Christian Churches of God
Commentary on the Koran:
Surah 12 “Yusuf” or “Joseph”
(Edition 1.5 20170724-20200512)
This was a preliminary Surah explaining the story of Joseph and his sale into Egypt to the first converts from Yathrib or Al-Medinah in the early years when they went to the prophet and the congregation at Becca. The impact of the story and of prophecy can be seen from the outline of the Surah.
Commentary on the Koran: Surah 12 “Yusuf” or “Joseph”
Pickthall’s translation with Scriptures from the RSV unless otherwise noted.
This Surah is the only single topic Surah in the Koran or Qur’an dealing with the story of Joseph son of Jacob in the Bible. He was the father of Ephraim and Manasseh and played a very important part in the development of Egypt at the beginning of the sojourn there. The story reveals some detail in the historical traditions or the revelation of the matter to the Arabian prophet and has significance for the tribes of Joseph in the last days also. It also deals with Jacob as a prophet and the issues of God’s revelation to him and the control of that revelation.
Tradition states the Surah was revealed at Becca to the first converts of Yathrib (Al Madinah) in the Second year before the Hijrah. Noldeke points out, and Pickthall records, that it may have been revealed long before then but was given to them at that time. Often prophets are given information but restrained from issuing the details until much later, or to reissue the details when needed. It is certain that he was told the story when being instructed in the Scriptures.
In this instance Jacob was not taken in by the other sons’ tales of the death of Joseph, but God withheld his location and circumstances from Jacob, his father. There is no doubt from the Bible text that Jacob was a prophet and he had great understanding of the structure of the Host and the place of the Elohim or Angel of the Presence as the being responsible for Israel and the sons of Abraham and that he understood the fate not only of the sons of Joseph but also their critical importance to the nations and the calling of the gentiles in the latter days when he says that Ephraim shall be a company of nations (cf. Gen. 48:15-20). This Angelic being of the Host became Jesus or Isa the Christ or Messiah who was the star that was to come out of Jacob and who was the high priest of Melchisdek, whom the prophet also served (Num. 24:17).
We see that the Arabian Prophet is quoting Scripture and is stating that it is explained in Arabic so it is made plain to them.
12.1. Alif. Lam. Ra. These are verse of the Scripture that maketh plain.
12.2. Lo! We have revealed it, a Lecture in Arabic, that ye may understand.
12.3. We narrate unto thee (Muhammad) the best of narratives in that We have inspired in thee this Qur'an, though aforetime thou wast of the heedless.
It is also clear that the Prophet was not called for some time which he states elsewhere. He was then given the Qur’an to understand.
2Timothy 3:16 All Scripture is inspired by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, for training in righteousness; (NAS)
2Peter 1:20-21 Above all, you must understand that no prophecy of Scripture came about by the prophet's own interpretation of things. 21For prophecy never had its origin in the human will, but prophets, though human, spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit. (NAS)
Ephesians 2:1-2 And you were dead in your trespasses and sins, 2in which you formerly walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, of the spirit that is now working in the sons of disobedience. (NAS)
Colossians 1:12-14 giving thanks to the Father, who has qualified us to share in the inheritance of the saints in Light. 13For He rescued us from the domain of darkness, and transferred us to the kingdom of His beloved Son, 14in whom we have redemption, the forgiveness of sins. (NAS)
12.4. When Joseph said unto his father: O my father! Lo! I saw in a dream eleven planets and the sun and the moon, I saw them prostrating themselves unto me.
12.5. He said: O my dear son! Tell not thy brethren of thy vision, lest they plot a plot against thee. Lo! Satan is for man an open foe.
12.6. Thus thy Lord will prefer thee and will teach thee the interpretation of events, and will perfect His grace upon thee and upon the family of Jacob as He perfected it upon thy forefathers, Abraham and Isaac. Lo! thy Lord is Knower, Wise.
Here Joseph tells his story to Jacob who wisely cautions against telling his brothers or they would plot against him. It is obvious from the detail that the 11 stars were his brothers and the sun and the moon referred to his father and mother and it represented a prophecy that he would be ruler over them, which referred to the sojourn in Egypt. However they themselves, by their actions, made it come about.
Genesis 37:9-11 Then he dreamed another dream and told it to his brothers and said, "Behold, I have dreamed another dream. Behold, the sun, the moon, and eleven stars were bowing down to me." 10But when he told it to his father and to his brothers, his father rebuked him and said to him, "What is this dream that you have dreamed? Shall I and your mother and your brothers indeed come to bow ourselves to the ground before you?" 11And his brothers were jealous of him, but his father kept the saying in mind.
Joseph's brothers did indeed conspire against him.
1Peter 5:8 Be sober-minded; be watchful. Your adversary the devil prowls around like a roaring lion, seeking someone to devour.
Ayat 6 tells of Joseph interpreting the dreams of the cupbearer and the baker in Genesis 40. In Genesis 41 he interprets Pharaoh's dreams and he was elevated to the number two position in Egypt. So Joseph came to be preferred above his brothers. He also was a prophet.
Hebrews 11:22 By faith Joseph, when he was dying, made mention of the exodus of the sons of Israel, and gave orders concerning his bones. (NASB)
12.7. Verily in Joseph and his brethren are signs (of Allah's Sovereignty) for the inquiring.
Psalm 75:7 but it is God who executes judgment, putting down one and lifting up another.
Daniel 2:21-22 "It is He who changes the times and the epochs; He removes kings and establishes kings; He gives wisdom to wise men And knowledge to men of understanding. 22"It is He who reveals the profound and hidden things; He knows what is in the darkness, And the light dwells with Him. (NAS)
Daniel 4:17 The sentence is by the decree of the watchers, the decision by the word of the holy ones, to the end that the living may know that the Most High rules the kingdom of men and gives it to whom he will and sets over it the lowliest of men.'
God is sovereign over all his creation. With Him is knowledge of all mysteries.
12.8. When they said: Verily Joseph and his brother are dearer to our father than we are, many though we be. Lo! our father is in plain aberration.
Genesis 37:3-4 Now Israel loved Joseph more than any other of his sons, because he was the son of his old age. And he made him a robe of many colors. 4But when his brothers saw that their father loved him more than all his brothers, they hated him and could not speak peacefully to him.
Genesis 42:38 But he said, "My son shall not go down with you, for his brother is dead, and he is the only one left. If harm should happen to him on the journey that you are to make, you would bring down my gray hairs with sorrow to Sheol."
12.9. (One said): Kill Joseph or cast him to some (other) land, so that your father's favour may be all for you, and (that) ye may afterward be righteous folk.
Genesis 37:20 Come now, let us kill him and throw him into one of the pits. Then we will say that a fierce animal has devoured him, and we will see what will become of his dreams.
12.10. One among them said: Kill not Joseph but, if ye must be doing, fling him into the depth of the pit; some caravan will find him.
Genesis 37:21-24 But when Reuben heard it, he rescued him out of their hands, saying, "Let us not take his life." 22And Reuben said to them, "Shed no blood; throw him into this pit here in the wilderness, but do not lay a hand on him"—that he might rescue him out of their hand to restore him to his father. 23So when Joseph came to his brothers, they stripped him of his robe, the robe of many colors that he wore. 24And they took him and threw him into a pit. The pit was empty; there was no water in it.
Genesis 37:25-28 Then they sat down to eat. And looking up they saw a caravan of Ishmaelites coming from Gilead, with their camels bearing gum, balm, and myrrh, on their way to carry it down to Egypt. 26Then Judah said to his brothers, “What profit is it if we kill our brother and conceal his blood? 27Come, let us sell him to the Ishmaelites, and let not our hand be upon him, for he is our brother, our own flesh.” And his brothers listened to him. 28Then Midianite traders passed by. And they drew Joseph up and lifted him out of the pit, and sold him to the Ishmaelites for twenty shekels of silver. They took Joseph to Egypt. (ESV)
12.11. They said: O our father! Why wilt thou not trust us with Joseph, when lo! we are good friends to him?
Jacob knew that they were envious of Joseph and was afraid that they might do something to him.
12.12. Send him with us to-morrow that he may enjoy himself and play. And lo! we shall take good care of him.
Jacob ended up sending Joseph to check on his brothers and we all know what transpired.
12.13. He said: Lo! in truth it saddens me that ye should take him with you, and I fear less the wolf devour him while ye are heedless of him.
In Genesis 37:20 it is noted that they will say to their father that "a ferocious animal devoured him". Israel feared for his son.
12.14. They said: If the wolf should devour him when we are (so strong) a band, then surely we should have already perished.
They tried to dismiss his fear as they felt they could ward off any ferocious animal.
12.15. Then, when they led him off, and were of one mind that they should place him in the depth of the pit, We inspired in him: Thou wilt tell them of this deed of theirs when they know (thee) not.
Genesis 37:24 above says that they took him and threw him into a cistern or pit that was empty; there being no water in it. Joseph was to remind them of their deed when they would not recognise him later in Egypt.
12.16. And they came weeping to their father in the evening.
12.17. Saying: O our father! We went racing one with another, and left Joseph by our things, and the wolf devoured him, and thou believest not our saying even when we speak the truth.
12.18. And they came with false blood on his shirt. He said: Nay, but your minds have beguiled you into something. (My course is) comely patience. And Allah it is Whose help is to be sought in that (predicament) which ye describe.
Genesis 37:31-35 Then they took Joseph's robe and slaughtered a goat and dipped the robe in the blood. 32And they sent the robe of many colors and brought it to their father and said, "This we have found; please identify whether it is your son's robe or not." 33And he identified it and said, "It is my son's robe. A fierce animal has devoured him. Joseph is without doubt torn to pieces." 34Then Jacob tore his garments and put sackcloth on his loins and mourned for his son many days. 35All his sons and all his daughters rose up to comfort him, but he refused to be comforted and said, "No, I shall go down to Sheol to my son, mourning." Thus his father wept for him.
Psalm 34:17-18 When the righteous cry for help, the LORD hears and delivers them out of all their troubles. 18The LORD is near to the brokenhearted and saves the crushed in spirit. (ESV)
Israel knew he had to be patient until the LORD would reveal the truth of what actually transpired to him later.
12.19. And there came a caravan, and they sent their waterdrawer. He let down his pail (into the pit). He said: Good luck! Here is a youth. And they hid him as a treasure, and Allah was Aware of what they did.
12.20. And they sold him for a low price, a number of silver coins; and they attached no value to him.
Refer also to Genesis 37: 25-28 above.
Note we are all under the eyes of God in all matters.
Hebrews 4:13 And no creature is hidden from his sight, but all are naked and exposed to the eyes of him to whom we must give account.
Psalm 33:13-15 The LORD looks from heaven; He sees all the sons of men; 14From His dwelling place He looks out On all the inhabitants of the earth, 15He who fashions the hearts of them all, He who understands all their works. (NAS)
12.21. And he of Egypt who purchased him said unto his wife: Receive him honourably. Perchance he may prove useful to us or we may adopt him as a son. Thus we established Joseph in the land that We might teach him the interpretation of events. And Allah was predominant in His career, but most of mankind know not.
12.22. And when he reached his prime We gave him wisdom and knowledge. Thus We reward the good.
Potiphar was a ranking officer of Egypt and was almost certainly a eunuch and hence had no children. His wife also behaved in such a manner.
Genesis 39:1-6 Now Joseph had been brought down to Egypt, and Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh, the captain of the guard, an Egyptian, had bought him from the Ishmaelites who had brought him down there. 2The Lord was with Joseph, and he became a successful man, and he was in the house of his Egyptian master. 3His master saw that the Lord was with him and that the Lord caused all that he did to succeed in his hands. 4So Joseph found favor in his sight and attended him, and he made him overseer of his house and put him in charge of all that he had. 5From the time that he made him overseer in his house and over all that he had, the Lord blessed the Egyptian’s house for Joseph’s sake; the blessing of the Lord was on all that he had, in house and field. 6So he left all that he had in Joseph’s charge, and because of him he had no concern about anything but the food he ate. (ESV)
12.23. And she, in whose house he was, asked of him an evil act. She bolted the doors and said: Come! He said: I seek refuge in Allah! Lo! he is my lord, who hath treated me honourably. Lo! wrong-doers never prosper.
12.24. She verily desired him, and he would have desired her if it had not been that he saw the argument of his Lord. Thus it was, that We might ward off from him evil and lewdness. Lo! he was of Our chosen slaves.
12.25. And they raced with one another to the door, and she tore his shirt from behind, and they met her lord and master at the door. She said: What shall be his reward, who wisheth evil to thy folk, save prison or a painful doom?
12.26. (Joseph) said: She it was who asked of me an evil act. And a witness of her own folk testified: If his shirt is torn from before, then she speaketh truth and he is of the liars.
12.27. And if his shirt is torn from behind, then she hath lied and he is of the truthful.
12.28. So when he saw his shirt torn from behind, he said: Lo! this is of the guile of you women. Lo! the guile of you is very great.
12.29. O Joseph! Turn away from this, and thou, (O woman), ask forgiveness for thy sin. Lo! thou art of the faulty.
12.30. And women in the city said: The ruler's wife is asking of her slave-boy an ill-deed. Indeed he has smitten her to the heart with love. We behold her in plain aberration.
12.31. And when she heard of their sly talk, she sent to them and prepared for them a cushioned couch (to lie on at the feast) and gave to every one of them a knife and said (to Joseph): Come out unto them! And when they saw him they exalted him and cut their hands, exclaiming: Allah Blameless! This is not a human being. This is not other than some gracious angel.
12.32. She said: This is he on whose account ye blamed me. I asked of him an evil act, but he proved continent, but if he do not my behest he verily shall be imprisoned, and verily shall be of those brought low.
12.33. He said: O my Lord! Prison is more dear than that unto which they urge me, and if Thou fend not off their wiles from me I shall incline unto them and become of the foolish.
12.34. So his Lord heard his prayer and fended off their wiles from him. Lo! He is Hearer, Knower.
12.35. And it seemed good to them (the men-folk) after they had seen the signs (of his innocence) to imprison him for a time.
The above is a rather expanded commentary of Genesis chapter 39 verses 7 to 20.
Genesis 39:7-20 And after a time his master’s wife cast her eyes on Joseph and said, “Lie with me.” 8But he refused and said to his master’s wife, “Behold, because of me my master has no concern about anything in the house, and he has put everything that he has in my charge. 9He is not greater in this house than I am, nor has he kept back anything from me except you, because you are his wife. How then can I do this great wickedness and sin against God?” 10And as she spoke to Joseph day after day, he would not listen to her, to lie beside her or to be with her. 11But one day, when he went into the house to do his work and none of the men of the house was there in the house, 12she caught him by his garment, saying, “Lie with me.” But he left his garment in her hand and fled and got out of the house. 13And as soon as she saw that he had left his garment in her hand and had fled out of the house, 14she called to the men of her household and said to them, “See, he has brought among us a Hebrew to laugh at us. He came in to me to lie with me, and I cried out with a loud voice. 15And as soon as he heard that I lifted up my voice and cried out, he left his garment beside me and fled and got out of the house.” 16Then she laid up his garment by her until his master came home, 17and she told him the same story, saying, “The Hebrew servant, whom you have brought among us, came in to me to laugh at me. 18But as soon as I lifted up my voice and cried, he left his garment beside me and fled out of the house.” 19As soon as his master heard the words that his wife spoke to him, “This is the way your servant treated me,” his anger was kindled. 20And Joseph’s master took him and put him into the prison, the place where the king’s prisoners were confined, and he was there in prison. (ESV)
So also the texts show God renders to us according to our works and watches over the elect.
Psalm 62:12 and that to you, O Lord, belongs steadfast love. For you will render to a man according to his work.
Jeremiah 1:5 "Before I formed you in the womb I knew you, and before you were born I consecrated you; I appointed you a prophet to the nations."
Ephesians 2:10 For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared beforehand, that we should walk in them.
James 1:2-4 Count it all joy, my brothers, when you meet trials of various kinds, 3for you know that the testing of your faith produces steadfastness. 4And let steadfastness have its full effect, that you may be perfect and complete, lacking in nothing.
Job 28:24 for he looks throughout the whole earth and sees everything under the heavens. (NLT)
Proverbs 15:3 The LORD is watching everywhere, keeping his eye on both the evil and the good. (NLT)
Joseph is then imprisoned.
12.36. And two young men went to prison with him. One of them said: I dreamed that I was pressing wine. The other said: I dreamed that I was carrying upon my head bread whereof the birds were eating. Announce unto us the interpretation, for we see thee of those good (at interpretation).
12.37. He said: The food which ye are given (daily) shall not come unto you but I shall tell you the interpretation ere it cometh unto you. This is of that which my Lord hath taught me. Lo! I have forsaken the religion of folk who believe not in Allah and are disbelievers in the Hereafter.
12.38. And I have followed the religion of my fathers, Abraham and Isaac and Jacob. It never was for us to attribute aught as partner to Allah. This is of the bounty of Allah unto us (the seed of Abraham) and unto mankind; but most men give not thanks.
12.39. O my fellow-prisoners! Are divers lords better, or Allah the One, Almighty?
12.40. Those whom ye worship beside Him are but names which ye have named, ye and your fathers. Allah hath revealed no sanction for them. The decision rests with Allah only, Who hath commanded you that ye worship none save Him. This is the right religion, but most men know not.
12.41. O my two fellow-prisoners! As for one of you, he will pour out wine for his lord to drink; and as for the other, he will be crucified so that the birds will eat from his head. Thus is the case judged concerning which ye did inquire.
12.42. And he said unto him of the twain who he knew would be released: Mention me in the presence of thy lord. But Satan caused him to forget to mention it to his lord, so he (Joseph) stayed in prison for some years.
The ayats above refer to the story of the cup bearer and the baker given in Genesis 40.
12.43. And the king said: Lo! I saw in a dream seven fat kine which seven lean were eating, and seven green ears of corn and other (seven) dry. O notables! Expound for me my vision, if ye can interpret dreams.
12.44. They answered: Jumbled dreams! And we are not knowing in the interpretation of dreams.
12.45. And he of the two who was released, and (now) at length remembered, said: I am going to announce unto you the interpretation, therefore send me forth.
12.46. (And when he came to Joseph in the prison, he exclaimed): Joseph! O thou truthful one! Expound for us the seven fat kine which seven lean were eating and the seven green ears of corn and other (seven) dry, that I may return unto the people, so that they may know.
12.47. He said: Ye shall sow seven years as usual, but that which ye reap, leave it in the ear, all save a little which ye eat.
12.48. Then after that will come seven hard years which will devour all that ye have prepared for them, save a little of that which ye have stored.
12.49. Then, after that, will come a year when the people will have plenteous crops and when they will press (wine and oil).
12.50. And the king said: Bring him unto me. And when the messenger came unto him, he (Joseph) said: Return unto thy lord and ask him what was the case of the women who cut their hands. Lo! my Lord knoweth their guile.
12.51. He (the king) (then sent for those women and) said: What happened when ye asked an evil act of Joseph? They answered: Allah Blameless! We know no evil of him. Said the wife of the ruler: Now the truth is out. I asked of him an evil act, and he is surely of the truthful.
12.52. (Then Joseph said: I asked for) this, that he (my lord) may know that I betrayed him not in secret, and that surely Allah guideth not the snare of the betrayers.
12.53. I do not exculpate myself. Lo! the (human) soul enjoineth unto evil, save that whereon my Lord hath mercy. Lo! my Lord is Forgiving, Merciful.
12.54. And the king said: Bring him unto me that I may attach him to my person. And when he had talked with him he said: Lo! thou art to-day in our presence established and trusted.
12.55. He said: Set me over the storehouses of the land. Lo! I am a skilled custodian.
12.56. Thus gave We power to Joseph in the land. He was the owner of it where he pleased. We reach with Our mercy whom We will. We lose not the reward of the good.
12.57. And the reward of the Hereafter is better, for those who believe and ward off (evil).
The above verses relate the story of the dreams that were given to Pharaoh to show him what was to transpire in Egypt in the following years. The biblical account is in Genesis 41 verses 1 to 43. We see here that Joseph was cleared of all charges that landed him in prison in the first place.
Proverbs 12:19 Truthful lips endure forever, but a lying tongue is but for a moment.
Proverbs 19:9 A false witness will not go unpunished, and he who breathes out lies will perish.
2Corinthians 4:18 as we look not to the things that are seen but to the things that are unseen. For the things that are seen are transient, but the things that are unseen are eternal.
The famine caused Joseph’s brothers to go to Egypt and seek grain to supply the family in the drought. So also the vision was brought to fruition.
12.58. And Joseph's brethren came and presented themselves before him, and he knew them but they knew him not.
12.59. And when he provided them with their provision he said: Bring unto me a brother of yours from your father. See ye not that I fill up the measure and I am the best of hosts?
12.60. And if ye bring him not unto me, then there shall be no measure for you with me, nor shall ye draw near.
12.61. They said: We will try to win him from his father: that we will surely do.
12.62. He said unto his young men: Place their merchandise in their saddlebags, so that they may know it when they go back to their folk, and so will come again.
12.63. So when they went back to their father they said: O our father! The measure is denied us, so send with us our brother that we may obtain the measure, surely we will guard him well.
12.64. He said: Can I entrust him to you save as I entrusted his brother to you aforetime? Allah is better at guarding, and He is the Most Merciful of those who show mercy.
12.65. And when they opened their belongings they discovered that their merchandise had been returned to them. They said: O our father! What (more) can we ask? Here is our merchandise returned to us. We shall get provision for our folk and guard our brother, and we shall have the extra measure of a camel (load). This (that we bring now) is a light measure.
12.66. He said: I will not send him with you till ye give me an undertaking in the name of Allah that ye will bring him back to me, unless ye are surrounded. And when they gave him their undertaking he said: Allah is the Warden over what we say.
12.67. And he said: O my sons! Go not in by one gate; go in by different gates. I can naught avail you as against Allah. Lo! the decision rests with Allah only. In Him do I put my trust, and in Him let all the trusting put their trust.
12.68. And when they entered in the manner which their father had enjoined, it would have naught availed them as against Allah; it was but a need of Jacob's soul which he thus satisfied; and lo! he was a lord of knowledge because We had taught him; but most of mankind know not.
The biblical account of the interaction between Joseph and his brothers when they went into Egypt to buy food is in Genesis 42.
Lamentations 3:22-23 The LORD'S lovingkindnesses indeed never cease, For His compassions never fail. 23They are new every morning; Great is Your faithfulness. (NAS)
Psalm 86:15 But You, O Lord, are a God merciful and gracious, Slow to anger and abundant in lovingkindness and truth. (NAS)
Job 16:19 Even now, behold, my witness is in heaven, And my advocate is on high. (NAS)
Psalm 91:2 I will say to the LORD, "My refuge and my fortress, My God, in whom I trust!"(NAS)
Proverbs 19:21 Many plans are in a man's heart, But the counsel of the LORD will stand. (NAS)
Benjamin was Joseph’s brother by his mother also. He was reunited with him.
12.69. And when they went in before Joseph, he took his brother unto him, saying: Lo! I, even I, am thy brother, therefore sorrow not for what they did.
12.70. And when he provided them with their provision, he put the drinking-cup in his brother's saddlebag, and then a crier cried: O camel-riders! Lo! ye are surely thieves!
12.71. They cried, coming toward them: What is it ye have lost?
12.72. They said: We have lost the king's cup, and he who bringeth it shall have a camel-load, and I (said Joseph) am answerable for it.
12.73. They said: By Allah, well ye know we came not to do evil in the land, and are no thieves.
12.74. They said: And what shall be the penalty for it, if ye prove liars?
12.75. They said: The penalty for it! He in whose bag (the cup) is found, he is the penalty for it. Thus we requite wrong-doers.
12.76. Then he (Joseph) began the search with their bags before his brother's bag, then he produced it from his brother's bag. Thus did We contrive for Joseph. He could not have taken his brother according to the king's law unless Allah willed. We raise by grades (of mercy) whom We will, and over every lord of knowledge there is one more knowing.
12.77. They said: If he stealeth, a brother of his stole before. But Joseph kept it secret in his soul and revealed it not unto them. He said (within himself): Ye are in worse case, and Allah knoweth best (the truth of) that which ye allege.
12.78. They said: O ruler of the land! Lo! he hath a very aged father, so take one of us instead of him. Lo! we behold thee of those who do kindness.
12.79. He said: Allah forbid that we should seize save him with whom we found our property; then truly we should be wrong-doers.
The above ayats provide a summary of the story told in Genesis 43 and 44.
12.80. So, When they despaired of (moving) him, they conferred together apart. The eldest of them said: Know ye not how your father took an undertaking from you in Allah's name and how ye failed in the case of Joseph aforetime? Therefore I shall not go forth from the land until my father giveth leave or Allah judgeth for me. He is the Best of Judges.
12.81. Return unto your father and say: O our father! Lo! thy son hath stolen. We testify only to that which we know; we are not guardians of the Unseen.
12.82. Ask the township where we were, and the caravan with which we travelled hither. Lo! we speak the truth.
12.83. (And when they came unto their father and had spoken thus to him) he said: Nay, but your minds have beguiled you into something. (My course is) comely patience! It may be that Allah will bring them all unto me. Lo! He, only He, is the Knower, the Wise.
12.84. And he turned away from them and said: Alas, my grief for Joseph! And his eyes were whitened with the sorrow that he was suppressing.
12.85. They said: By Allah, thou wilt never cease remembering Joseph till thy health is ruined or thou art of those who perish!
12.86. He said: I expose my distress and anguish only unto Allah, and I know from Allah that which ye know not.
12.87. Go, O my sons, and ascertain concerning Joseph and his brother, and despair not of the Spirit of Allah. Lo! none despaireth of the Spirit of Allah save disbelieving folk.
12.88. And when they came (again) before him (Joseph) they said: O ruler! Misfortune hath touched us and our folk, and we bring but poor merchandise, so fill for us the measure and be charitable unto us. Lo! Allah will requite the charitable,
12.89. He said: Know ye what ye did unto Joseph and his brother in your ignorance?
12.90. They said: Is it indeed thou who art Joseph? He said: I am Joseph and this is my brother. Allah hath shown us favour. Lo! he who wardeth off (evil) and endureth (findeth favour); for lo! Allah loseth not the wages of the kindly.
12.91. They said: By Allah, verily Allah hath preferred thee above us, and we were indeed sinful.
12.92. He said: Have no fear this day! May Allah forgive you, and He is the Most Merciful of those who show mercy.
12.93. Go with this shirt of mine and lay it on my father's face, he will become (again) a seer; and come to me with all your folk.
In the above verses Joseph makes himself known to his brethren. The biblical account in Genesis 45 is more detailed than the summary here.
The place of God in justice concerning his people is found in many texts as follows.
Psalm 9:8 And He will judge the world in righteousness; He will execute judgment for the peoples with equity. (NAS)
Psalm 27:14 Wait for the LORD; Be strong and let your heart take courage; Yes, wait for the LORD. (NAS)
Proverbs 3:19 The LORD by wisdom founded the earth; by understanding he established the heavens (ESV)
Job 12:13 With God are wisdom and might; he has counsel and understanding.(ESV)
Isaiah 41:10 Fear not, for I am with you; be not dismayed, for I am your God; I will strengthen you, I will help you, I will uphold you with my righteous right hand. (ESV)
Ecclesiastes 9:11 I again saw under the sun that the race is not to the swift and the battle is not to the warriors, and neither is bread to the wise nor wealth to the discerning nor favor to men of ability; for time and chance overtake them all.(NAS)
Luke 6:38 "Give, and it will be given to you. They will pour into your lap a good measure-- pressed down, shaken together, and running over. For by your standard of measure it will be measured to you in return."(NAS)
Matthew 24:13 But the one who endures to the end, he will be saved. (NAS)
Romans 2:7 to those who by perseverance in doing good seek for glory and honor and immortality, eternal life; (NAS)
Hebrews 6:10 For God is not unjust so as to forget your work and the love which you have shown toward His name, in having ministered and in still ministering to the saints. (NAS)
Psalm 130:4 But there is forgiveness with You, That You may be feared. (NAS)
See also Hebrews 11: 22 and Psalm 86:18 above.
12.94. When the caravan departed their father had said: Truly I am conscious of the breath of Joseph, though ye call me dotard.
12.95. (Those around him) said: By Allah, lo! thou art in thine old aberration.
12.96. Then, when the bearer of glad tidings came, he laid it on his face and he became a seer once more. He said: Said I not unto you that I know from Allah that which ye know not?
12.97. They said: O our father! Ask forgiveness of our sins for us, for lo! we were sinful.
12.98. He said: I shall ask forgiveness for you of my Lord. Lo! He is the Forgiving, the Merciful.
Israel knew in his mind what Joseph had mentioned to him about his dreams and he may have realized that Joseph was destined to achieve great things, and he probably reminded those around him of this because of his confidence in Allah, as we know now that all things will work out for good to them that love God and are called according to his purpose.
Romans 8:28 And we know that for those who love God all things work together for good, for those who are called according to his purpose.
He was a prophet of God and he would have sensed things that those around him were not aware of. Those around him probably thought the old man was out of his mind. When the good news finally came he told them that he knew something they did not know. The sons would have confessed their sins and sought forgiveness from God which Israel did.
Psalm 130:4 But there is forgiveness with You, That You may be feared. (NAS)
2Chronicles 7:14 if my people who are called by my name humble themselves, and pray and seek my face and turn from their wicked ways, then I will hear from heaven and will forgive their sin and heal their land. (ESV)
Ezekiel 18:21 "But if the wicked man turns from all his sins which he has committed and observes all My statutes and practices justice and righteousness, he shall surely live; he shall not die. (NAS)
12.99. And when they came in before Joseph, he took his parents unto him, and said: Come into Egypt safe, if Allah will!
Genesis 46 and 47:1-12 tell the story of Israel and all those descended from him going and settling in Egypt.
12.100. And he placed his parents on the dais and they fell down before him prostrate, and he said: O my father! This is the interpretation of my dream of old. My Lord hath made it true, and He hath shown me kindness, since He took me out of the prison and hath brought you from the desert after Satan had made strife between me and my brethren. Lo! my Lord is tender unto whom He will. He is the Knower, the Wise.
Joseph honored his parents.The whole group fell down prostrate before God and thanked Him. Joseph reminded them of his dream and how God had brought about its fulfillment.
Job 12:13 With God are wisdom and might; he has counsel and understanding. (ESV)
Psalm 147:5 Great is our Lord, and abundant in power; his understanding is beyond measure. (ESV)
12.101. O my Lord! Thou hast given me (something) of sovereignty and hast taught me (something) of the interpretation of events -
Creator of the heavens and the earth! Thou art my Protecting Guardian in the world and the Hereafter. Make me to die muslim (unto Thee), and join me to the righteous.
Joseph confirms that God had shown him His sovereignty and revealed to him the meaning of events.
Isaiah 46:9-10 Remember the former things of old; for I am God, and there is no other; I am God, and there is none like me, declaring the end from the beginning and from ancient times things not yet done, saying, ‘My counsel shall stand, and I will accomplish all my purpose,’
Psalm 3:3 But you, O Lord, are a shield about me, my glory, and the lifter of my head.
God had plans for Joseph and accomplished His purpose for him.
Proverbs 3:5-6 Trust in the Lord with all your heart, and do not lean on your own understanding. In all your ways acknowledge him, and he will make straight your paths.
12.102. This is of the tidings of the Unseen which We inspire in thee (Muhammad). Thou wast not present with them when they fixed their plan and they were scheming.
12.103. And though thou try much, most men will not believe.
Numbers 12:6 And he said, “Hear my words: If there is a prophet among you, I the Lord make myself known to him in a vision; I speak with him in a dream.
Proverbs 19:21 Many are the plans in a person's heart, but it is the LORD's purpose that prevails.
Romans 3:11-12 there is no one who understands; there is no one who seeks God. 12They are all gone out of the way, they are together become unprofitable; there is none that doeth good, no, not one.
12.104. Thou askest them no fee for it. It is naught else than a reminder unto the peoples.
The messenger delivers his message to his people while relying on his Master for his needs.
Philippians 4:19 And my God will supply all your needs according to His riches in glory in Christ Jesus.
12.105. How many a portent is there in the heavens and the earth which they pass by with face averted!
12.106. And most of them believe not in Allah except that they attribute partners (unto Him).
Job 12:7 "But ask the animals, and they will teach you, or the birds in the sky, and they will tell you;
Romans 1:19-23 For what can be known about God is plain to them, because God has shown it to them. 20For his invisible attributes, namely, his eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly perceived, ever since the creation of the world, in the things that have been made. So they are without excuse. 21For although they knew God, they did not honor him as God or give thanks to him, but they became futile in their thinking, and their foolish hearts were darkened. 22Claiming to be wise, they became fools, 23and exchanged the glory of the immortal God for images resembling mortal man and birds and animals and creeping things. (ESV)
12.107. Deem they themselves secure from the coming on them of a pall of Allah's punishment, or the coming of the Hour suddenly while they are unaware?
Daniel 4:35 all the inhabitants of the earth are accounted as nothing, and he does according to his will among the host of heaven and among the inhabitants of the earth; and none can stay his hand or say to him, “What have you done?”
2Peter 3:10 But the day of the Lord will come like a thief, and then the heavens will pass away with a roar, and the heavenly bodies will be burned up and dissolved, and the earth and the works that are done on it will be exposed. (ESV)
Most are not bothered about punishment in the future. They may say “I will cross that bridge when I come to it”.
12.108. Say: This is my Way: I call on Allah with sure knowledge. I and whosoever followeth me - Glory be to Allah! - and I am not of the idolaters.
John 14:6 Jesus said to him, “I am the way, and the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me.
Luke 2:14 “Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace among those with whom he is pleased!” (ESV)
Revelation 5:13 And I heard every creature in heaven and on earth and under the earth and in the sea, and all that is in them, saying, “To him who sits on the throne and to the Lamb be blessing and honor and glory and might forever and ever!” (ESV)
Daniel 3:18 But even if he does not, we want you to know, O king, that we will not serve your gods or worship the image of gold you have set up."
12.109. We sent not before thee (any messengers) save men whom We inspired from among the folk of the townships - Have they not travelled in the land and seen the nature of the consequence for those who were before them? And verily the abode of the Hereafter, for those who ward off (evil), is best. Have ye then no sense? –
Hebrews 1:1-2 God, after He spoke long ago to the fathers in the prophets in many portions and in many ways, 2in these last days has spoken to us in His Son, whom He appointed heir of all things, through whom also He made the ages (aeons).
Those who heed the message are saved and those who do not suffer ruin.
Mark 16:16 Whoever believes and is baptized will be saved, but whoever does not believe will be condemned.
John 20:29 Jesus said to him, “Have you believed because you have seen me? Blessed are those who have not seen and yet have believed.”
12.110. Till, when the messengers despaired and thought that they were denied, then came unto them Our help, and whom We would was saved. And Our wrath cannot be warded from the guilty.
Psalm 102:17 He has regarded the prayer of the destitute And has not despised their prayer.
Psalm 25:3 Indeed, none who wait for you shall be put to shame; they shall be ashamed who are wantonly treacherous. (ESV)
Psalm 27:14 Wait for the LORD; be strong, and let your heart take courage; wait for the LORD! (ESV)
Nahum 1:3 The LORD is slow to anger and great in power, and the LORD will by no means clear the guilty. His way is in whirlwind and storm, and the clouds are the dust of his feet,
12.111. In their history verily there is a lesson for men of understanding. It is no invented story but a confirmation of the existing (Scripture) and a detailed explanation of everything, and a guidance and a mercy for folk who believe.
1Corinthians 10:11 Now these things happened to them as an example, but they were written down for our instruction, on whom the end of the ages has come.
The Quran which came later is a confirmation of existing Scripture and it states that to be the case here.
See also 2Timothy 3.16 above.
Deuteronomy 29:29 The secret things belong to the LORD our God, but the things revealed belong to us and to our children forever, that we may follow all the words of this law.
Isaiah 42:21 The LORD was pleased, for his righteousness’ sake, to magnify his law and make it glorious. (ESV)
Matthew 5:17 Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them. (ESV)
Psalm 145:8 The LORD is gracious and merciful, slow to anger and abounding in steadfast love.
This Surah was written to show the importance of Joseph and Jacob in history and prophecy. We see how they are part of the plan of God and the salvation of the Gentiles at the end of the age. Jacob was renamed as Israel which means He shall rule as God which is the destiny of mankind.