Christian Churches of God

No. Q015

 

 

 

Commentary on the Koran:

Surah 15 “AL-HIJR”

 

(Edition 1.5 20170705-20170710)

 

This Surah is named for the location of the people of A’ad and Thamud of the sons of Shem who were actually the progenitors of the Arabs and those progenitors were not simply the sons of Abraham in Keturah and Ishmael. These were also the progenitors of Amalekites of the wars of the Last Days.

 

 

 

 

Christian Churches of God

PO Box 369,  WODEN  ACT 2606,  AUSTRALIA

 

E-mail: secretary@ccg.org

 

 

 

(Copyright © 2017 Wade Cox and Alan Brach)

 

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 Commentary on the Koran: Surah 15 Al-Hijr  



Pickthal’s translation with biblical quotes from the RSV unless otherwise noted.

 

Introduction

(Reference links are to the various Wikipedia articles.)

 

Al Hijr takes its name from what appears to be a place name derived from verses 80-84. These people were, from the text of the Surah, cave dwellers who carved dwellings out of the hills.  They sinned and ignored the prophets (e.g. Hud and Salih) cf. Surahs above) sent to them and appear to have been destroyed (except for one tribe).

 

Al Hijr is the locale of the tribe of Thamud who succeeded the A’ad as rulers in Arabia. The Surah Al Qamar describes how they of Thamud were destroyed by a bolt of lightning which later academics have rationalised as a volcanic eruption. Modern authorities agree that there is only one tribe of the Thamud left and that is the tribe of the Banu Thaqif south of Mecca. 

 

These, as we saw, were derived from the sons of Shem and not Abraham and they were Arabs, and so we must deduce that the Arabs are derived from the descendants of Shem and are much more widespread than just being the sons of Keturah and the sons of Ishmael.

 

In their history we see that the ruling tribes descended from the sons of Shem according to Ibn Kaldun (cf. Wikipedia).

 

“Historian and scholar, Ibn Khaldun

 also mentions the Thamud several times in his universal history al-Kitābu l-ʻibar (Arabicالـكـتـاب الـعـبـر‎‎) (the Book of the Evidence) written in the late 14th century, but only in passing, seldom giving much information.

This can be illustrated by what happened among the nations. When the royal authority of ʿĀd was wiped out, their brethren, the Thamud, took over. They were succeeded, in turn, by their brethren, the Amalekites. The Amalekites were succeeded by their brethren, the Himyar. The Himyar were succeeded by their brethren, the Tubba's, who belonged to the Himyar. They, likewise, were succeeded, by the Adhwa'.130 Then, the Mudar came to power.

 

— Muqaddimah ("Introduction"), Chapter II [8]

 

The Yemenal-Bahrayn, ‘Oman, and the Jazirah

 have long been in Arab possession, but for thousands of years, the rule of these areas has belonged to different (Arab) nations in succession. They also founded cities and towns (there) and promoted the development of sedentary culture and luxury to the highest degree. Among such nations were the ‘Ad and the Thamud, the Amalekites and the Himyar after them, the Tubba‘s, and the other South Arabian rulers (Adhwa) . There was a long period of royal authority and sedentary culture. The coloring of (sedentary culture) established itself firmly. The crafts became abundant and firmly rooted. They were not wiped out simultaneously with (each ruling) dynasty, as we have stated. They have remained and have always renewed themselves down to this time, and they have become the specialty of that area. Such (special Yemenite) crafts are embroidered fabrics, striped cloth, and finely woven garments and silks.”

— Muqaddimah Chapter V [9]

 

From this text we must deduce that the Amalekites are an Arab tribe which carries their line and sovereignty. The final battle faced by authority is of Amalek.  The last war of Israel will be with the Amalekites according to prophecy. The Koran is written to bring them to repentance and save them, but it is unlikely they will repent and the final wars will occur as foretold.

 

The Ḥimyarite Kingdom, which was a Yemeni Kingdom, was the dominant polity in Arabia until 525 CE. Its economy was based on agriculture, and foreign trade centered on the export of frankincense and myrrh. It took over from the Amalekites ca 110 BCE and then was in turn replaced from 525 CE by the Tubba, brethren of the Himyar involving the area of Aksum in Ethiopia. They were the ruling polity up until the rise of Islam under the Arabian Prophet and the Rightly Guided Caliphs from ca 622 CE onwards.

 

In examining this period we see the effect of the Jewish conversions in Himyar in the Arabian Peninsula and the Jewish-Pagan wars with the Christians both Binitarian and Unitarian. Many of the Jews were converted from Arab tribes in part or in whole. After the Jews had been expelled from Judea by the Romans from 70 CE to 135 and onwards they moved into the neighbouring countries and many conversions occurred. The last major conversion to Judaism was in the north in the Black Sea and Steppes area of the Khazars in 730 CE. These people became the bulk of the Ashkenazi Jews.

 

The end of the Amalekites coincided with the capture and conversion of the Edomites by John Hyrcanus of the Maccabees. He was a Hasmonean (Maccabeeanleader and a Jewish High Priest of the 2nd century BCE (born 164 BCE, reigned from 134 BCE until his death in 104 BCE). He opposed the rise of the Parthians and their occupation of Hyrcania which is a conjectural origin of his name.

 

Amalekite power in the West from Petra was broken with Edomite subjection and when they ceased to control the Arabian and Edomite system in the West and at Petra. Their demise over the Arabian south-west led to the weakening of the Amalekite power and trade.

 

Their influence with the Phoenicians continued and led to the military influence of Herod with the Romans through the battle of Actium (2nd September 31 BCE) which enabled the Idumean Kingdom to be established from Judea with Herod as King with the rise of the Roman power into Syria and the Levant with the Parthians in control of the East, including Arabia and Persia and Iraq.

 

The Battle of Actium was a naval battle off a promontory in the north of Acarnania, on the western coast of Greece, where Octavian (known as the emperor Augustus after 27 BCE by his decisive victory over Mark Antony) became the undisputed master of the Roman world. Herod was empowered by supporting Octavian against Mark Anthony and the Egyptians under Cleopatra.

 

The weakening of the Amalekite power from the rise of the Parthians and the Maccabees in Judea, though opposed initially, enabled the rise of the Himyar in the Yemen. They became the heirs of the Amalekites.

 

Early Rule of Himyar (115 BCE-300 CE)

The "Homerite Kingdom" as it was termed by the Mediterranean powers is described in the southern tip of the Arabian peninsula in the 1st century Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.

 

(cf. Wikipedia links) During this period, the Kingdom of Ḥimyar conquered the kingdoms of Saba' and Qataban and took Raydan/Zafar for its capital instead of Ma'rib; therefore, they have been called Dhu Raydan (Ar: ذو ريدان). In the early 2nd century AD Saba' and Qataban split from the Kingdom of Ḥimyar; yet in a few decades Qataban was conquered by Hadhramaut (conquered in its turn by Ḥimyar in the 4th century), whereas Saba' was finally conquered by Ḥimyar in the late 3rd century.[4]

 

The Nabataeans ruled from Petra to Damascus and East into Arabia after the demise of the Idumean kingdom and the destruction of Jerusalem. The Nabatæan kingdom ended under Trajan with the nearer portions of it brought into the Roman province of Arabia. In 106 CE, so Schurer records, Arabia belonged to Petra; in other words, Nabataean Arabia was made a Roman province by Cornelius Palma, governor of Syria on the orders of Trajan (Schurer., p. 585) (see also the history in  Descendants of Abraham Part III: Ishmael (No. 212C)).

 

The defeat of the Parthians by the Romans after they were weakened by a conflict with the Persians caused major dislocations in the area and a vast section in the north moved into Europe and the Himyar rule was free to develop in Arabia.

 

The horde going into Europe included the Angles, Saxons and Jutes as well as the Norse groups and the Lombards, Heruli and the Vandals and Goths. These tribes were of two groups. They were two thirds Hg. R1b and some Hg G. and one third Hg I Semitic tribes. The Anglo-Saxon calendar was based on the New Year from the March Equinox equivalent to the Israelite Calendar with the New Year on 25 March as a standard date. The calendar was called the Almanac which is Arabic for “the Counting.” There is a copy extant in the Cambridge Library. All months are based on the New Moon Conjunctions and are 59 day bi- months.

 

The Wikipedia article states “The Himyarite kings appear to have abandoned polytheism and converted to Judaism around the year 380, several decades after the conversion of the Ethiopian Kingdom of Aksum to Christianity (340), though no changes occurred in its script, calendar, or language (unlike Aksum).[5] This date marks the end of an era in which numerous inscriptions record the names and deeds of kings, and dedicate buildings to local (e.g. Wagal and Simyada) and major (e.g. Almaqah) gods. From the 380s, temples were abandoned and dedications to the old gods ceased, replaced by references to Rahmanan, ‘the Lord of Heaven’ or ‘Lord of Heaven and Earth’.[6] The political context for this conversion may have been Arabia's interest in maintaining neutrality and good trade relations with the competing empires of Byzantium, which first adopted Christianity under Constantine the Great and the Sasanian Empire, which alternated between Zurvanism and Manichaeism.[7]

 

One of the first Jewish kings, Tub'a Abu Kariba As'ad (r. 390-420), is believed to have converted following a military expedition into northern Arabia in an effort to eliminate Byzantine influence. The Byzantine emperors had long eyed the Arabian Peninsula and sought to control the lucrative spice trade and route to India. The Byzantines hoped to establish a protectorate by converting the inhabitants to Christianity. Some progress had been made in northern Arabia but with little success in Ḥimyar.”[7]

 

Abu-Kariba's forces reached Yathrib and, meeting no resistance, they left the king's son behind as governor over the city. The forces of Yathrib killed Abu-Kariba’s son. He turned back on the city. After cutting down the palm trees from which the inhabitants derived their main income, he laid siege to the city. The Jews of Yathrib are recorded to have fought side by side with their pagan neighbors.

 

“During the siege Abu-Kariba fell severely ill. Two Jewish scholars in Yathrib, Ka'ab and Asad by name, called on the king in his camp and used their knowledge of medicine to restore him to health.” (cf. Wikipedia art.)  They healed the king and pleaded with him to lift the siege and make peace. He was persuaded and he called off his attack. He also embraced Judaism along with his entire army.

 

The Jewish scholars accompanied the Ḥimyarite king back to his capital, where he demanded that all his people convert to Judaism. Initially reluctant, many Himyarites embraced the truth of the Jewish faith, and supported Judaism. Some historians argue that Judaism, by its philosophical, simplistic and austere nature, was attractive to the nature of the Semitic people.[8]

 

Abu-Kariba met his death under unclear circumstances. Perhaps his own soldiers killed him. He left three sons, Ḥasan, 'Amru, and Zorah, all of whom were minors at the time. After Abu-Kariba's death, a pagan named Dhū-Shanatir seized the throne.[7]

 

“The first Aksumite invasion took place sometime in the 5th century and was triggered by the murder of some Byzantine merchants. Two Christian sources, including the Zuqnin Chronicle once attributed to Dionysius I Telmaharoyo, which was written over three centuries later, [indicate] the Himyarite king motivated the killings by stating, "This is because in the countries of the Romans the Christians wickedly harass the Jews who live in their countries and kill many of them. Therefore I am putting these men to death."[11] In retaliation the Aksumites invaded the land and thereafter established a bishopric and built Christian churches in Zafar.

 

The Jewish monarchy in Ḥimyar ended with the reign of Yṳsuf, known as Dhū Nuwās, who in 523 attacked the Christian population of Najrān. [12] By the year 500, on the eve of the regency of Marthad'īlān Yanūf (c. 500-515) the kingdom of Himyar exercised control over much of the Arabian peninsula.[13] It was during his reign that the Himyarite kingdom began to become a tributary state of Aksum, the process concluding by the time of the reign of Ma'dīkarib Yafur (519-522), a Christian appointed by the Aksumites. A coup d'état ensued, with Dhu Nuwas, who had attempted to overthrow the dynasty several years earlier, assuming authority after killing the Aksumite garrison in Zafār. He then proceeded to engage the Ethiopian guards, and their Christian allies in the Tihāma coastal lowlands facing Abyssinia. After taking the port of Mukhawān, where he burnt down the local church, and advanced south as far as the fortress of Maddabān overlooking the Bab-el-Mandeb, where he expected Kaleb Ella Aṣbeḥa to land his fleet.[6] The campaign eventually killed between 11,500 and 14,000, and took a similar number of prisoners.[13] Mukhawān became his base, while he dispatched one of his generals, a Jewish prince by the name of Sharaḥ'īl Yaqbul dhu Yaz'an against Najrān, a predominantly Christian oasis, with a good number of Jews, who had supported with troops his earlier rebellion, but refused to recognize his authority after the massacre of the Aksumite garrison. The general blocked the caravan route connecting Najrān with Eastern Arabia”.[6]

(cf. Wikipedia article Himyar)

 

The Amalekites were removed by the Himyar but they did not disappear and up until 110 BCE they had been the ruling influence in Arabia. 

 

The Book of Esther records that they were stopped in their attempted destruction of the Jews under Haman during the reign of the Persians, during the Jewish captivity (cf. Commentary on Esther (No. F017)).

 

The Amalekites: One or more peoples

Scripture portrays the Amalekites as descendants of Amalek, a grandson of Esau,[5] through Eliphaz of Teman (and Timna his Horite concubine the sister of Lotan), who derive their origins from Edom (Genesis 36:11–12, 15–16).  Genesis 14:7 shows that the use of "Amalekites" refers to a people in the area of Kadesh that was in place in the days of Abraham. That area was not occupied by the sons of Esau, i.e. the Edomites, until the captivity of Judah.  Rashi holds that this reference refers to the later occupation and other scholars agree with this position that it is a later editorial insertion (i.e. Freedman). The likelihood, however, of the sons of Amalek numbering or rivalling Israel under Joash and being named for one of the grandsons of Esau is difficult. However, Eliphaz was with Job son of Issachar in the Arabian peninsula and they may have merged with the Arabian elements before the time of Moses when he went to Midian. Job has been attributed to Moses in the time of his sojourn in Midian.

 

The Wikipedia article on Amalek and the Amalekites refers to later Arabic scholars. It states that “During the Islamic Golden Age, certain Arabic writings claimed that the Amalekites existed long before Abraham.[13] Some Muslim historians claimed that the Amalekites who fought Joshua were descendants of the inhabitants of North Africa. Al-Masudi said that the Amalekites originated in the region of Mecca well before the days of Abraham.[citation needed] Ebn Arabshah purported that Amalek was a descendant of Ham, son of Noah”.[12][13]

 

It is, however, possible that the name Amalek may have been given to two different nations from two different ancestors. “The Arabians mention Imlik, Amalik, or Ameleka among the aborigines of Arabia, the remains of which were mingled with the descendants of Joktan and Adnan and became Mostarabs or Mocarabes, that is, Arabians mixed with foreigners”.[12] (Ibid)

 

The probable explanation is that there were two or more groups in the Arabian Peninsula and Sinai named Amalek and they became mingled over time. Their rule over the area succeeded the tribe of Thamud from A’ad the grandson of Shem in Arabia and that they actually came from that area South of Mecca adjacent to the Ishmaelite Qureysh at Mecca. The accounts of the Arabs mix them with Joktan Hebrews which moved into the area of Persia and as far as the Indus. The text in Genesis 14 links them as Allies of the Elamites and the Nations that were in the invasion of Sodom and the Jordan area and opposed and defeated by Abraham after the capture of Lot. It was for the reason that Abraham had killed the grandsons of Shem that he may have tithed to him as Melchisedek, priest of God.

 

Wikipedia holds that: “By the 19th Century, there was strong support by Western theologians for the idea that the nation of Amalek could have flourished before the time of Abraham. Matthew George Easton advocated that the Amalekites were not descendants of Amalek, by taking the literal approach to Genesis 14:7.[14] However, the modern biblical scholar David Freedman uses textual analysis to glean that the use of Amalekite in Genesis 14:7 is actually an anachronism,[9] a chronological inconsistency of (in this case) a group of people in a misplaced time. Also in the early 19th century, Richard Watson enumerated several speculative reasons for having a "more ancient Amalek" than Abraham.[13]

 

In the exegesis of Numbers 24:20 concerning Balaam's utterance: "Amalek was the first one of the nations, but his end afterward will be even his perishing", Richard Watson attempts to associate this passage to the "first one of the nations" that developed post-Flood.[13] According to Samuel Cox, the Amalekites were the "first" in their hostility toward the Israelites.”[15]

 

The article also states that many nomadic groups from the Arabian desert, apparently including Amalekites, have collectively been termed "Arab(s)".

 

We all understand that while considerable knowledge about nomadic Arabs has been recovered through archeological research, no specific artifacts or sites have been linked to Amalek with any certainty.[9] However, it is possible that some of the fortified settlements in the Negev highlands and even Tel Masos (near Beer-sheba) have Amalek connections.[16] Easton claims that the Babylonian inscription Sute refers to the Amalekites, as well as the Egyptian term Sittiu. Easton also claims that the Amarna tablets refer to the Amalekites under the general name Khabbatti, or "plunderers".[14]

 

It appears without doubt that the Amalekites referred to in Scripture were associated with the Elamites. They also were associated with the early sons of Shem. Eliphaz the Temanite features also in the book of Job. He was the father of Amalek of Edom.

 

The Amalekites occupied and ruled Arabia after the destruction of Thamud and that the area occupied by the descendants of Thamud were adjacent to Ishmaelite Qureysh of Mecca and that this Surah takes the name of that area as its title and holds a direct place in prophecy in relation to the last days in Scripture. The rejection of Scripture by Arabs probably stems from the prophecies of the Bible that deal with the events of the last days that show Middle East conflicts and the demise of the Arabian Peninsula,  and the Syrians, Lebanese, Gazans, Iraqis and many Persians due to their own wilful idolatrous disobedience.

 

*****

 

15.1. Alif. Lam. Ra. These are verses of the Scripture and a plain Reading.

15.2. It may be that those who disbelieve wish ardently that they were Muslims.

15.3. Let them eat and enjoy life, and let (false) hope beguile them. They will come to know!

15.4. And We destroyed no township but there was a known decree for it.

15.5. No nation can outstrip its term nor can they lag behind.

15.6. And they say: O thou unto whom the Reminder is revealed, lo! thou art indeed a madman!

15.7. Why bringest thou not angels unto us, if thou art of the truthful?

15.8. We send not down the angels save with the Fact, and in that case (the disbelievers) would not be tolerated.

 

See also 2Timothy 3:16-17; Deuteronomy 29:29 and 2Chronicles 36:15-16  in Commentary on the Koran: Surah 10 (No. Q010).

 

Psalm 32:8 I will instruct you and teach you in the way you should go; I will counsel you with my eye upon you.

 

Isaiah 48:17 Thus says the LORD, your Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel: "I am the LORD your God, who teaches you to profit, who leads you in the way you should go.


1John 2:16 For all that is in the world—the desires of the flesh and the desires of the eyes and pride of life—is not from the Father but is from the world.

 

Proverbs 27:20 Sheol and destruction are never satisfied, so the eyes of man are never satisfied. (LITV)

 

Ephesians 2:3 All of us once lived among these people, and followed the desires of our corrupt nature. We did what our corrupt desires and thoughts wanted us to do. So, because of our nature, we deserved God's anger just like everyone else. (GW)

 

Amos 3:7 For the Lord GOD does nothing without revealing his secret to his servants the prophets.

 

Ecclesiastes 3:1 For everything there is a season, and a time for every matter under heaven:

 

Romans  9:22 What if God, desiring to show his wrath and to make known his power, has endured with much patience vessels of wrath prepared for destruction,

 

Luke 16:31 He said to him, 'If they do not hear Moses and the Prophets, neither will they be convinced if someone should rise from the dead.'

 

Psalm 37:38 But transgressors shall be altogether destroyed; the future of the wicked shall be cut off.

 

The messenger delivers the message assigned to him and Allah will send the punishment. This is thus a prophecy to the inheritors of the rulership of the Arabs (at that time the Tubba, brothers of the Himyar) but it was to return to the centre of the Amalekites near Mecca from which the pagans would spring again. 

 

15.9. Lo! We, even We, reveal the Reminder, and lo! We verily are its Guardian.

 

The Muhammad Councils of the Churches of God are the guardians of the Revelation and the meaning of prophecy.

 

Isaiah 55:11 so shall my word be that goes out from my mouth; it shall not return to me empty, but it shall accomplish that which I purpose, and shall succeed in the thing for which I sent it.


Job 42:2 I know that you can do all things, and that no purpose of yours can be thwarted.

 

15.10. We verily sent (messengers) before thee among the factions of the men of old

15.11. And never came there unto them a messenger but they did mock him.

15.12. Thus do We make it traverse the hearts of the guilty:

15.13. They believe not therein, though the example of the men of old hath gone before.

5.14. And even if We opened unto them a gate of heaven and they kept mounting through it,

15.15. They would say: Our sight is wrong - nay, but we are folk bewitched.

 

See also 2Chronicles 36:15-16 in Commentary on the Koran: Surah 10 (No. Q010).

 

1Corinthians 10:11 Now these things happened to them as an example, but they were written down for our instruction, on whom the end of the ages has come.


Mankind does not learn from the past so they keep repeating the mistakes when the examples are there for all to see if they have understanding.

 

15.16. And verily in the heaven we have set mansions of the stars, and We have beautified it for beholders.

15.17. And We have guarded it from every outcast devil,

15.18. Save him who stealeth the hearing, and them doth a clear flame pursue.

 

Thus demons are prevented from returning to the heavens.

 

Psalm 147:4 He determines the number of the stars; he gives to all of them their names.

 

Isaiah 40:26 Lift up your eyes on high and see: who created these? He who brings out their host by number, calling them all by name, by the greatness of his might, and because he is strong in power not one is missing.

 

Psalm 59:17 O my Strength, I will sing praises to you, for you, O God, are my fortress, the God who shows me steadfast love.


God is a fortress to all of His creation.

 

Revelation 12:7-9 Now war arose in heaven, Michael and his angels fighting against the dragon. And the dragon and his angels fought back, 8but he was defeated, and there was no longer any place for them in heaven. 9And the great dragon was thrown down, that ancient serpent, who is called the devil and Satan, the deceiver of the whole world—he was thrown down to the earth, and his angels were thrown down with him.

 

15.19. And the earth have We spread out, and placed therein firm hills, and caused each seemly thing to grow therein.

15.20. And we have given unto you livelihoods therein, and unto those for whom ye provide not. 

 

Psalm 136:6 to him who spread out the earth above the waters, for his steadfast love endures forever;

 

Psalm 145:16 You open your hand; you satisfy the desire of every living thing.

 

Psalm 104:28 When you give it to them, they gather it up; when you open your hand, they are filled with good things.

 

15.21. And there is not a thing but with Us are the stores thereof. And we send it not down save in appointed measure.

15.22. And We send the winds fertilising, and cause water to descend from the sky, and give it you to drink. It is not ye who are the holders of the store thereof.

 

Deuteronomy 28:12 The LORD will open for you His good storehouse, the heavens, to give rain to your land in its season and to bless all the work of your hand; and you shall lend to many nations, but you shall not borrow. (NASB)

 

Malachi 3:10 Bring the full tithe into the storehouse, that there may be food in my house. And thereby put me to the test, says the LORD of hosts, if I will not open the windows of heaven for you and pour down for you a blessing until there is no more need.

 

Job 41:11 Who has first given to me, that I should repay him? Whatever is under the whole heaven is mine.

 

Deuteronomy 10:14 Behold, to the LORD your God belong heaven and the heaven of heavens, the earth with all that is in it.

 

15.23. Lo! and it is We, even We, Who quicken and give death, and We are the Inheritor.

 

See 1Samuel 2:6 and Ecclesiastes 12:7 in Commentary on the Koran: Surah 10 (No. Q010).

 

15.24. And verily We know the eager among you and verily We know the laggards.

15.25. Lo! thy Lord will gather them together. Lo! He is Wise, Aware.

 

Proverbs 6:6, 8-9 6Go to the ant, O sluggard; consider her ways, and be wise.

8 she prepares her bread in summer and gathers her food in harvest. 9How long will you lie there, O sluggard? When will you arise from your sleep?


Matthew 25:32 Before him will be gathered all the nations, and he will separate people one from another as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats.

 

Isaiah 29:15 Ah, you who hide deep from the LORD your counsel, whose deeds are in the dark, and who say, “Who sees us? Who knows us?” (ESV)

 

Refer to Psalm 147:5 in Commentary on the Koran: Surah 6 (No. Q006).

 

15.26. Verily We created man of potter's clay of black mud altered,

 

Jeremiah 18:6 O house of Israel, can I not do with you as this potter has done? declares the LORD. Behold, like the clay in the potter's hand, so are you in my hand, O house of Israel.

 

Job 10:9  Remember that you have made me like clay; and will you return me to the dust? (ESV)

 

15.27. And the jinn did We create aforetime of essential fire.

 

The elohim were created in the beginning from Spirit. The demons were all part of the elohim before their rebellion and still are but their power and time is limited.

 

Hebrews 1:14 Are they not all ministering spirits sent out to serve for the sake of those who are to inherit salvation?

 

Ezekiel 28:14,18  14You were an anointed guardian cherub. I placed you; you were on the holy mountain of God; in the midst of the stones of fire you walked.

18By the multitude of your iniquities, in the unrighteousness of your trade you profaned your sanctuaries; so I brought fire out from your midst; it consumed you, and I turned you to ashes on the earth in the sight of all who saw you.


The angels are ministering spirits. Satan walked in the midst of the stones of fire. After the last rebellion God is going to take the fire out of Satan and reduce him to ashes with all the demons.

 

15.28. And (remember) when thy Lord said unto the angels: Lo! I am creating a mortal out of potter's clay of black mud altered,

15.29. So, when I have made him and have breathed into him of My Spirit, do ye fall down, prostrating yourselves unto him.

15.30. So the angels fell prostrate, all of them together

15.31. Save Iblis. He refused to be among the prostrate.

15.32. He said: O Iblis! What aileth thee that thou art not among the prostrate?

15.33. He said: I am not one to prostrate myself unto a mortal whom Thou hast created out of potter's clay of black mud altered!

15.34. He said: Then go thou forth from hence, for lo! thou art outcast.

15.35. And lo! the curse shall be upon thee till the Day of Judgment.

15.36. He said: My Lord! Reprieve me till the day when they are raised.

15.37. He said: Then lo! thou art of those reprieved

15.38. Till the Day of appointed time. 

 

Genesis 3:14-15 The LORD God said to the serpent, “Because you have done this, cursed are you above all livestock and above all beasts of the field; on your belly you shall go, and dust you shall eat all the days of your life. 15I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your offspring and her offspring; he shall bruise your head, and you shall bruise his heel.” (ESV)

 

When the physical humans were formed from the dust of the ground the angelic beings were ordered to educate them and direct them in God’s ways. The fallen angelic Host led by Satan refused to do so knowing full well that these physical humans will eventually be elevated to the spiritual level to take over their current positions.

 

Satan and the fallen angelic Host will be reduced to the physical level after the final rebellion near the end of the Millennium and be killed and raised again as physical humans to undergo retraining and education during the Second Resurrection to lead them to repentance.

 

15.39. He said: My Lord! Because Thou hast sent me astray, I verily shall adorn the path of error for them in the earth, and shall mislead them every one,

15.40. Save such of them as are Thy perfectly devoted slaves.

15.41. He said: This is a right course incumbent upon Me:

15.42. Lo! as for My slaves, thou hast no power over any of them save such of the froward as follow thee,

15.43. And lo! for all such, hell will be the promised place.

15.44. It hath seven gates, and each gate hath an appointed portion. 

 

See Revelation 12:9 above.

 

1Peter 5:8 Be sober-minded; be watchful. Your adversary the devil prowls around like a roaring lion, seeking someone to devour.


Mark 4:15 And these are the ones along the path, where the word is sown: when they hear, Satan immediately comes and takes away the word that is sown in them.

 

James 4:7 Submit yourselves therefore to God. Resist the devil, and he will flee from you.


Matthew 24:24 For false christs and false prophets will arise and perform great signs and wonders, so as to lead astray, if possible, even the elect.

 

2Peter 2:9 then the Lord knows how to rescue the godly from trials, and to keep the unrighteous under punishment until the day of judgment, (ESV)

 

15.45. Lo! those who ward off (evil) are among gardens and watersprings.

15.46. (And it is said unto them): Enter them in peace, secure.

15.47. And We remove whatever rancour may be in their breasts. As brethren, face to face, (they rest) on couches raised.

15.48. Toil cometh not unto them there, nor will they be expelled from thence.

15.49. Announce, (O Muhammad) unto My slaves that verily I am the Forgiving, the Merciful,

15.50. And that My doom is the dolorous doom.

 

Colossians 3:23-24 Whatever you do, work heartily, as for the Lord and not for men, 24knowing that from the Lord you will receive the inheritance as your reward. You are serving the Lord Christ.

 

Galatians 6:9 And let us not grow weary of doing good, for in due season we will reap, if we do not give up.


James 1:12 Blessed is the man who remains steadfast under trial, for when he has stood the test he will receive the crown of life, which God has promised to those who love him.


Deuteronomy 5:33 You shall be careful therefore to do as the LORD your God has commanded you. You shall not turn aside to the right hand or to the left.

 

Romans 6:23 For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.

 

Jeremiah 17:10 "I the LORD search the heart and test the mind, to give every man according to his ways, according to the fruit of his deeds."

 

Revelation 22:12 Behold, I am coming soon, bringing my recompense with me, to repay each one for what he has done.

 

Revelation 2:17 He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches. To the one who conquers I will give some of the hidden manna, and I will give him a white stone, with a new name written on the stone that no one knows except the one who receives it.'

 

See also Micah 7:18 in Commentary on the Koran: Surah 10 (No. Q010).

 

The commandment keepers who abide by the testimony of Jesus will be in the First Resurrection. They will inherit eternal life and reign with Christ.

 

The wrong doers will die in their sins and get the Second Resurrection. If they still do not repent during the 100 years they will face the second death.

 

15.51. And tell them of Abraham's guests,

15.52. (How) when they came in unto him, and said: Peace. He said: Lo! we are afraid of you.

15.53. They said: Be not afraid! Lo! we bring thee good tidings of a boy possessing wisdom.

15.54. He said: Bring ye me good tidings (of a son) when old age hath overtaken me? Of what then can ye bring good tidings?

15.55. They said: We bring thee good tidings in truth. So be not thou of the despairing.

15.56. He said: And who despaireth of the mercy of his Lord save those who are astray?

 

Genesis 18:2, 10-15 2He lifted up his eyes and looked, and behold, three men were standing in front of him. When he saw them, he ran from the tent door to meet them and bowed himself to the earth,

10The LORD said, "I will surely return to you about this time next year, and Sarah your wife shall have a son." And Sarah was listening at the tent door behind him. 11Now Abraham and Sarah were old, advanced in years. The way of women had ceased to be with Sarah. 12So Sarah laughed to herself, saying, "After I am worn out, and my lord is old, shall I have pleasure?" 13The LORD said to Abraham, "Why did Sarah laugh and say, 'Shall I indeed bear a child, now that I am old?' 14Is anything too hard for the LORD? At the appointed time I will return to you, about this time next year, and Sarah shall have a son." 15But Sarah denied it, saying, "I did not laugh," for she was afraid. He said, "No, but you did laugh."

 

Psalm 25:3 Indeed, none who wait for you shall be put to shame; they shall be ashamed who are wantonly treacherous. (ESV)

 

15.57. He said: And afterward what is your business, O ye messengers (of Allah)?

15.58. They said: We have been sent unto a guilty folk,

15.59. (All) save the family of Lot. Them we shall deliver every one,

15.60. Except his wife, of whom We had decreed that she should be of those who stay behind.

 

Genesis 18:20-21, 32-33 20Then the LORD said, "Because the outcry against Sodom and Gomorrah is great and their sin is very grave, 21I will go down to see whether they have done altogether according to the outcry that has come to me. And if not, I will know."

32Then he said, "Oh let not the Lord be angry, and I will speak again but this once. Suppose ten are found there." He answered, "For the sake of ten I will not destroy it." 33And the LORD went his way, when he had finished speaking to Abraham, and Abraham returned to his place.

 

Genesis 19:15-16, 24-26 15As morning dawned, the angels urged Lot, saying, "Up! Take your wife and your two daughters who are here, lest you be swept away in the punishment of the city." 16But he lingered. So the men seized him and his wife and his two daughters by the hand, the LORD being merciful to him, and they brought him out and set him outside the city.

24Then the LORD rained on Sodom and Gomorrah sulfur and fire from the LORD out of heaven. 25And he overthrew those cities, and all the valley, and all the inhabitants of the cities, and what grew on the ground. 26But Lot's wife, behind him, looked back, and she became a pillar of salt.

 

15.61. And when the messengers came unto the family of Lot,

15.62. He said: Lo! ye are folk unknown (to me).

15.63. They said: Nay, but we bring thee that concerning which they keep disputing,

15.64. And bring thee the Truth, and lo! we are truth-tellers.

15.65. So travel with thy household in a portion of the night, and follow thou their backs. Let none of you turn round, but go whither ye are commanded.

15.66. And We made plain the case to him, that the root of them (who did wrong) was to be cut at early morn.

15.67. And the people of the city came, rejoicing at the news (of new arrivals).

15.68. He said: Lo! they are my guests. Affront me not!

15.69. And keep your duty to Allah, and shame me not!

15.70. They said; Have we not forbidden you from (entertaining) anyone?

15.71. He said: Here are my daughters, if ye must be doing (so).

15.72. By thy life (O Muhammad) they moved blindly in the frenzy of approaching death.

15.73. Then the (Awful) Cry overtook them at the sunrise.

15.74. And We utterly confounded them, and We rained upon them stones of heated clay.

15.75. Lo! therein verily are portents for those who read the signs.

15.76. And lo! it is upon a road still uneffaced.

15.77. Lo! therein is indeed a portent for believers.

15.78. And the dwellers in the wood indeed were evil-doers.

15.79. So we took vengeance on them; and lo! they both are on a high-road plain to see. 

 

The above ayats retell the story that is told in Genesis 19.

 

Verses 78 and 79 refer to another group of people but the moral of the story is the same. People refused to pay heed to the messenger sent to them and repent of their misdeeds and ended up in ruin and destruction.

 

This Surah is a warning to those of the Jordan plain and the later Arabs extending to the Arabs of the areas at Mecca and beyond over the peninsula.

 

15.80. And the dwellers in Al-Hijr denied (Our) messengers.

15.81. And we gave them Our revelations, but they were averse to them.

15.82. And they used to hew out dwellings from the hills, (wherein they dwelt) secure.

15.83. But the (Awful) Cry overtook them at the morning hour,

15.84. And that which they were wont to count as gain availed them not.

 

Messengers were sent to the dwellers in the rocky domain with revelations from Allah but they refused to pay heed to the messages and repent of their wicked deeds. They suffered ruin when destruction arrived suddenly at their door. Their caves and fortresses provided them no protection at all. Thus the dwellers in A’ad and Thamud were warned and then destroyed as the Sodomites were destroyed at the time of Lot.

 

Mankind should learn and reflect on the past history to avoid the dire consequences that befell communities that did not heed the warnings of the messengers sent to them.

 

Ecclesiastes 1:9 What has been is what will be, and what has been done is what will be done, and there is nothing new under the sun. (ESV)

 

1Corinthians 10:11  Now these things happened to them as an example, but they were written down for our instruction, on whom the end of the ages has come. (ESV)

 

Job 12:23 He makes nations great, and he destroys them; he enlarges nations, and leads them away.

 

Deuteronomy 32:39 See now that I, even I, am he, and there is no god beside me; I kill and I make alive; I wound and I heal; and there is none that can deliver out of my hand.

 

15.85. We created not the heavens and the earth and all that is between them save with truth, and lo! the Hour is surely coming. So forgive, (O Muhammad), with a gracious forgiveness.

15.86. Lo! Thy Lord! He is the All-Wise Creator.

 

See Revelation 4:11 in Commentary on the Koran: Surah 10 (No. Q010).

 

Matthew 24:36 But concerning that day and hour no one knows, not even the angels of heaven, nor the Son, but the Father only.


Matthew 6:14 For if you forgive others their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you,

 

Isaiah 40:28 Have you not known? Have you not heard? The LORD is the everlasting God, the Creator of the ends of the earth. He does not faint or grow weary; his understanding is unsearchable. (ESV)

                                                                

15.87. We have given thee seven of the oft-repeated (verses) and the great Qur'an.

 

This is a reference to the Seven Pillars of the Faith (cf. the paper on The Five Pillars of Islam or the Pillars of the Faith? (Q001A) above).

 

15.88. Strain not thine eyes toward that which We cause some wedded pairs among them to enjoin, and be not grieved on their account, and lower thy wing (in tenderness) for the believers.

 

God has given some more provisions than to others to test them to see if they are thankful and how they handle trials.

 

Psalm 37:7-10 Be still before the LORD and wait patiently for him; fret not yourself over the one who prospers in his way, over the man who carries out evil devices! 8Refrain from anger, and forsake wrath! Fret not yourself; it tends only to evil. 9For the evildoers shall be cut off, but those who wait for the LORD shall inherit the land. 10In just a little while, the wicked will be no more; though you look carefully at his place, he will not be there.


Matthew 10:16 Behold, I am sending you out as sheep in the midst of wolves, so be wise as serpents and innocent as doves.

 

1Thessalonians 2:7 But we were gentle among you, like a nursing mother taking care of her own children. (ESV)

 

15.89. And say: Lo! I, even I, am a plain warner,

 

The duty of the messenger is to just deliver the message. This message was delivered to Mecca and Medinah and all of Arabia by the Church of God under the Arabian Prophet established among them.  Yet still they corrupted the faith.

 

1Corinthians 9:16 For if I preach the gospel, that gives me no ground for boasting. For necessity is laid upon me. Woe to me if I do not preach the gospel! (ESV)

 

15.90. Such as We send down for those who make division,

15.91. Those who break the Qur'an into parts.

15.92. Them, by thy Lord, We shall question, every one,

15.93. Of what they used to do.

15.94. So proclaim that which thou art commanded, and withdraw from the idolaters.

15.95. Lo! We defend thee from the scoffers,

15.96. Who set some other god along with Allah. But they will come to know.

15.97. Well know We that thy bosom is oppressed by what they say,

15.98. But hymn the praise of thy Lord, and be of those who make prostration (unto Him).

15.99. And serve thy Lord till the Inevitable cometh unto thee.

 

These who cause division and misrepresent the Koran or Q’uran will be destroyed and then subjected to the Second Resurrection.

 

(See also 2Corinthians 5:10 in Commentary on the Koran: Surah 10 (No. Q010).)

 

Romans 16:17-18 I appeal to you, brothers, to watch out for those who cause divisions and create obstacles contrary to the doctrine that you have been taught; avoid them. 18For such persons do not serve our Lord Christ, but their own appetites, and by smooth talk and flattery they deceive the hearts of the naive.

 

1Corinthians 10:14 Therefore, my beloved, flee from idolatry.

 

2Peter 3:3 knowing this first of all, that scoffers will come in the last days with scoffing, following their own sinful desires.

 

Judges 2:19 But whenever the judge died, they turned back and were more corrupt than their fathers, going after other gods, serving them and bowing down to them. They did not drop any of their practices or their stubborn ways.

 

Philippians 4:6-7 do not be anxious about anything, but in everything by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let your requests be made known to God. 7And the peace of God, which surpasses all understanding, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus.


Psalm 96:4 For great is the LORD, and greatly to be praised; he is to be feared above all gods.

 

Luke 4:8 And Jesus answered him, "It is written, "'You shall worship the Lord your God, and him only shall you serve.'"

 

Ecclesiastes 3:19 For what happens to the children of man and what happens to the beasts is the same; as one dies, so dies the other. They all have the same breath, and man has no advantage over the beasts, for all is vanity.

 

This prophecy is directed at the idolaters of Mecca and Medina and the idolaters of Thamud and Amalek and the modern Arabs and Edomites in Judah and Arabia who succeeded them in their idolatry. We have warned them now a number of times. This time was under the Arabian Prophet and now under the Council of the Last Days. The Witnesses will be here soon and then the Messiah. Fire will devour the infidels and Mecca and the Ka’aba from the heavens. Messiah will deal with them all directly on his return.

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