Christian Churches of God


No. F023viii






Commentary on Isaiah

Part 8

(Edition 1.0 20231105-20231105)



Chapters 30-33




Christian Churches of God

PO Box 369,  WODEN  ACT 2606,  AUSTRALIA





(Copyright © 2023 Wade Cox)



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Commentary on Isaiah Part 8

Chapter 30

1"Woe to the rebellious children," says the LORD, "who carry out a plan, but not mine; and who make a league, but not of my spirit, that they may add sin to sin 2who set out to go down to Egypt, without asking for my counsel, to take refuge in the protection of Pharaoh, and to seek shelter in the shadow of Egypt! 3Therefore shall the protection of Pharaoh turn to your shame, and the shelter in the shadow of Egypt to your humiliation. 4For though his officials are at Zo'an and his envoys reach Ha'nes, 5every one comes to shame through a people that cannot profit them, that brings neither help nor profit, but shame and disgrace." 6An oracle on the beasts of the Negeb. Through a land of trouble and anguish, from where come the lioness and the lion, the viper and the flying serpent, they carry their riches on the backs of asses, and their treasures on the humps of camels, to a people that cannot profit them. 7For Egypt's help is worthless and empty, therefore I have called her "Rahab who sits still." 8And now, go, write it before them on a tablet, and inscribe it in a book, that it may be for the time to come as a witness for ever. 9For they are a rebellious people, lying sons, sons who will not hear the instruction of the LORD; 10who say to the seers, "See not"; and to the prophets, "Prophesy not to us what is right; speak to us smooth things, prophesy illusions, 11leave the way, turn aside from the path, let us hear no more of the Holy One of Israel." 12Therefore thus says the Holy One of Israel, "Because you despise this word, and trust in oppression and perverseness, and rely on them; 13therefore this iniquity shall be to you like a break in a high wall, bulging out, and about to collapse, whose crash comes suddenly, in an instant; 14and its breaking is like that of a potter's vessel which is smashed so ruthlessly that among its fragments not a sherd is found with which to take fire from the hearth, or to dip up water out of the cistern." 15For thus said the Lord GOD, the Holy One of Israel, "In returning and rest you shall be saved; in quietness and in trust shall be your strength." And you would not, 16but you said, "No! We will speed upon horses," therefore you shall speed away; and, "We will ride upon swift steeds," therefore your pursuers shall be swift. 17A thousand shall flee at the threat of one, at the threat of five you shall flee, till you are left like a flagstaff on the top of a mountain, like a signal on a hill. 18Therefore the LORD waits to be gracious to you; therefore he exalts himself to show mercy to you. For the LORD is a God of justice; blessed are all those who wait for him. 19Yea, O people in Zion who dwell at Jerusalem; you shall weep no more. He will surely be gracious to you at the sound of your cry; when he hears it, he will answer you. 20And though the Lord give you the bread of adversity and the water of affliction, yet your Teacher will not hide himself any more, but your eyes shall see your Teacher. 21And your ears shall hear a word behind you, saying, "This is the way, walk in it," when you turn to the right or when you turn to the left. 22Then you will defile your silver-covered graven images and your gold-plated molten images. You will scatter them as unclean things; you will say to them, "Begone!" 23And he will give rain for the seed with which you sow the ground, and grain, the produce of the ground, which will be rich and plenteous. In that day your cattle will graze in large pastures; 24and the oxen and the asses that till the ground will eat salted provender, which has been winnowed with shovel and fork. 25And upon every lofty mountain and every high hill there will be brooks running with water, in the day of the great slaughter, when the towers fall. 26Moreover the light of the moon will be as the light of the sun, and the light of the sun will be sevenfold, as the light of seven days, in the day when the LORD binds up the hurt of his people, and heals the wounds inflicted by his blow. 27Behold, the name of the LORD comes from far, burning with his anger, and in thick rising smoke; his lips are full of indignation, and his tongue is like a devouring fire; 28his breath is like an overflowing stream that reaches up to the neck; to sift the nations with the sieve of destruction, and to place on the jaws of the peoples a bridle that leads astray. 29You shall have a song as in the night when a holy feast is kept; and gladness of heart, as when one sets out to the sound of the flute to go to the mountain of the LORD, to the Rock of Israel. 30And the LORD will cause his majestic voice to be heard and the descending blow of his arm to be seen, in furious anger and a flame of devouring fire, with a cloudburst and tempest and hailstones. 31The Assyrians will be terror-stricken at the voice of the LORD, when he smites with his rod. 32And every stroke of the staff of punishment which the LORD lays upon them will be to the sound of timbrels and lyres; battling with brandished arm he will fight with them. 33For a burning place has long been prepared; yea, for the king it is made ready, its pyre made deep and wide, with fire and wood in abundance; the breath of the LORD, like a stream of brimstone, kindles it.


Intent of Chapter 30

30:1-7 Concerning the Embassy Sent to Egypt.

Ca. 703 BCE soliciting support against Assyria.

God says through Isaiah that He considers it rebellion against Him (28:14-22; 29:15-16).

30:1-5 The pact is against God's Wishes and thus will fail. Zoan see Ezek. 30:13-19 n.; Hanes

(Anusis) fifty miles south of Memphis.


6a An oracle on the beasts of the Negeb. The meaning is obscure. The meaning may refer to the Edomites that were to occupy it or as some suggested it may refer to the heat of the Negeb.

7b also obscure: Perhaps refers to Rahab who should be destroyed. Note the two uses of Rahab; one referring to Egypt, and the other in Israel at Jericho (comp. Josh. 2:1,3; 6:17, 23, 25; Heb. 11:31; Jas. 2:25; and also, re Egypt, Pss. 87:4; 89:10; Isa. 51:9); here it is a Mythological Sea dragon vanquished in cosmic combat (26:20-27:1; Job 26:12) (OARSV n.).


30:8-17 Judah's intrigue with Egypt against Assyria

30:8-11 God instructs Isaiah to preserve the oracles in writing against their fulfilment (8:16-18).

Tablet see 8:1 n.

Book 29:11 n.

lying sons - those who deny their sonship (1:2-4) and refuse the instruction of the Lord and will not follow His laws and oracles. Instruction – Heb. “torah” see 1:10 n.

Smooth things - platitudinous falsehoods (Jer. 28:8-9).


30:12-14 Sentence of Judgment. Should perhaps follow vv. 15-17, as this word (v. 12b) is recorded in v. 15 (see also OARSV n.).  Judah's perversity is a basic character flaw which it does not seem to be able to completely shed and under pressure causes all to be lost on a repetitive basis. 

This was to cause the dispersion under the Sign of Jonah … (No. 013) in 70 CE on to the present day.


30:15-17 Instead of trust in the faith in God they seek alliances, which fail, and as a result they are struck with cowardice and flight, but their adversaries will be swifter still. 


30:18-26 Hope for the people of Zion who wait on the Lord. The Lord is a God of Justice and He blesses all those who wait on Him. 

After we are given bread of adversity and water of affliction yet in the Last days the God of Ps. 45 and high Priest of Ps. 110 will appear and reveal himself to Israel and instruct them all in the way of God (vv. 20-21). Then all Israel will rid itself of all idols and effigies as the unclean things they are and not touch them again.


30:23-26 Then will God give them rain in due season and their cattle will be grazed in large pastures and on salted provender. On every mountain and hill streams will run with water. These bounties will follow the days of Great Slaughter and the Moon and the Sun will provide greater light when the Lord binds up the hurt of the people and heals the wounds of His blow to the earth.


30:27-28   Refers to the action of the Lord in sifting the nations and stopping their sin and error.


30:29-33 The people will then be called to the Mountain of the lord to the Holy Feast and they will send their representatives from around the world each year at Tabernacles (Zech. 14:16-21).

The text refers to the Assyrians as being terror stricken and the wrath of God, but we know they will come out of the North with Israel in the restoration, but they will be obedient this time as will Egypt as part of the trading block (see Isa. 19:23; 35:8-10).


Chapter 31

1Woe to those who go down to Egypt for help and rely on horses, who trust in chariots because they are many and in horsemen because they are very strong, but do not look to the Holy One of Israel or consult the LORD! 2And yet he is wise and brings disaster, he does not call back his words, but will arise against the house of the evildoers, and against the helpers of those who work iniquity. 3The Egyptians are men, and not God; and their horses are flesh, and not spirit. When the LORD stretches out his hand, the helper will stumble, and he who is helped will fall, and they will all perish together. 4For thus the LORD said to me, As a lion or a young lion growls over his prey, and when a band of shepherds is called forth against him is not terrified by their shouting or daunted at their noise, so the LORD of hosts will come down to fight upon Mount Zion and upon its hill. 5Like birds hovering, so the LORD of hosts will protect Jerusalem; he will protect and deliver it, he will spare and rescue it. 6Turn to him from whom you have deeply revolted, O people of Israel. 7For in that day every one shall cast away his idols of silver and his idols of gold, which your hands have sinfully made for you. 8"And the Assyrian shall fall by a sword, not of man; and a sword, not of man, shall devour him; and he shall flee from the sword, and his young men shall be put to forced labor. 9His rock shall pass away in terror, and his officers desert the standard in panic," says the LORD, whose fire is in Zion, and whose furnace is in Jerusalem.


Intent of Chapter 31

31:1-3 Against Egypt  (see 30:1-7).

v. 1 Judah's reliance was on the Lord, as they could not afford the military budgets and their terrain did not favour chariot warfare except in the plains in the east and west.


v. 3  Both helper and helped will stumble and fall and only God is to be relied upon.

It was God that saved Israel from Egypt at the Red Sea (Ex. 14:26-31).


31:4-9 Against Sennacherib (29:1-8; 37:21-25).

vv. 4-5 God will defend Jerusalem.

vv. 6-7 A plea to rid Jerusalem of idols (considered, by some a later addition (comp. 2:20) (OARSV n.). To this day Jerusalem is rotten with idols in every nook and cranny and has to be broken down and cleansed of them all and those who use them.


31:8-9 The Assyrians are to fall by the sword and see forced labour and hardship. It is God’s sword in the final days that will reduce Assyria and bring them to subjection (see Ezek. Ch. 21).

Fire, furnace - It is at the Temple Altar under Messiah that the nations will be subjugated.


Chapter 32

1Behold, a king will reign in righteousness, and princes will rule in justice. 2Each will be like a hiding place from the wind, a covert from the tempest, like streams of water in a dry place, like the shade of a great rock in a weary land. 3Then the eyes of those who see will not be closed, and the ears of those who hear will hearken. 4The mind of the rash will have good judgment, and the tongue of the stammerers will speak readily and distinctly. 5The fool will no more be called noble, nor the knave said to be honorable. 6For the fool speaks folly, and his mind plots iniquity: to practice ungodliness, to utter error concerning the LORD, to leave the craving of the hungry unsatisfied, and to deprive the thirsty of drink. 7The knaveries of the knave are evil; he devises wicked devices to ruin the poor with lying words, even when the plea of the needy is right. 8But he who is noble devises noble things, and by noble things he stands. 9Rise up, you women who are at ease, hear my voice; you complacent daughters, give ear to my speech. 10In little more than a year you will shudder, you complacent women; for the vintage will fail, the fruit harvest will not come. 11Tremble, you women who are at ease, shudder, you complacent ones; strip, and make yourselves bare, and gird sackcloth upon your loins. 12Beat upon your breasts for the pleasant fields, for the fruitful vine, 13for the soil of my people growing up in thorns and briers; yea, for all the joyous houses in the joyful city. 14For the palace will be forsaken, the populous city deserted; the hill and the watchtower will become dens for ever, a joy of wild asses, a pasture of flocks; 15until the Spirit is poured upon us from on high, and the wilderness becomes a fruitful field, and the fruitful field is deemed a forest. 16Then justice will dwell in the wilderness, and righteousness abide in the fruitful field. 17And the effect of righteousness will be peace, and the result of righteousness, quietness and trust for ever. 18My people will abide in a peaceful habitation, in secure dwellings, and in quiet resting places. 19And the forest will utterly go down, and the city will be utterly laid low. 20Happy are you who sow beside all waters, who let the feet of the ox and the ass range free.


Intent of Chapter 32

32:1-8 The Coming Age of Justice

The text, patterned on the Wisdom literature (28:23-29), refers to the coming age when the rulers will be high minded with integrity and patience (Prov. 8:15-21). All will be clear minded. Men will see and hearken to the Wisdom of God. The fool and the knave will be obvious and disregarded (Pr. 15:2,7,14) but the noble devise noble things. This is in the millennial system at the return of Messiah and certainly not in the worst phases of the Last Days, as we see now.


32:9-14 Against the complacency of Israel's and Judah's women (3:16-4:1)

Here the women are told that their time of ease is coming to an end and in just over a year they will face hardship and the harvests will fail. The entire system will fail, and the cities deserted and

the country desolate.


32:11-12a Signs of Mourning. (Jer. 4:7-8; 16:1-9).

32:15-20 The Age of the Spirit and the Transformation of the Creation (see 11:2)

From this devastation God will pour out the Holy Spirit (No. 117)  on mankind. The wilderness will become a fruitful field and the fruitful field will be deemed a forest. The restoration of the nexus of the law of God will see the conditions of Eden restored. Justice and Righteousness will abide in the wilderness and in the fruitful fields. With Righteousness comes peace and quietness and trust flows from it.


The people of God will dwell in secure dwelling places in peace. This is the millennial system of Messiah of Rev. 20:1-4. The cities will be low in the low ground and the forests will go down. The Heb. says And it will hail when the forest comes down.


Happy are those who sow beside all waters and the feet of the ox and the ass range free.


Chapter 33

1Woe to you, destroyer, who yourself have not been destroyed; you treacherous one, with whom none has dealt treacherously! When you have ceased to destroy, you will be destroyed; and when you have made an end of dealing treacherously, you will be dealt with treacherously. 2O LORD, be gracious to us; we wait for thee. Be our arm every morning, our salvation in the time of trouble. 3At the thunderous noise peoples flee, at the lifting up of thyself nations are scattered; 4and spoil is gathered as the caterpillar gathers; as locusts leap, men leap upon it. 5The LORD is exalted, for he dwells on high; he will fill Zion with justice and righteousness; 6and he will be the stability of your times, abundance of salvation, wisdom, and knowledge; the fear of the LORD is his treasure. 7Behold, the valiant ones cry without; the envoys of peace weep bitterly. 8The highways lie waste, the wayfaring man ceases. Covenants are broken, witnesses are despised, there is no regard for man. 9The land mourns and languishes; Lebanon is confounded and withers away; Sharon is like a desert; and Bashan and Carmel shake off their leaves. 10"Now I will arise," says the LORD, "now I will lift myself up; now I will be exalted. 11You conceive chaff, you bring forth stubble; your breath is a fire that will consume you. 12And the peoples will be as if burned to lime, like thorns cut down, that are burned in the fire." 13Hear, you who are far off, what I have done; and you who are near, acknowledge my might. 14The sinners in Zion are afraid; trembling has seized the godless: "Who among us can dwell with the devouring fire? Who among us can dwell with everlasting burnings?" 15He who walks righteously and speaks uprightly, who despises the gain of oppressions, who shakes his hands, lest they hold a bribe, who stops his ears from hearing of bloodshed and shuts his eyes from looking upon evil, 16he will dwell on the heights; his place of defense will be the fortresses of rocks; his bread will be given him, his water will be sure. 17Your eyes will see the king in his beauty; they will behold a land that stretches afar. 18Your mind will muse on the terror: "Where is he who counted, where is he who weighed the tribute? Where is he who counted the towers?" 19You will see no more the insolent people, the people of an obscure speech which you cannot comprehend, stammering in a tongue which you cannot understand. 20Look upon Zion, the city of our appointed feasts! Your eyes will see Jerusalem, a quiet habitation, an immovable tent, whose stakes will never be plucked up, nor will any of its cords be broken. 21But there the LORD in majesty will be for us a place of broad rivers and streams, where no galley with oars can go, nor stately ship can pass. 22For the LORD is our judge, the LORD is our ruler, the LORD is our king; he will save us. 23Your tackle hangs loose; it cannot hold the mast firm in its place, or keep the sail spread out. Then prey and spoil in abundance will be divided; even the lame will take the prey. 24And no inhabitant will say, "I am sick"; the people who dwell there will be forgiven their iniquity.


Intent of Chapter 33

33:1-24 A Prophetic Liturgy regarding the fall of the Satanic system of Babylon and the Sun and Mystery Cults and their replacement with Messiah at Jerusalem in the Worship of the One True God, who sent Jesus Christ (Jn. 17:3). Considered to be a post exilic liturgy (compared to Ps. 85:46), perhaps used in the Temple Service led by a prophet (Jer. 14:2; 18:20) (see OARSV n.). 


33:1-6 v. 1 A prophetic reproach of the adversary.

Destroyer used of Babylon in 21:2: Here unspecified, but contextually linked (see Rev. Chs. 18-20; F066v).

v. 2 A Congregational Prayer.

Our arm- Source of strength.


33:3-6 Promise of God's Victory and Restoration of Zion for the Millennial Kingdom of Rev. Chs. 20-22.


33:7-16 Second Section

vv. 7-9 A congregational lament - The conditions are indicative of the total breakdown of society in the Last Days. The entire area from Lebanon, Sharon, Bashan, and Carmel are laid waste (shake off their leaves).


33:10-13 God commands the nations to acknowledge His Might.


33:14-16 God's Wrath in the Day of the Lord will destroy both the sinners in Zion and throughout the world among all the enemies of the Kingdom of God.

vv. 15-16 See Pss. 15 & 24:3-5.  Here we see that those who keep the law of God and the Covenant in the faith and Testimony of Christ and walk in righteousness will be fed and watered in their faith.

They will be fed water from the rock and bread as with manna as was Israel in the Wilderness under Christ (1Cor. 10:1-4).  


33:17-24 Third Section

vv. 17-20 Their eyes will see Messiah in all his beauty, or glory, and his hand stretches afar over the nations. Then the minds of the people will think back on the terror and those who ruled over them. No more ruled over by aliens in a foreign tongue (vv. 20-24).  We will all look upon Zion as the city of our appointed feasts (Zech. 14:16-21). The land will be amply watered (Ezek. 47:1-12), and not for military purposes or the Military Industrial Complex which will be eliminated. There the nations will send their representatives each year at Tabernacles. It will stand there forever as the  City of God and the centre of the universe and God will come there at the end of human phase of the creation (see Rev. Ch. 22; The City of God (No. 180)). 


The restoration of the planet will commence under the Messiah at his return and the elimination of the Last Empire of the Beast (No. 299A) and the end of the Empire of the Ten Toes of Daniel 2:41-45 (F027ii, xiii)   and the Millennium will commence with the Golden Jubilee and the Millennium (No. 300).


Bullinger’s Notes on Chs. 30-33 (for KJV)


Chapter 30

Verse 1

Woe. The third of the six woes.

rebellious = stubborn, or backsliding.

children = sons.

take counsel = carry out a purpose. cover with a covering: or, pour out a libation; and so, make an alliance.

My Spirit = Me. Hebrew. ruach. App-9 .


Verse 2

walk = are setting out. This prophecy had been given in the days of Hezekiah (617-588), and was then being fulfilled in Israel. strength of Pharaoh. Compare Isaiah 30:7 , where it is shown to be a vain help. In verses: Isaiah 30:2 , Isaiah 30:3 , "strength" is literal. In Isaiah 30:7 it is a Figure.

trust = flee for refuge to. Hebrew. hasah. App-69 . Same word as in Isaiah 30:3 , but not the same as in Isaiah 30:12 .


Verse 4

hisi.e. Pharaoh's.

Zoan. Now Zan.

learn doctrine = accept instruction. Hanes. Called Tahapanes (Jeremiah 2:16 ). Now Tell Defenneh , about seventy miles from Cairo, the capital of a minor district. Succeeding Memphis as the capital before Abraham's time. Known to the Greeks as Hiracleopolis Magna. The name occurs only in Scripture.


Verse 6

burden. Refers to the lading of the animals of the ambassadors who were going down to Egypt with rich gifts to secure an alliance, and thus reversing the steps of their national deliverance. It is not a fresh "burden", "the beginning of which has been lost".

the south = the Negeb, which must be passed through to get to Egypt. See notes on Genesis 13:1 , and Psalms 126:4 .

the viper, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 8:15 ). Occurs in Isaiah only here, and in Isaiah 59:5 . App-92 .

riches. Hebrew. hayil = strength. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), for the riches or treasures carried by it.

to = [relying] upon: i.e. the Egyptians, as stated in preceding clause.


Verse 7

have I cried concerning this = have I called (or named) her.

Their strength, &c. Hebrew Egypt sitting still (and thus not giving the help that was being sought). Rahab = pride, or strength, is put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), for Egypt, the proud or strong one. Note the wrong but common use of this verse, through not heeding the context.


Verse 8

a table = a tablet.

note = inscribe. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 17:14 ; Exodus 24:4 .

the time to come = the latter day.


Verse 9

children = sons.

law: or, instruction contained in the law of Moses, See note on Isaiah 1:10 .


Verse 12

trust = confide. Hebrew. b a t ah ( App-69 .) Not the same word as in verses: Isaiah 30:2 , Isaiah 30:3 . Same as in Isaiah 30:15 .


Verse 14

as the breaking of the potters' vessel. The reference is to the manufacture of homrah, by breaking up pottery to powder in order to make cement of it. Carried on in the valley of Hinnom. See note on Jeremiah 19:1 , Jeremiah 19:2 .

fire from the hearth = that which is kindled.

pit = cistern.


Verse 15

confidence = trust: i.e. trust [in Jehovah]. Hebrew. batah , as in Isaiah 30:12 . App-69 .

strength = real power. Hebrew. geburah. Not the same word as in verses: Isaiah 30:2 , Isaiah 30:3 , but the same as in Isaiah 28:6 .


Verse 16

flee . . . horses . . . shall ye flee. Note the Figure of speech Paronomasia . Hebrew. nanus . . . sus . . . t'nusun, for emphasis.

swift . . . shall they. . . be swift. Figure of speech Paronomasia . Hebrew. kal . . . yikkallu, for emphasis; not a mere "play on words".


Verse 17

One thousand shall flee. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 26:8 .)

shall flee. The Figure of speech Ellipsis is correctly supplied from the next clause.

rebuke = threat.

ye flee = ye [all] flee.

a beacon = a pole, or mast.

ensign = flagstaff.


Verse 18

be gracious = show you favour, or grace.

have mercy upon you = show you compassion.

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4 .

blessed = O the happinesses [of all, &c. ]. The first of three in Isaiah (Isaiah 32:20 ; Isaiah 56:2 ).

wait = look for.


Verse 20

though. Omit "though", and read it as a direct promise: "Jehovah will give you affliction [as] bread and adversity [as] water".

Lord* = Jehovah ( App-4 ). One of the 134 places where the Sopherim changed Jehovah of the primitive text for Adonai. Some codices, with three early printed editions, read "Jehovah" in the text.

yet shall not thy teachers = and thy teachers shall not.

corner. Hebrew occurs only here.

teachers. Perhaps plural of Majesty = thy great Teacher (i.e. Jehovah).

be removed into a corner = hide Himself.

see = be clearly seeing.


Verse 22

covering. Hebrew. zapha zippoi ). Reference to Pentateuch. Occurs only here, Exodus 38:17 , Exodus 38:19 , and Numbers 16:38 , Numbers 16:39 . App-92 .

ornament. Hebrew. 'aphuddah (rendered ephod). Reference to Pentateuch. Occurs only here, Exodus 28:8 , and Exodus 39:5 .


Verse 23

thy seed. Another reading (Ben Naphtali) is "thy land".

earth = ground, or soil.


Verse 24

ear. Old English = to plough: from Anglo-Saxon erian: and this from the Latin arare : the Aryan root AR entering into many words with a cognate reference. ARt (ploughing being the oldest art); oAR (with which the water is ploughed); ARtos(Greek for bread); eARth; ARatrum (Latin, a plough); ARare (to plough). The verb "ear" is found only here, Deuteronomy 21:4 , and 1 Samuel 8:12 . The noun "earing" occurs in Genesis 45:6 , and Exodus 34:21 .


Verse 25

streams. Hebrew. yiblei (from yabal = to bring, or conduct along). Occurs only here in the "former" portion, and only in Isaiah 44:4 , in the "latter" portion of Isaiah, where it is rendered "watercourses". App-79 .


Verse 27

Behold. Figure of speech Asterismos.

the name. See note on Psalms 20:1 .


Verse 28

breath = blast. Hebrew. ruach . See note on Isaiah 25:4 .

people = peoples.


Verse 29

when a holy solemnity is kept. Reference to Pentateuch. and the habitual keeping of the feasts there prescribed (Leviticus 23:2 , &c). See App-92 .

holy. See note on Exodus 3:6 .

the mountain of the LORD. See notes on Isaiah 2:3 , and Ezekiel 28:16 .

mighty One = Rock. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 32:4 , Deuteronomy 32:15 , Deuteronomy 32:18 , Deuteronomy 32:30 , Deuteronomy 32:31 ). Compare Isaiah 26:4 . App-92 .


Verse 32

every place where the grounded staff, &c. = every stroke of the staff of doom, which, &c.

tabrets = drums. See note on 1 Samuel 10:5 . Hebrew. toph, forming the Figure of speech Paronomasia with Tophet in next verse, for emphasis.

shaking = tumult.


Verse 33

Tophet = the place of burning. In the valley of Hinnom, the place where continual fires consumed the refuse of Jerusalem. Compare Revelation 19:20 ; Revelation 20:10 .

the king = Moloch. See note on 1 Kings 11:7 .

breath. Hebrew. neshamah ( App-16 ). See note on Isaiah 2:22 .


Chapter 31

Verse 1

Woe. The fourth of the six woes.

down. It is always "down" to Egypt, geographically and morally.

trust = confide. Hebrew. batah. App-69 .

the Holy One of Israel. See note on Isaiah 1:4 .Psalms 71:22 .

neither seek the LORD. Compare Isaiah 30:2 . Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 17:16 ). App-92 .

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. (with 'eth). App-4 .


Verse 2

evil. evildoers. Hebrew. ra'a' . App-44 .

iniquity. Hebrew. 'aven. App-44 .


Verse 3

men, and not GOD. Figure of speech Pleonasm . The statement put two ways for great emphasis (positive and negative).

men. Hebrew. 'ddam. App-14 .

GOD. Hebrew El = the mighty God. App-4 .

flesh, and not spirit. Figure of speech Pleonasm . See above.

spirit. Hebrew. ruach. App-9 .


Verse 4

prey = live prey.

multitude = crowd.

the LORD of hosts. See note on Isaiah 1:9 and 1 Samuel 1:3 .

for: or, over.


Verse 5

As birds flying. As birds hovering [covering and protecting their nest with their wings], so will, &c. The Figure of speech Ellipsis is to be thus supplied. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 32:11 ). App-92 .

defend = shield. The verb is found only in Isaiah's utterances (2 Kings 19:34 , 2 Kings 20:6 . 2Ki 31:5 ; 2Ki 37:35 ; 2Ki 38:6 ; and Zechariah 9:15 ; Zechariah 12:8 .

defending, &c. = shielding. Only used of God. Only here, 2Ki 19:34 ; 2 Kings 20:6 . Literally "[then there will be] a shielding, and He will rescue; a passing over [as in Egypt at the Passover], and he will cause to escape. "

passing over. Reference to Pentateuch (Ex. Isa 12:13 , Isa 12:23 , Isa 12:27 ). App-92 . This word is nowhere else used in this sense.


Verse 6

Turn = Return.

children = sons.


Verse 7

every man. Hebrew. 'Ish . App-14 .

idols = nothings.


Verse 8

mighty man. Hebrew. 'ish. App-14 .

mean man. Hebrew. 'adam. App-14 .

discomfited = become tributaries.


Verse 9

pass over. Not the same word as in Isaiah 31:5 (which is pasah). Here, Hebrew. 'abar, to cross over, or retreat.


Chapter 32

Verse 1

Behold. Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6 .

a king. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 17:14 , Deuteronomy 17:16 ). App-92 .

in = for, in the interest of.


Verse 2

And. Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton in verses: Isaiah 32:2-5 , emphasizing every detail.

man. Hebrew. 'ish. App-14 .

wind. Hebrew. ruach . App-9 .

rivers of water. Hebrew. palgei-mayim. Channels for irrigation in a garden. See notes on Proverbs 21:1 .Psalms 1:3 .

weary = thirsty.


Verse 4

The heart also = And the heart: preserving the Figure of speech Polysyndeton (Isaiah 32:2 ).


Verse 5

vile . . . villany. Note the Figure of speech, Paronomasia ( App-6 ). Hebrew. nabal nebalah.

iniquity. Hebrew. 'aven . App-6

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah . App-4

soul. Hebrew. nephesh . App-13


Verse 7

instruments also of the churl. Note the Figure of speech Paronomasia . Hebrew. vekelay kelayv. English chattels of the churl.

evil. Hebrew. ra'a' . App-44 .

deviseth = counselleth.

wicked. Hebrew. rasha . App-44 .

devices = plans.

poor = wretched. Hebrew. anah . See note on Proverbs 6:11 .

needy = helpless, weak in will and wealth. Hebrew. ebyon . See note on Proverbs 6:11 .


Verse 8

liberal = noble: freehearted, freehanded.


Verse 9

ye women. Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Species), "women" being put for the whole nation, now reduced by sin to utter weakness; or, a special message, as in Isaiah 3:16-26 .

hear my voice. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 4:33 , Deuteronomy 4:36 ), App-92 .

careless = confident. Hebrew. batah . App-69 . Used here of self-confidence, in irony.


Verse 12

pleasant fields =fields of desire. Figure of speech. Enallage . App-6


Verse 14

forsaken = neglected.

left. See note on "forsake", Isaiah 1:4 .

forever. Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the Whole), Put for a prolonged period. Note the limitation by the word "until" in the next verse.


Verse 15

spirit. Hebrew. ruach. App-9 . Compare Joel 2:28 . Ezekiel 36:25-27 .

poured. Hebrew. 'arah. Occurs in Isaiah 3:17 ; Isaiah 22:6 , and here in the "former" portion; and in Isaiah 53:12 , the "latter" portion.


Verse 17

work = tillage. assurance = confidence. Hebrew. b a t ah ( App-69 ) Same word as careless (Isaiah 32:9 ), but not in irony.


Verse 19

hail, coming down. Note the Figure of speech Paronomasia , for emphasis. Hebrew. ubarad beredeth; Eng. hail hailing.


Verse 20

Blessed = O the happinesses of you, &c. The second of the three occurring in Isaiah. See note on Isaiah 30:18 . Compare Isaiah 56:2 .


Chapter 33

Verse 1

Woe. The fifth of the six Woes. The Structure, above, will make this section quite clear, and show that the verses are not "out of place", or "disarranged".

that spoilest = thou plunderer.

dealest treacherously = thou traitor.


Verse 2

arm. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause) for the strength and defense put forth by it.

every morning: i.e. continually.


Verse 3

the people = peoples.

the nations = nations.


Verse 4

caterpiller = locusts.


Verse 6

is = that [is].


Verse 7

Behold. Figure of speech. Asterismos . App-6 .

the ambassadors. Note the Figure of speech. Asyndeton ( App-6 ), inIsa 33:7-12.


Verse 8

highways. See note on Isaiah 7:3 .

lie waste = are desolate. See note on Isaiah 1:7 .

wayfaring man = he that walketh along the path. See note on "path", Isaiah 2:3 .

man = mortal. Hebrew. 'enosh. App-14


Verse 9

hewn down = withered.

shake off. Hebrew. na'ar. A rare word. Occurs twice in the "former" portion (here, and Isaiah 33:15 ), and once in the "latter" portion (Isaiah 52:2 ). App-79 .


Verse 10

saith the LORD = may Jehovah say. See note on Isaiah 1:11 .


Verse 11

breath, as fire = breath as a fire. Hebrew. ruach.


Verse 12

the people = peoples.

burnings of lime: i.e. fuel for limekilns.

thorns cut up. These are the common fuel used in limekilns in Palestine.


Verse 13

ye: i.e. the heathen.

what I have done: i.e. in the destruction of Sennacherib's army.


Verse 14

fearfulness = trembling. Hebrew. r e 'adah. Only here in Isaiah; and elsewhere, only in Job 4:14 .Psalms 2:11 ; Psalms 48:6 .

surprised = seized.

Who . . . ? who . . . ? Figure of speech Erotesis . The answer implied being the negative.

among = for.


Verse 15

He, &c. This is not the answer to Isaiah 33:14 , but the subject of the Promise in Isaiah 33:16 , "He. shall dwell on high". Hence it is emphatic. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 10:17 ; Deuteronomy 16:19 ; Deuteronomy 27:25 ).

hearing of = listening to.

blood = murderers. Figure of speech Metalepsis (of Subject), by which "blood" is first put for bloodshedding, and, secondly, bloodshedding put for those who shed it.


Verse 17

the king. See Isaiah 33:22 .

far off = far stretching.


Verse 18

scribe. = the counter.

receiver = the weigher.

he that counted, &c. Referring to Sennacherib's besieging army.


Verse 19

fierce, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 28:49 , Deuteronomy 28:50 ).

stammering = jabbering.

tongue. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), for the language spoken by it.


Verse 20

Look = Gaze.

the city. Figure of speech Polyonymia.

solemnities = festal-days. Reference to Pentateuch, where the word frequently occurs (compare Leviticus 23:0 .Numbers 15:0 , &c).

tabernacle = tent. Hebrew. 'ohel. App-40 .


Verse 21

gallant = mighty, or noble.


Verse 23

the lame take the prey. Referring to the spoil taken from the dead of the Assyrian host. See 2 Kings 19:35 .

Verse 24

forgiven their iniquity. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 23:21 ; Exodus 32:32 .Numbers 14:19Numbers 14:19 ).