Christian Churches of God


No. F023iii






Commentary on Isaiah

Part 3

(Edition 1.0 20231017-20231017)


Chapters 9-12





Christian Churches of God

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Commentary on Isaiah Part 3

Chapter 9

1But there will be no gloom for her that was in anguish. In the former time he brought into contempt the land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali, but in the latter time he will make glorious the way of the sea, the land beyond the Jordan, Galilee of the nations. 2The people who walked in darkness have seen a great light; those who dwelt in a land of deep darkness, on them has light shined. 3Thou hast multiplied the nation, thou hast increased its joy; they rejoice before thee as with joy at the harvest, as men rejoice when they divide the spoil. 4For the yoke of his burden, and the staff for his shoulder, the rod of his oppressor, thou hast broken as on the day of Midian. 5For every boot of the tramping warrior in battle tumult and every garment rolled in blood will be burned as fuel for the fire. 6For to us a child is born, to us a son is given; and the government will be upon his shoulder, and his name will be called “Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.” 7Of the increase of his government and of peace there will be no end, upon the throne of David, and over his kingdom, to establish it, and to uphold it with justice and with righteousness from this time forth and for evermore. The zeal of the Lord of hosts will do this. 8The Lord has sent a word against Jacob, and it will light upon Israel; 9and all the people will know, Ephraim and the inhabitants of Samaria, who say in pride and in arrogance of heart: 10“The bricks have fallen, but we will build with dressed stones; the sycamores have been cut down, but we will put cedars in their place.” 11So the Lord raises adversaries against them, and stirs up their enemies. 12The Syrians on the east and the Philistines on the west devour Israel with open mouth. For all this his anger is not turned away and his hand is stretched out still. 13The people did not turn to him who smote them, nor seek the Lord of hosts. 14So the Lord cut off from Israel head and tail, palm branch and reed in one day—15the elder and honored man is the head, and the prophet who teaches lies is the tail; 16for those who lead this people lead them astray, and those who are led by them are swallowed up. 17Therefore the Lord does not rejoice over their young men, and has no compassion on their fatherless and widows; for every one is godless and an evildoer, and every mouth speaks folly. For all this his anger is not turned away and his hand is stretched out still. 18For wickedness burns like a fire, it consumes briers and thorns; it kindles the thickets of the forest, and they roll upward in a column of smoke. 19Through the wrath of the Lord of hosts the land is burned, and the people are like fuel for the fire; no man spares his brother. 20They snatch on the right, but are still hungry, and they devour on the left, but are not satisfied; each devours his neighbor's flesh, 21Manasseh Ephraim, and Ephraim Manasseh, and together they are against Judah. For all this his anger is not turned away and his hand is stretched out still.


Intent of Chapter 9

9:1 Zebulun, Napthali and Issachar occupied the area of what became later Galilee.  It was famous for the home of Messiah and many of the apostles.    The Way of the Sea was the highway from Damascus to the sea which was the probable route of Assyrian invasion in 733-732 BCE (2Kgs. 15:29) (see also OARSV n.).


9:2-7 The Messianic King

Compare 11:1-9. The text describes the coming Messiah as the ideal king.

v. 2 The text is prophecy of the Messiah and the people who walked in darkness are the people of Judah, Levi and Bejamin in Palestine and those of Israel to whom were sent the apostles from 30 CE. 

v. 3 foresees the increase of the nation of Israel and its inheritance as promised to the patriarchs Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.

v. 4 The yoke of Israel's burden, the staff for his shoulder and the rod of his oppressor will be broken in the last days for the establishment of the final rule of Messiah and the Second Exodus of Israel (see Chs. 65-66 and Zech. 14:16-21).

Midian  Judg. 7:15-25.


9:6 Government - World rule of the Messiah. Prince of Peace - the Messianic rule of the millennial system of world peace mentioned in Rev. 20:4 (F066v). The Messiah embodies the best qualities of Israel's heroes and looks forward to the Resurrection of David under Messiah and the restoration of Israel under the Prophets and the Church of the Great Multitude of Revelation Ch. 7; Ezek. 37:24-28).


Isaiah 9:6 (No. 224)

“Isaiah 9:6 is used by Trinitarians to justify their theology. Argument is advanced that, by the name given in Isaiah 9:6, the attributes and, thereby, co-equality and co-eternality were conferred on the son as being the same God, in the case of Trinitarians and Binitarians, or an independent co-eternal God who had co-equality conferred upon him when he agreed to become the son of the other, in the case of the Ditheists. However, it was not understood in that light by ancient Israel.


The Septuagint (LXX) renders Isaiah 9:6 as reading the Angel of Great Counsel. Brenton’s translation is:

For a child is born to us, and a son is given to us, whose government is upon his shoulder: and his name is called the Messenger of great counsel: for I will bring peace upon the princes, and health to him.

Verse 7 continues:

His government shall be great, and of his peace there is no end: it shall be upon the throne of David and upon his kingdom, to establish it and support it with judgment and with righteousness from henceforth and forever. The zeal of the Lord of hosts shall perform this.


We can see there is no trace of this later theology or assertion in the LXX. Here, he is the Aggelos, the Angel or Messenger of Great Counsel.

The term mighty god in Isaiah 9:6 is derived from the words mighty el and this can apply to any mighty one, even a human. The same views emerge when we examine the concepts from the New Testament. The term everlasting father refers to the fatherhood of Messiah of which Paul says there are many in heaven and on earth and the reason why we bow to the Father for whom they are named.


Ephesians 3:14-15 For this cause I bow my knees unto the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, 15Of whom the whole family in heaven and earth is named, (KJV)


Ephesians 3:14-15 For this reason I bow my knees before the Father, 15from whom every family in heaven and on earth is named, (RSV)


The actual text is of whom every fatherhood (patria) in [the] heavens and on earth is named (cf. Marshall’s Interlinear text).


The Peshitta (Lamsa’s translation) has:

For whom all fatherhood in heaven and on earth is named.

Thus, the concept of Isaiah 9:6 is the allocation by delegation of the rulership function expressed in terms of fatherhood.


Everlasting father is held by Green to be a combination of Strong’s Hebrew Dictionary 1 and 5702. SHD 1 is father as AB but when we examine the text here, we see the word is ABY (SHD 21) meaning fatherly. SHD 5702 is 'AGN 'agan meaning to stay from the concept of debar (as from marriage). However, the consonants are 'AD (SHD 5704 'ad) meaning to stay for a long time. Thus, the term here denotes the continuation of fatherly responsibility and not the fatherhood of procreation which is reserved to God the Father as we see from Christ's own comments in the New Testament regarding us not calling any man father as we have only one Father and He is in heaven.


The Soncino text renders Isaiah 9:5[6] as:

For a child is born unto us; and the government is upon his shoulder; And his name is called Pele-joez-el-gibbor-Abi-ad-sar-shalom.

This is more or less consistent with the above. The words are a name which denotes the relationship of the person given the name with the being associated with it. The Soncino holds the words to mean:

Wonderful in counsel is God the mighty, the Everlasting Father, the Ruler of Peace. The child will bear these significant names in order to recall to the people the message which they embody (Arbarbanel) (Soncino Isaiah fn. to 9:5[6]).


Even here, where the name is read in reference to another entity, it is not inferred and cannot be inferred that the child is possessed of these attributes. Rather he, Messiah as the child, is understood to act for the being who does possess these attributes. The Peshitta carries the same name concept that we see from the Soncino.


The LXX uses the concepts in like manner but renders the Greek text as a follow on of the power given to the child by the Lord of Hosts (Kuriou Sabbaoth).


Similar in concept to the LXX, The Concordant Version of the Old Testament, by the Concordant Publishing Concern, also translates Isaiah 9:6-7 as:

"6) For a Boy, He is born to us; A Son, He is given to us, And the chieftainship shall come to be on His shoulder, And one shall call His name Marvelous; Counsel to the master shall He bring, Unto the chief, well-being.

7) To the increase of the chieftainship And to the well-being there will be no end; On the throne of David and over his kingdom, To establish it and to brace it with right judgment and with justice, Henceforth and in the future eon, The zeal of Yahweh of hosts, it shall achieve this."


In view of the ancient texts, Isaiah 9:6 cannot be used to construe any equality with the Father as Trinitarians and Binitarians/Ditheists seek to assert. It was never understood that way in ancient Israel or Judah nor by the Church of God of past centuries, nor by modern Judaism.”

Nor does it confer co-eternality.


9:8-10:4 Ephraim's Judgment as a Lesson for Judah

The text is in five stanzas (including 5:24b-30) (see also OARSV n.) with the same refrain 9:12,17,21; 10:4; 5:25) (comp. Jer. 3:6-10; Ezek. 16:44-58).


9:8-12 Punishment for Pride and Unrepented Wickedness of Israel.

Word. This was the word of God as prophecy against the whole house of Israel. It is specifically addressed to Ephraim including the northern tribes scattered abroad in the Last Days.

Bricks and Sycamores - for ordinary houses, Dressed Stones and Cedars - for palaces (see Jer. 22:7,23). They do not learn from God's correction and rebuke, and they do not abandon their heresies and false doctrines (comp. 55:10-11; Jer. 3:6-10; Ezek. 16:44-58. See also Jer. 4:15-27 (F024)). God allowed Ephraim to retake Palestine and Jerusalem as prophesied under Habakkuk (F035) and Haggai in (F037) on 24 Chislev 1917 (according to the Temple calendar - not Hillel) with the Australian Light Horse. A British Garrison then occupied the conquered city on the 26 Chislev (claimed as 24 Chislev by Hillel).


So also it is centred on Palestine and includes Syria and the Philistines and they devour Israel with an open mouth. Even then God's anger is not turned away and the wars of the end continue from this sequence on into the texts of Daniel 11:40-12:7 (see F027xi, xii, xiii). Then Messiah will return with the host and take control (see  


9:13-17 The people did not turn to God and their corrupt leaders continue to mislead and misdirect them through false doctrines and lies to this very day (see also Jer. 6:14-15). For that reason they cannot avoid this final war ahead.


9:18-21 Moral decay is like a forest fire (Hos. 7:6). The wrath of God has the land burned with the people as fuel for the fire, and no man spares his brother. They steal and devour on left and right and are still hungry. Each devours his neighbour’s flesh (the Hebrew consonantal text may be read the flesh of his offspring (on cannibalism see Jer. 19:9). Ephraim lives off Manasseh and Manasseh off Ephraim and together they were against Judah and they devour one another contrary to God's Law as we see today.


“The expansion of the USA was directly assisted by the wars between Britain and France.

·     1806. War between Britain and France breaks out again. This was to force the Louisiana Purchase where Napoleon sold the areas to the USA making possible the continental expansion of the USA. Thus Manasseh fed off Ephraim in the first instances as Isaiah prophesied at Isaiah 9:21.” The Fall of Egypt:...(No. 036)


The being here is the incarnation of the subordinate elohim of Israel appointed by Eloah (Deut. 32:8-9; Psa. 45:6-7; Heb. 1:8-9 (F019_2); who became the Christ.


Chapter 10

1Woe to those who decree iniquitous decrees, and the writers who keep writing oppression, 2to turn aside the needy from justice and to rob the poor of my people of their right, that widows may be their spoil, and that they may make the fatherless their prey! 3What will you do on the day of punishment, in the storm which will come from afar? To whom will you flee for help, and where will you leave your wealth? 4Nothing remains but to crouch among the prisoners or fall among the slain. For all this his anger is not turned away and his hand is stretched out still. 5Ah, Assyria, the rod of my anger, the staff of my fury! 6Against a godless nation I send him, and against the people of my wrath I command him, to take spoil and seize plunder, and to tread them down like the mire of the streets. 7But he does not so intend, and his mind does not so think; but it is in his mind to destroy, and to cut off nations not a few; 8for he says: “Are not my commanders all kings? 9Is not Calno like Carchemish? Is not Hamath like Arpad? Is not Samaria like Damascus? 10As my hand has reached to the kingdoms of the idols whose graven images were greater than those of Jerusalem and Samaria, 11shall I not do to Jerusalem and her idols as I have done to Samaria and her images?” 12When the Lord has finished all his work on Mount Zion and on Jerusalem he will punish the arrogant boasting of the king of Assyria and his haughty pride. 13For he says: “By the strength of my hand I have done it, and by my wisdom, for I have understanding; I have removed the boundaries of peoples, and have plundered their treasures; like a bull I have brought down those who sat on thrones. 14My hand has found like a nest the wealth of the peoples; and as men gather eggs that have been forsaken so I have gathered all the earth; and there was none that moved a wing, or opened the mouth, or chirped.” 15Shall the axe vaunt itself over him who hews with it, or the saw magnify itself against him who wields it? As if a rod should wield him who lifts it, or as if a staff should lift him who is not wood! 16Therefore the Lord, the Lord of hosts, will send wasting sickness among his stout warriors, and under his glory a burning will be kindled, like the burning of fire. 17The light of Israel will become a fire, and his Holy One a flame; and it will burn and devour his thorns and briers in one day. 18The glory of his forest and of his fruitful land the Lord will destroy, both soul and body, and it will be as when a sick man wastes away. 19The remnant of the trees of his forest will be so few that a child can write them down. 20In that day the remnant of Israel and the survivors of the house of Jacob will no more lean upon him that smote them, but will lean upon the Lord, the Holy One of Israel, in truth. 21A remnant will return, the remnant of Jacob, to the mighty God. 22For though your people Israel be as the sand of the sea, only a remnant of them will return. Destruction is decreed, overflowing with righteousness. 23For the Lord, the Lord of hosts, will make a full end, as decreed, in the midst of all the earth. 24Therefore thus says the Lord, the Lord of hosts: “O my people, who dwell in Zion, be not afraid of the Assyrians when they smite with the rod and lift up their staff against you as the Egyptians did. 25For in a very little while my indignation will come to an end, and my anger will be directed to their destruction. 26And the Lord of hosts will wield against them a scourge, as when he smote Midian at the rock of Oreb; and his rod will be over the sea, and he will lift it as he did in Egypt. 27And in that day his burden will depart from your shoulder, and his yoke will be destroyed from your neck.” He has gone up from Rimmon, 28he has come to Aiath; he has passed through Migron, at Michmash he stores his baggage; 29they have crossed over the pass, at Geba they lodge for the night; Ramah trembles, Gibe-ah of Saul has fled. 30Cry aloud, O daughter of Gallim! Hearken, O Laishah! Answer her, O Anathoth! 31Madmenah is in flight, the inhabitants of Gebim flee for safety. 32This very day he will halt at Nob, he will shake his fist at the mount of the daughter of Zion, the hill of Jerusalem. 33Behold, the Lord, the Lord of hosts will lop the boughs with terrifying power; the great in height will be hewn down, and the lofty will be brought low. 34He will cut down the thickets of the forest with an axe, and Lebanon with its majestic trees will fall.


Intent of Chapter 10

10:1-4 Justice is miscarried

(see 3:13-15; Jer. 8:8). God avenges the poor and the oppressed and the widows and orphans. He raises armies against the rich and unjust rulers.


10:5-19 Woe to Assyria

Assyria served as God's instrument of punishment but was unaware that it and Israel through arrogance and pride were to be punished (see Jer. 25:8-14; 50:23). They were doomed to destruction in the wars of the last days and in the end they will come out of the lands of the north with Israel to reoccupy the lands north of the Euphrates (see 19:23 for the trading triumvirate in the Millennium).

10:9 The prophecies are ongoing. In northern Syria Assyria under Tiglath-Pileser III captured Calno (742 BCE); Carchemish, Hamath (738 BCE); Arpad (741 BCE); Southern Syria, Damascus 732 BCE). Menahem of Israel paid him tribute (2Kgs. 15:19-20).

10:10-11 Assyria was full of Idols and Israel and Judah have also adopted this idolatry and so they were to be sent into captivity to a land where Israel's God was just another idol.

10:12  The text is a prose summation of vv. 5-11; 13-19.  


10:13-14 Assyria's boast Removed Boundaries to discourage rebellion. They transplanted peoples and in the end Israel was removed north of the Araxes and Christ had to send the Apostles into Parthia and beyond to reach the Ten Tribes of Israel in the dispersion (see No. 122D; 212E; 212F). (see also Nos 122 and 170).

10:15  a rhetorical question recalling v. 5 (45:9). God does as He wishes with those He uses as his instrument.


10:16-19  God's Vengeance

 v. 16 The Lord of Hosts sends a wasting sickness among the warriors and sends the Messiah as a flame and it will burn and devour the briars and thorns in a single day. The remnant of the nation will be so few that a child can write them down. This refers to the Holy Seed mentioned in 6:9-13 above).

Light of Israel  - a reference to God's Glory and  the Holy Spirit of God working in the Host under the Holy One, who is the Messiah (see the centrality of Psalm 110 and the build-up); (see F019_5iii and the Summary). (See also 2:10; 29:6; Ezek. 1:26-28 F026.) The effect is that God will ravage Assyria like a forest fire over its sins in the last days.


10:20-23 Only A Remnant will Return

As we saw with the Holy Seed only a remnant will be in Israel so also will only a remnant return with Assyria to the land of Shinar north of the Euphrates. The phrase is the same as the name of Isaiah's son Shear -jashub. In 7:3-4 it stands as an oracle of encouragement. Here it is an oracle of doom but is there to show the equality with which God treats the people, not being in respect of persons.

10:22 Sand of the Sea recalls God's promise to the Patriarchs (Gen. 22:17, 18; comp. Rom. 9:27).

Here the world is to be blessed through Israel because they obeyed the Laws of God under Messiah despite their incessant lapses and idolatry. That is the remnant of the Holy Seed that survives in the Last Days for the Millennium.


In Isaiah (see 4:2-3; 6:13; 7:3; 28:5-6; 37:4; 37:31-32; comp. Mic. 4:7; 5:2-9; Zeph. 2:7) remnant refers to those remaining after Israel and Judah's punishment, and from whom a great people will arise in the millennial system under Messiah (see Rev. Chs. 20-21 (F066v)). During the exile of both Israel and Judah the remnant was the deported people (Ezek. 6:8-10; Jer. 23:3; 31:7). These are they whom God would bring back and make great as we see in Chs. 65-66 and Zech. 14:16-21. Jewish faithlessness again caused their dispersion from 70 CE onwards and saw their destruction on the holocaust from which they learned nothing and still keep the Babylonian intercalations in Hillel for which they will suffer again from 2023-2027, as will the Churches of God that keep Hillel (see also Zech. 8:11; 14:2; Hag. 1:12).     


10:24-27c Oracle of promiseOreb Judg. 7:25 (F007ii); rod – Ex. 14:16.

10:27d-32 The Assyrian invaders (firstly under Tiglath Pileser III and then Sennacherib) (1:4-9) approached from the north to the outskirts of Jerusalem (Jer. 6:1-3). This is the traditional northern route we have seen many times and to the Last Days. For the southern route see Mic. 1:10-15.   


10:33-34 The Lord, as Forester, will cut down Assyria, and then re-establish it (see 19:23).


Chapter 11

1There shall come forth a shoot from the stump of Jesse, and a branch shall grow out of his roots. 2And the Spirit of the LORD shall rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and the fear of the LORD. 3And his delight shall be in the fear of the LORD. He shall not judge by what his eyes see, or decide by what his ears hear; 4but with righteousness he shall judge the poor, and decide with equity for the meek of the earth; and he shall smite the earth with the rod of his mouth, and with the breath of his lips he shall slay the wicked. 5Righteousness shall be the girdle of his waist, and faithfulness the girdle of his loins. 6The wolf shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid, and the calf and the lion and the fatling together, and a little child shall lead them. 7The cow and the bear shall feed; their young shall lie down together; and the lion shall eat straw like the ox. 8The sucking child shall play over the hole of the asp, and the weaned child shall put his hand on the adder's den. 9They shall not hurt or destroy in all my holy mountain; for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the LORD as the waters cover the sea.10In that day the root of Jesse shall stand as an ensign to the peoples; him shall the nations seek, and his dwellings shall be glorious. 11In that day the Lord will extend his hand yet a second time to recover the remnant which is left of his people, from Assyria, from Egypt, from Pathros, from Ethiopia, from Elam, from Shinar, from Hamath, and from the coastlands of the sea. 12He will raise an ensign for the nations, and will assemble the outcasts of Israel, and gather the dispersed of Judah from the four corners of the earth. 13The jealousy of E'phraim shall depart, and those who harass Judah shall be cut off; E'phraim shall not be jealous of Judah, and Judah shall not harass E'phraim. 14But they shall swoop down upon the shoulder of the Philistines in the west, and together they shall plunder the people of the east. They shall put forth their hand against Edom and Moab, and the Ammonites shall obey them. 15And the LORD will utterly destroy the tongue of the sea of Egypt; and will wave his hand over the River with his scorching wind, and smite it into seven channels that men may cross dryshod. 16And there will be a highway from Assyria for the remnant which is left of his people, as there was for Israel when they came up from the land of Egypt.


Intent of Chapter 11

11:1-9 Messiah as King

(comp. 9:2-7 n.). See the notes on the original oracle.

1-3a The Messiah will manifest the rulership of Israel's great kings and leaders. He was to appear in two phases as we see from the Atonement sequence as the priest Messiah and as the king Messiah in the Last Days (Rev. Chs. 20-22) (see also Geza Vermes, Dead Sea Scrolls in English).

11:1 The Messiah is of the root of Jesse (David's father see 1Sam 16:1-20).

v. 2 To these six “gifts of the spirit” the LXX adds piety.

11:3b-5 Wisdom and Justice (5:7) were traditionally associated with the just king and the Messiah embodies the characteristics of the subordinate Elohim of Psa. 45 (see also 1Kgs. Ch. 3; Psa. 72 (F019_2)).

11:6-9  The reign of Messiah under the millennial system will see nature restored to order (Ezek. 47:1-12).

v. 9 My Holy Mountain see 65:25; Ezek. 20:40.


11:10-16 The Messiah termed here the root of Jesse shall stand as an ensign to the people (see also v. 1).


11:11-16 This period is of the Millennial Restoration after the return of the Messiah (F066v). This refers to the Second Exodus which is also stated in Chs. 65-66 at the final restoration.


The remnant will be recovered from Assyria, and from Egypt including Pathros which is in Upper Egypt; from Shinar which is Babylonia and to which regions Assyria will be returned from the north country in Europe;

the coastlands and not just from the Aegean sea coast and islands. They are also brought back from Sinim (Isa. 49:12) identified with China but often mistranslated as Syene. It is a far-off land and really cannot be Aswan in Egypt. The Septuagint associates it with China, as do many Bibles and Young's Concordance. Strong lists them as an unspecified people. Sinae is the Latinised term for the Qin of China.  

v. 12   Messiah raised an ensign for Israel and Judah and gathers them from the four corners of the earth (see also Chs. 65-66).

v. 13 Judah and Israel will be reunited and dwell in harmony under the Law and the covenant as we will see (see also Jer. F024xiv; and Ezekiel F026ix, x, xi, xii).

v. 14 all of the lands in either side of the Jordan shall be incorporated in the restored Israel.


11:15 The tongue of the Red Sea will be destroyed in the earthquake at the Return of Messiah to the Mt. of Olives (Zech. 14:4).


The river of the Euphrates will be split into seven channels and men will walk over dry-shod which is now effectively the case.

v. 16 There will be a highway from Assyria as there was from Egypt for the First Exodus.


Chapter 12

1You will say in that day: "I will give thanks to thee, O LORD, for though thou wast angry with me, thy anger turned away, and thou didst comfort me. 2"Behold, God is my salvation; I will trust, and will not be afraid; for the LORD GOD is my strength and my song, and he has become my salvation." 3With joy you will draw water from the wells of salvation. 4And you will say in that day: "Give thanks to the LORD, call upon his name; make known his deeds among the nations, proclaim that his name is exalted. 5"Sing praises to the LORD, for he has done gloriously; let this be known in all the earth. 6Shout, and sing for joy, O inhabitant of Zion, for great in your midst is the Holy One of Israel."


Intent of Chapter 12

Two songs conclude this first section of the Book of Isaiah.

v. 1-3 The Song of Deliverance (comp. Ps. 116). 1a and 4a are liturgical rubrics; v. 2b (Ex. 15:2; Psa. 118:14).

v. 2 The water from the well of salvation is the Holy Spirit (No. 117) given to the church at Pentecost 30 CE on the Death and Resurrection of Messiah.

v. 3 The elect are to partake of the waters of the Spirit, which is referred to as waters.

12:4-6 The Song of Thanksgiving. Shout and sing for joy (comp. Zeph. 3:14).

In your midst – God in his Temple.

Holy One – see 1:4.




Bullinger’s Notes on Chs. 9-12 (for KJV)


Chapter 9

Verse 1

Nevertheless = For, This member (Isaiah 9:1-7 ) relates to Messiah, the Son, referring back to Isaiah 8:9 , Isaiah 8:10 ; and carries Isaiah 7:14 on to its future fulfilment, See App-102 .

dimness. vexation. Almost the same two words as dimness. anguish (Isaiah 8:22 ).

at the first. When Ben-hadad, in the reign of Baasha, "smote Ijon, and Dan, and Abel-beth-maachah, and all Cinneroth, with all the land of Naphtali" (1 Kings 15:20 )

the land, &c. Quoted in Luke 1:79 .

afterward. Referring to the heavier scourge when Hazael "smote all the coasts of Israel from Jordan eastward, all the land of Gilead" (2 Kings 10:32 , 2 Kings 10:33 ). This land was the first to be afflicted by the armies of Assyria (2 Kings 15:29 , and was the first to see the promised light in the person of the Messiah.


Verse 2

that walked in darkness = the walkers in darkness.

have men = saw. Quoted in Matthew 4:14-16 .


Verse 3

Thou: i.e. Jehovah*

hast. This is the Figure of speech Prolepsis , by which the future is prophetically spoken of as present, or past.

and not increased the joy. The difficulty is not removed by reading lo , "to him", instead of l'o , "not" (which is the marginal reading of Hebrew text, and is followed by the Revised Version. Dr. C. D. Ginsburg suggests that the word in question, haggil'o, was wrongly divided into two words, and the last syllable ( l'o) was treated as a separate word. Read as one word, the four lines form an Introversion , thus: Thou hast multiplied the exultation, Thou hast increased the joy: They joy before Thee according to the joy in harvest.


Verse 6

For unto us, &c. The prophecy of the "Divine Interposition" ends with Messiah, even as it began in Isaiah 7:14 (quoted in Luke 2:11 ). See App-102 .

is. Figure of speech Prolepsis .

given. The interval of this present dispensation comes between the word "given" and the next clause.

government. The Hebrew word misrah occurs only in these verses (6, 7). Like politeuma (Philippians 1:3 , Philippians 1:20 ).

name = He Himself. See note on Psalms 20:1 .

Wonderful. Compare Judges 13:18 .

GOD. Hebrew El. As in Isaiah 10:21 . App-4 .

of. Genitive (of Origin), App-17 .; i.e. the Prince Who gives peace. Compare Romans 15:16 .


Verse 7

no end. Compare the angelic message (Luke 1:32 , Luke 1:33 ).

it. Feminine, referring to the kingdom.

upon. henceforth. Quoted in Luke 1:32 , Luke 1:33 .

the Lord of hosts. See note on Isaiah 1:9 , and 1 Samuel 1:3 .

sent a word. ch. Isaiah 2:5 , Isaiah 2:6 which had now been fulfilled. Compare Isaiah 5:25 . 2 Chronicles 28:6-8 .

Jacob. See note on Isaiah 2:5 .

lighted = fallen.


Verse 9

all the People, &c. "People" is singular, and "know" is plural = the People, all of them.


Verse 11

adversaries. Some codices read "princes, or generals".

him: i.e. Ephraim (not Rezin).

join, &c. = weave together, unite as allies.


Verse 12

For all this, &c. See note on Isaiah 5:26 . Note the Figure of speech Amoeboeon , Isaiah 5:25 ; here, verses: Isaiah 9:17 , Isaiah 9:21 , Isaiah 9:4 . stretched out: in judgment. See note on Isa 6:26 .


Verse 13

turneth not. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 4:29 , Deuteronomy 4:30 ).

the Lord Hebrew. Jehovah. with 'eth = Jehovah Himself. App-4 . See note on 1 Samuel 1:3 .


Verse 14

rush. Hebrew. 'agmon. Occurs twice in "former" portion, here and Isaiah 19:15 ; and once in "latter" portion (Isaiah 58:5 , "bulrush"). Elsewhere only in Job 41:2 , Job 41:20 .


Verse 15

head. tail. Reference to Pentateuch. Only here and Deuteronomy 28:13 , Deuteronomy 28:44 .


Verse 16

the leaders: or, flatterers.

err = stray.

they that are led = they that are flattered.

destroyed = swallowed up.


Verse 18

wickedness = lawlessness. Hebrew. rasha'. App-44 .


Verse 19

of = for. Genitive of Relation ( App-17 .)


Verse 20

eat. not be satisfied. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 26:26 ).


Chapter 10

Verse 1

write = ordain, or register; legalize iniquities.

grievousness = oppression.

prescribed = written.


Verse 2

poor = Hebrew. 'ani. See note on Proverbs 6:11 .


Verse 3

desolation = storm.

leave = secure, or put in safe keeping. Hebrew. 'azab, a Homonym with two meanings. See note on Exodus 23:5 .

glory = honour.


Verse 4

bow down under the prisoners = captives will be enough to make you bow down.

fall under the slain = mortally wounded ones [will be enough] to make you fall.

For, &c. See note on Isaiah 9:12 .


Verse 5

O Assyrian. Not woe to the Assyrian. That woe comes later (Compare Isaiah 17:12 , and Isaiah 33:1 ), after the latest woes on Ephraim and Judah. This is a Divine summons.

Assyrian. The monuments tell us that this was Sargon, the father of Sennacherib.


Verse 6

hypocritical = impious, profane, godless, ' or irreligious. Compare Isaiah 9:17 with Isaiah 33:14 , the only other occurance in Isaiah.


Verse 7

he meaneth not so = will not mean. The blindness of the instrument emphasizes the truth of the prophecy.

think so = so intend.


Verse 8

he saith = he will say.

altogether = all of them.


Verse 10

As = According as.

idols = nothings.


Verse 11

idols = effigies.


Verse 12

Wherefore = And.


Verse 13

people = peoples.


Verse 14

found as a nest. Supply the Ellipsis thus: "found [means to reach] as a nest". peeped. See note on Isaiah 8:19 .


Verse 15

boast itself. Hebrew. pa'ar. Not therefore peculiar to the "latter" portion of Isaiah (Isaiah 44:23 , &c), as alleged.

shake itself against = brandish.

lift up itself, as if it were no wood = raise him that lifteth it up.

no wood: i.e. the user of it (who is flesh and blood, not wood).


Verse 16

kindle. burning = be like a burning. Note the Figure of speech Paronomasia ( App-6 ). Hebrew. yekad yekod kikod = kindle. kindling. kindling.


Verse 17

in one day. So it was (2 Kings 19:35 ),


Verse 18

body = flesh. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Part), App-6 , for the whole body.


Verse 19

child = lad.

write = reckon.


Verse 20

that day. Passing on to the final fulfilment in the day of the LORD.

the house of Jacob. See note on Isaiah 2:5 .

the Holy One of Israel. See note on Isaiah 1:4 .

in truth. Hebrew. be'emeth. Occurs three times in the "former" portion (here; Isaiah 16:5 ; Isaiah 38:3 ); and twice in the "latter" portion (Isaiah 48:1 ; Isaiah 61:8 ). See App-79 .


Verse 21

The remnant shall return. Hebrew. Shear-jashub . See Isaiah 7:3 . So they did. Compare 2 Chronicles 30:1-13 , esp. Isaiah 10:6 .


Verse 22

though, &c. Quoted in Romans 9:27 , Romans 9:28 .

as the sand, &c. Figure of speech Paraemia . Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 22:17 ; Genesis 32:12 , &c).

consumption = full end, or finish. Hebrew. killayon. Reference to Pentateuch. Occurs only here, and Deuteronomy 28:65 . App-92 .

with = in.


Verse 23

consumption = consummation. Hebrew. kalfih,

determined = decreed.

all. Some codices, with five early printed editions, omit "all".


Verse 24

smite thee with = smite thee [indeed] with, &c.

rod = club.


Verse 25

anger = anger [shall cease].


Verse 26

according to = like.

Midian. Compare Isaiah 9:4 , and Judges 7:25 .


Verse 27

shall be destroyed = will rot.

because of the anointing = before the face (at the sight) of the oil: i.e. in Gideon's lamps; and of the anointed One (Messiah).


Verse 28

He is come. This is a prophetic description of Sennacherib's advance against Judah.

Aiath = Ai: now et Tell, or Khan Haiyan.

laid up. In anticipation of a speedy conquest of Jerusalem.

carriages = baggage (Old English). Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct) for what is carried.


Verse 29

the passage = the ravine: i.e. Wady Suweinit. Compare lSamaritan Pentateuch Isa 13:23 .

Geba. Now Jeb'a, near Michmash. Eamah. Now er Ram, five miles north of Jerusalem.

Gibeah. Now Tell el Ful, between Jerusalem and Emmaus, two and a half miles north of Jerusalem.


Verse 30

Gallim. Not identified. Probably Beitfala' near Bethlehem.

Laish. Not Laish in the tribe of Dan. Anathoth. Now 'Anata. Three miles north-east of Jerusalem.


Verse 31

Madmenah. Not identified. A town of Benjamin, near Jerusalem. See note on Isaiah 25:10 .

Gebim. Not identified. North of Jerusalem.


Verse 32

Nob. A city of the priests, in sight of Jerusalem, from whence Sennacherib shook his hand against the city. Nob only a half day's journey from Jerusalem.


Verse 34

forest. Authorized Version, edition 1611, reads., "forests" (plural) These are Sennacherib's own figures of himself. See 2 Kings 19:23 . Compare Isaiah 29:17 . Ezekiel 31:3-8 . Note the contrast in Isaiah 11:1 .


Chapter 11

Verse 1

And = But. Note the same order of events in Revelation 19:0 and Revelation 20:0 , as in Isaiah 10:0 and Isaiah 11:0 .

a rod = a sprout: occurs again only in Proverbs 14:3 . Note the sublime contrast with Isaiah 10:33 , Isaiah 10:34 .

stem = stump, Appropriate for Jesse, not David.

Branch = Shoot or Scion. Hebrew. nezer . Nothing to do with "Nazareth". See note on Matthew 2:23 . Not the same word as in Isaiah 4:2 ; see note there.


Verse 2

spirit. Hebrew. App-9 . Same word as Isaiah 11:4 , " breath" and Isaiah 11:15 "wind".

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4 .

rest upon Him. Compare Isaiah 61:1 . A prophecy which is appropriated by Christ (Luke 4:16-21 ).

of. Genitive of Origin and Efficient Cause. App-17 .

understanding = discernment.


Verse 3

shall make Him of quick understanding. Or, His delight shall be; or, the reverence of Jehovah shall be fragrance to Him. Compare Genesis 8:21 .Leviticus 26:31 .

and. Some codices, with two early printed editions, Aramaean, Septuagint, and Vulgate, omit this "and".

not judge, &c. Compare 1 Samuel 16:7 .

reprove = administer judgment.


Verse 4

poor = impoverished, reduced. Hebrew. dal. See note on "poverty" (Proverbs 6:11 ).

reprove = set right, or righten.

smite. Same word as in Isaiah 11:15 .

the earth. Some codices read 'driz, "the oppressor", for erez, "the earth". This reading is confirmed by the Structure of the clause (which is an Introversion): He shall smite the oppressor with the rod of His mouth and with the blast of His lips shall He slay the lawless one . This reading ("oppressor", for "the earth ") depends on whether the first letter is Aleph (=') or Ayin (= '). If with the word is ' erez , earth; and if with it is 'ariz, oppression. These two letters are often interchanged. See notes on Psalms 28:8 (their); Isa 35:15 (tear me). Micah 1:10 (at all). Hosea 7:6 (baker sleepeth). The word ga'al (to redeem) is spelled with Aleph ('), but it has been mistaken for ga'al (to pollute), and is actually so rendered in Ezra 2:62 .Nehemiah 7:64 . Neh 59:3 ; Neh 63:3 .Lamentations 4:14 .Daniel 1:8 . Zephaniah 3:1 . Mai. Isaiah 1:7 ; while ga'al is properly so rendered in Leviticus 26:11 , Leviticus 26:15 , Leviticus 26:30 , Leviticus 26:43 , Lev 26:44 ; 2 Samuel 1:21 (vilely = as polluted). Job 21:10 (faileth), Jeremiah 14:19 (lothed), Ezekiel 16:45 . The word "power" is spelled 'a (with Aleph) in Psalms 76:7 , but 'oz (with Ayin (') in Isa 90:11 . See further note on Hosea 7:6 ("in their lying in wait"). The Massorah contains several lists of words in which these letters are interchanged. See Ginsburg's Massorah (Vol. I, p. 57, letter, 514 b, and Vol. II, p. 390, letter, 352-360, &c).

breath. Hebrew. ruach = blast, as in Exodus 15:8 ; Exodus 25:4 ; Exo 37:7 . 2 Kings 19:7 .

the wicked = the lawless one. Hebrew. rasha'. App-44 . (sing, not plural) Compare 2 Thessalonians 2:8 .


Verse 6

wolf. Figure of speech Ampliatio. App-6 .

little child = youth.


Verse 8


= viper's. Hebrew. zepha'. Occurs only here in "former" portion; and in Isaiah 59:5 in "latter". App-79 .


Verse 9

in all My holy mountain. This expression occurs in the "former" portion only here and Isaiah 27:13 , and in the "latter "portion in Isaiah 56:7 ; Isaiah 57:13 ; Isaiah 65:25 . It is to be distinguished from other expressions in which the word "mountain" occurs.

shall be = shall assuredly become.

the knowledge. This is the sign of the fulness of blessing. See note on Isaiah 1:3 ; Compare Isaiah 6:3 . Reference to Pentateuch (Numbers 14:21 ). App-92 .


Verse 10

shall be = - shall come to be. Quoted in Romans 15:12 .

Root = sapling.

people = peoples.

Gentiles = nations.

glorious = glory.


Verse 11

the second time. Reference to Pentateuch, (the first time being Ex. Isa 15:16 , Isa 15:17 ). App-92 .

Pathros = Upper Egypt.

islands = maritime countries. Hebrew. 'i . Occurs in "former" portion, here; Isaiah 20:6 ; Isaiah 23:2 , Isaiah 23:6 ; Isaiah 24:15 ; and in the "latter" portion, in Isaiah 40:15 ; Isaiah 41:1 , Isaiah 41:5 ; Isaiah 42:4 , Isaiah 42:10 , &c.


Verse 12

assemble = gather in.

outcasts. dispersed. Note these two words as applied respectively to Israel and Judah: the former, masculine; the latter, feminine.

gather together = gather out.


Verse 13

Ephraim. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Part), for the whole of the ten tribes.


Verse 14

fly = flee .

them = the sons of. Moab. See note on Isaiah 15:1 .

children = sons.


Verse 15

tongue = gulf.

His mighty = the full force, spirit, or blast, as in Isaiah 11:4 ("breath").

wind = Hebrew. ruach .

the river: i.e. the Euphrates.

dryshod. Hebrew in shoes.


Verse 16

highway. See note on Isaiah 7:3 .

like as it was. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 14:22 ). App-92 .

in the day = when. See note on Genesis 2:17 , and App-18 .


Chapter 12

Verse 1

LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4 .


Verse 2

GOD. Hebrew El. App-4 .

trust = confide in. Hebrew. batah. App-69 .

THE LORD. Hebrew Jah. App-4 .

JEHOVAH. One of the four passages where Jehovah is transliterated instead of being translated (Exodus 6:3 .Psalms 83:18 , and Isaiah 26:4 ). Also one of several words where different type is used. See App-48.

my strength and my song. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 15:2 ).


Verse 3

salvation. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 49:18 . Exodus 14:13 ; Exodus 15:2 .Deuteronomy 32:15Deuteronomy 32:15 ). App-92 .


Verse 4

people = peoples.

exalted. Compare Isaiah 2:11 , Isaiah 2:17 , "in that day".


Verse 5

Sing = Sing praise. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 15:1 , Exodus 15:21 ).


Verse 6

inhabitant = inhabitress.