Christian Churches of God
Commentary on the Koran: Surah 59 “The Exile”
(Edition 1.0 20180423-20180423)
Al-Hashr Exile takes its name from verses 2-17 which refers to the exile of the Bani Nadr, a Jewish tribe at Al-Madinah in the Fourth year of the Hijrah or 625 CE.
Commentary on the Koran: Surah 59 “The Exile”
Pickthall Translation; Bible Quotes are from the English Standard Version unless otherwise noted.
Al-Hashr “The Exile” takes its name from verses 2-17 referring to the exile of the Bani Nadir. They were a Jewish tribe of Al–Madinah who were involved in treason and projected murder of the prophet. They had their property confiscated also. The Hypocrites, as the lukewarm Muslims were called (as were the Laodiceans of the Last Days also), secretly sympathised with these Jews. The Hypocrites’ opposition to the Muslims had grown stronger since the reverses of Mt Uhud. However, when the Muslims marched against the Bani Nadir in their strong towers, the Hypocrites did nothing. When at length the Jews were reduced and exiled the Hypocrites did nothing and did not go with them into exile despite their previous assurances.
The date of the Surah is the Fourth year of the Hijrah or 625 CE.
59.1. All that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth glorifieth Allah, and He is the Mighty, the Wise.
In Psalm 148 all of creation is urged to sing praises to the Almighty God.
59.2. He it is Who hath caused those of the People of the Scripture who disbelieved to go forth from their homes unto the first exile. Ye deemed not that they would go forth, while they deemed that their strongholds would protect them from Allah. But Allah reached them from a place whereof they recked not, and cast terror in their hearts so that they ruined their houses with their own hands and the hands of the believers. So learn a lesson, O ye who have eyes!
59.3. And if Allah had not decreed migration for them, He verily would have punished them in the world, and theirs in the Hereafter is the punishment of the Fire.
59.4. That is because they were opposed to Allah and His messenger; and whoso is opposed to Allah, (for him) verily Allah is stern in reprisal.
The Hypocrites, as supposed allies of the Jews of the Bani Nadir, did not come to their aid when they were under siege by the Muslims and they surrendered. The Jews were told to go into exile and on their way out they destroyed their houses and the Muslims finished the demolition of their houses after they left. A lesson indeed to those who are able to see. These Jews broke their truce with the Muslims and paid a price for their folly. They were punished by having to go into exile for life and were consigned to the Second Resurrection. They opposed the Almighty and His prophet and God gave them their due reward for their deeds.
Earlier Judah was given 40 years to repent of her evil ways after the ministry of Messiah but they did not do so. They killed each other and destroyed Jerusalem before the Roman armies surrounded Jerusalem on 1 Abib 70 CE, and completed the destruction in accordance with the Sign of Jonah and the prophecies of Daniel and sent the Jews into dispersion. It seems that succeeding generations do not learn from the consequences suffered by their ancestors. So it is going to happen to the wayward communities of today who refuse to heed the warnings of the messengers (see The Sign of Jonah and the History of the Reconstruction of the Temple (No. 013)).
59.5. Whatsoever palm-trees ye cut down or left standing on their roots, it was by Allah's leave, in order that He might confound the evil-livers.
Deuteronomy 20:20 Only the trees that you know are not trees for food you may destroy and cut down, that you may build siegeworks against the city that makes war with you, until it falls.
James 4:6 But he gives more grace. Therefore it says, “God opposes the proud but gives grace to the humble.”
Psalm 37:9 For the evildoers shall be cut off, but those who wait for the LORD shall inherit the land.
59.6. And that which Allah gave as spoil unto His messenger from them, ye urged not any horse or riding-camel for the sake thereof, but Allah giveth His messenger lordship over whom He will. Allah is Able to do all things.
59.7. That which Allah giveth as spoil unto His messenger from the people of the townships, it is for Allah and His messenger and for the near of kin and the orphans and the needy and the wayfarer, that it become not a commodity between the rich among you. And whatsoever the messenger giveth you, take it. And whatsoever he forbiddeth, abstain (from it). And keep your duty to Allah. Lo! Allah is stern in reprisal.
59.8. And (it is) for the poor fugitives who have been driven out from their homes and their belongings, who seek bounty from Allah and help Allah and His messenger. They are the loyal.
Romans 9:18 So then he has mercy on whomever he wills, and he hardens whomever he wills.
Matthew 20:15 Am I not allowed to do what I choose with what belongs to me? Or do you begrudge my generosity?’
Psalm 115:3 Our God is in the heavens; he does all that he pleases.
All that is in the heavens and the earth belongs to God and He can do as He pleases to give to whom He will. If He decrees that the spoil belongs to the Prophet and some is to benefit the next of kin, the orphans, the needy and the wayfarer so be it. If the Prophet gave some away as he pleases to those who did not contribute in any way they were allowed to take it. The spoil is also for the fugitives who were driven away from their homes by the conflict and lost their belongings.
59.9. Those who entered the city and the faith before them love those who flee unto them for refuge, and find in their breasts no need for that which hath been given them, but prefer (the fugitives) above themselves though poverty become their lot. And whoso is saved from his own avarice - such are they who are successful.
59.10. And those who came (into the faith) after them say: Our Lord! Forgive us and our brethren who were before us in the faith, and place not in our hearts any rancour toward those who believe. Our Lord! Thou art Full of Pity, Merciful.
Read Matthew 25:34-40 on the deeds of the called and chosen out of this world.
Deuteronomy 15:7-8 If among you, one of your brothers should become poor, in any of your towns within your land that the LORD your God is giving you, you shall not harden your heart or shut your hand against your poor brother, 8but you shall open your hand to him and lend him sufficient for his need, whatever it may be.
Luke 12:15 And he said to them, “Take care, and be on your guard against all covetousness, for one’s life does not consist in the abundance of his possessions.”
1John 3:17 But if anyone has the world’s goods and sees his brother in need, yet closes his heart against him, how does God’s love abide in him?
Isaiah 58:7 Is it not to share your bread with the hungry and bring the homeless poor into your house; when you see the naked, to cover him, and not to hide yourself from your own flesh?
Isaiah 58:10 if you pour yourself out for the hungry and satisfy the desire of the afflicted, then shall your light rise in the darkness and your gloom be as the noonday.
1Timothy 5:8 But if anyone does not provide for his relatives, and especially for members of his household, he has denied the faith and is worse than an unbeliever.
Galatians 6:10 So then, as we have opportunity, let us do good to everyone, and especially to those who are of the household of faith.
This next section covers those of the Hypocrites who assure their disbelieving brethren among the people of the Scriptures who were Jews and not of the faith that were with them but were not.
59.11. Hast thou not observed those who are hypocrites, (how) they tell their brethren who disbelieve among the People of the Scripture: If ye are driven out, we surely will go out with you, and we will never obey anyone against you, and if ye are attacked we verily will help you. And Allah beareth witness that they verily are liars.
59.12. (For) indeed if they are driven out they go not out with them, and indeed if they are attacked they help them not, and indeed if they had helped them they would have turned and fled, and then they would not have been victorious.
59.13. Ye are more awful as a fear in their bosoms than Allah. That is because they are a folk who understand not.
59.14. They will not fight against you in a body save in fortified villages or from behind walls. Their adversity among themselves is very great. Ye think of them as a whole whereas their hearts are divers. That is because they are a folk who have no sense.
59.15. On the likeness of those (who suffered) a short time before them, they taste the ill-effects of their own conduct, and theirs is painful punishment.
59.16. (And the hypocrites are) on the likeness of the devil when he telleth man to disbelieve, then, when he disbelieveth saith: Lo! I am quit of thee. Lo! I fear Allah, the Lord of the Worlds.
59.17. And the consequence for both will be that they are in the Fire, therein abiding. Such is the reward of evil-doers.
Matthew 24:12 And because lawlessness will be increased, the love of many will grow cold.
Psalm 33:13-15 The LORD looks down from heaven; he sees all the children of man; 14from where he sits enthroned he looks out on all the inhabitants of the earth, 15he who fashions the hearts of them all and observes all their deeds.
James 4:1-4 What causes quarrels and what causes fights among you? Is it not this, that your passions are at war within you? 2You desire and do not have, so you murder. You covet and cannot obtain, so you fight and quarrel. You do not have, because you do not ask. 3You ask and do not receive, because you ask wrongly, to spend it on your passions. 4You adulterous people! Do you not know that friendship with the world is enmity with God? Therefore whoever wishes to be a friend of the world makes himself an enemy of God.
1Timothy 6:6 But godliness with contentment is great gain’
Jeremiah 17:9 The heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately sick; who can understand it?
Psalm 118:8-9 It is better to take refuge in the LORD than to trust in man. 9It is better to take refuge in the LORD than to trust in princes.
They are for you and with you so long as it serves their selfish interest. Only the people of God keep their word even when it may hurt them. The world does not.
Refer to Romans 8:7 and John 8:44 in Surah 58 at ayat 22 and also Luke 12:15 at ayat 59.10 above.
Job 15:35 they conceive mischief and bring forth evil and their heart prepares deceit. (RSV)
James 2:19 you believe that God is one; you do well. Even the demons believe—and shudder!
Matthew 25:41 Then he will say to those on his left, ‘Depart from me, you cursed, into the eternal fire prepared for the devil and his angels.
59.18. O ye who believe! Observe your duty to Allah. And let every soul look to that which it sendeth on before for the morrow. And observe your duty to Allah. Lo! Allah is Informed of what ye do.
Deuteronomy 10:12-13 And now, Israel, what does the LORD your God require of you, but to fear the LORD your God, to walk in all his ways, to love him, to serve the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul, 13and to keep the commandments and statutes of the LORD, which I am commanding you today for your good?
Refer to Micah 6:8 in Commentary on Koran: Surah 30 (No. Q030) at ayat 31; 1Timothy 5:24-25 in Commentary on the Koran: Surah 41 (No. Q041) at ayat 29; and Ecclesiastes 12:13-14 Commentary on the Koran: Surah 43 (No. Q043) at ayat 64.
59.19. And be not ye as those who forgot Allah, therefor He caused them to forget their souls. Such are the evil-doers.
See Romans 8:7 in Commentary on the Koran: Surah 58 (No. Q058) at ayat 22.
Matthew 16:26 For what will it profit a man if he gains the whole world and forfeits his soul? Or what shall a man give in return for his soul?
Psalm 49:8 for the ransom of their life is costly and can never suffice,
Hebrews 3:12-13 Take care, brothers, lest there be in any of you an evil, unbelieving heart, leading you to fall away from the living God. 13But exhort one another every day, as long as it is called “today,” that none of you may be hardened by the deceitfulness of sin.
Hebrews 10:24 And let us consider how to stir up one another to love and good works,
59.20. Not equal are the owners of the Fire and the owners of the Garden. The owners of the Garden, they are the victorious.
One group attains eternal life in the First Resurrection, the other is consigned to the Second Resurrection to face intensive corrective training to lead them to repentance. If they do not repent they will face the Second Death and the Lake of Fire.
59.21. If We had caused this Qur'an to descend upon a mountain, thou (O Muhammad) verily hadst seen it humbled, rent asunder by the fear of Allah. Such similitudes coin We for mankind that haply they may reflect.
Exodus 19:18 Now Mount Sinai was wrapped in smoke because the LORD had descended on it in fire. The smoke of it went up like the smoke of a kiln, and the whole mountain trembled greatly.
Psalm 97:5 The mountains melt like wax before the LORD, before the Lord of all the earth.
Nahum 1:5 The mountains quake before him; the hills melt; the earth heaves before him, the world and all who dwell in it.
Psalm 106:13 But they soon forgot his works; they did not wait for his counsel
59.22. He is Allah, than Whom there is no other God, the Knower of the Invisible and the Visible. He is the Beneficent, Merciful.
59.23. He is Allah, than Whom there is no other God, the Sovereign Lord, the Holy One, Peace, the Keeper of Faith, the Guardian, the Majestic, the Compeller, the Superb. Glorified be Allah from all that they ascribe as partner (unto Him).
59.24. He is Allah, the Creator, the Shaper out of naught, the Fashioner. His are the most beautiful names. All that is in the heavens and the earth glorifieth Him, and He is the Mighty, the Wise.
See Psalm 145:8 at ayat 57.10 and Psalm 97:9 at ayat 57.24 in Surah 57.
Refer to Commentary on Koran: Surah 30 (No. Q030) for Hebrews 4:13 at ayat 1 and 1Chronicles 29:11-12 at ayat 28.
Refer also to Revelation 4:11 in Commentary on the Koran: Surah 39 (No. Q039) at ayat 4; Jude 1:25 in Commentary on the Koran: Surah 40 (No. Q040) at ayat 12, and 1Timothy 1:17 in Commentary on the Koran: Surah 42 (No. Q042) at ayat 5.
Isaiah 46:9-10 Remember the former things of old; for I am God, and there is no other; I am God, and there is none like me, 10declaring the end from the beginning and from ancient times things not yet done, saying, ‘My counsel shall stand, and I will accomplish all my purpose,’
Psalm 146:6 who made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them, who keeps faith forever
2Thessalonians 3:3 But the Lord is faithful. He will establish you and guard you against the evil one.
Even as God strengthened the faithful and delivered the treacherous into exile in the hands of the faithful they still failed to learn what was required of them.