Christian Churches of God

No. F051






Commentary on Colossians

(Edition 1.0 20201203-20201203)


The Epistle to the Colossians is gravely misunderstood and used by Antinomians to attack the law of God and through ignorance assert that the Law is somehow “nailed to the stake.”





Christian Churches of God

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(Copyright © 2020 Wade Cox)


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Commentary Colossians


Colossae is a small town near Laodicea and  Ephesus. The sea port of Ephesus is now some two metres higher than the existing sea level and is inland from the port at Kusadasi. It was used as a port during the Roman Warm Period (RWP). The sea dropped during the later Dark Ice Age from the Fifth Century CE (cf. Global Warming – Historical Cycles (No. 218B)). The sea port was then removed and is now established at Kusadasi, after the Medieval Warm Period (MWP).


Colossae is now a tell covered with broken shards of pottery in the field where they now often grow opium poppies. 


It is in what was Phrygia and was open to the false systems of Baal and the gods Attis and Mithras endemic there as well as Gnostic influences.


Paul sent the Colossian Epaphras, to preach there (1:7 and 4:12). Paul was later alerted to the operation of false teachers there spreading false doctrine by speculation and hence this letter was sent to them as part of the letters Paul sent from Rome in the time ca 61-63. This letter is similar to the Letter to the Ephesians. It was despatched by Tychicus (4:7-8) who also carried Paul’s Letter to Philemon. The false teachers appear to have been a Judaic sect with ritualistic beliefs which will be examined below. They are commented on also in Bullinger’s notes. Similar heresies were being experienced in both Colossae and Galatia (cf. Heresy in the Apostolic Church (No. 089)).  The epistles to Colossae and Ephesus have a similar theological thrust being sent at the same time dealing with errors.


Bullinger seems to misunderstand the comments in 2:1 and thinks Paul may not have been there, but it merely indicates there had been many converts since he was last there. The confusion caused by the silversmith crisis and the falling away of the disciples at Ephesus also affected Colossae (cf. Establishment of the Church under the Seventy (No. 122D)).


The erroneous theology at Colossae

The books of Colossians and Galatians have been held to uphold a number of incorrect doctrinal positions regarding the New Testament Church position. Among other things, the contention that the law is done away rests upon an interpretation of these texts. The interpretation is in error. The extensive argument regarding the correct New Testament cosmology needs to be developed. Heresy in the Apostolic Church would form a chapter of that work (cf. also P089).



The Apostolic Church was faced with a series of problems in its infancy. Many of the churches of which we have a biblical record were established by or under the supervision of Paul. When disputes arose as to the accuracy or acceptability of practices they were often referred back to Paul for settlement. Some practices such as those at Corinth involved simple physical practices, which detracted from the spirituality of the Church. Other problems were more involved and appear to be incompletely understood. This seems to have arisen because the cosmology apprehended in the New Testament Churches was misunderstood by the later post-Nicean theology. The epistle to the Colossians is an important text for understanding the original cosmology of the New Testament Church.


Another important text, but to a lesser extent, is that of Galatians. The letter to the Hebrews is a most significant text regarding the interrelationship of the Old and New Testaments and their cosmology. By understanding the errors into which these churches fell we can better understand the original cosmology. When the texts are examined we shall see correctly what these errors were and, more particularly, we will understand how they occurred.



The Nature of the Text

The Colossian heresy was obscured for a long time on the basis of the accepted understanding that the Colossians had embraced a form of Gnosticism, which could not be properly reconstructed from the text.


The error was assumed to have also involved a form of legalism. This stemmed from a misunderstanding of the terms used by Paul in the text. The allusions by Paul in the text to the concepts are cryptic and require examination and construction.


Colossians 2:8-10,16 refers to the following concepts:

·      tradition (B"DV(@F4<) [paragosin] (2:8);

·      fullness (B8ZDT:") [plerõma] (1:9; 2:9,10);

·      philosophy (N48@F@N4") [philosophia] (2:8);

·      eating and drinking ($DfF,4, B`F,4) [brõsei, posei] (2:16);

·      principalities and powers (•DP"4, ¦.@LG4"4) [archai, ezousiai] (2:15); and

·      elements of the world (FJ@4P,Ä" J@Ù 6`F:@L) [stoicheia tou kosmau] (2:8,20).


These terms find usage also in Gnostic Judaism and in Hellenising Syncretism. Bacchiocchi (From Sabbath to Sunday: A Historical Investigation into the Rise of Sunday Observance in Early Christianity, Appendix, pp. 343f.) states that both these terms are

equally used by commentators to define the derivation of the gnosis of Colossae.


Bacchiocchi refers to the texts by Jacques Dupont, E. Percy, Lightfoot and Lyonnet as examples of the scholars who define the heresy as a form of Gnosticizing Judaism. On the other hand Günther Bornkamm in “The Heresy of Colossians” in Conflict at Colossae, p. 126 states categorically:

No doubt seems possible to me, however, on one point: The Colossian doctrine of the elements belongs to the ancient mythology and speculation of the oriental Aeon-theology, which was widespread and active in Hellenistic syncretism; cf. Ernst Lohmeyer, Der Brief an die Kolosser, 1930, pp. 3 f.; M. Dibelius, An die Kolosser, Epheser, An Philemon, 1953, excursus on 2:8, and 2:23. (Bacchiocchi, fn. to p. 343.)


Bacchiocchi goes on in the footnote to say that

others interpret the Colossian heresy as a syncretism of Hellenistic and Jewish elements; see Edward Lohse, A Commentary on the Epistles to the Colossian and to Philemon, 1971, pp. 115-116; Norbert Hugedé, Commentaire de l'Épître aux Colossiens, pp. 9, 143; W. Rordorf, Sunday, p. 136: 'We are in fact dealing with the possibility of a whole stream of syncretistic tradition in which Jewish-Christian material is inextricably intertwined with material of Hellenistic and oriental provenance'; cf. Handley C.G. Moule, Colossian Studies, 1898, who defines the heresy as 'an amalgam of Judaism and Gnosticism, in a wide reference of the latter word.'


The understanding can be reconstructed from the epistle and the cosmology of the New Testament references especially in Revelation and by recourse to the analysis made here in chapters 2, 3 and 4 [of God Revealed]. Once the correct biblical cosmology is understood, the nature of the problem at Colossae can be correctly understood. A simple clue is that the church at Colossae was corrected in a way that indicated that the church at Colossae was in error but that the errors were a misunderstanding on the part of the church of extant concepts which were not of themselves challenged or refuted. We are thus faced with a distortion and misapplication rather than wholesale adoption. The reference to the Aeon theology by Bornkamm is a major clue to the puzzle. The supposed aeon theology is also asserted to Hebrews.


Bacchiocchi considers that the Colossian error was characterised by a theological and a practical error. He considers that

theologically, the Colossian 'philosophy' (2:8) was competing with Christ for man's allegiance. Its source of authority, according to Paul was man-made 'tradition- B"DV*@F4H [paradosis] (2:8) and its object was to impart true 'wisdom- F@N4" [sophia] (2:3,23), 'knowledge- (<äF4H [gnosis] (2:2,3; 3:10) and 'understanding- Fb<,F4H [sunesis] (1:9; 2:2). To attain such knowledge Christians were urged to do homage to cosmic principalities (2:10,15) and to 'the elements of the universe-

J FJ@4P,Ã J@Ø P`F:@L [ta stoieea tou kosmou] (2:8,18,20).


It is important to isolate exactly the theological error and exactly what Paul was saying to the church at Colossae. The Elohim, as is demonstrated from the biblical context, are a multiple Host of which Christ as the Lamb is the High Priest, but he is one of them as a fellow or comrade. Revelation 5 shows that there are delegated responsibilities within the Council of the Elohim. Revelation 5:8 states clearly that each of the twenty-four elders is equipped with harps and golden vials full of odours which are the prayers of the saints. It is obvious that these elders have a responsibility in the maintenance of the elect. It is apparent that at Colossae a logical jump was made whereby these Elohim were prayed to directly. The ancient practice of praying to the spirits of the dead stems from both Shamanism and the Babylonian system. The mystical ascent found in Merkabah mysticism appears to have been making its impact in the area of Palestine in this first century. The paper Vegetarianism and the Bible (No. 183) shows the development of Gnostic asceticism in Christianity. It would appear that the propitiation of angels and the ascetic systems somehow entered the church at Colossae, probably based on the reason stemming from Revelation 5:8. The worship of idols became disguised as the propitiation of saints and later penetrated mainstream Christianity. However, the ascetic purification rituals seemed to have a more limited success. The traditions referred to by Paul appear to stem from the elemental spirits and are interlinked with philosophy. This is a very complicated passage involving three separate streams of thought – namely, the influence of one or more of the schools of philosophy; resort to the oral tradition upon which aspects of Judaism are based; and, lastly, the treatment of elements of the spirits. There is no doubt that it involves propitiation of lesser beings because Paul goes on to Colossians 2:9-10 to assert of Christ:

For in him the whole fullness of the deity dwells bodily, and you have come to fullness of life in him, who is head of all rule and authority.


It should be noted that the term fullness of deity derives from the term 2, `J0J@H [theotetos]. As noted from Thayer (p. 288) deity differs from divinity as essence differs from quality or attribute. Thus the deity referred to here, which dwelt in Christ bodily, is the spirit of God. It was that essence emanating from God which enabled Christ to become one with God. While the other Elohim possessed this spirit, the issue that Paul appears to be making is that Christ has the authority and the fullness of the qualities of the deity and delegated attributes of the Father. This renders other entities irrelevant in the control of the elect. Christ is the head of all rule and authority (Col. 2:10). God is the object of prayer. Christ and the elders act by delegation. Thus the issue was one of control and authority. Bacchiocchi (loc. cit.) states in relation to the elements of the universe (Col. 2:8,18,20) that:

Most modern exegetes, have adopted a personified interpretation of the stoicheia (especially on the basis of the parallel passage in Galatians 4:3,9; cf. 3:19); identifying them with angelic mediators of the law (Acts 7:53; Gal. 3:19; Heb. 2:2) and the pagan astral gods who were credited with control of the destiny of mankind. To gain protection from these cosmic powers and principalities, the Colossian "philosophers" were urging Christians to offer cultic adoration to angelic powers (2:15,18,19,23) and to follow ritualistic and ascetic practices (2:11,14,16.17,21,22). By that process one was assured of access to and participation in the divine "fulness- (B8ZDT:")" [plerõma]" (2:9,10, cf. 1,19). The theological error then basically consisted in interposing inferior angelic mediators in place of the Head Himself (2:9,10,18,19) (pp. 344-345).


Bacchiocchi goes on to state:

The practical outcome of these theological speculations was the insistence on strict ascetism and ritualism. These consisted in "putting off the body of flesh" (2:11) (apparently meaning withdrawal from the world); rigorous treatment of the body (2:23); prohibition to either taste or touch certain kinds of foods and beverages (2:16,21), and careful observance of sacred days and seasons-festival, new moon, Sabbath (2:16). Christians presumably were led to believe that by submitting to these ascetic practices, they were not surrendering their faith in Christ, but rather they were receiving added protection and were assured of full access to the divine fullness (p. 345).


The thought processes involved appear to be aimed at negating secondary entities and confining the process to one of control through Christ. We were to see this error develop into prayers to the saints and ultimately much later to the adoption of the Gnostic and Baal doctrines of heaven and hell in the faith. All prayer was to be to God the Father in Christ's name. Though there are powers influencing mankind there is but one Mediator between God and man. Never in the Bible is prayer sanctioned to anyone other than God who is the Father. The propitiation of the elders may have developed its own cosmology. However, what is clear is that some traditions of the Pharisees regarding the law had penetrated the Church in this process. The theory of the elemental spirits of the universe further complicates the issue (cf. the paper The Works of the Law Text - or MMT (No. 104)).


The Aeon theology seems to be placing Christ in the position of the Aeon and elevating him above the other sons of God present at the creation and before the Throne of God (Job 1:6; 2:1; 38:4-7). It is this heresy that was developed from the Baal and Mystery cults to develop Binitarianism and Ditheism and then lead into Modalism, and the final Trinitarian error when there is no trace of the Trinity in the Bible anywhere (cf. Calvin, Harnack and Brunner) except in the forgeries of the KJV (cf. Forgeries and Mistranslations in the Bible (No. 164F) and Forgeries and Mistranslations Relating to the Position of Christ (No. 164G)) and thus the forgeries were inserted from the theology of the Sun and Mystery Cults.


The Sabbath Problem

The reference at Isaiah 1:14 is usually used to justify the keeping of the Chaldean feasts of Easter (ca. 154-192 CE at Rome) and the December mid-winter festivals (ca. 475 CE from Syria) as opposed to the biblical ordinances. Indeed, the King James Version at Acts 12:4 has been deliberately mistranslated to read Easter instead of Passover. To suggest that Christ would permit the Church to replace the feasts of the plan of salvation with pagan festivals when the feasts were instituted by him at Sinai (Acts 7:30-54; 1Cor. 10:4) under instruction from God appears extraordinary and unsound. Tertullian falls into this error when he argues against Marcion concerning the Sabbath. Not fully understanding the role Messiah played as the Elohim or Angel of Yahovah of the Old Testament, Tertullian assumes separate entities and alleges both Yahovah of the Old Testament and Christ in the New Testament hated the Sabbath. Tertullian used Isaiah as above for the Old Testament and reasoning thus for Christ that:

even if as being not the Christ of the Jews, He [i.e., Christ of the NT] displayed a hatred against the Jews most solemn day, He was only professedly following the Creator, as being His Christ [Messiah], in this very hatred of the Sabbath; for He exclaims by the mouth of Isaiah: 'Your new moons and your Sabbaths my soul hateth' (Bacchiocchi in From Sabbath To Sunday: A Historical Investigation into the Rise of Sunday Observance in Early Christianity, The Pontifical Gregorian University Press, Rome, 1977 quoting Against Marcion 1,1, ANF, Vol. III, p. 271; (but the reference is only to the commencement of the work)).


Bacchiocchi's opinion was that Tertullian's arguments in Books I, II, III & V showed, contrary to what Marcion taught, that the type of Sabbath-keeping taught by the God of the Old Testament and that of Christ were identical. The teachings of both testaments were in harmony. Both derived from the same God who was God of both dispensations. In arguing for the harmony, however, he reduces the Sabbath to an institution that God has always despised (Bacchiocchi, ibid., p. 187, fn. 61). The fact is that both Tertullian and Bachiocchi ignore Isaiah 66:23-24 and Zechariah 14:16-19 where Christ will cause the death of the entire peoples that do not keep the Sabbaths and New Moons and the Feasts of God and especially in sending their representatives to the conferences at Tabernacles each year in Jerusalem. There is no doubt whatsoever that the entire apostolic church kept the Sabbaths everywhere and it was not until 111 CE that they began keeping Sundays alongside the Sabbath in Rome which they also kept. Also they were never successful in stamping out Sabbath keeping all over the world despite Laodicea (366) and many other subsequent councils and persecutions.


The Law

It is at Book V Chapter IV that Tertullian discusses the concept of elements which the Romans equated with the rudiments of learning. Tertullian equates these elements with even the rudiments of the law presumably on the proposition that the law was an introductory mechanism to educate the elect in the faith. He refers to a concept presumably from Galatians, but here Paul appears to be referring to a heresy, perhaps animistic, involving propitiation of spirit forces that seems to have entered the Galatian Church and became infused onto the biblical feasts and then became a form of justification by adherence to the law rather than grace (Gal. 5:4). Here the problem approaches that at Colossae. The Galatian problem appears to be similar to the Gnosticism that constituted the Colossian heresy. The heresy at Colossae, as we have observed, involved "elements" and "traditions" and appears to have been cultic adoration of angelic powers whose favour was invoked by the observance of "regulations - *Î(:"J"" [dogmata].


As we have noted, this cult may well have coincided with the introduction of the mystical ascents of the Hekaloth in Judaism during the first century (see Kaplan, Meditation and Kabbalah, Samuel Weiser, Maine, 1989 for details of the system). The concept that purification can come by observance of regulations (and, here, in service of angelic beings) was also the concept that was "nailed to the cross" as well as the Chierographon or Bill of Indebtedness we owed God through sin as transgression of the law (1Jn, 3:4), not that of the law. This argument was advanced on the fact that in Christ the whole fullness of the deity dwells bodily (2:9), and that therefore all forms of authority that exist are subordinate to him who is the head of all rule and authority (2:10), and only through Christ (possessing not only the fullness of the deity but also the fullness of redemption and forgiveness of sins) (see 1:14; 2:10-15; 3:1-5) can the believer come to the fullness of life (2:10). Paul, contrary to his usual method, does not make recourse to the law but to baptism as Bacchiocchi notes Harold Weiss arguing. The law as a term (<`:@H [nomos]) is absent from Colossians 2 in the discussion of the controversy and this would corroborate the assertion that:

the Colossian heresy was not in fact based upon the usual Jewish legalism but rather on an unusual (syncretistic) type of ascetic and cultic regulations (*Î(:"J" [dogmata]) which undermined the all sufficiency of Christ's redemption. (Bacchiocchi, ibid., p.347)


Paul's arguments in Galatians and in Colossians were misunderstood and consequently misapplied, especially by the Antinomians but generally by the Athanasian Binitarians who later became Trinitarians from Constantinople in 381 CE and Chalcedon in 451 CE. Tertullian was the first of the later quasi-Trinitarians who carried on this theological deficiency. The Trinitarians could not understand the significance of the arguments expounded in Colossians because they did not understand the early Christian cosmology. The Colossian heresy (and that of the Valentinians) was only possible because the early Church embraced a cosmology (Rev. 4 et seq.) which was a core of the central Elohim involving thirty entities the Valentinians called Aeons from the lion-headed Aeon. The council involved the Seventy Sons of God at Deuteronomy 32:1-8ff., appointed by Eloah and whose structure was replicated by the Sanhedrin and then the Elders of the Church appointed by Christ (Lk. 10:1,17). This aspect is dealt with elsewhere. The fact is that the elohim were the body of the Host that were all sons of God and involved the council of the Psalms.


Book Overview - Colossians

by E.W. Bullinger









1. Doctrine has more place than practice in the Epistle to the Colossians. There is a marked resemblance between it and the letter to the Ephesians, a prominent element of both, as well as Philippians, being the apostle’s insistence upon the reality of our union with Christ, as having died and risen again in Him, and the necessity for holding fast the Head" (Colossians 2:19).

2. SUBJECT. Colossians, like Galatians, proclaims our freedom from the elements, or rudiments, of the world. What those elements are, is sufficiently explained by the term ceremonialism, the rites and ceremonies of religion as distinct from Christianity. Hence Paul’s earnest admonition against a return to such, Jewish or other, inasmuch as this is to deny our completeness and perfection in Christ. Practically, it is to say that He is not sufficient, that something more is needed to be added to Him, some ordinance is wanted to make us quite complete. But, as the apostle unfolds to us, we died with Christ, and, consequently, ordinances are of no use to dead persons. In this Epistle all practical holiness is shown to spring from the holding of true doctrine, i.e. our life is the outcome of our belief. Then, our standing being complete and perfect in Christ, we cannot grow in this standing , but we may grow in the knowledge, experience, and enjoyment of it.

3. The statement in Colossians 2:1 indicates that, at the time of writing the Epistle, Paul had not yet visited Colosae, although commentators are divided on this point. Some believe that the apostle could not have missed out the city in one or other of his missionary journeys, although no mention is made in Acts. Others, referring to 1:7, hold that Epaphras had been Paul"s deputy to bear the good news to his fellow-citizens, for he was a Colossian (Colossians 4:12).

4. DATE. The Epistle was written towards the end of the apostle’s first imprisonment in Rome, about A.D. 62 (Appendix- 180).

5. The Phrygian city of Colossae was only a few miles from Laodicea, the importance of which gradually increased as the other city declined. Both so entirely disappeared that only in recent times were the sites discovered, and various ruins traced, by modern explorers.



Intent of the chapters

There are two elements of the text, doctrinal (1:1-3:4) and practical exhortations (3:5-4:18).  In the first part Paul emphasises the supremacy and all sufficiency of Christ in the Cosmos (1:15-17), in the church (1:18-20) and in the individual (2:9-12).


In the second part Paul counters the ascetic and legalistic tendencies by emphasising a spiritual morality and a social ethic bound with Christian love (3:5-4:1). (cf. Oxford Annotated RSV Intr.)  At no point does Paul preach Antinomianism or suggest that the Law of God is in any way “done away” or “nailed to the stake or cross as was advanced over the last few centuries and as many Antinomian heretics teach today. It was our Chierographon or “Bill of indebtedness” we owed God that was paid by Christ and which was nailed to the stauros or stake. As the Bible clearly states in the words of James at the Acts 15 Conference (No. 069) in Jerusalem, Paul himself kept the law (cf. Paul Part I: Paul and the Law (No. 271)).


The greetings are in 1:1-2 cf. Rom. 1:1-7 with v2 similar to 2 Thess. 1:2 (Oxf. RSV n).


1:3-14 (cf. Rom. 1:8-15 RSV n.). 3. (Eph. 1:16). 4. Phil. 5). 4-5. 1Cor. 3:13). 7. Epaphras was the founder of the church at Colossae and is now with Paul 4:12; Philem. 23). 8-9. Eph. 1:15-17. 9-11 is a petition for the sensitivity to God’s Will. 12. Giving thanks to the Father. 13. Delivered = Rescued from Satan’s powers (cf. Mt. 6:13 RSV note and note to Acts 26:18).


1:15-23 refers to the supremacy of Christ. This text refers to Christ as being the image of the Invisible God, the first born of all creation. This is a clearly subordinationist and creationist text.


Verse 16 goes on to state what was created by Christ and it refers to thrones, dominions, principalities and authorities. These are not beings but the structure in which the host, human and spiritual, operates. Christ is not superior to the other sons of God in being, nor did he create them. He was elevated above them by his resurrection from the dead but he is one of them (Ps. 45:6-7; Heb. 1:8-9). It appears that Paul is outlining this to deal with the Aeon theory of emanations and establishing Christ’s position.  This also can be seen in Deuteronomy 32 and 32:8 where God (Eloah) placed that elohim who became Christ in charge of Israel (cf. Acts 7:30-53; 1Cor. 10:4).


In him all things hold together (v. 17). Christ is the head of the body the church (v.18f) and is the firstborn from the dead that he might be preeminent in all things. He was to reconcile all things whether in heaven or on earth, making peace by the blood of the stauros (vv. 19-20) (cf. also Judgment of the Demons (No. 080)).


It is this mystery that is made manifest through the saints, through whom the Gentiles are to understand the Mystery of God which is Christ in us all (v. 27) (through the Holy Spirit).


In Chapter 2: 1-2 Paul goes on to explain how he strives for those at Colossae, and at nearby Laodicea, and for all who have not seen his face who are the more recent converts to the faith.  He then goes on to explain that God’s Mystery is the Christ in him, in which are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge. He says this specifically so that no one may undermine them by use of Greek Philosophy (v. 8ff.) regarding the adequacy of Christ’s sacrifice. This was used by Trinitarians as the vicarious sacrifice argument to undermine the true faith. They denied that Christ’s sacrifice was adequate unless he were God, which was how they introduced the Binitarian structure of Attis to the church at a later date ca 175 CE onwards (cf. Binitarian and Trinitarian Misrepresentation of the Early Theology of the Godhead (No. 127B)).


The elemental spirits are mentioned so that we might understand the basis of the elemental spirits, such as we might understand with the Socratic Doctrine of the Soul (B6).  These views were developed on into the Fifth century as we see in Proclus’ Commnentary on Plato’s Parmenides (Morrow and Dillon, Princeton, 1987). It was in 451 CE that the Doctrine of the Trinity was fixed in the Council of Chalcedon.


2:9-15 deals with the fact that the elect are circumcised by the baptism and buried into the body of Christ. Paul states that we who were dead in trespasses and the uncircumcision of the flesh, God made alive together, having forgiven all our trespasses.  Verse 14 says that “Having cancelled the bond which stood against us with its legal demands, this he set aside nailing it to the stauros or stake.  This is the trespasses or sins which formed the cheirographon or “handwriting in ordinances.”  The cheirographon is a bill that you would get in a restaurant at the end of a meal. In other words it is the bill that you owed God for your sins under the law. Christ paid it by his death on the stake. God disarmed the principalities and powers and made a public example of them, in triumphing over them in Christ.


Colossians 2:16-19 deals with the aspects of the law.  We are not to let people pass judgment on us in questions of food and drink or with regard to a Festival or a New Moon or a Sabbath.  


In the First century the Pharisees were spreading the heresies of Kashrut that they had brought in with them, not from Babylon as one might have expected, but from Egypt (QSD), and which they had fostered. They were also being badgered by the Vegetarians of the Greek Ascetics (cf. Vegetarianism and the Bible (No. 183)).


So also the remainder of the text is used by the Antinomian heretics to say that the text regarding a Festival or a New Moon or a Sabbath indicates that Christians are no longer to keep them. This is contrary to Scripture and Scripture cannot be broken (Jn. 10:34-36).  The entire church kept the Sabbaths and the New Moons and the Festivals in their entirety until the Quartodeciman Disputes (No. 277). The Sabbatarians kept them all right through until the Reformation and the Thyatiran system (cf. Sabbatarians in Transylvania, Cox/Kohn, CCG Publishing, 1998) (cf. also General Distribution of the Sabbath Keeping Churches (No. 122) and Role of the Fourth Commandment in the Sabbath-keeping Churches of God (No. 170)).


No Ditheist (076B) or Binitarian or Trinitarian (No. 076) will enter the kingdom of God. The antinomian doctrine that the Law of God is done away and God’s Calendar (No. 156) and Food Laws (No. 015) no longer apply is heretical error.  These ministers who teach such things are condemned by the Bible texts and those who do not keep the Sabbaths and New Moons will be punished and killed by Christ and the Host (Isa. 66:23-24). So also the Feasts must be kept during the entire Millennium under Christ and the Host and the National representatives will be sent to Jerusalem or there will be no rain in due season and the people will suffer the plagues of Egypt (Zech. 14:16-19). The churches not keeping the Sabbaths and New Moons and Feasts on the correct days, and those keeping the calendar according to Hillel II (358 CE) will not be in the First Resurrection. If they are not keeping the system correctly at the start of the Millennium, they will not enter the millennial system either.


Paul says that these are shadow of the things to come, but they are not eliminated under the law. Christ said that not one jot or tittle will pass from the law until heaven and earth pass away (Mat. 5:18).


Paul says let no one disqualify you, insisting on self-abasement and worship of Angels. This comment refers to the systems of worship found among the Baal systems there from the worship of Attis and the mother goddess systems, including that of the worship of Osiris, Isis and Horus in Egypt and Adonis and Dercato or Attargatis and Attis and Cybele at the region of Colossae and Ephesus and Laodicea.


Chapter 3 then goes on to deal with our position being raised with Christ who is seated at the right hand of God. We are not to consider the earthly things, but rather that which is of above. The elect have died and their lives are hidden with Christ in God.


Paul then says that when Christ appears we also will appear with him in glory. This refers to the First Resurrection as Paul explained in 1Thessalonians 4:13-18. Where those who are “fallen asleep” will rise from the graves, and then, with those still alive will be translated and brought to Christ in the heavens above Jerusalem and then rule the earth for a thousand years from Jerusalem (cf. Rev. 20).


To prepare the elect for that event they must then put to death what is earthly (of sin), of fornication, impurity, passion, evil desire and covetousness, which is idolatry. So also put away anger, wrath, malice, slander, foul talk, from your mouths and thinking. Do not lie to one another or commit false witness (under the commandment) in any way. We are to be renewed in knowledge after the image of God its creator. On account of these the Wrath of God is coming. This text refers to the Vials of the Wrath of God (Rev. 15:7; 16:1f; 17:1: 21:9) which follows the return of the Messiah in the subjugation of the planet and which is also part of the 1335 days of Daniel chapter 12 (cf. Commentary on Daniel (F027xii) and (F027xii)).


Here there cannot be Jew or Greek, circumcised and uncircumcised, barbarian, Scythian, slave, freeman but Christ is all and in all. This reference to Christ being all and in all is taken on, in Ephesians, where God is ultimately to be all in all.


This is the same theme in both letters, and here refers to the Gnostic concepts, but ties them all into the Knowledge of God, which becomes all in all and we all become elohim as sons of God (Jn. 10:34-36). Thus salvation is of all men, through the Gentiles in the body, and the reason they killed Christ as the son of God, elohim of Israel as the Christ (ibid). It is only as the elect working as part of the body can the understanding be correctly imparted.


Paul then explains how the chosen elect (Rom. 8:28-30) are to prepare themselves by  developing compassion kindness, lowliness, meekness and patience, forbearing one another, forgiving one another any perceived trespass as the Lord has forgiven us. Above all put on love, which binds everything together in perfect harmony.


In verse 16 Paul says to let the word of Christ dwell in us all richly teaching and admonishing each other and to sing psalms and hymns and spiritual songs with thankfulness in our hearts to God. From verse 18 Paul gives guidance to the families, both wives and husbands and the children, and the slaves. Whatever the task, work heartily, as serving the Lord, and not men. It is from the Lord that we receive our inheritance as we serve Christ in the body.


Wrongdoers are paid back for the wrong they have done and there is no partiality (or respect of persons) with God.


Chapter 4 continues on with exhortations in relations between masters and slaves. He exhorts all to continue steadfastly in prayer with thanksgiving so that God may open a door for us for the word to declare the mystery of Christ. He then mentions that as the reason he is in prison and which might add clarity to his speech (vv. 2-4).


In verse 5 Paul urges the church to conduct themselves wisely towards outsiders making the most of the time and making our speech always gracious, seasoned with salt so that we know how to answer everyone (v. 6).


From verse 7 He commends Tychicus as a beloved brother and a faithful minister and fellow servant in the Lord. He was sent to encourage them and inform them of Paul and the Roman Church. With him, he sent Onesimus, a faithful brother of them and of the Colossians.


Verse 10 speaks of Aristarchus who is in prison with Paul, and Mark cousin of Barnabus who is to be received if he comes to Colossae and of Jesus called Justus. These are the only men of the circumcision of his fellow workers for the kingdom of God.  Epaphras, a fellow worker of theirs, also greets them. Paul is witness to his hard work for them at Colossae and also Laodicea and at Hierapolis. Paul sends his greetings to Laodicea and to Nympha, and the church in her house. He instructed the brethren to read the letter at Colossae and also at Laodicea. And also the letter from Laodicea was to be read at Colossae. The Letter to the Colossians obviously answers the questions raised in the letter from Laodicea to Paul and the Colossians will understand the issues. The false teachers were working both areas, probably in addition to Ephesus.


Archippus is also to be instructed to fulfil his ministry.


In verse 18 he says he wrote the greeting himself. Up until then he had been dictating and instructs them to remember his letters.


The epistle was written to counter the same Antinomian Gnostic elements that are at work in the 21st Century attacking the Laws of God, even in the Churches of God, as well as the Pharisaic Judaising elements that attack God’s Calendar, having not yet developed their own, but corrupt it by traditions. Hillel did not appear until 358 CE after utilising the Babylonian intercalations brought to them by the two Babylonian Rabbis in 344 CE. The Churches of God never kept it until the 1940s onwards.


Chapter 1

1Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God, and Timothy our brother, 2To the saints and faithful brethren in Christ at Colos'sae: Grace to you and peace from God our Father. 3We always thank God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, when we pray for you, 4because we have heard of your faith in Christ Jesus and of the love which you have for all the saints, 5because of the hope laid up for you in heaven. Of this you have heard before in the word of the truth, the gospel 6which has come to you, as indeed in the whole world it is bearing fruit and growing--so among yourselves, from the day you heard and understood the grace of God in truth, 7as you learned it from Ep'aphras our beloved fellow servant. He is a faithful minister of Christ on our behalf 8and has made known to us your love in the Spirit. 9And so, from the day we heard of it, we have not ceased to pray for you, asking that you may be filled with the knowledge of his will in all spiritual wisdom and understanding, 10to lead a life worthy of the Lord, fully pleasing to him, bearing fruit in every good work and increasing in the knowledge of God. 11May you be strengthened with all power, according to his glorious might, for all endurance and patience with joy, 12giving thanks to the Father, who has qualified us to share in the inheritance of the saints in light. 13He has delivered us from the dominion of darkness and transferred us to the kingdom of his beloved Son, 14in whom we have redemption, the forgiveness of sins. 15He is the image of the invisible God, the first-born of all creation; 16for in him all things were created, in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or authorities--all things were created through him and for him. 17He is before all things, and in him all things hold together. 18He is the head of the body, the church; he is the beginning, the first-born from the dead, that in everything he might be pre-eminent. 19For in him all the fulness of God was pleased to dwell, 20and through him to reconcile to himself all things, whether on earth or in heaven, making peace by the blood of his cross. 21And you, who once were estranged and hostile in mind, doing evil deeds, 22he has now reconciled in his body of flesh by his death, in order to present you holy and blameless and irreproachable before him, 23provided that you continue in the faith, stable and steadfast, not shifting from the hope of the gospel which you heard, which has been preached to every creature under heaven, and of which I, Paul, became a minister. 24Now I rejoice in my sufferings for your sake, and in my flesh I complete what is lacking in Christ's afflictions for the sake of his body, that is, the church, 25of which I became a minister according to the divine office which was given to me for you, to make the word of God fully known, 26the mystery hidden for ages and generations but now made manifest to his saints. 27To them God chose to make known how great among the Gentiles are the riches of the glory of this mystery, which is Christ in you, the hope of glory. 28Him we proclaim, warning every man and teaching every man in all wisdom, that we may present every man mature in Christ. 29For this I toil, striving with all the energy which he mightily inspires within me.


Chapter 2

1For I want you to know how greatly I strive for you, and for those at La-odice'a, and for all who have not seen my face, 2that their hearts may be encouraged as they are knit together in love, to have all the riches of assured understanding and the knowledge of God's mystery, of Christ,  3in whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge. 4I say this in order that no one may delude you with beguiling speech. 5For though I am absent in body, yet I am with you in spirit, rejoicing to see your good order and the firmness of your faith in Christ. 6As therefore you received Christ Jesus the Lord, so live in him, 7rooted and built up in him and established in the faith, just as you were taught, abounding in thanksgiving. 8See to it that no one makes a prey of you by philosophy and empty deceit, according to human tradition, according to the elemental spirits of the universe, and not according to Christ. 9For in him the whole fulness of deity dwells bodily, 10and you have come to fulness of life in him, who is the head of all rule and authority. 11In him also you were circumcised with a circumcision made without hands, by putting off the body of flesh in the circumcision of Christ; 12and you were buried with him in baptism, in which you were also raised with him through faith in the working of God, who raised him from the dead. 13And you, who were dead in trespasses and the uncircumcision of your flesh, God made alive together with him, having forgiven us all our trespasses, 14having canceled the bond which stood against us with its legal demands; this he set aside, nailing it to the cross. 15He disarmed the principalities and powers and made a public example of them, triumphing over them in him. 16Therefore let no one pass judgment on you in questions of food and drink or with regard to a festival or a new moon or a sabbath. 17These are only a shadow of what is to come; but the substance belongs to Christ. 18Let no one disqualify you, insisting on self-abasement and worship of angels, taking his stand on visions, puffed up without reason by his sensuous mind, 19and not holding fast to the Head, from whom the whole body, nourished and knit together through its joints and ligaments, grows with a growth that is from God. 20If with Christ you died to the elemental spirits of the universe, why do you live as if you still belonged to the world? Why do you submit to regulations, 21"Do not handle, Do not taste, Do not touch" 22(referring to things which all perish as they are used), according to human precepts and doctrines? 23These have indeed an appearance of wisdom in promoting rigor of devotion and self-abasement and severity to the body, but they are of no value in checking the indulgence of the flesh.


Chapter 3

1If then you have been raised with Christ, seek the things that are above, where Christ is, seated at the right hand of God. 2Set your minds on things that are above, not on things that are on earth. 3For you have died, and your life is hid with Christ in God. 4When Christ who is our life appears, then you also will appear with him in glory. 5Put to death therefore what is earthly in you: fornication, impurity, passion, evil desire, and covetousness, which is idolatry. 6On account of these the wrath of God is coming. 7In these you once walked, when you lived in them. 8But now put them all away: anger, wrath, malice, slander, and foul talk from your mouth. 9Do not lie to one another, seeing that you have put off the old nature with its practices 10and have put on the new nature, which is being renewed in knowledge after the image of its creator. 11Here there cannot be Greek and Jew, circumcised and uncircumcised, barbarian, Scyth'ian, slave, free man, but Christ is all, and in all. 12Put on then, as God's chosen ones, holy and beloved, compassion, kindness, lowliness, meekness, and patience, 13forbearing one another and, if one has a complaint against another, forgiving each other; as the Lord has forgiven you, so you also must forgive. 14And above all these put on love, which binds everything together in perfect harmony. 15And let the peace of Christ rule in your hearts, to which indeed you were called in the one body. And be thankful. 16Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly, teach and admonish one another in all wisdom, and sing psalms and hymns and spiritual songs with thankfulness in your hearts to God. 17And whatever you do, in word or deed, do everything in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God the Father through him. 18Wives, be subject to your husbands, as is fitting in the Lord. 19Husbands, love your wives, and do not be harsh with them. 20Children, obey your parents in everything, for this pleases the Lord. 21Fathers, do not provoke your children, lest they become discouraged. 22Slaves, obey in everything those who are your earthly masters, not with eyeservice, as men-pleasers, but in singleness of heart, fearing the Lord. 23Whatever your task, work heartily, as serving the Lord and not men, 24knowing that from the Lord you will receive the inheritance as your reward; you are serving the Lord Christ. 25For the wrongdoer will be paid back for the wrong he has done, and there is no partiality.


Chapter 4

1 Masters, treat your slaves justly and fairly, knowing that you also have a Master in heaven. 2Continue steadfastly in prayer, being watchful in it with thanksgiving; 3and pray for us also, that God may open to us a door for the word, to declare the mystery of Christ, on account of which I am in prison, 4that I may make it clear, as I ought to speak. 5Conduct yourselves wisely toward outsiders, making the most of the time. 6Let your speech always be gracious, seasoned with salt, so that you may know how you ought to answer every one. 7Tych'icus will tell you all about my affairs; he is a beloved brother and faithful minister and fellow servant in the Lord. 8I have sent him to you for this very purpose, that you may know how we are and that he may encourage your hearts, 9and with him Ones'imus, the faithful and beloved brother, who is one of yourselves. They will tell you of everything that has taken place here. 10Aristar'chus my fellow prisoner greets you, and Mark the cousin of Barnabas (concerning whom you have received instructions--if he comes to you, receive him), 11and Jesus who is called Justus. These are the only men of the circumcision among my fellow workers for the kingdom of God, and they have been a comfort to me. 12Ep'aphras, who is one of yourselves, a servant of Christ Jesus, greets you, always remembering you earnestly in his prayers, that you may stand mature and fully assured in all the will of God. 13For I bear him witness that he has worked hard for you and for those in La-odice'a and in Hi-erap'olis. 14Luke the beloved physician and Demas greet you. 15Give my greetings to the brethren at La-odice'a, and to Nympha and the church in her house. 16And when this letter has been read among you, have it read also in the church of the La-odice'ans; and see that you read also the letter from La-odice'a. 17And say to Archip'pus, "See that you fulfil the ministry which you have received in the Lord." 18I, Paul, write this greeting with my own hand. Remember my fetters. Grace be with you. (RSV)


Bullinger’s Notes on Colossians (for KJV)


Chapter 1

Verse 1

apostle. App-189. Compare 2 Corinthians 1:1.

Jesus Christ. The texts read. Christ Jesus. App-98.

by. App-104. Colossians 1:1.

God. App-98.


Verse 2

saints, See Acts 9:13.

faithful. App-150.

Christ. App-98.

at = in, as above.

Grace. App-184.

Father. App-98.

and, &c. Omit, with most of the texts.


Verse 3

give thanks. See Acts 27:35.

and. The texts omit.

the Father. See John 1:14.

praying. App-134.


Verse 4

Since we = Having.

Christ Jesus. App-98.

love. App-136.


Verse 5

For. App-104. Colossians 1:2.

laid up = stored away. Greek. apokeimai. Only here, Luke 19:232 Timothy 4:8Hebrews 9:27.

heaven = the heavens. See Matthew 6:9Matthew 6:10.

heard before. Gr. proakouo, Only here.


Verse 6

is come. Greek. pareimi, whence parousia.

bringeth forth fruit. See Romans 7:4. The texts add "and increasing".

also in you = in you also.


Verse 7

also. Omit.

Epaphras. See Colossians 4:12Philemon 1:23.

fellowservant = fellow-slave. Greek. sundoulos. Occurs here, Colossians 4:7 five times in Matt., and thrice in Rev. See App-190.,


Verse 8

also,&c. = declared also.

declared. See 1 Corinthians 1:11,

spirit. I.e. the product of the new nature. App-101.


Verse 9

For this cause = On account of (App-104. Colossians 1:2) this (i.e. their faith and love).

that = in order that. Greek. hina

spiritual. See 1 Corinthians 12:1.

understanding. See Cor. Colossians 1:19. App-132.


Verse 10

That ye might = To.

pleasing. Greek. areskeia. Only here.

being fruitful = fruit

bearing (v Colossians 1:6).

in. App-104. The texts read "by " (dative).


Verse 11

Strengthened. Greek. dunamoo. Only here. Compare

His glorious power, Literally the might (App-172.) of His glory. See Ephesians 1:19.


Verse 12

hath. Omit.

made, &c. See 2 Corinthians 3:6.

to be partakers = for (App-104.) the share.

inheritance = lot. Greek. kleros.


Verse 13

hath. Omit.

delivered = rescued. See Matthew 6:13Romans 7:24.

darkness = the darkness. See Luke 22:53Ephesians 6:12. I

translated, See Acts 13:22.

His dear Son = the Son (App-108.) of His love (App-135.)


Verse 14

redemption. See Romans 3:24.

through His blood. All the texts omit. forgiveness, Compare Ephesians 1:7.


Verse 15

image. Compare Romans 8:29.

invisible. See Romans 1:20.

Firstborn. See Romans 1:23Romans 8:20.

every creature = all creation.


Verse 16

For = Because.

visible. Greek. horates. Only here.

dominions, &c. See Ephesians 1:21.


Verse 17

is. Emph.

consist = cohere, or hold together, Compare Hebrews 1:8.


Verse 18

Head. See Ephesians 1:22Ephesians 1:23.

church. App-186.

beginning. See Proverbs 8:22-30,

have, &c. = become the pre-eminent One. Greek. pro teuo. Only here.


Verse 19

Instead of "the Father" supply the ellipsis with "God"

all fulness = all the fulness. Greek. pleroma. See Ephesians 1:2Ephesians 1:3Ephesians 3:19.

dwell. See Acts 2:5.


Verse 20

having made peace. Greek. eireeopoieo. Only here. The noun Matthew 5:9.

through. App-104. Colossians 1:1.

reconcile. See Ephesians 2:16, and App-196.


Verse 21

alienated. See Ephesians 2:12.

hath. Omit.


Verse 22

present. See 1 Corinthians 8:8.

unblameable. See Ephesians 1:4.

unreproveable = unimpeachable. See 1 Corinthians 1:8.


Verse 23

grounded. See Ephesians 3:17.

settled. Greek hedraios. Seo 1 Corinthians 7:37.

moved away. Greek. metaktoneo. Only here.

hope of the gospel. i.e. the return of the Lord. Compare Titus 2:13,

have Omit.

preached. App-121.

heaven = the heaven See Matthew 6:9Matthew 6:15.

am made. Literally became. Compare "ordained "(same Greek. word) Acts 1:22.


Verse 24

sufferings. Compare Romans 8:182 Corinthians 1:5.

fill up. Greek. antanapleroo. Only here.

that, &c. = that which is lacking. Compare 1 Corinthians 16:11.

afflictions. See Acts 7:10.

Christ: i.e. the tribulations of the members of the body of which He is the Head.

for . . . sake = for, as Colossians 1:5,


Verse 25

dispensation. See 1 Corinthians 9:17 and compare Ephesians 3:2,

is = was.

fulfil. Same as "fill"Colossians 1:9.


Verse 26

mystery. App-193, and compare Romans 16:25.

hid. See 1 Corinthians 2:7, and compare Ephesians 3:9.

ages. App-129and App-151.

made manifest. App-106.


Verse 27

riches. See Ephesians 1:7

the glory. See p. 1511.

among. App-104.

in = among, as above.

glory = the glory.


Verse 28

warning = admonishing. Greek. noutheteo. Compare Colossians 3:16.

Jesus. The texts omit.


Verse 29

I also labour = I labour also. striving, See Luke 13:24.

working. See Ephesians 1:19,

worketh, See Ephesians 1:11.

mightily = by (Greek. en) might (App-172.)


Chapter 2

Verse 1

conflict. See Philippians 1:1Philippians 1:20.


Verse 2

That. Greek. hina, in order that.

knit together. See Acts 9:22.

riches. See Colossians 1:27.

full assurance. Greek. plerophoria. Here, 1 Thessalonians 1:8Hebrews 6:11Hebrews 6:10Hebrews 6:22.

to = unto, as above; or, with a view to.

acknowledgement. App-132.

and, &c. The texts read "even Christ".


Verse 3

hid. Greek a pokruphos. Only here, Mark 4:22Luke 8:17.


Verse 4

lest, &c. = in order that (Greek. hina) no one (Greek. medeis).

beguile = deceive. Greek. paralogizomai. Here and James 1:22.

enticing words. Greek. pilhanelogia. Only here.


Verse 5

though = even if (App-118., a).

order. See 1 Corinthians 14:40.

stedfastness. Greek. stereoma. Only here.

in = unto. App-104.


Verse 6

Christ Jesus. App-08.

Lord. App-98. For this full title see Romans 6:23.


Verse 7

Rooted. See Ephesians 3:17.

built up. See Acts 20:33, and compare Ephesians 2:20.

stablished. See Romans 15:8 (confirm).


Verse 8

Beware = See (App-133) to it.

spoil. Greek sula gogeo. Only here.

through. App-104. Colossians 2:1.

philosophy. Greek philosophia. Only here.

rudiments. See Galatians 1:4Galatians 1:3.


Verse 9

For = Because.

dwelleth, See Colossians 1:19.

fulness. See Colossians 1:19.

bodily. Greek somatikos. Only here. The adjective in Luke 3:221 Timothy 4:8.


Verse 10

complete. See Colossians 1:9.

Which = Who.


Verse 11

also. Should follow "circumcised".

are = were.

made without hands. See 2 Corinthians 5:1.

putting off Greek. apekdusis. Only here.

of the sins. Omit. by. App-104.


Verse 12

Buried with. See Romans 6:4.

baptism. App-115. His baptism unto death.

also, &c. = ye were raised (App-178.) also, and ep. Colossians 3:1 and Ephesians 2:6,

hath. Omit.

from, &c. App-139.


Verse 13

being. i.e. at that time.

quickened together = made alive together. See Ephesians 2:6.

Him. Texts add, "even you".

forgiven = graciously forgiven. App-184.

trespasses. Some as "sins", above.


Verse 14

Blotting out = Having blotted out. See Acts 3:19.

handwriting. Greek. cheirographon. Only here.

ordinances. See Acts 16:4,

against. App-104.

contrary. Greek hupenantios. Only here and Hebrews 10:27.

way = midst.

nailing = having nailed. Greek. proseloo. Only here.

His. Read "the".


Verse 15

spoiled = put off. Greek. apekduomai. Only here and Colossians 3:9.

made a shew of. Greek. deigmatizo. Only here. The verb paradeigmatizo, to expose to public infamy, occurs: Matthew 1:19 and Hebrews 6:6.

openly. See Mark 8:32.

triumphing over. Compare 2 Corinthians 2:14.

it. i.e. - the cross.


Verse 16

meat, &c. = eating and drinking.

respect. Litearal, part, i.e. taking part.

holy day = feast. See Lev 23.

new moon. See 1 Chronicles 23:31.

sabbath days = sabbaths. See Leviticus 23:3Leviticus 23:7Leviticus 23:8Leviticus 23:21Leviticus 23:24Leviticus 23:27-32Leviticus 23:35Leviticus 23:36Leviticus 23:38Leviticus 23:39John 20:1.


Verse 18

no man. Greek. m edeis.

beguile you of your reward = defraud you of your prize. Greek. katabrabeua. Only here.

in, &c. Lit, willing (App-102) in (App-104), i.e. being a devotee to.

humility. See Acts 20:19.

worshipping. See Acts 26:5 (religion).

intruding into = investigating. Greek embateuo. Only here.

not. Most texts omit.

puffed up. See 1 Corinthians 4:6.

his fleshly mind = the mind of his flesh, i.e. the old Adam nature.


Verse 19

holding = holding fast. The central theme of the Epistle is the necessity of holding fast to the Head, from. App-104.

Which = Whom.

by. App-104. Colossians 2:1.

joints. See Ephesians 4:16.

bands. See Acts 8:23 (bond).

having nourishment ministered. See 2 Corinthians 9:10.

increase. See Ephesians 4:11.


Verse 20

be dead = died.

from, App-104.

subject, &c. Mid. of Greek. dogmatizo, which means to impose dogmas upon one. Supply Ellipsis with "such as".


Verse 21

not. Greek. mede.

handle. Greek. thingano. Only here, Hebrews 11:28Hebrews 12:20.


Verse 22

to perish = for (App-104.) corruption. See Revelation 8:21.

using. Greek. apochresie. Only here,

commandments. Greek. entalma. Only here, Matthew 15:9Mark 7:7.

doctrines. The doctrines of men and demons are various, and therefore plural. See Matthew 15:9Mark 7:71 Timothy 4:1; but the Divine teaching is one - 1 Timothy 1:101 Timothy 4:61 Timothy 4:131 Timothy 4:16, & c.


Verse 23

Which = Which order of. have is having.

will worship. Greek. ethelothreskeia, i.e. self-imposed worship. Only here.

neglecting = not sparing. Greek. apheidia. Only here.

honour = value.

satisfying. Greek. pleamone. Only here. Ascetic observances are of no value as remedies against the old nature.


Chapter 3

Verse 1

be risen with = score raised with. App-178.

Christ. App-98.

things . . . above. See Philippians 1:3Philippians 1:13Philippians 1:14.


Verse 2

Set your affection on = Mind. Greek phroneo. See Romans 8:5.


Verse 3

are dead = died.

is = has been.

hid. i.e. laid up (in store). Compare Matthew 13:55.


Verse 4

appear = be manifested. App-106.

glory. See p. 1511.


Verse 5

Mortify = Put to death. See Romans 4:19Romans 6:6-11.

inordinate affection = passion, or lust. See Romans 1:26.

concupiscence = desire, See John 8:44.

covetousness. See Romans 1:29, and Ephesians 5:5.


Verse 6

For . . . sake. App-104. Colossians 3:2.

wrath. See Romans 1:19.

children. App-108. See Ephesians 2:2.


Verse 8

put off. See Ephesians 4:22.

anger. Same as "wrath", Colossians 3:6.

wrath. Greek. thumos. See Romans 2:5.

filthy communication. Greek. aisehrologia. Only here.

out of. App-104,


Verse 9

one to another = to (App-104.) one another.

seeing, &c. = having.

put off. See Colossians 2:15

the old, &c. See Romans 6:6.

deeds = practices. Compare Romans 8:18.


Verse 10

have = having.

put on. See Romans 13:12Romans 13:14.

new. Greek. neos. See Matthew 9:17.

renewed. See 2 Corinthians 4:16.

image = pattern. See Colossians 1:11.


Verse 11

Jew, Sc. Compare Galatians 1:3Galatians 1:28.

Barbarian. See Acts 28:2.

Scythian. Regarded by the ancients as the lowest type of barbarians.

all, he. See Ephesians 1:23.


Verse 12

beloved. App-136.

mercies. See Romans 12:1.

kindness. App-184.

humbleness, he. See Colossians 2:18.

meekness. See Ephesians 4:2.


Verse 13

Forbearing. See Ephesians 4:2.

forgiving. See Colossians 2:18.

any man, any. App-123.

Quarrel = grievance. Greek. nvosephe. Only here.

Christ. Most texts read "the Lord".

also do ye = do ye also.


Verse 14

charity = the love. App-135.

the = a.

bond. See Colossians 2:19.

perfectness, Greek. teleiotes. Only here and Hebrews 6:1. See App-125.


Verse 15

God. The texts read "Christ".

rule. Literally be umpire. Greek. brabeuo. Only here. Compare Colossians 2:18.

also, &c. = ye were called also.

thankful. Greek. eucharistos. Only here.


Verse 16

dwell. See Romans 8:11.

richly. Greek. plousios. Only here, 1 Timothy 6:17Titus 3:62 Peter 1:11.

admonishing. See Colossians 1:28, and Acts 20:31.

hymns. See Ephesians 5:19.

spiritual. See 1 Corinthians 12:1.

songs. See Ephesians 5:19.

singing. See Ephesians 5:19.

grace. See Colossians 1:2. App-184.

the Lord. The texts real "God".


Verse 17

deed = in (Greek. en) work.

name. See Acts 2:21.

giving thanks. See Acts 27:35.

and. Omit.

by. App-104. Colossians 3:1.


Verse 18

submit.See Ephesians 5:22.

fit. See Ephesians 5:4.


Verse 19

be . . . bitter. Greek. pikraino. Only here, Revelation 8:11Revelation 10:9Revelation 10:10.

Verse 20


Children. App-108.

in = according to. App-104.

well pleasing. See Romans 12:1.

unto = to, but the texts read "in" (Greek. en).


Verse 21

provoke. See 2 Corinthians 9:2.

lest = in order that (Greek. hina) . . . not (App-105).

be discouraged = have their spirit broken. Greek. athumeo. Only here.


Verse 22

eyeservice . . . menpleasers. See Ephesians 6:6,

singleness. See Ephesians 6:5.

God. The texts read "the Lord",


Verse 23

heartily. Greek. ek psuches. See App-110. Colossians 3:4.


Verse 24

reward = recompense. Greek. anta podosia, Only here.

inheritance. See Ephesians 1:14.


Verse 25

for the wrong, &c. = the wrong that he wronged. See Galatians 6:7.

respect, &c. See Romans 2:11.


Chapter 4

Verse 1

Masters. See Colossians 3:22.

unto = to.

servants. See Colossians 8:22.

heaven. See Matthew 6:9Matthew 6:10.


Verse 2

Continue. See Romans 12:12.

Prayer. App-134.

the same = it.

thanksgiving. See Colossians 2:2.


Verse 3

praying. App-134.

also for us = for us also.

that = in order that. Greek. hina.

unto = to.

door. Soe 1 Corinthians 16:9.

for. App-104. Colossians 4:2.

am also, &c. = have been bound also. Compare Acts 22:21Acts 22:22.


Verse 4

make . . . manifest. App-106. Compare Ephesians 6:20.


Verse 5

without. See 1 Corinthians 5:12.

redeeming. See Ephesians 5:16.


Verse 6

grace. App-184.

seasoned. Greek. artsa. Only here, Mark 9:50Luke 14:34.

with. No preposition. Dative case.

answer. Greek. apokrinomai. App-122.


Verse 7

All my state. Lit, all things according to (Greek. kale. declare = make known. Greek. pnaricb. See Philippians 1:1Philippians 1:22.

who is a = the.

a. Omit.

faithful. Greek. pistos. App-150.

minister. Greek. diakonos. App-190.


Verse 8

have, Omit.

that . . . your. The texts read "that ye may know our".

that = in order that. Greek. hina.

know. Greek. ginaska. App-132.

your estate. Lit, the things concerning (Greek. peri. App-104) you. Compare Colossians 4:7.


Verse 9

a = the.

make known. Same as "declare"Colossians 4:7.

which are done. Omit.


Verse 10

Aristarchus. See Acts 19:29.

Marcus. See Acts 12:12.

sister"s son = cousin. Greek anepsios. Only here.

Barnabas. See Acts 4:36.


Verse 11

Jesus. Compare Acts 7:45

Justus. See Acts 18:2,

fellowworkers. Greek. sunergos. See 1 Corinthians 3:9.

been = become.

comfort. Greek paregoria. Only here.


Verse 12

Epaphras. See Colossians 1:7.

Christ. The texts add "Jesus"

labouring fervently = striving, Colossians 1:29.

prayers. Greek proseuche. App-134.

complete. Greek. pteroo. App-126. The texts read "plerophoreo", as in Romans 4:21.


Verse 13

bear . . . record. See 2 Corinthians 8:3 .

zeal. Greek. ze los, but the texts read "ponos" labour. Compare Colossians 4:12.


Verse 14

Demas. See 2 Timothy 4:10. Phm. Colossians 1:24.


Verse 15

Nymphas. Not mentioned elsewhere.

in. Greek. kata. App-104.


Verse 18

the hand, &c. = my hand of Paul.

bonds. Compare Colossians 4:8.

Amen. Omit.