not a few, as Revised Version.

sleep. App-171. This verse explains what the judgment of 1 Corinthians 11:29 was. Temporal suffering, and even death. Compare 1 Corinthians 5:5 and 1 John 5:161 John 5:17.


Verse 31

would = were to.

judge. Same as "discern", 1 Corinthians 11:29.


Verse 32

chastened. Greek. paideuo. Compare Hebrews 12:6Hebrews 12:7Hebrews 12:10Revelation 3:19.

of = by. App-104.

condemned. App-122.

with. App-104.

world. Greek. kosmos. App-129. This shows that the judgment of 1 Corinthians 11:29 is not eternal judgment. In verses: 1 Corinthians 11:31-32, the Figure of speech Paregmenon occurs again.


Verse 33

to eat = for (Greek. eis) eating.

tarry = wait. Compare Acts 17:16James 5:7.


Verse 34

at home = in (Greek. en) the house.

unto. App-104.

condemnation. Same as "damnation", 1 Corinthians 11:29.

set in order. Greek. diatasso. See Acts 7:44.


Chapter 12

Verse 1

concerning. App-104.

spiritual. Greek. pneumatikos. It is the adjective of pneuma (App-101), and is applied to things in the Divine sphere, as well as to those in Satan"s realm (Ephesians 6:12). It is put in contrast with that which is natural, as in 1 Corinthians 3:11 Corinthians 15:44. in 1 Corinthians 10:31 Corinthians 10:4 "supernatural" would express the meaning. It occurs twenty-six times and is always translated "spiritual", and is the only word so rendered, except in 1 Corinthians 14:12, which see. Supply things instead of gifts.

I would, &c. See Romans 1:13. This is the fifth occurance of this expression.


Verse 2

know. App-132.

Gentiles. Greek. ethnos.

carried = led. Greek. apago. First occurance: Matthew 7:13.

unto. App-104.

these. Omit.

dumb. Greek. aphonos. See Acts 8:32. Compare Psalms 115:5Isaiah 46:7Jeremiah 10:5.

even as ye were = as ye chanced to be. The popularity of different gods waxed and waned. Compare Deuteronomy 32:172 Chronicles 28:23.

led. First occurance: Matthew 10:18 (brought).


Verse 3

give you to understand = make known to you. Greek. gnorizo.

no man = no one. Greek. oudeis.

speaking. App-121.

by = in. App-104.

Spirit of God. Greek. pneuma Theou. The new nature. App-101.

God. App-98.

calleth, &c. = saith "accursed Jesus". This was probably a form of renunciation.

Jesus. App-98.

accursed. Greek. anathema. See Acts 23:14.

that Jesus is the Lord. The texts read simply "Lord Jesus".

Lord. App-98.

but = if not. Greek. ei me.

Holy Ghost. App-101. This means acknowledging Him as Lord and Master (Romans 10:9), not mere lip-service.


Verse 4

diversities. Greek. diairesis. Only here and verses: 1 Corinthians 12:5-6. Compare hairesis, 1 Corinthians 11:19.

gifts. App-184.

Spirit. App-101. In these verses: 1 Corinthians 12:4-6 we have the Spirit, the Son, and the Father working.


Verse 6

operations = workings. Greek. energema. Only here and 1 Corinthians 12:10.

worketh. Greek. energeo. See Romans 7:5.

all in all. i.e. all the gifts in all the members. Figure of speech Ellipsis. App-6.

in. App-104. Note the Figure of speech Symploke in these three verses: each beginning with "diversities", and ending the sentence with "the same".


Verse 7

manifestation. Greek. phanerosis. Only here and 2 Corinthians 4:2. Compare App-106. .

to profit withal = for (Greek. pros. App-104.) profiting, i.e. for the profit of others.


Verse 9

another. App-124.

faith. App-150. Compare Galatians 1:5Galatians 1:22Ephesians 2:8.

healing. Greek. iama. Only here and verses: 1 Corinthians 12:281 Corinthians 12:30. Compare Luke 6:17.


Verse 10

discerning. Greek. diakrisis. See Romans 14:1Hebrews 5:14. Compare App-122.

kinds. Greek. genos, as in 1 Corinthians 14:10.

interpretation. Greek. hermeneia. Only here and 1 Corinthians 14:26.


Verse 11

dividing = distributing. Greek. diaireo. Only here and Luke 15:12. Compare the noun diairesis, verses: 4-6.

severally = in His own way.


Verse 12

that one. The texts read "the".

so also, &c. = so is Christ also.

Christ = the Christ. App-98.


Verse 13

are = were.

baptized. App-115. It is the Lord who baptizes in pneuma hagion. See John 1:33. Note that "by" is "in" (Greek. en) and "Spirit" has no art.

Gentiles = Greeks.

into. Greek. eis, as above, but the texts omit, probably because of the difficulty of the expression; but eis may be rendered "at", as in Acts 8:40Acts 18:22Acts 20:14-16, &c., the gifts of the Spirit being regarded as a fountain. Compare John 4:14.


Verse 17

If. App-118.

smelling. Greek. osphresis. Only here.


Verse 18

hath. Omit.

set. Same word us "ordain" in John 15:16.

every = each.

as it hath, &c. = as He pleased, or purposed. App-102. Compare 1 Corinthians 15:38.


Verse 22

Nay = But.

to be. i.e. naturally. Greek. huparcho. See Luke 9:48.


Verse 23

less honourable. Greek. atimos. See 1 Corinthians 4:10.

bestow. Literally put around. Greek. peritiheim. See first occurance: Matthew 21:33.

uncomely. Greek. aschemon. Only here.

comeliness. Greek. euschemosune. Only here.


Verse 24

comely. Greek. euschemon. See Acts 13:50.

hath. Omit.

tempered . . . together = mingled together, or compounded. Greek. sunkerannumi. Only here and Hebrews 4:2.

lacked = came short. Greek. hustereo. See Romans 3:23.


Verse 25

That = In order that. Greek. hina.

schism. Greek. schisma. See 1 Corinthians 1:10.

should have the same care = should care (Greek. merimnao. See 1 Corinthians 7:32) the same.

one for another = on behalf of (Greek. huper. App-104.) one another.


Verse 26

whether = if at least. Greek. eite. Compare App-118.

suffer with it = suffer together. Greek. sumpascho. Only here and Romans 8:17.

or. Greek. eite, as above.

honoured = glorified. See 1 Corinthians 6:20. with it = together.


Verse 27

the body. There is no art. because soma is the predicate. Compare 1 Corinthians 3:16.

in particular. Greek. ek (App-104.) merous. The meaning is "Each in his part", as Revised Version m.


Verse 28

church. App-186.

apostles . . . prophets. App-189.

teachers. Greek. didaskalos. App-98. 1 Corinthians 12:4.

miracles = powers. Greek. dunamis, as in 1 Corinthians 12:10. Here it means "workers of miracles".

helps. Greek. antilepsis. Only here in NT., but found in the Septuagint, Psalms 83:8; &c, and in the Papyri.

governments. Greek. kubernesis. Only here in N.T., but found in the Septuagint. The word means "guidance". Compare Acts 27:11.

diversities = (different) kinds. Greek. genos. Not the same word as in verses: 1 Corinthians 12:121 Corinthians 12:4-6.


Verse 29

Are. All these seven questions are introduced by me (App-105).

workers of. There is no word for "workers". Figure of speech Ellipsis. App-6.


Verse 30

interpret. Greek. diermeneuo. See Acts 9:36.


Verse 31

covet earnestly. Greek. zeloo. See Acts 7:9.

best. The texts read "greater".

more excellent. Literally according to (Greek. kata. App-104.) excellence. See Romans 7:13.


Chapter 13

Verse 1

sounding. Greek. echeo. Only here and Luke 21:25 (roaring).

brass. Greek. chalkos. See Matthew 10:9Revelation 18:12. Elsewhere, Mark 6:8Mark 12:41; (money).

tinkling. Greek. alalazo. Only here and Mark 5:38. An onomatopoeic word. Frequent in the Septuagint of the battle shout; Joshua 6:20Judges 15:141 Samuel 17:201 Samuel 17:52; &c.

cymbal. Greek. kumbalon. Only here, but frequent in the Septuagint.


Verse 2

understand = know. App-132.

mysteries. App-193.

knowledge. App-132.

faith. App-150.

remove. Greek. methistemi. See Acts 13:22.

nothing. Greek. oudeis.


Verse 3

bestow = give away in doles. Greek. psomizo. Only here and Romans 12:20. Compare "sop", John 13:26.

goods = the things belonging (huparcho, Luke 9:48) to me.

give = deliver up. Greek. paradidomi. See John 19:30.

to be = in order that (Greek. hina) it may be.

it profiteth, &c. = I am nothing profited.


Verse 4

is kind. Greek. chresteuomai. Only here. Compare App-184. Note the Figure of speech Asyndeton in these verses: 1 Corinthians 13:131 Corinthians 13:4-8.

envieth. Greek. zeloo. See Acts 7:9.

vaunteth. Greek. perpereuomai. Only here.

is . . . puffed up. See 1 Corinthians 4:6.


Verse 5

Doth . . . behave, &c. Greek. aschemoneo. Only here and 1 Corinthians 7:36.

is . . . easily provoked = is . . . roused to anger. Greek. paroxunomai Only here and Acts 17:16. There is no word for "easily". The statement is absolute.

thinketh no evil = reckons not (Greek. ou) the evil done to it).


Verse 6

in = upon, or at. App-104.

iniquity = unrighteousness. App-128.

rejoiceth in the truth = rejoiceth with (as in 1 Corinthians 12:26) the truth, i.e. as it wins its way, truth being personified.


Verse 7

Beareth. Greek. stego. See 1 Corinthians 9:12. Here it means "is forbearing in all provocations".

believeth. App-150.


Verse 8

never. Greek. oudepote.

faileth. All the texts read "falleth".

whether. Greek. eite.

fail = be brought to nought. Greek. katargeo. See Romans 3:3.

vanish away. Same as "fail".


Verse 9

know. App-132.

in part. Greek. ek (App-104.) merous.


Verse 10

perfect. App-125.

done away. Same as "fail", 1 Corinthians 13:8.


Verse 11

child. App-108.

thought = reasoned. Greek. logizomai.

put away = did away with. Greek. katargeo, as in verses: 1 Corinthians 13:81 Corinthians 13:10.

childish things = the things of a child.


Verse 12

through. App-104. 1 Corinthians 13:1.

glass = mirror. Greek. esoptron. Only here and James 1:23.

darkly. Literally in (Greek. en) a riddle. Greek. ainigma. Only here in N.T. In the Septuagint, Numbers 12:81 Kings 10:1Proverbs 13:1Proverbs 13:6, &c.

even as, &c. = even as I was fully known also.


Chapter 14

Verse 1

charity = love, as in 1 Corinthians 13:1.

desire = covet earnestly, as in 1 Corinthians 12:31.

spiritual. Greek. pneumatikos. See 1 Corinthians 12:1.

that = in order that. Greek. hina.


Verse 2

in. No preposition. Dative case.

an unknown = a.

men. Greek. anthropos. App-123.

God. App-98.

no man = no one. Greek. oudeis.

understandeth. Greek. akouo. Occurs over 420 times. Translated hear, except in this and six or seven other passages. See Acts 9:7.

howbeit = but.

spirit. App-101. There is no article.

mysteries. App-193.


Verse 3

to. Supply the ellipsis by "for".

edification. Literally building. Greek. oikodome. See 1 Corinthians 3:9. Here used metaphorrically.

exhortation. Greek. paraklesis. See Acts 4:36 with Acts 13:15. Compare App-134.

comfort. Greek. paramuthia. Only here. Compare Philippians 1:2Philippians 1:1, and the verb in John 11:19.


Verse 5

would = wish. App-102.

except. A strong expression. Greek. ektos ei ml. Literally without if not.

interpret. Greek. diermeneuo. See Acts 9:36.

edifying. Same as "edification", 1 Corinthians 14:3.


Verse 7

And even = Nevertheless. Greek. homos. Only here, John 12:42Galatians 1:3Galatians 1:15.

without life. Greek. apsuchos. Only here.

sound. Greek. phone, voice.

whether, or. Greek. eite.

pipe. Greek. aulos. Only here.

harp. Greek. kithara. Only here and Revelation 5:8Revelation 14:2Revelation 15:2.

distinction. Greek. diastole. See Romans 3:22.

sounds. Greek. phthongos. Only here and Romans 10:18. Not the same word as in the first part of the verse.

known. App-132.

piped. Greek. auleo. Only here, Matthew 11:17Luke 7:32.

harped. Greek. kitharizo. Only here and Revelation 14:2.


Verse 8

uncertain. Greek. adelos. Only here and Luke 11:44 (appear not).

to the battle = for (Greek. eis. App-104.) war.


Verse 9

So likewise ye = So ye also.

utter = give.

words. App-121.

easy to be understood = intelligible. Greek. eusemos. Only here.


Verse 10

it may be = if (App-118. b) it may be.

voices. Greek. phone. See 1 Corinthians 14:7.

in. App-104.

world. App-129.

none. Greek. oudeis.

without, &c. = dumb. Greek. aphonos. See Acts 8:32.


Verse 12

Even so ye = So ye also.

zealous. Greek. zelotes. See Acts 21:20.

spiritual gifts. Literally spirits. Here put for the operations of the Holy Spirit, as in 1 Corinthians 14:2. App-101.

excel = abound.


Verse 13

Wherefore. See 1 Corinthians 8:13.

pray. App-134.


Verse 14

spirit. App-101.


understanding. Greek. nous. Translated seven times "understanding", seventeen times "mind".

Verse 15

sing. Greek. psallo, as Ephesians 5:15 (making melody).


Verse 16

occupieth = fills up. Greek. anapleroo. Here, 1 Corinthians 16:17Matthew 13:14Galatians 1:6Galatians 1:2Philippians 1:2Philippians 1:301 Thessalonians 2:16.

unlearned. See Acts 4:13. Literally "private" as opposed to "official".

Amen = the amen. See p. 1511.

at. App-104.

giving of thanks. Greek. eucharistia. See Acts 24:3.

seeing = since.

understandeth = knoweth. App-132.


Verse 18

thank. Same as "give thanks", 1 Corinthians 14:17.

I speak = speaking (as I do).


Verse 19

had rather = desire to. App-102.

with. Greek. dia, but the texts read "by" (Dat.)

might teach. Greek. katecheo. See Acts 18:25.

others. App-124.


Verse 20

be = become.

children. App-108.

understanding. Greek. phren. Only here.

malice. App-128.

be ye children = act as babes. Greek. nepiazo. Compare App-108.

men, i.e. of mature age and thought. Greek. teleioa. See App-123., and 1 Corinthians 125:1.


Verse 21

the law. The Scriptures of the O.T. are called "the law", "the law and the Prophets", "the law, the Prophets, and the Psalms". Here the law includes Isaiah, just as in John 10:34John 15:25, it includes the Psalms.

With = In. App-104.

other tongues. Greek. heteroglossos = other-tongued. Only here.

and other lips = and with lips of others.

people. Greek. laos. See Acts 2:47.

yet for all that, &c. = not even (Greek. oude) so will they.

hear = hearken to. Greek. eisakouo. Elsewhere, Matthew 6:7Luke 1:13Acts 10:31Hebrews 5:7; all of answered prayer. A stronger word than akouo which occ, over 400 times.

Lord. App-98. The quotation is from Isaiah 28:11Isaiah 28:12. App-107.


Verse 22

sign. App-176.

believe. App-150.

believe not = are unbelieving. Greek. apistos. See App-150.

serveth = is.


Verse 23

into one place. See Acts 2:1.

unbelievers. Greek. apistos, as in verses: 1 Corinthians 14:221 Corinthians 14:24.

mad. Greek. mainomai. See Acts 12:15.


Verse 24

one = any one. App-123.

convinced. Greek. elencho. See John 8:9. Occurs seventeen times; translated four times "convince", once "convict", five times "rebuke", six times "reprove", and once "tell a fault" (Matthew 18:15).

of = by. App-104.

judged = discerned. App-122.


Verse 25

are . . . made = become.

manifest. App-106.

worship. App-137.

and report = announcing, or declaring. Greek. apangello.

in = among. Greek. en. App-104.

of a truth = indeed. Greek. ontos. Compare John 8:36.


Verse 26

How. Greek. ti. Same as "What", 1 Corinthians 14:15.

every = each.

of you. Omit.

interpretation. See 1 Corinthians 12:10.


Verse 27

any man = any one, as in 1 Corinthians 14:24.

by = according to. App-104.

by course = in turn. Greek. ana (App-104.) meros.


Verse 28

interpreter. Greek. diermeneutes. Only here.


Verse 29

prophets. App-189.

the other = the others.

judge = discern, or discriminate. App-122.


Verse 30

revealed. App-106.

hold his pence. Same as "keep silence" in verses: 1 Corinthians 14:281 Corinthians 14:34.


Verse 32

spirits = spiritual gifts, as in 1 Corinthians 14:12.

subject to. i.e. under the control of their possessors. So there was no warrant for the scenes of excitement sometimes exhibited in ancient, as well as in modern, days.


Verse 33

confusion = commotion. Greek. akatastasia. See Luke 21:9.

saints. Greek. hagios. See Acts 9:13.


Verse 34

under obedience = subject, as in 1 Corinthians 14:32.

as also, &c. = as the law also saith. Reference is to Genesis 3:16. Compare 1 Timothy 2:11-13.

Verse 35

if. App-118.

will = wish to. App-102.

their = their own.

husbands. App-123.

at home = in (Greek. en) the home.


Verse 37

acknowledge. App-132.

the. All the texts omit.

Lord. App-98.


Verse 40

decently. Greek. euschemonos. Elsewhere (Romans 13:131 Thessalonians 4:12) translated honestly. Compare 1 Corinthians 7:351 Corinthians 12:24.

in = according to. Greek. kata. App-104.

order. Greek. taxis. Elsewhere, Luke 1:8Colossians 2:5Hebrews 5:6Hebrews 5:10Hebrews 6:20Hebrews 7:11Hebrews 7:17Hebrews 7:21.


Chapter 15

Verse 1

Moreover = Now.

declare = make known. Greek. gnorizo.

also ye have received = ye received also.

and wherein, &c. = in (Greek. en. App-104.) which ye stand also.


Verse 2

By = Through. App-104. 1 Corinthians 15:1.

also, &c. = ye are saved also.

if. App-118.

keep in memory = hold fast. Greek. katecho. See 1 Corinthians 7:30.

what = with what word. Greek. logos. App-121. He refers to the substance of his preaching, based as it was on the facts of the Lord"s death and resurrection, which last was challenged by some false teachers (1 Corinthians 15:12).

unless. See 1 Corinthians 14:5 (except).

have. Omit.

believed. App-150.

in vain = to no purpose. Greek. eike. See Romans 13:4.


Verse 3

delivered. Greek. paradidomi. See John 19:30. Compare 1 Corinthians 11:23.

first of all = among (Greek. en. App-104.) the first things.

also received = received also.

Christ. App-98.


Verse 4

rose again = has been raised. App-178.

scriptures. Psalms 16:10Isaiah 53:9-11Jonah 1:17. Compare Matthew 12:39Luke 11:29.


Verse 5

seen. App-133. In 1 Corinthians 15:5-8 we have the Figure of speech Protimesis. App-6.

of = by. Dative case.

Cephas. Luke 24:34.

the twelve. John 20:19John 20:24. The term is used officially.


Verse 6

After that. Greek. epeita.

at once. Greek. ephapax. See Romans 6:10. There is no mention of this in the Gospels, unless it be Matthew 28:16-20, where "some doubted" may imply that others than the eleven were present.

unto this present = until now.

some. Greek. tines. App-124.

are fallen asleep. App-171.


Verse 8

as = as if (it were). Greek. hosperei. Only here.

one born, &c. = an abortion. Greek. ektroma. Only here in NT., but used in Septuagint of Job 3:16Ecclesiastes 1:6Ecclesiastes 1:3.


Verse 9

least. Figure of speech Meiosis (App-6).

church. App-186.

God. App-98.


Verse 10

grace. App-184.

which, &c. = Figure of speech Ellipsis. App-6.

was not = did not become, i.e. prove to be.

in vain. Greek. kenos, empty. Not the same word as in verses: 1 Corinthians 15:21 Corinthians 15:17.


Verse 12

from the dead. Greek. ek nekron. App-139.

resurrection. Greek. anastasis. App-178.

the dead. No art. App-139.


Verse 13

then, &c. = not even (Greek. oude) has Christ been raised.


Verse 15

Yea, and = Moreover.

false witnesses. Greek. pseudomartur. Only here and Matthew 26:60.

have. Omit.

testified. Greek. murtureo. See p. 1511.

of = against. Gr. kata. App-104.

if so be that = if (App-118.2. a) at least.


Verse 17

vain = to no purpose. Greek. mataios. See Acts 14:15. Not the same word as in verses: 1 Corinthians 15:21 Corinthians 15:101 Corinthians 15:141 Corinthians 15:58.


Verse 18

are fallen = fell.

are. Omit.

perished. Greek. apollumi. See 1 Corinthians 1:18.


Verse 19

life. Greek. zoe. App-170.

have hope = are having our hope.

of all men, &c. = more to be pitied than all men.

men. Greek. anthropos. App-123. be

put down is death [Satan].


Verse 20

is, &c. = Christ has been raised. From 1 Corinthians 15:20 to 1 Corinthians 15:28 is a digression. Figure of speech Parembole. App-6.

and become. All the texts omit.

firstfruits. Greek. aparche. See Romans 8:23, and compare notes on John 20:1John 20:17.

them, &c. = those who have fallen asleep. See 1 Corinthians 15:6.


Verse 22

Adam. Literally the Adam.

all die. By virtue of their relationship to Adam. See Romans 5:12-19.

even so, &c. = so in Christ also. Christ also has a relationship to the human race. It is that of Lordship (Romans 14:9). This is acknowledged by some now (John 13:13John 20:28), and brings salvation (Romans 10:9). It is the work of the Holy Spirit (1 Corinthians 12:3). Hence Judas only said, "Master" (Matthew 26:25Matthew 26:49). The natural man rebels against such acknowledgment (Exodus 5:2Psalms 2:2Psalms 2:3Psalms 12:4Luke 19:14). But this Lordship shall one day be asserted and acknowledged by all, including the arch-rebel himself (Psalms 2:6Psalms 2:7Philippians 1:2Philippians 1:9-11Revelation 19:16). To this end all must be raised.

made alive. Greek. zoopoiea. See Romans 4:17. Compare John 5:28John 5:29.


Verse 23

order. Greek. tagma. Only here in NT. It is used in the Septuagint of a body of soldiers. Numbers 2:2, &c. (rank). 2 Samuel 23:13 (army).

afterward. Greek. epeita. Same as verses: 1 Corinthians 15:6-7.

at = in. Greek. en. App-104.

coming. Greek. parousia. See Matthew 24:3.


Verse 24

end. Greek. telos. Not the same "end" as in 1 Corinthians 1:8. Christ"s coming brings that "end", but this is the end of the millennial age.

shall, &c. The texts read, "delivers up".

kingdom. See App-112, App-113, App-114.

Father. App-98.

put down = brought to nought. Greek. katargeo. See Romans 3:3.

rule. Greek. arche. App-172.

power. App-172. Compare Ephesians 1:211 Peter 3:22.


Verse 25

under. App-104. It is God Who puts all enemies under Christ"s feet. The fifth quotation of Psalms 110:1. Compare Matthew 22:44.


Verse 26

The last enemy, &c. Literally, Death, the last enemy, is destroyed. Figure of speech Prolepsis 1. App-6.

destroyed. Same word as "put down", 1 Corinthians 15:24.


Verse 27

hath put = subjected. Greek. hupotasso. Contrast the first occurance: Luke 2:51.

put under Him = subjected. This quotation is from Psalms 8:6.

He is excepted = it is with the exception of Him.


Verse 28

subdued = subjected, as above.

subject = subjected. It is the Father Who puts all enemies as a footstool for the feet of the Son. See Matthew 22:44. But when this is done, the Son rises up, takes His great power and reigns (Revelation 11:17), and putting His feet on the footstool, treads down the nations His enemies, and continues to put down all that exalts itself against God throughout His millennial reign. See Psalms 18:37-50Psalms 60:12Psalms 101:8 (Revised Version); 1 Corinthians 145:20Isaiah 63:3Isaiah 63:6Revelation 19:15.

that = in order that. Greek. hina.

all in all. In verses: 1 Corinthians 15:27-28panta Occurs six times, in five of them translated "all things". It must be the same here. There is an ellipsis, and it should read "over all things in all (places)", i.e. everywhere supreme.


Verse 29

baptized, &c. See 1 Corinthians 15:20. This question follows on from 1 Corinthians 15:19.

baptized = being baptized.

the dead. App-139.

why are they, &c. Read, why are they baptized also? (It is) for the dead. It is to remain dead, as Christ remains, if there be no resurrection, 1 Corinthians 15:13. The argument is, What is the use of being baptized, if it is only to remain dead? No suggestion here of the vicarious baptism which sprang up later among the Marcionites and others.


Verse 30

stand . . . in jeopardy. See Acts 19:27.


Verse 31

I protest, &c. = I affirm (a Greek particle used in affirmations) by the boasting concerning you. The pronoun "your" corresponds to the genitive, not of possession, but of relation. App-17.

Christ Jesus. App-98.

Lord. App-98. For this full title see Romans 6:23. daily. Greek. kath" (App-104.) hemeran.


Verse 32

after the manner of men = according to (App-104) a man.

have. Omit.

fought with beasts. Greek. theriomacheo. Only here. Figure of speech Metaphor. App-6. Referring to the riot (Acts 19:28-31). Ignatius, in his epistle to the Romans, says, "From Syria even to Rome, I light with beasts . . . being bound to ten leopards, I mean, a band of soldiers, who, even when they receive benefits, show themselves the worse". Clark"s Ante-Nicene Library. what, &c. = what is the profit? Greek. ophelos. Only here and James 2:14James 2:16.

me = to me.

let us eat, &c. Many similar expressions of Epicureanism are found in heathen writers. But this is probably cited from Isaiah 22:13. Compare Wisdom 1 Corinthians 2:5-9.


Verse 33

deceived. See 1 Corinthians 6:9.

communications = associations. Greek. homilia. Only here. Compare the verb, Acts 20:11.

corrupt. See 1 Corinthians 3:17.

manners. Greek. ethos. Only here. In plural = morals. A quotation from the Thais of Menander, an Athenian poet. App-107.


Verse 34

Awake. Literally Return to sobriety (of mind). Greek. eknepho. Only here in N.T., but in Septuagint Genesis 9:241 Samuel 25:37; &c.

to righteousness = righteously, i.e. as is right. Greek. dikaios, adverb of dikaios. App-191.

sin. App-128.

have not, &c. Literally have ignorance. Greek. agnosia. Only here and 1 Peter 2:15.

to your shame. See 1 Corinthians 6:5.


Verse 36

fool. See Luke 11:40. The fourth occurance:

quickened. Same as "made alive", 1 Corinthians 15:22.

except. Greek. ean (App-118) me (App-105).

Verse 37

bare = naked. Greek. gumnos. Always translated "naked" elsewhere.

it may chance = if (App-118. b) it should happen.

of some other = of some one (Greek. tis) of the rest (Greek. loipos. App-124.)


Verse 38

as it hath, &c. = even as He purposed. App-102. Compare 1 Corinthians 12:18.

every seed = each of the seeds. In verses: 1 Corinthians 15:36-38 the apostle shows that as we know not how the seeds come to life and grow up (Mark 4:27), much less do we know how the resurrection change is effected.

his = its.


Verse 39

All flesh, ! &c. = Not all flesh is the same flesh.

another. Same as "one". Greek. allos.

beasts. See Acts 23:24.

birds. Greek. ptenon. Only here.


Verse 40

celestial. Greek. epouranios. Occurs twenty times. Translated "heavenly" except in this verse, Ephesians 6:12Philippians 2:10. See John 3:12.

terrestrial. Greek. epigeios. Occurs seven times. Translated "earthly" except here in this verse and Philippians 2:10. The same contrast is seen in John 3:12Philippians 2:10.

one . . . another. Greek. heteros. App-124.

Longer Note on 1 Corinthians 15:40.

1. The subject of 1 Corinthians 15:35-54 is the manner of the resurrection. And the basis is, as the plant to the seed, so spiritual body to natural body, &c. : "thou sowest not the body that shall be (literally come into existence), but a naked grain, as the case may be, of wheat (John 12:24), or some one of the rest" (1 Corinthians 15:37).

2. But in 1 Corinthians 15:39 is set forth differentiation as to "flesh" of mundane organized beings; and in 1 Corinthians 15:41 differentiation in glory (beauty) of the heavenly luminaries. Between these two is 1 Corinthians 15:40, where the differentiation is commonly regarded as merely between "the resurrection body" and the body that now is. But is the contrast not rather between a. resurrection bodies fitted for life and activities "in the heavenlies", and b. resurrection bodies fitted for life and activities on earth? (e.g. Matthew 19:28; compare Ezekiel 34:23Ezekiel 37:24, &c.)

3. The contrast (differentiation) in 1 Corinthians 15:39 concerns one thing only, i.e. "flesh". That in 1 Corinthians 15:41 also concerns one thing only. Therefore, it is suggested, the contrast in 1 Corinthians 15:40 is between resurrection bodies only, and not between resurrection (flesh and bones) bodies and natural (flesh and blood) bodies. If the glory (doxa) spoken of here is to be applied to the body that now is, where, alas! is the evidence of it?

4. As the resurrection is still future, the ellipses may be supplied and the verse rendered, thus: "And heavenly bodies (there will be) and earthly bodies; but of one kind indeed (will be) the glory of the heavenly, and another kind that of the earthly".


Verse 41

one, another, another. Greek. alios. App-124.

one, another. Omit.


Verse 42

also, &c. = is the resurrection of the dead also, i.e. with a different body.

corruption. Greek. phthora. See Romans 8:21. The four contrasts in verses: 1 Corinthians 15:42-44 give the Figure of speech Symploke. App-6.

incorruption. Greek. aphtharsia. See Romans 2:7.


Verse 44

natural. Greek. psuchikos. See 1 Corinthians 2:14.

spiritual. Greek. pneumatikos. See 1 Corinthians 12:1.

and there is = there is also.


Verse 45

And so, &c. = So it has been written also. We have the proofs from nature and analogy of the variety and resources in the Divine working, and the testimony of the Word besides.

was made. Literally became into. Greek. egeneto eis. The exact expression used in Genesis 2:7 (Septuagint)

soul. Greek. psuche. App-110.

a quickening spirit = into (eis) a quickening spirit. See John 5:21.


Verse 46

Howbeit, &c. Read "But not first the spiritual, but the natural".

and. Omit.

that which is = the.


Verse 47

earthy. Greek. choikos. Only here and in verses: 1 Corinthians 15:48-49. The noun chous, dust, is found in the Septuagint Genesis 2:7Psalms 22:15Psalms 104:29Ecclesiastes 3:20.

the Lord. All the texts omit.

from. App-104. Same as "of", previous line.

heaven. Singular. See Matthew 6:10.


Verse 49

image. Greek. eikon. See Romans 1:23.

also bear, &c. = bear the image also.


Verse 50

flesh and blood. See Matthew 16:17.

cannot = are not (Greek. ou, as in 1 Corinthians 15:9) able to.

kingdom of God. App-114.

neither. Greek. oude.


Verse 51

Behold. App-133.:2.

shew = tell.

mystery = secret. App-193.

sleep = be sleeping. App-171.

be changed. Greek. allasao. See Acts 6:14.


Verse 52

moment. Greek. atomos, literally that which cannot be out or divided. Hence "atom". Only here.

twinkling. Greek. ripe. Only here.

incorruptible. Greek. aphthartos. See Romans 1:23.


Verse 53

corruptible. Greek. phthartos. See Romans 1:23.

mortal. Greek. thnetos. See Romans 6:12.

immortality. Greek. athanasia. Only here, 1 Corinthians 15:54, and 1 Timothy 6:16. In Romans 2:7 and 2 Timothy 1:10 aphtharsia is translated immortality.


Verse 54

saying = word. App-121.

swallowed up. Greek. katapino. Elsewhere Matthew 23:242 Corinthians 2:72 Corinthians 5:4Hebrews 11:291 Peter 5:8Revelation 12:16.

in = unto. App-104.

victory. Greek. nikos. Only here, verses: 1 Corinthians 15:551 Corinthians 15:57, and Matthew 12:20. The quotation is from Isaiah 25:8, and the following verse from Hosea 13:14. App-107.


Verse 55

sting. Greek. kentron. See Acts 26:14.

grave. Greek. hades. App-131. The texts read "death" (Greek. thanatos).


Verse 58

Therefore = So then.

beloved. App-135.

stedfast. Greek. hedraios. See 1 Corinthians 7:37.

unmoveable. Greek. ametakinetos. Only here.

forasmuch as ye know = knowing. App-132.

Lord. App-98.


Chapter 16

Verse 1

collection. Greek. logia. Only here and 1 Corinthians 16:2, where it is translated "gatherings". Found in the Papyri of tax-gathering.

saints. Greek. hagios. See Acts 9:13.

have given order = commanded. Greek. diatasso. See Acts 7:44.

churches. App-184.

Galatia. Bengel says, "He proposes the Galatians as an example to the Corinthians, the Corinthians to the Macedonians (2 Corinthians 9:2), and the Corinthians and Macedonians to the Romans (Romans 15:26)".

even so, &c. = so do ye also.


Verse 2

Upon. App-104.

first, &c. See John 20:1Acts 20:7.

every = each.

in store = treasuring up. Greek. thesaurizo. See Matthew 6:19.

as, &c = whatever he may be prospered in. Greek. euodoumai.

that = in order that. Greek. hina.

no = not. App-105.

gatherings. See 1 Corinthians 16:1.


Verse 3

approve. Greek. dokimazo See 1 Corinthians 3:131 Corinthians 11:28.

by (App-104. 1 Corinthians 16:1), &c. Read, "them will I send with letters".

them = these.

Greek. apophero. Elsewhere, Mark 15:1Luke 16:22Revelation 17:3Revelation 21:10.

liberality = gift. Literally grace. Greek. charts. App-184. Compare 2 Corinthians 8:19.


Verse 5

shall pass = shall have passed.

do pass = am passing, i.e. purpose to pass.


Verse 6

abide. Greek. parameno. Elsewhere, Hebrews 7:23James 1:25.

winter. See Acts 27:12.

bring me on my journey. Greek. propempo. See Acts 15:3.


Verse 7

by the way = in (Greek. en. App-104.) passing. Greek. parodos.

trust = hope.

tarry. Greek. epimeno. See Acts 10:48.

a while = some (Greek. tis) time (Greek. chronos).

Lord. App-98.


Verse 9

door. Figure of speech Metaphor. App-6. Compare Acts 14:272 Corinthians 2:12Colossians 4:3Revelation 3:8 See for the facts, Acts 19:17-20.

effectual. Greek. energes. Elsewhere, Philemon 1:6Hebrews 4:12


Verse 10

come = shall have come.

see. Greek. blepo. App-133.

without fear = fearlessly. Greek. aphobos Elsewhere, Luke 1:74Philippians 1:1Philippians 1:14Jude 1:12. Timothy was of a timid, shrinking disposition, and the apostle commends him to the support of the true believers at Corinth.

Lord. App-98.


Verse 11

Let no man = Let not (Greek. me. App-105) any one (Greek. tis. App-123)

despise. Greek. exoutheneo. See Acts 4:11. Compare 1 Timothy 4:12.

conduct . . . forth. Greek. propempo, as in 1 Corinthians 16:6.

look for. Greek. ekdechomai. See 1 Corinthians 11:33Hebrews 10:13Hebrews 11:101 Peter 3:20.

with. App-104. It is clear from these verses (10, 11) that the letter was not sent by Timothy. He had already departed (1 Corinthians 4:17), and as he was to travel by a circuitous route, he might not arrive till after the receipt of the letter. See Acts 19:22. Paul was expecting him to be in time to return with the bearers of the letter, who were probably the three named in 1 Corinthians 16:17.

Verse 12


As touching = Now concerning (App-104.)

desired = exhorted. App-134.

to = in order that (Greek. hina) he should.

have convenient time = have leisure. Greek. eukaireo. See Acts 17:21. So far from being jealous of the popularity of Apollos (1 Corinthians 1:12). Paul urges him to visit Corinth. To him God"s glory was the one object to be sought (1 Corinthians 3:5-7Philippians 1:1Philippians 1:18).


Verse 13

Watch. Compare Acts 20:31.

stand fast. Compare Galatians 1:5Galatians 1:1Philippians 1:1Philippians 1:27Philippians 4:11 Thessalonians 3:82 Thessalonians 2:15.

faith. App-150. Compare 1 Corinthians 15:1.

quit you like men. Greek. andrizomai. Only here.

be strong. Greek. krataioo. Elsewhere, Luke 1:80Luke 2:40Ephesians 3:16.


Verse 15

beseech. Greek. parakaleo. See "desired", 1 Corinthians 16:12.

Stephanas. See 1 Corinthians 1:16.

firstfruits. Greek. aparche. See Romans 8:23Romans 16:5.

have. Omit.

addicted = set. Greek. tasso. See Acts 13:48.

to = for, as in 1 Corinthians 16:1.

ministry = service. App-190.


Verse 16

ye = ye also.

submit = subject. Greek. hupotasso, as in 1 Corinthians 14:32, &c.

helpeth with. Greek. sunergeo, to work together with. Elsewhere, Mark 16:20Romans 8:282 Corinthians 6:1James 2:22. Compare 1 Corinthians 3:9.


Verse 17

of = at. App-104.

coming = presence. Greek. parousia. See Matthew 24:3.

that which was, &c. = your lack. Greek. husterema. Elsewhere, Luke 21:42 Corinthians 8:142 Corinthians 9:122 Corinthians 11:9Philippians 1:2Philippians 1:30Colossians 1:241 Thessalonians 3:10.

have. Omit.

supplied. Greek. anaplerroo. See Philippians 2:30.


Verse 18

have refreshed = gave rest to. Same as in Matthew 11:28.

spirit. App-101.

acknowledge = recognize. App-132.


Verse 19

salute. Greek. aspazomai. See Acts 20:1.

Aquila. Compare Acts 18:2Acts 18:18Acts 18:26Romans 16:32 Timothy 4:19


Verse 20

greet. Same as "salute", 1 Corinthians 16:19

kiss. Greek. philema. See Romans 16:16; &c.


Verse 21

salutation, &c. Compare Colossians 4:182 Thessalonians 3:17, and see Romans 16:22.


Verse 22

any man = any one. Greek. tis. App-123.

Jesus Christ. All the texts omit.

Anathemas = accursed. Full stop after this word. See Acts 23:14.

Maran-atha. Aramaic. App-94.:33.


Verse 23

grace. App-184.

our. Read the

Jesus Christ. App-98. Some texts omit "Christ".