Christian Churches of God

No. Q001D




Chronology of the Koran Part II: Becca and the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs


(Edition 1.5 20191030-20191109)


This text deals with Original Islam and the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs and the move from Becca and Petra to Kufa and Mecca with the Abbasids in the First Civil War in Islam.



Christian Churches of God

PO Box 369,  WODEN  ACT 2606,  AUSTRALIA




(Copyright ©  2019 Wade Cox)


This paper may be freely copied and distributed provided it is copied in total with no alterations or deletions. The publisher’s name and address and the copyright notice must be included.  No charge may be levied on recipients of distributed copies.  Brief quotations may be embodied in critical articles and reviews without breaching copyright.


This paper is available from the World Wide Web page: and



Chronology Part II: Becca and the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs


Just what and where is Becca and who are the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs? What happened to them and who took over from them?  How does it all affect Islam and what does it mean to the faith now?


Location of Becca

Becca was the name of the location of the Ka’aba. It was the place where the Prophet’s grandfather was almost sacrificed to Baal/Hubal and where his clan of the Qureysh was located. It is physically impossible for it to have been at Mecca as we will see. Yet it was where the Church was located and where the Prophet was educated in the faith and baptized. It was the centre of a trading system linking the Arabian Peninsular with Mesopotamia.


The Koran or Qur’an was revealed there within the precinct of Becca and then at Medina after the Hijra in 622 CE.


The search for a place named Becca may well have sought to identify Baka and indeed Mecca was not a place of pilgrimage but the Hebrew word Bekah meaning the half shekel coin as an offering is a reference to the feasts. There is no doubt that the church never made a pilgrimage to Mecca, and the Ka’aba[h] was an idolatrous place cleansed of idols. The Temple mount was a rubbish pit until it was conquered and ordered cleansed of rubbish by Omar.


One of the later attempts after the death of the Prophet and the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs was to locate the area of Becca away from Jerusalem to the area of the Family of the Prophet and their clan of the Qureysh which was located at Petra and their name of the area as Becca.  Bekka was originally west of Jerusalem where Abraham originally prayed as explained in Surah 3:96-97 (Q003) and not east of Petra where the clans of Ishmael and the Qureysh were located adjacent to the sons of Edom and the Amalekites.  The Ka’aba as the Temple of Baal or Hubal and the Gods of the days was located there with the Temple also of the goddess Al Lat at Wadi Rum. Mecca was a post Islamic substitute for the relocation of the Ka’aba and the Meteorite as the centre of the worship of Baal/Hubal in Arabia to displace the faith in the Churches of God.


What happened at the site of Mecca and when was the site established there? What was the significance? How might we piece together the history of what happened?  Let us examine the matter.


Orientation and direction of prayer in Islam

People assume, because people espousing Islam turn to Mecca to pray, that they always did so.  That is utterly false. Until recently all scholarship regarding Islam agreed that the original Islamic faith turned towards Jerusalem and did not orient to Mecca at all.


Further, people assume that the place of pilgrimage was to Mecca and the stoning of Satan and the circumambulations of the Ka’aba always took place there. That appears to be not so, but was undertaken at Petra.


The orientation towards Jerusalem was uniform under the Prophet and later under the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs through the Umayyad Caliphate at Damascus until the civil war with the Abbasids.


The Prophet died on 8 June 632 at Medina in Arabia. He was succeeded by four successive caliphs, all of which he trained.

These four were termed the Rashidun Caliphs and they ruled for 30 years. Their dynasty, the Umayyad, located at Damascus, remained in control until the dynasty was overthrown in 750 CE by the Abbasids. Because they were trained by the Prophet, and followed the Scriptures and the Koran or Qur’an, the first four were termed the Rightly Guided Caliphs. The militarist arm of the pseudo-Islamists turned on the converted elements of the faith and Ali and Hussein were killed and the Church was suppressed after only 30 years under the Rashidun.


The Prophet’s uncle Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalib (566-653) lived at a settlement 27 miles east of Petra which was the centre of his clan.  He was four years older than the Prophet and died eight years before the death of Ali and was not regarded as a Rashidun or Rightly Guided Caliph. He was not in obvious open rebellion to them but Ali and Hussein were killed eight years after his death by the opponents of the Church among the pseudo-Muslims.  Abbas was dead some 93 years before the formation of the Abbasid forces and the Revolution of 750 under those forces. The Abbasid dynasty was then formed from the conflicts in opposition to the Umayyads ruling from Damascus, where they had relocated the political capital from Becca, but still within the Roman province of Syria. This makes the Surahs in the Koran regarding the Romans and the Churches in the Levant even more understandable (cf. Establishment of the Church under the Seventy (No. 122D)).


However, they always directed the Mosques to what was assumed as Jerusalem among all the scholars of Islam. That has now come under question in the orientation with the recent study claiming that is was directed to Petra, the former capital of Idumea and the Nabatean trading centre in the Roman Province of Syria (now in Jordan) in which was the location of the site of Becca, and not Mecca at all. We will examine the matter below.


There is no doubt whatsoever that the Qiblahs or places in the Mosques to which prayer was directed underwent a major and lasting change from what was understood to be Jerusalem to the later centre of Mecca after the Abbasids seized control in the Civil War.  In fact it is doubtful that there was any initial need to place a Qiblah in any mosque before that conflict. This was a relocation in the political control of Islam and the direction was forced to change to Mecca, which until that time appeared to not exist in the religious system until the relocation of the Ka’aba and the Shrines at Becca to Mecca and the texts were altered to disguise the name Becca to read “Mecca”. This relocation gave rise to the curious reference in Islam that said “We both pray to the same Qiblah” meaning that we are of the same side or belief.


In Arabic this forgery required a mere alteration of the diacritical point which formed the B of Becca to the symbol which overwrote the point with the sublinear curl of the M for Mecca. From this point all Korans not in the Kufic script, which was the centre of Abbasid power before their relocation from Kufa to Baghdad, were seized and destroyed. That fact is the basis behind all Islamic insistence on the Arabic Kufic Script to this date all over the world. It was to conceal the forgeries and alterations. Other alterations appear to have been made regarding the Food Laws (No. 015) (cf. also Surah 3:93 (Q003) and Surah 22:36 (Q022) for details) and the pagan eating of camels at Eid and the destruction of the Temple Calendar in Islam followed these heresies along with the move of the Sabbath to the Friday Juma’ah Preparation Day (cf. The Jumaah: Preparing for the Sabbath (No. 285); Sabbath in the Koran (No. 274) and. Hebrew and Islamic Calendar Reconciled (No. 053)). It is this conflict which was the critical point of the insertion of pagan heresies into Islam and the Sabbatarian Churches of God and the corruption of the faith (cf. also The Koran on the Bible, the Law and the Covenant (No. 083)).


“The Abbasid Dynasty was founded by a dynasty descended from Muhammad's uncle, Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalib (566–653 CE), from whom the dynasty takes its name.[2] They ruled as caliphs for most of the caliphate from their capital in Baghdad in modern-day Iraq, after having overthrown the Umayyad Caliphate in the Abbasid Revolution of 750 CE (132 AH).


The Abbasid Caliphate first centred its government in Kufa, modern-day Iraq, but in 762 the caliph Al-Mansur founded the city of Baghdad, near the ancient Sasanian capital city of Ctesiphon. The Abbasid period was marked by reliance on Persian bureaucrats (notably the Barmakid family) for governing the territories as well as an increasing inclusion of non-Arab Muslims in the ummah (national community). Persianate customs were broadly adopted by the ruling elite, and they began patronage of artists and scholars.[3] Baghdad became a centre of science, culture, philosophy and invention in what became known as the Golden Age of Islam.


Despite this initial cooperation, the Abbasids of the late 8th century had alienated both non-Arab mawali (clients)[4] and Iranian bureaucrats.[5] They were forced to cede authority over al-Andalus (Spain) to the Umayyads in 756, Morocco to the Idrisid dynasty in 788, Ifriqiya and Southern Italy to the Aghlabids in 800, Iran to Saffarid in 861 and Egypt to the Isma'ili-Shia caliphate of the Fatimids in 969.” (cf. Wikipedia article links).


It is from this transfer under the Abbasids that we learn much. The place of their ancestry was not at Mecca as was claimed by later scholars but at Becca where tradition and archeologists have located the ruins of the dwelling of the uncle of the Prophet 27 miles or 43.45 km east of Petra.


It was the Abbasids that moved the meteorite of the Ka’aba from Petra where it was located east to Mecca.  It is certain that no Ka’aba was at Mecca during the life of the Prophet nor did he encourage any such activity associated with it. It was rebuilt in Mecca ca 70 AH or 699 CE (cf. Al Tabari 21:844). This was 51 years prior to the revolution and shows an extensive period of preparation. All Umayyads at Damascus are reported as facing to Petra or on alignments associated with that orientation and not to Mecca at all in any instance, according to new research  by Dan Gibson as at  (Dan Gibson The Sacred City (Religious Documentary) | Timeline


Some of his other work the reader might find useful:


It should also be noted that the history regarding Becca denotes a walled city, but Mecca had no walls. However Petra has a walled structure that fits the narrative and the Courtyard at Petra fits the historical account of it being besieged by the catapults described in the assaults. Also, the archaeologists have discovered the missiles used in the assault at Petra.


Al Bukhari says the place of prayer was at Jerusalem and not Mecca (Buk. 6:17) (cf. also The Children of Israel or the Night Journey (Surah 17 (Q017)).


Becca or Petra was also exposed to the influence of the Churches of God established by the Seventy ordained by Christ from the dioceses established from the time of the Apostles at Jerusalem, Ceasarea (Central North Israel), Samaria, Jericho, Gaza, Eleutheropolis (Roman and Byzantine city between Jerusalem and Gaza), Damascus, Antioch, Ephesus, Smyrna, Laodicea, Alexandria, Axum and all Abyssinia, Saba, Yemen, Hieres, Phrygia, Nicomedia, Heraclea, Tarsus, Bostra (Busra Al Sham in Southern Syria), Konya (in Turkey), Panellas or Banias at the foot of the Golan, Antioch, Appollonia, Lystra and right throughout Arabia and as a trading network. 


It was the Church at Becca/Petra that trained and ordained the Prophet and his wife and her entire family. The Sabbatarian Church developed the Arabic script and translated the Scriptures into Arabic for over 100 years before the birth of the Prophet, as we know from archeology. The claim that the Scriptures have been lost is an Hadithic blasphemy.


It was to the Sabbatarian Church in Abyssinia that the Church at Becca first sought refuge in the Hijrah of 613 CE (cf. Surah “Mariam” (Q019)).


It is also important to note that Mecca was not used as an ancient city and the archaeologists have been unable to find any trace of any ancient structure beneath Mecca that placed it before the relocation under the Abbasids. Nor is it recorded that any trees are recorded or found there. Yet there were trees at Becca or Petra.


Mecca was an uncultivated grazing area until the end of the eighth century CE. Also the cave in which the Prophet received his vision of Gabriel and the revelation is not located at Mecca but there is such a cave at Becca or Petra.


There are many clues in the Koran that indicate that the Ka’aba was anathema to the faith and it was never moved to Mecca under the Prophet or the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs. In fact they never used Mecca or established it as a centre of anything. Then why was it moved there by the Abbasids and turned into an object of pilgrimage when it was never such under the Prophet and the Four Caliphs? The answer seems obvious and simple. They were influenced by Baal or Hubal worship and wished to establish its observation in the suppression of the Church of God and they could not do so from Petra or Becca, yet they could not obliterate Becca from the religious documents and memory of the Faith. The reversal of the male/female Sun and Moon indicate the Baal worship system in the Levant was transferred to Mecca where nothing existed prior to the Abbasid system or at Kufa. The historical transfer of the Ka’aba by the Abbasids is beyond dispute.


The conclusion that must be drawn is that the references to Mecca in the texts have been altered from Becca to Mecca. That forgery requires only a minor alteration at the beginning of the word. Hence, the two Hijrahs in 613, to Aksum, and the one in 622, to Medina were all to the east from Becca at Petra.


Also the Surah “The Elephant” (Q105) refers to Abyssinians advancing to destroy the Ka’aba which occurred in 570 CE the year of the Prophet’s birth. Thus the advance must have been to Becca at Petra for that is where the Ka’aba was at that time and was a place of pilgrimage.  


The temple of the goddess Al Lat was also at Wadi Rum (Al Bukhari 23:432).  Thus Petra was a centre of pagan idolatry notwithstanding the conversion of the Edomites or Idumeans by the Maccabees in the Second Century BCE to Judaism and the placement of Judaic tribes there and not Arabia and the conversion of Arab tribes to Judaism. Herod and his family were Idumean and ruled Judea and its environs with Roman patronage until their fall in the First Century CE.   Baal worship was endemic throughout the Levant and Syria and Arabia right through to the time of the Prophet.


Also in 627 CE the first Mosque was built in the old city of Canton (Guangzhou) China.  It was oriented to Jerusalem or, perhaps, as is now claimed, the Jordan Valley at Petra, and did not face Mecca but 12 degrees north of Mecca. This was during the life of the Prophet at Medina, and only 14 years after the Church sought refuge in Abyssinia from the Church there and only five years after the Hijrah of 622. The Church in Medina was not powerful enough to warrant such independent status. It was the Church there in Abyssinia under Archbishop Meuses that established the Church in China in the Fourth and Fifth century (cf. General Distribution of the Sabbath-keeping Churches (No. 122)).   It is most probable that this building was oriented towards Jerusalem and the determination between Jerusalem and Becca/Petra is difficult to determine with any degree of accuracy. It is certainly not oriented to, or facing, Mecca.


It is an historical fact that Umar or Omar took Jerusalem by force and made the inhabitants clean up the Temple Mount in order to establish a place of worship there, as the Trinitarians had used it as a rubbish tip. The conclusion now seems inescapable. Becca, the centre of the faith during the life of the Prophet Qasim and the lives of the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs, was at, and adjacent to, Petra and within the influence of the Churches of God in the Levant (cf. 122D above). It was part of the Roman Province of Syria or Nabatea and the centre of the trading route that formed the early employment of the Prophet and the Christian Jewish trading family of Kadijah his wife. Mecca was no such trading centre. Mecca was never used for any purpose associated with the faith at the time of the Prophet and the Rightly Guided Caliphs until it was set up as a centre of worship with the Ka’aba at its centre under the Abbasids to establish the shamanist and pagan traditions of the Baal/Hubal worshippers in Islam contrary to the Koran and the Laws of God in the Bible. It has no place in the worship in Islam. Facing Mecca in prayer is a post Abbasid creation and in fact rebellion towards God. The circumambulation of the Ka’aba is shamanist idolatry.


The reality is that no Surahs of the Koran were ever written at Mecca but were in fact written at Becca or Petra. Thus the academic term must be Very Early, Early, Mid or Late Beccan Surahs in all cases up to the Hijrah in 622 CE and thence at Medina as Medinan Surahs.