Christian Churches of God

No. F047






Commentary on 2Corinthians:

Introduction and Part 1

(Edition 1.0 20210211-20210211)




Commentary on Chapters 1-4.


Christian Churches of God

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Commentary on 2Corinthians



In understanding the Corinthian Church and Paul’s relations with the church, it is necessary to revisit the Introduction to the Commentary on 1Corinthians. 


Also in that Introduction we see that the text refers to the letter in 2Corithians as follows.


“Re: The ‘previous’ letter. Paul said, ‘I wrote you a letter. In that letter, I told you to have nothing to do with men with bad character’ (1Corinthians 5:9). This letter is considered to have been either lost or a fragment of it may now be found in 2Corinthians 6:14–7:1 (cf. Oxford RSV fn).


Paul mentions a second ‘painful’ visit. Paul heard that problems in Corinth were worse. So he made a second visit. There is no record of this visit. But Paul writes about when he visited Corinth for the ‘third’ time (2Corinthians 12:14; 13:1-2). So there must have been a second visit.


Re: the ‘severe’ letter. Paul’s visit was not successful. So he wrote a letter when he was feeling very hurt (2Corinthians 2:4). He was almost sorry that he had sent it. Some writers believe that chapters 10-13 in 2Corinthians are comprised from the ‘severe’ letter.


The letter shows that the Christians at Corinth and Paul were friends again. Paul was so worried about his ‘severe’ letter that he went to meet Titus. Titus had taken the severe letter to Corinth. Paul met Titus in Macedonia and learned that all was well. So, he wrote chapters 1-9 in 2Corinthians. It is considered possible by some academics that someone put the severe letter and the next letter together in the wrong order.


The letter deals with problems in Christian conduct in the church. It concerns progressive sanctification and the continuing development of a holy character. The purpose of the Chapters is examined below. This letter is considered to be timely for the church today. Christians were influenced by their cultural environment. Much of the pagan doctrines that were extant then pressing on the church found their way into and became causes of division in the church and are extent even today.  By the Fourth Century the priests of Attis in Rome were complaining that the Christians had stolen all their doctrines, which was indeed true (cf. re Attis, Frazer, The Golden Bough Pt. IV, vols I and II).  


These problems like immaturity, instability, divisions, jealousy and envy, lawsuits, marital difficulties, sexual immorality and misuse of spiritual gifts still exist.”


Another question that needs to be examined is how many times did Paul visit Corinth and what letters were written?


All of these raise questions in their own right and we will try and tease this information out of the texts.  We know that there must have been at least three letters written and it in inconceivable that any could have been lost.


From the text it appears according to most scholars that 2Corinthians appears in two sections.  The first being from chapter 1-9 and the second being from chapters 10 to 13.


We will look at the texts below to extrapolate further.


Book Overview - 2 Corinthians

by E.W. Bullinger




2 Corinthians 1:1-2. INTRODUCTION.
2 Corinthians 1:3-11. THANKSGIVING.
2 Corinthians 1:13-14. THE PRESENT EPISTLE.
2 Corinthians 1:15-16. PROPOSED VISIT.
2 Corinthians 1:17-242 Corinthians 2:1-2. VINDICATION OF HIS ACTION.
2 Corinthians 2:3-11. FORMER EPISTLE. OBJECT.
2 Corinthians 2:12-13. NO REST IN SPIRIT.
2 Corinthians 2:13. MACEDONIA. JOURNEY.
2 Corinthians 2:14-17. THANKSGIVING.
2 Corinthians 3:1 - 2 Corinthians 7:4. CHARACTER OF PAUL"S MINISTRY.
2 Corinthians 7:5-7. NO REST IN FLESH.
2 Corinthians 7:8-16. FORMER EPISTLE. EFFECT.
2 Corinthians 8:192 Corinthians 8:15. MACEDONIA. ASSEMBLIES.
2 Corinthians 10:1 - 2 Corinthians 12:13. VINDICATION OF HIS ACTION.
2 Corinthians 12:14 - 2 Corinthians 13:1. PURPOSED VISIT.
2 Corinthians 13:2-10. THE PRESENT EPISTLE.
2 Corinthians 13:11-14. CONCLUSION.


1. From various passages we learn that the apostle Paul wrote this Epistle under much pressure of spirit. The personal part of his first letter to the Corinthians had its effect upon the obedient members of the church (see ch. 2 and 7), and he wrote a second time to comfort such, as well as to warn a disobedient element (2 Corinthians 13:22 Corinthians 13:10). It is plain that certain [false teachers] altogether denied his authority, and in ch. 10:13 he once more powerfully vindicates his apostleship, especially in connection with false teachers, against whom he earnestly warned Corinthians. The specific claim of authority as proceeding from his Lord and Master alone occupies a large part of this Epistle. Hence, also, the admonition that if he came he enforce that authority. There is much to indicate Paul’s anxiety for all the churches, while in the doctrinal portions occur some unsurpassed presentations of the Divine love in Christ.

2. Not only was this church burdened with internal trouble (ch. 1), but they had trials also from without (2 Corinthians 11:132 Corinthians 11:15), just as the Lord Himself had foretold in Matthew 24:9 Matthew 24:12. In consolation, Paul held out before them (2 Corinthians 4:14) the same hope of resurrection as he proclaimed in his first letter.

3. Timothy had been sent to Corinth (1 Corinthians 4:17) and had no doubt returned bearing news of the unhappy condition of the church. Titus delivered the first letter and, there being some delay in his return, Paul passed from Troas to Macedonia, where, later Titus brought from Corinth (2 Corinthians 7:72 Corinthians 7:16) such reports as only partially assured the apostle, and led him to send the Second Epistle by the same fellow worker.


4. Various explanations have been proposed with regard to the conditions under which the Epistle was written. Some think that, prior to its transmission, the apostle had sent by the hand of Timothy a severe letter which has been lost. Another suggestion is that Paul, hearing of the confusion in the church, made a hasty visit to Corinth from Ephesus, and finding that he availed nothing but rather was set at naught, withdrew to another part of Achaia or to Macedonia, where he penned the Second Epistle. Still other views on a similar line are put forward, but all that can be said is that they are suppositions of which there is no hint in the Epistle. Connecting 1Corinthians 4:192Corinthians 1:232Corinthians 13:2, the apostle had not been back on account of the disorders in the church, whatever may be meant by "the third time" in 13:1. in 2Corinthians 1:15-16 he is minded to come to them as a second benefit, and passing to Macedonia, to return to them, which would have been a third time.


5. Written from Macedonia not long after Paul’s leaving Asia (2 Corinthians 1:8), it would not be many months after the dispatch of the First Epistle. This was probably in A. D. 57 (winter) or spring of 58. See Appdx-180.



Second Epistle to the Corinthians - Wikipedia


The Second Epistle to the Corinthians, commonly referred to as Second Corinthians or in writing 2 Corinthians, is a  Pauline epistle of the New Testament of the Christian Bible. The epistle is attributed to Paul the Apostle and a co-author named Timothy, and is addressed to the church in Corinth and Christians in the surrounding province of Achaea, in modern-day Greece.[2Cor.1:1]



While there is little doubt among scholars that Paul is the author, there is discussion over whether the Epistle was originally one letter or composed from two or more of Paul's letters.[1]:8


Although the New Testament contains only two letters to the Corinthian church, the evidence from the letters themselves is that he wrote at least four and the church replied at least once:

1 Corinthians 5:9 ("I wrote unto you in an epistle not to company with fornicators", KJV) refers to an early letter, sometimes called the "warning letter"[2] or the "previous letter."


1 Corinthians

The Severe Letter: Paul refers to an earlier "letter of tears" in 2 Corinthians 2:3–4 and 7:8. 1 Corinthians does not match that description, so this "letter of tears" may have been written between 1 Corinthians and 2 Corinthians.


1 Corinthians 7:1 states that in that letter Paul was replying to certain questions regarding which the church had written to him.


The abrupt change of tone from being previously harmonious to bitterly reproachful in 2 Corinthians 10–13 has led many to infer that chapters 10–13 form part of the "letter of tears" which were in some way appended to Paul's main letter.[3] Those who disagree with this assessment usually say that the "letter of tears" is no longer extant.[4] Others argue that although the letter of tears is no longer extant, chapters 10–13 come from a later letter.[5]


The seemingly sudden change of subject from chapter 7 to chapters 8–9 leads some scholars to conclude that chapters 8–9 were originally a separate letter, and some even consider the two chapters to have originally been distinct themselves. Other scholars dispute this claim, however.[6]


Some scholars also find fragments of the "warning letter", or of other letters, in chapters 1–9,[7] for instance that part of the "warning letter" is preserved in 2 Cor 6:14–7:1,[8] but these hypotheses are less popular.[9]



Paul's contacts with the Corinthian church can be reconstructed as follows:[4]

  1. Paul visits Corinth for the first time, spending about 18 months there (Acts 18:11). He then leaves Corinth and spends about 3 years in Ephesus (Acts 19:8, 19:10, 20:31). (Roughly from AD 53 to 57, see 1 Corinthians article).
  2. Paul writes the "warning letter" in his first year from Ephesus (1 Corinthians 5:9).
  3. Paul writes 1 Corinthians from his second year at Ephesus.
  4. Paul visits the Corinthian church a second time, as he indicated he would in 1 Corinthians 16:6. Probably during his last year in Ephesus. 2 Corinthians 2:1 calls this a "painful visit".
  5. Paul writes the "letter of tears".
  6. Paul writes 2 Corinthians, indicating his desire to visit the Corinthian church a third time (2 Cor 12:14, 2 Cor 13:1). The letter does not indicate where he is writing from, but it is usually dated after Paul left Ephesus for Macedonia (Acts 20), from either Philippi or Thessalonica in Macedonia.[10]
  7. Paul presumably made the third visit after writing 2 Corinthians, because Acts 20:2–3 indicates he spent 3 months in Greece. In his letter to Rome, written at this time, he sent salutations from some of the principal members of the church to the Romans.[10]



In Paul's second letter to the Corinthians, he again refers to himself as an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God and reassures the people of Corinth that they will not have another painful visit, but what he has to say is not to cause pain but to reassure them of the love he has for them. It is shorter in length in comparison to the first and a little confusing if the reader is unaware of the social, religious, and economic situation of the community. Paul felt the situation in Corinth was still complicated and felt attacked.


Some challenged his authority as an apostle, and he compares the level of difficulty to other cities he has visited who had embraced it, like the Galatians. He is criticized for the way he speaks and writes and finds it just to defend himself with some of his important teachings. He states the importance of forgiving others, and God’s new agreement that comes from the Spirit of the living God (2 Cor. 3:3), and the importance of being a person of Christ and giving generously to God’s people in Jerusalem, and ends with his own experience of how God changed his life (Sandmel, 1979).



According to Easton's Bible Dictionary,

This epistle, it has been well said, shows the individuality of the apostle more than any other. "Human weakness, spiritual strength, the deepest tenderness of affection, wounded feeling, sternness, irony, rebuke, impassioned self-vindication, humility, a just self-respect, zeal for the welfare of the weak and suffering, as well as for the progress of the church of Christ and for the spiritual advancement of its members, are all displayed in turn in the course of his appeal." —Lias, Second Corinthians.[10]



Intent of the Chapters.


Chapter 1

Here we see that Corinth is the centre and meeting place for the whole of the saints that are at Acha’ia (v. 1).


The message conveys the peace of God the Father (vv. 2-3). He is described as the Father of Mercies and God of all Comfort. Thus he ascribes the Father as the source of mercy and comfort to the brethren; So that they may comfort those that also need comfort (v. 4). As we share in Christ’s sufferings so we share abundantly in comfort also. Thus we share and assist in all things with Christ in the body of the Church of God. As they are persecuted and afflicted and endure so are they then comforted (vv. 5-6). Paul states that their hope for the church is unshaken for as they share in their suffering so they also share in their comfort (v. 7).  Paul says he does not want them to be ignorant of the affliction they experienced in Asia. He says they were so utterly, unbearably crushed, that they despaired of life itself (v 8). They thought that they had received the sentence of death but that was taken as making them rely on God rather than on themselves (v. 9). He delivered them from their deadly peril and they have set their hopes that God will deliver them again (v. 10).  What the exact nature of this peril was we do not know with certainty.  This text was assumed to be written from Macedonia (Acts 20), either at Philippi or Thessalonika. Acts 20:2-3 indicates he spent three months in Greece. His third visit to Corinth is assumed to have been made in this time and, in his letter to Rome, written from there, he sends greetings from prominent members at the church in Corinth.


From verse 11, he requests them to give thanks in prayer so that there are many giving thanks for the help they requested in prayer. From verse 12 Paul says that their boast is this: that they behaved in the world, and towards them, with holiness and godly sincerity, not by earthly wisdom but by the grace of God. For they wrote the church nothing but what they could read and understand and he hopes they understand fully (v. 13). As they have understood in part: So that they can be proud of each other on the Day of the Lord (v. 14) (cf. The Day of the Lord and the Last Days (No. 192)).


From verse 15 he then gives a major clue regarding his visits. He indicates that he would make two visits. One visit on his way to Macedonia; and the next visit, on his way back from Macedonia, and then they could send him on his way to Judaea.  This undoubtedly was with the collection he mentioned in the previous letter (1Cor. 16:3-4). He seems to want to correct any appearance of vacillation, as he says from verse 17, “was I vacillating when I wanted to do this this?”  He then asks if he made his plans like a worldly man, ready to say yes and no at once. But in Christ, the son of God, it is always yes.  For all the promises of God find their yes in him. That is why we offer the Amen through him to the Glory of God. He says that it is God who established them with the church and has commissioned them and put His Seal upon them and given them His Spirit in their hearts as a guarantee.   Here he identifies them as the three, as Paul, Silvanus and Timothy (vv. 17-22).  He then concludes the chapter saying:  But I call God to witness against me – it was to spare you that I refrained from coming to Corinth. Not that we lord it over your faith, as we work with you for your joy, for you. Stand firm in your faith (vv. 23-24).


It is unclear whether the refraining from going to Corinth mentioned was the visit on the way to Macedonia, or on the way back, or refers to another planned visit not mentioned.


Chapter 2

In verse 1 Paul says that he made up his mind not to make them another painful visit.  For if he causes them pain, who is there to make him glad but the ones that he has cased pain (v. 2). He says he wrote as he did so that when he came he should not suffer pain from those who should have made him rejoice. He says he felt sure of all of them that his joy should have been the joy of them all (v. 3). He wrote to them out of much affliction, anguish of heart and many tears, not to cause them pain but to make them aware of the love Paul had for them (v. 4). Many scholars identify this letter with chapters 10-13 below but there is no certainty as to this matter. Remember Corinth was riddled with factions and many had come from immorality and temple prostitution hence the use of veils referred to by Paul in the First Epistle. They had to expel the Corinthian fornicator of 1Cor. 5:5 and this no doubt caused conflict until he repented and sought readmission. It was because of this that the members came to understand the power of Repentance and Baptism (No. 052). This aspect is not properly understood by the modern Churches of God.


From verse 5ff. Paul makes the point that if any of them cause pain, it is not to one but to them all and punishment by the majority is enough and the church should then turn to forgive and comfort the person lest they be overcome by excessive sorrow. He then begs they forgive and reaffirm their love for the offender (v. 8). The church thus has the power to forgive and retain sin and Paul affirms that capacity (v. 10). All that is for the benefit of the elect, in the presence of Christ, to keep Satan from gaining the advantage over them; as they are not ignorant of his ways (v. 11).


From verse 12 he speaks of his coming to Troas to preach the gospel of Christ and a door was opened to him there. He seems unsettled because he could not find Titus there and so he then went on to Macedonia.  This indicates that he decision to not visit Corinth was on the way to Macedonia.


From verse 14 he says that God always leads us in triumph and through us spreads the knowledge of Him everywhere. For we are the aroma of Christ to God among those being saved and among those perishing (v. 15).  He says that we are fragrance from death to death and to the other a fragrance from life to life. Who is sufficient for these things? (v.16).  He then says that the elect are not like so many peddlers of God’s word; but as men of sincerity, as commissioned by God, in the sight of God they speak in Christ (v. 17).


Chapter 3

Paul asks then are they (the three) beginning to commend themselves again, or do they need, as some do, letters of recommendation from or to Corinth. In verse 2 he then says that the church themselves are their letters of recommendation written on their hearts there in the church, to be known and read by all people. In verse 3 Paul says that they should know that they are a letter of Christ delivered by them, written not with ink but with the Spirit (117) of the Living God; not written on tablets of stone but on tablets of human hearts. In this way he explains the function of the Holy Spirit writing the Laws of God (L1) in the hearts of men. In this way he goes on in verses 4-6 to explain that such is the confidence they have through Christ towards God. Not that they were confident in themselves to claim anything as coming from them, but their confidence is from God who has made them all confident to be ministers of a new covenant, not in a written code, but in the Spirit; for the written code kills but the Spirit gives life. The Spirit empowers the elect and binds them to God through Christ.


From verse 7ff. Paul refers to the dispensation of death that came from the Law through Moses.  Remember that Paul says in 1Cor. 10:1-4 that it was Christ that was with Israel in the wilderness and it was he that gave the Law of God to Moses. Acts 7:33-55 shows that Christ was the Angel of the presence through whom God gave the law to Moses. Yet Paul makes the distinction here that the law carved in stone could not give life, even though Moses’ face shone from his exposure to Christ in the giving of the Law and that it was only by the Spirit could mankind attain a greater splendour and obtain eternal life. If there was splendour in the dispensation of condemnation, the dispensation in righteousness must far exceed it in splendour (vv. 7- 9).


Paul says that: Indeed, in this case what once had splendour has come to have no splendour at all for the splendour that surpasses it. For if what came with splendour has come to have no splendour at all, what is permanent must have much more splendour (vv. 10-11).


In verse 12 Paul then develops this structure on into the power of the Holy Spirit surpassing the Law of God as exercised under the ceremonial law into a more powerful institution in righteousness under the New Covenant where it could be given to individuals on a wider scale than through the patriarchs, prophets and priests under the Temple system  (cf. Distinction in the Law (No. 096), Consubstantial with the Father (No. 081) and the Relationship between Salvation by Grace and the Law (No. 082)).


He says that Moses put a veil over his face to cover the glory of Christ when he had given him the law. Israel’s hearts were hardened and to this day when they read the OT the veil remains unlifted (not being revealed - Conybeare and Howson); for it is only when a person turns to Christ that the veil is lifted (for and after baptism) and that is through the Holy Spirit (vv. 15-16). This veil remains to this day, except to those baptised as repentant adults in the Churches of God keeping God’s Law (see above). Paul says that the Lord is the Spirit and where the Spirit of the Lord's is there is freedom (v. 17).  Paul says that all with unveiled face, beholding the Glory of the Lord are being changed into his likeness, from one degree of glory to another for this comes from the Lord, who is the Spirit. The Holy Spirit comes from God and through the sacrifice of Christ at Jerusalem it was made available to man through Christ from the Wave Sheaf Offering on the First Day of the week (cf. Timing of the Crucifixion and the Resurrection (No. 159)).


The distinction he is making is that the Law of God could not be kept without the Holy Spirit that would engrave it on the hearts of men and they would keep it in the Spirit, as by that means the elect would share in the Nature of God and in that process the law would be kept in their hearts and they would obey the law because the Nature of God would be in them through the Holy Spirit. Until the Christ the Holy Spirit was given by God on a basis of delegation to patriarchs and prophets. 


Antinomian claims that the NT does away with the Law of God shows how little the antinomians understand of the basis of the Law of God proceeding from the Nature of God, and the function of the Holy Spirit (No. 117) and the attaining of Eternal Life (No. 133).


Chapter 4

Paul then goes on in Chapter 4 to develop the activities of the Holy Spirit in the elect. He says that they have the ministry through the mercy of God and do not lose heart (v. 1). They have renounced disgraceful and underhand ways.  They refuse to practice cunning or to tamper with God’s word, but by the open statement of the truth they commend themselves to every man’s conscience in the sight of God.  This was a prophecy of the tampering with Scripture that was proceeding from the Masoretes that was to see their MT altered in 134 places regarding the application of Yahovah to Adonai and also the application of Elohim in 13 places and also in Deut. 32:8 in the Masoretic Text (MT). This was to conceal the application of the Yahovah (SHD 3068) / Yahovih (SHD 3069) distinction in the OT.  However it could not be eliminated completely. The forgeries and alterations did not reach their peak however, until the Receptus and its issue in the KJV. Most of these alterations are listed by Bullinger in his notes for the KJV placed with these texts. The Athanasians tried to remove the Book of Revelation from the codex in the Fourth century because the text so obviously condemned the church at Rome and its Binitarianism / Trinitarianism and its pagan adoptions from the Sun and Mystery cults. This was so accepted that when Peter said he wrote from Babylon/Baghdad that they assumed he meant it was Rome “where Satan’s seat is.”


Just as they tried to abolish the Sabbaths, New Moons, and Feasts, from the church at Laodicea in 366 CE, they began the persecutions thereafter (cf. Role of the Sabbath in the Historical Sabbath–keeping Churches of God (No. 170)). The Churches of God began to be persecuted from 590 CE with the foundation of the Holy Roman Empire by Gregory I. They attempted to stamp God’s Calendar (No. 156) out of existence as we see from 170 above.  See also:

The Bible (No. 164)

Alleged Bible Contradictions (No. 164B)

Antinomian Destruction of Christianity by Misuse of Scripture (No. 164C)

Antinomian Attacks on the Law of God (No. 164D)

Antinomian Denial of Baptism (No. 164E)

Forgeries and Additions/Mistranslations in the Bible (No. 164F)

Forgeries and Mistranslations Relating to the Position of Christ (No. 164G)


In 358 CE the Jews under Hillel II introduced a false calendar to attempt to corrupt the Temple Calendar above (cf. Hillel, Babylonian Intercalations and the Temple Calendar (No. 195C)).  That calendar was entirely rejected by the Churches of God, as a faith, until Dugger and Armstrong introduced it in the 1940s.


In verse 3 Paul says that even if the gospel is veiled it is veiled only to those who are perishing. He refers in verse 4 (to Satan) as the god of this age (aionas wrongly translated world) who has blinded the minds of the unbelievers, to keep them from seeing the light of the glory of Christ, who is the likeness of God.


Paul says that when they preach it is not themselves but Jesus Christ as Lord with themselves as the servants of the faith (v. 5). He says: For it is the God (Ho Theos), who said, “Let light shine out of darkness” who has shone in our hearts to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Christ (v.6).  Remember that is was the Glory of God, that shone from Christ, that irradiated Moses when he was given the Law at Sinai. In the Koine Greek Ho Theos is accompanied here with Tou Theou (also Ton Theon) following also the rules used by John (Jn. 1:1) and the LXX.


Paul continues from verse 7: But we have this treasure in earthen vessels to show that the transcendent power belongs to God and not to the elect. Paul says they are afflicted in every way, but not crushed; perplexed but not driven to despair; persecuted but not forsaken; struck down but not destroyed; always carrying in their bodies the death of Jesus so that the life of Jesus may also be manifested in their mortal flesh. So death is at work in them, but life in the church.


From verse 13 Paul says that: Since we have the same Spirit as he who wrote: “I believed and so I spoke (but I was greatly afflicted)” ((Ps.116:10 (LXX 115)). This is further proof that Paul quoted directly from the LXX as the Bible of the early church). He continues: We too believe and so we speak; knowing that He who raised the Lord Jesus will raise us also with Jesus and bring us with you (the church at Corinth) into His presence (v. 14). This identifies the First Resurrection where the church is raised with Christ and the apostles at his coming.


Paul continues from verses 15ff.: For it is all for your sake, so that as grace extends to more and more people it may increase thanksgiving to the Glory of God.  So we do not lose heart; Though our outer nature is wasting away, our inner nature is being renewed every day. For this slight momentary affliction is preparing for us an eternal weight of Glory beyond all comparison. For we look not to the things that are seen, but to the things that are unseen. For the things that are seen are transient; but the things that are unseen are eternal.



2Corinthians RSV

Chapter  1

1Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God, and Timothy our brother. To the church of God which is at Corinth, with all the saints who are in the whole of Acha'ia: 2Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 3Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies and God of all comfort, 4who comforts us in all our affliction, so that we may be able to comfort those who are in any affliction, with the comfort with which we ourselves are comforted by God. 5For as we share abundantly in Christ's sufferings, so through Christ we share abundantly in comfort too. 6If we are afflicted, it is for your comfort and salvation; and if we are comforted, it is for your comfort, which you experience when you patiently endure the same sufferings that we suffer. 7Our hope for you is unshaken; for we know that as you share in our sufferings, you will also share in our comfort. 8For we do not want you to be ignorant, brethren, of the affliction we experienced in Asia; for we were so utterly, unbearably crushed that we despaired of life itself. 9Why, we felt that we had received the sentence of death; but that was to make us rely not on ourselves but on God who raises the dead; 10he delivered us from so deadly a peril, and he will deliver us; on him we have set our hope that he will deliver us again. 11You also must help us by prayer, so that many will give thanks on our behalf for the blessing granted us in answer to many prayers. 12For our boast is this, the testimony of our conscience that we have behaved in the world, and still more toward you, with holiness and godly sincerity, not by earthly wisdom but by the grace of God. 13For we write you nothing but what you can read and understand; I hope you will understand fully, 14as you have understood in part, that you can be proud of us as we can be of you, on the day of the Lord Jesus. 15Because I was sure of this, I wanted to come to you first, so that you might have a double pleasure; 16I wanted to visit you on my way to Macedo'nia, and to come back to you from Macedo'nia and have you send me on my way to Judea. 17Was I vacillating when I wanted to do this? Do I make my plans like a worldly man, ready to say Yes and No at once? 18As surely as God is faithful, our word to you has not been Yes and No. 19For the Son of God, Jesus Christ, whom we preached among you, Silva'nus and Timothy and I, was not Yes and No; but in him it is always Yes. 20For all the promises of God find their Yes in him. That is why we utter the Amen through him, to the glory of God. 21But it is God who establishes us with you in Christ, and has commissioned us; 22he has put his seal upon us and given us his Spirit in our hearts as a guarantee. 23But I call God to witness against me--it was to spare you that I refrained from coming to Corinth. 24Not that we lord it over your faith; we work with you for your joy, for you stand firm in your faith.


Chapter 2

1For I made up my mind not to make you another painful visit. 2For if I cause you pain, who is there to make me glad but the one whom I have pained? 3And I wrote as I did, so that when I came I might not suffer pain from those who should have made me rejoice, for I felt sure of all of you, that my joy would be the joy of you all. 4For I wrote you out of much affliction and anguish of heart and with many tears, not to cause you pain but to let you know the abundant love that I have for you. 5But if any one has caused pain, he has caused it not to me, but in some measure--not to put it too severely--to you all. 6For such a one this punishment by the majority is enough; 7so you should rather turn to forgive and comfort him, or he may be overwhelmed by excessive sorrow. 8So I beg you to reaffirm your love for him. 9For this is why I wrote, that I might test you and know whether you are obedient in everything. 10Any one whom you forgive, I also forgive. What I have forgiven, if I have forgiven anything, has been for your sake in the presence of Christ, 11to keep Satan from gaining the advantage over us; for we are not ignorant of his designs. 12When I came to Tro'as to preach the gospel of Christ, a door was opened for me in the Lord; 13but my mind could not rest because I did not find my brother Titus there. So I took leave of them and went on to Macedo'nia. 14But thanks be to God, who in Christ always leads us in triumph, and through us spreads the fragrance of the knowledge of him everywhere. 15For we are the aroma of Christ to God among those who are being saved and among those who are perishing, 16to one a fragrance from death to death, to the other a fragrance from life to life. Who is sufficient for these things? 17For we are not, like so many, peddlers of God's word; but as men of sincerity, as commissioned by God, in the sight of God we speak in Christ.


Chapter 3

1Are we beginning to commend ourselves again? Or do we need, as some do, letters of recommendation to you, or from you? 2You yourselves are our letter of recommendation, written on your hearts, to be known and read by all men; 3and you show that you are a letter from Christ delivered by us, written not with ink but with the Spirit of the living God, not on tablets of stone but on tablets of human hearts. 4Such is the confidence that we have through Christ toward God. 5Not that we are competent of ourselves to claim anything as coming from us; our competence is from God, 6who has made us competent to be ministers of a new covenant, not in a written code but in the Spirit; for the written code kills, but the Spirit gives life. 7Now if the dispensation of death, carved in letters on stone, came with such splendor that the Israelites could not look at Moses' face because of its brightness, fading as this was, 8will not the dispensation of the Spirit be attended with greater splendor? 9For if there was splendor in the dispensation of condemnation, the dispensation of righteousness must far exceed it in splendor. 10Indeed, in this case, what once had splendor has come to have no splendor at all, because of the splendor that surpasses it. 11For if what faded away came with splendor, what is permanent must have much more splendor. 12Since we have such a hope, we are very bold, 13not like Moses, who put a veil over his face so that the Israelites might not see the end of the fading splendor. 14But their minds were hardened; for to this day, when they read the old covenant, that same veil remains unlifted, because only through Christ is it taken away. 15Yes, to this day whenever Moses is read a veil lies over their minds; 16but when a man turns to the Lord the veil is removed. 17Now the Lord is the Spirit, and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is freedom. 18And we all, with unveiled face, beholding the glory of the Lord, are being changed into his likeness from one degree of glory to another; for this comes from the Lord who is the Spirit.


Chapter 4

1Therefore, having this ministry by the mercy of God, we do not lose heart. 2We have renounced disgraceful, underhanded ways; we refuse to practice cunning or to tamper with God's word, but by the open statement of the truth we would commend ourselves to every man's conscience in the sight of God. 3And even if our gospel is veiled, it is veiled only to those who are perishing. 4In their case the god of this world has blinded the minds of the unbelievers, to keep them from seeing the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ, who is the likeness of God. 5For what we preach is not ourselves, but Jesus Christ as Lord, with ourselves as your servants for Jesus' sake. 6For it is the God who said, "Let light shine out of darkness," who has shone in our hearts to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Christ. 7But we have this treasure in earthen vessels, to show that the transcendent power belongs to God and not to us. 8We are afflicted in every way, but not crushed; perplexed, but not driven to despair; 9persecuted, but not forsaken; struck down, but not destroyed; 10always carrying in the body the death of Jesus, so that the life of Jesus may also be manifested in our bodies. 11For while we live we are always being given up to death for Jesus' sake, so that the life of Jesus may be manifested in our mortal flesh. 12So death is at work in us, but life in you. 13Since we have the same spirit of faith as he had who wrote, "I believed, and so I spoke," we too believe, and so we speak, 14knowing that he who raised the Lord Jesus will raise us also with Jesus and bring us with you into his presence. 15For it is all for your sake, so that as grace extends to more and more people it may increase thanksgiving, to the glory of God. 16So we do not lose heart. Though our outer nature is wasting away, our inner nature is being renewed every day. 17For this slight momentary affliction is preparing for us an eternal weight of glory beyond all comparison, 18because we look not to the things that are seen but to the things that are unseen; for the things that are seen are transient, but the things that are unseen are eternal.



Bullinger’s Notes on 2Corinthians Chs. 1-4 (for KJV)


Chapter 1

Verse 1

apostle. App-189. First occurance of this form of address Compare Galatians 1:1Galatians 1:1Ephesians 1:1Colossians 1:11 Timothy 1:12 Timothy 1:1,

Jesus Christ. App-98.

by = through. Greek. dia. App-104. 2 Corinthians 1:1.

will. Greek. thelema, App-102. Compare 1 Corinthians 1:1.

God. App-98. Compare Acts 9:15.

Timothy. Timothy is associated with Paul in the address of the epistles to Philippians, Colossians; and with Paul and Silas in the two epistles to the Thessalonians.

our = the.

unto = to.

church. App-186.

at = in. App-104.

with. Greek. sun. App-104.

saints. Greek. hagios. See Acts 9:13.

in. App-104.


Verse 2

Grace. App-184.,

from. Greek. apo. App-104.

Father. App-98.

Lord. App-98.


Verse 3

Blessed. Greek. eulogetos. See Romans 1:2.

God = the God.

even = and, as in Ephesians 1:31 Peter 1:3.

Lord. App-98.

mercies. Greek. oiktirmos. See Romans 12:1.

the God of all comfort. Compare Acts 7:2.

comfort. Greek. paraklesis. See Acts 4:36. This word appears eleven times in this Epistle, six times in this chapter. In to 2 Corinthians 5:62 Corinthians 5:7 translated "consolation". Note the Figure of speech Epanodos, App-8.


Verse 4

comforteth. Greek. parokaleo. App-134. Occurs eighteen times in this epistle.

in = upon. Greek. epi. App-104.

tribulation. Greek thilpsis. See Acts 7:10.

that we may be = unto (Greek. eis. App-104.) our being.

any = every.

trouble. Same as "tribulation".

of = by. Greek. hupo. App-104.


Verse 5

sufferings. Greek. pathetna. See Romans 8:18.

Christ = the Christ. App-98.

in = towards. Greek. eis, as in 2 Corinthians 1:4.

consolation = comfort, as 2 Corinthians 1:3.


Verse 6

whether = if. Greek. eite, App-118.

afflicted. Greek. thliho. Occurs here, 2 Corinthians 4:82 Corinthians 7:5Matthew 7:14Mark 3:91 Thessalonians 3:42 Thessalonians 1:62 Thessalonians 1:71 Timothy 5:10Hebrews 11:37. Compare "tribulation", above.

for. Greek huper. App-104.

is effectual = worketh, See Romans 7:5.

enduring. Greek. hupomone. Generally trans). "patience".


Verse 7

of = on

behalf of. Greek haper, as in 2 Corinthians 1:6.

stedfast. Greek. bebaios. See Hebrews 2:2. In some MSS. this clause stands at the beginning of 2 Corinthians 1:6, in others in the middle, alter "suffer".

knowing. Greek. oida. App-182.

partakers. Greek. koinonos. Seer Colossians 10:18.

also, etc. of the consolation also.


Verse 8

would not = do not wish (Greek. thelo. App-102.) you to be.

not. Greek ou. App-105.

ignorant. Greek agnoeo. See Romans 1:13. The sixth occurance of this expression.

of. The texts read "concerning", Greek. peri. App-104.

to us, The texts omit,

pressed = weighed down. Greek. bareo, Elsewhere, 2 Corinthians 6:4Matthew 26:43 (heavy). Mark 14:40Luke 9:321 Timothy 5:16 (charged),

out of measure. Literally according to (Greek. kata. App-104.) excellence (Greek. hyperbole) or excess. This phrase is used five times. See 2 Corinthians 4:17Romans 7:131 Corinthians 12:31Galatians 1:1Galatians 1:13.

above. Greek. huper. App-104.

strength = power. Greek. dunamis. App-172.

insomuch = so.

despaired. Greek. exaporeomai. Only here and 2 Corinthians 4:8. The reference may be to the riot at Ephesus (Acts 19:23-34), where his life would have been in danger, but for the counsel of his friends (2 Corinthians 1:31; but the following verses rather indicate some dangerous sickness. Both may have been in the apostle"s mind,

life. Greek. zao. Compare App-170.


Verse 9

sentence = answer. Greek. apokrima. Only here. Compare App-122. The only issue he could see from his troubles wag "death".

that = in order that. Greek. hina.

not. Greek. me. App-105.

trust. Greek. peitho. App-160. naiseth. Greek. egeiro. App-175.

the dead. App-139.


Verse 10

delivered. Greek. ruomai, Note the different tenses, giving the Figure of speech Polyptoton. App-6.

from = out of. Greek. ek. App-104.

so great. Greek. telikoutos. Only here, Hebrews 2:3James 3:4Revelation 16:18.

doth. The texts read "will",

trust = hope.

yet = still also.


Verse 11

helping together = co-operating. Greek. sunupourgeo. Only here.

by. No Preposition. Dative case.

prayer. Greek. deesis, App-134.

gift. Greek. charisma. App-184.

upon. Greek. eis. App-104.

by the means of = from. Greek. ek. App-104. Thanks may be given. Literally, it may be thanked. Greek. eucharisteo. See Acts 27:35.

on our behalf = on account of (Greek. huper. Same as "for", 2 Corinthians 1:6) us.


Verse 12

rejoicing = boasting Greek. kauchesis, the act of boasting, See Romans 3:22.

testimony. Greek. marturion. First occurance, Matthew 8:4, conscience. See Acts 23:1.

simplicity = guilelessness. Greek. haplotos, Elsewhere 2 Corinthians 8:22 Corinthians 9:112 Corinthians 9:132 Corinthians 11:3Romans 12:8Ephesians 6:5Colossians 3:22. The texts read hagiotes, holiness; not the Syriac.

godly sincerity = sincerity of God.

sincerity, Greek. eilikrineia. See 1 Corinthians 5:8.

with = in. Greek. en. App-104,

fleshly. Greek. sarkikos. See Romans 7:14 and 1 Peter 2:11.

by = in, as above.

have had our eonvereation = behaved, or lived. Greek anastrepho, Compare Ephesians 2:31 Timothy 3:15Hebrews 10:33Hebrews 13:181 Peter 1:172 Peter 2:18.

world. Greek kosmos. App-129.1.

more abundantly. Greek. perissoterds. Out of thirteen occurances, seven are in this Epistle. See 2 Corinthians 2:42 Corinthians 7:132 Corinthians 7:152 Corinthians 11:232 Corinthians 11:242 Corinthians 12:15,

to you-ward = towards (Greek. pros. App-104.) you.


Verse 13

none = not (Greek. ou).

other. Greek. allos App-124.

acknowledge. Greek. epiginosko. App-132.

even. The texts omit.


Verse 14

also ye = ye also.

have. Omit.

in part. Greek. apo merous. A part of you, the faithful ones.

rejoicing = ground of boasting. Greek. kauchema. See Romans 4:2.

the day, &c. See 1 Corinthians 5:5.

Jesus. App-98.


Verse 15

in. No Prep Out, case. confidence. Greek. pepoithesis. App-160.

was minded = wished. Greek. boulomai, App-102.

unto. Greek. pros. App-104.

before, i.e. before visiting Macedonia.

benefit. Greek charis, App-181.


Verse 16

into. Greek eis. App-104.

out of = from. Greek. apo. App-104.

brought on my way. Greek. piopempo. See Acts 15:3

toward. Greek. eis, as above. This was the apostle"s original intention, but was altered, because of his not finding Titus 2:12-13). See p. 1727.


Verse 17

did I, &c. The question is introduced by meti, expecting a negative answer,

lightness = fickleness. Gn elaphria, Only here.

purpose = plan. Greek. bouleuoThe "Received Text" reads bouleuomai at the beginning of the verse also.

according to. Greek. kata. App-104.

with. Greek. para. App-104.

yea yea = the yea yea.

nay nay = the nay nay. Greek. on. App-105. That is, one thing to-day and another to-morrow.


Verse 18

true = faithful. Greek. pistos App-150.

word. Greek. logos. App-121. Compare 1 Corinthians 1:18.

toward = unto. Greek. pros, as in verses: 2 Corinthians 1:152 Corinthians 1:162 Corinthians 1:20.


Verse 19

Son. Greek. huios. App-108.

preached. Greek. kereseo, App-121.

among. Greek. en. App-104.

Silvanus = Silas. Compare 1 Thessalonians 1:12 Thessalonians 1:11 Peter 5:12. See Acts 18:5.


Verse 20

all, &c. = as many as are the promises of God, in Him they are. and in Him. The texts read" Wherefore also through (App-104, 2 Corinthians 1:1) Him they are. "Amen, This Hebrew word is translated "verily" in the Gospels, except in Matthew 6:13 at the end of the Lord"s Prayer, and at the close of each Gospel, It does not nec. in the Acts. In the Epistles it comes at the close of benedictions and doxologies. In the Revelation occasionally at the beginning. There are three exceptions, here, 1 Corinthians 14:16, and Revelation 3:14. In the last passage it is a title of the Lord. It means "truth", and He is the Truth (John 14:6). Compare Isaiah 65:16, where "the God of truth" is "the God of Amen",


Verse 21

stablisheth = confirms. Greek. bebaioo. See Romans 15:8.

hath. Omit.

anointed. Greek. chrio, the verb from which Christos is formed. Elsewhere, always of the Lord. Luke 4:18Acts 4:27Acts 10:38Hebrews 1:9.


Verse 22

hath. Omit.

also sealed us = sealed us also.

sealed. Greek. sphragizo. Compare John 3:33.

given = gave,

earnest. Greek. arrabon. Only here, 2 Corinthians 5:5Ephesians 1:14. A foretaste or pledge of some future benefit.

Spirit. App-101. The operation of the Spirit is the pledge of the fulfilment of the promises.


Verse 23

call God for a record = invoke God as a witness.

call. Greek. epikaleomai. See Acts 2:21, Compare Acts 25:11Acts 25:12Acts 25:21Acts 25:25; &c.

record. Greek. martur. Compare Romans 1:9.

upon, Greek. epi. App-104.

soul. Greek. psuche. App-110.

spare. Greek.pheidomai. See Acts 20:29.

as yet. Greek. ouketi.

unto. Greek. eis. App-104.


Verse 24

for that = because.

have dominion = lord it. Greek. kurieuo. See Romans 6:9.

faith. Greek. pistis. App-150.

helpers. Greek sunergoe. See Romans 3:9.


Chapter 2

Verse 1

determined = judged, or decided. Greek. krino. App-122.

that I would not cot to.

not. Greek. me. App-105.

to = unto. Greek. pros. App-104.

in. Greek. en. App-104.

heaviness = sorrow or grief. Greek. lupe, translated "sorrow" in verses: 2 Corinthians 2:32 Corinthians 2:7.


Verse 2

if. Greek. ei. App-118.

make . . . sorry = grieve. Greek. lupeo, trenel. "grieve", or "cause grief" in verses: 2 Corinthians 2:22 Corinthians 2:4, a. Out of twenty-six occurrences, twelve are in this Epistle.

maketh. . . glad. Greek. euphraind. See Acts 2:26 (rejoice).

but. = except. Greek. ei me.

by. Greek. ek. App-104.


Verse 3

unto you. The texts omit.

lest = in order that (Greek. hina) not (Greek. me),

sorrow. See 2 Corinthians 2:1.

from. Greek. apo. App-104.

having confidence = trusting. Greek. peitho. App-150.

in = upon. Greek. epi. App-104.


Verse 4

out of. Greek. ek. App-104.

affliction. Greek. thlipeis, as in 2 Corinthians 1:4.

anguish = straitening, or distress. Greek. sunoche. Only here and Luke 21:25. Compare the verb sunecho2 Corinthians 5:14Luke 12:50Acts 18:5Philippians 1:1Philippians 1:23.

unto = to.

with = by, or through. Greek.

dia. App-104. 2 Corinthians 2:1.

not. Greek. ou. App-105.

that = in order that. Greek. hina.

know. Greek. ginosko. App-132.

love. Greek. agape. App-135.

more abundantly. See 2 Corinthians 1:12.

unto. Greek. eie. App-104.


Verse 5

any. Greek. tie. App-123.

in part, Greek. apo merous. The grief has come from a part of you who have been led away.

overcharge = lay a burden, or press heavily, upon. Greek. epibareo. Only here, 1 Thessalonians 2:92 Thessalonians 3:8.


Verse 6

man = one, as 2 Corinthians 2:7.

Punishment = censure. Greek. epitimia. Only here. Compare the verb epitimao. First occurance: Matthew 8:26. Figure of speech Tapeinosis. App-6.

of = by. Greek. hupo. App-104.

many = the more, i.e. the majority.


Verse 7

contrariwise = (on) the contrary. Greek. taunantion, for to enantion. Here, Galatians 1:2Galatians 1:71 Peter 3:9,

forgive. Greek. charizomai. App-184.

comfort. Greek. parakaleo. App-134.

lest = lest perhaps. Greek. mepos.

swallowed up Greek. katapind. See 1 Corinthians 15:54.

overmuch = more abundant.

Verse 8

beseech. Greek. parakaied, as above.

confirm = ratify with authority. Greek. kuroo. Only here and Galatians 1:3Galatians 1:15. Akin to kuries, lord.

toward. Greek. eia. App-104.


Verse 9

to this end for (Greek. eie) this.

also did I write = did I write also.

proof. Greek. dokime. See Romans 5:4 (experience).

whether = if. App-118.

obedient. Greek hupikoos. See Acts 7:39.

in. Greek. eis, no above.


Verse 10

I forgive also = also forgive.

for your sake. Literally on account of (Greek. dia. App-104. 2 Corinthians 2:2) you.

person = face, i.e. eight, or presence.

Christ. App-98.


Verse 11

Satan, &c. Literally should be overreached (Greek. pleonekteo. Here, 2 Corinthians 7:22 Corinthians 12:172 Corinthians 12:181 Thessalonians 4:6)

by (Greek. hupo, as in 2 Corinthians 2:6) Satan.

ignorant. Gr. agnoeo. Compare 2 Corinthians 1:8. Figure of speech Tapeinosis. App-8.

devices = thoughts.

Greek. noema

Elsewhere, 2 Corinthians 3:142 Corinthians 4:42 Corinthians 10:52 Corinthians 11:3Philippians 1:4Philippians 1:7. See 2 Corinthians 11:3Ephesians 6:11Revelation 2:24,


Verse 12

Furthermore = Now. to. Greek eis. App-104.

Troas. See Acts 16:8.

to preach Christ"s gospel = for (Cr. eis) the gospel (App-140) of the Messiah.

door. See 1 Corinthians 16:9,

of. Greek en. App-104.

Lord. App-98.


Verse 13

no = not (Greek. ou).

rest. Greek. anesis. See Acts 24:23.

Spirit. App-101.

taking . . . leave. Greek. apotassomai. See Acts 18:18.

went from thence = went forth. into. Greek eis. App-104.


Verse 14

thanks. Greek. charis. App-184.

God. App-98.

causeth us to triumph = leadeth us in triumph (Greek. thriamheud), or triumphs over us as in Colossians 2:15. Only in these two places. Paul was a captive won by grace. In a Roman triumph there were captives destined to be spared and captives destined to death. See 2 Corinthians 2:16.

maketh manifest. Greek. phaneroo. App-106.

savour. Greek osme. Elsewhere, 2 Corinthians 2:16John 12:3 (odour). Ephesians 5:2Philippians 1:4Philippians 1:18 (odour).

knowledge. Greek. gnosis. App-192.

by = by means of. Greek. dia. App-104. 2 Corinthians 2:1. Paul gave evidence of the wisdom which dwelt in Him (Colossians 2:3) in his own conversion (1 Timothy 1:16), as well as in his preaching.

Verse 15

sweet savour. Greek. euodia, Elsewhere, Ephesians 5:2Philippians 1:4Philippians 1:18.

saved = being saved. Compare 1 Corinthians 1:11 Corinthians 1:18.

perish = are perishing. Greek. opollumi. See 1 Corinthians 1:18.


Verse 16

life. Greek. zoe. App-170.

for. Greek. pros. App-104.


Verse 17

many. As in 2 Corinthians 2:6.

corrupt = adulterate. Greek kapeleuo. Only here. The word kapelos, which occurs once in the Septuagint, meant as huckster, tavern-keeper, and then the verb came to mean "adulterate". See Isaiah 1:22, where the Septuagint meads, "thy wine-sellers mix the wine with water".

word. Greek. logos. App-121.

of. Greek. ek. App-104.

sincerity. See 1 Corinthians 5:8.

in the sight of = I Clare. Greek. katendpion. Elsewhere, 2 Corinthians 12:19Ephesians 1:4Colossians 1:22Jude 1:24. The texts read kateanti, over against,

speak. Greek. laleo. App-121.


Chapter 3

Verse 1

Do we, &c. = Are we to begin.

again. He had done so in 1Co 9.

commend. Greek. sunistano. See on Romans 3:5.

some. Greek tines. App-124.

epistles, &c. = commendatory (Greek. sustatikos. Only here) letters. Compare Acts 18:27.

to. Ge. pros. App-104,

from. Greek. ek. App-104. Question preceded by me.


Verse 2

written. Cr. engrapho. Only here and 2 Corinthians 3:3.

in. Greek. en, App-104.

known. Greek ginosko. App-132.

read. Greek anaginosko. There is a Paronomasia here, App-6.

of = by. Greek. hupo. App-104.

men. App-123.


Verse 3

manifestly declared = manifested. Greek. phaneroo. App-106.

Christ. App-08.

ministered. Greek diakaneo. App-190.

by. Greek. hupo, as in 2 Corinthians 3:2.

not. Greek. ou. App-105.

with. No Preposition. Dative case.

ink. Greek. melan. Only here, 2 John 1:123 John 1:13.

Spirit. App-101.

God. App-98.

tables of stone = stone tables.

tables. Greek. plax. Only here and Hebrews 9:4.

fleshy. Greek. sarkinos. This word refers to the substance or material and carries no moral significance. Compare Hebrews 7:16, where the texts read as here.


Verse 4

trust = confidence. Greek. pepoithesis. App-130.,

through. Greek. dia. App-104.

Christ = the Christ.

to God-ward = toward (Greek. pros. App-104.)



Verse 5

of = from. Greek. apo. App-104.

think = reckon. Greek logizomai. See the frequent occurance in Rom 4, count, reckon, &c.

any thing. Greek. tis. App-123.,

of. Greek. ek. App-101.

sufficiency. Greek. hikanotes. Only here.

of. Greek. ek, as above.


Verse 6

also. Road after "ministers".

hath made us able = enabled us, or made us efficient as. Greek. hikanoo. Only here and Colossians 1:12.

ministers. Greek. diakonos. App-190.

the = a.

new. Greek. kainos. See Matthew 9:17.

testament = covenant. Greek. diatheke. See Matthew 26:28. This is the covenant of Jeremiah 31:31. Compare Hebrews 8:6-13.

the. Omit.

letter. Greek. gramma. This is the Sinaitic covenant, called "theministration of death" in 2 Corinthians 3:7.

spirit. The old covenant could not give life. It was like a dead body, for lack of the spirit (James 2:26). Compare John 6:63. Christ is the Spirit of the new covenant. See 2 Corinthians 3:17,

giveth life = quickeneth. Greek. zoopoieo. See Romans 8:11 and 1 Corinthians 15:45.


Verse 7

if. App-118.2, a.

ministration. Greek. diakonia. App-190.

written = in (Greek. en. App-104.) letters. See 2 Corinthians 3:6.

engraven. Greek. entupoo. Only here.

was = came to be.

glorious = in (Greek. en) glory.

children = sons. Greek. huios. App-108.

not. Greek. me. App-106.

stedfastly behold gaze upon. Greek. atenizo. App-133. Followed by the Greek eis (App-104.)

Moses. Occurs three times in this Epistle, here, on 2 Corinthians 13:15.

for = on amount of. Greek. dia. App-104. 2 Corinthians 3:2.

to be done away = being done away. Greek. katargeo. See Romans 3:3.


Verse 8

not. Greek. ouchi. App-105.


Verse 9

condemnation. Greek. katakrisis. Only here and 2 Corinthians 7:3. See App-122.

righteousness. Gs. dikaiosune. App-191.

Verse 10


made glorious = glorified. Greek. doxazo. See p. 1511.

had no glory = was not glorified, as above.

excelleth. Greek. huperballo. Occurs here, 2 Corinthians 9:14Ephesians 1:19Ephesians 2:7Ephesians 3:19.


Verse 11

glorious = through (Greek. dia. App-104. 2 Corinthians 3:1) glory.

remaineth. Greek. meno. See p. 1511.

glorious = in (Greek. en) glory.


Verse 12

Seeing . . . have = Having then.

use. Greek chraomai. See Acts 27:3,

great = much.

plainness of speech = outspokenness. Greek. parrhesia. Often translated boldly, or freely.


Verse 13

vail. Greek kalununa. Only here and in verses: 2 Corinthians 3:142 Corinthians 3:152 Corinthians 3:16.

over = upon. Greek. epi. App-104. See Exodus 34:33.

that, &c. = with a view to (Greek. pros. App-104.) the children of Israel"s not gazing to the end.

to. Greek. eis. App-104.

abolished = being done away, as in 2 Corinthians 3:7.


Verse 14

minds = thoughts. Greek. noema. See 2 Corinthians 2:11.

blinded = hardened. Greek. poroo. Sea Romans 11:7Romans 11:26 (poroeis).

this day = to-day. Greek. semeron.

untaken away = not (Greek. me. App-105) unveiled, or revealed (Greek. anakalupto, unveil, only here and 2 Corinthians 3:18). This should follow "old testament". It means, "it being not revealed that it is done away" (Revised Version m.)

in. Greek. epi. App-104.

reading. Greek. anagnosis. See Acts 13:15.

old testament = old covenant. The only place where the term is used. The usual designation is "the law", or "Moses" (2 Corinthians 3:15).

which vail = that (Greek. hoti) it.


Verse 15

when. Greek. henika. Only here and 2 Corinthians 3:16.

is = lieth.

upon. Greek. epi. App-104.


Verse 16

it. i.e. the heart of Israel.

turn. Greek. epistrepho. Often translated "return", or be converted". See Matthew 13:15John 12:40Acts 3:19Acts 28:27.

Lord. App-98.

taken away. Greek periaireo. See Acts 27:20.


Verse 17

Lord. App-98.

that = the.

Spirit. App-101. Compare 2 Corinthians 3:6.


Verse 18

open = unveiled. See 2 Corinthians 3:14. Here is the contrast. Moses alone beheld and reflected the Shekinah glory, we all behold and reflect the Lord"s glory.

beholding . . . glass = reflecting, as Revised Version. Greek. katoptrizo. Only here.

changed = transformed. Greek. metamorphoomai. See Mark 9:2.

image. Greek. eiken. Compare Romans 8:29. Co 2 Corinthians 1:32 Corinthians 1:10. . Greek. apo. App-104.

by = from, Greek. apo.

the Spirit of the Lord = the Lord the Spirit. The word "Spirit" is in the Genitive of Apposition. App-17. See 2 Corinthians 3:6.


Chapter 4

Verse 1

Therefore = On account of (Greek. dia. App-104. 2 Corinthians 4:2) this.

seeing we have = having.

ministry. Greek. diakonia App-190.

have. Omit.

received mercy. Compare 1 Corinthians 7:25.

faint. Greek. ekkakeo. Occurs: 2 Corinthians 4:16Luke 18:1 (which see). Galatians 1:6Galatians 1:9Ephesians 3:132 Thessalonians 3:13.

not. Greek. ou. App-105.


Verse 2

renounced. Greek. apeipon. Only here.

the hidden, &c. = the shameful secret things. This is the Figure of speech Antieoereia. App-6.

dishonesty = shame. Greek. aischune. Always translated "shame", except here. Luke 14:9Philippians 1:3Philippians 1:19Hebrews 12:2Jude 1:19Revelation 3:18.

not. Greek. me. App-105.

in. Greek. en. App-104.

craftiness. See Luke 20:23

nor. Greek mede,

handling . . . deceitfully. Greek. doloo. Only here.

word. Greek. logos. App-121.

God. App-98.

manifestation. Greek. phanerosis. See 1 Corinthians 12:7. commending. See 2 Corinthians 3:1.

to. Greek pros. App-104.

every man"s conscience. Lit, every conscience of men (Greek. anthropos. App-123.1).


Verse 3

if. App-118.

gospel, Compare App-140.

hid = hid (Greek. kaluptd, to cover or veil) also. Compare James 5:201 Peter 4:8, and See 2 Corinthians 3:13-16.

hid. Same verb.

to = in. Greek. en.

lost = perishing. Greek. apollumi. See 1 Corinthians 1:1.


Verse 4

god. App-98.

world = age. Greek. aion. App-129. Compare John 12:31John 14:30John 16:11; where, however, world is kosmos (App-129.)

minds. Greek. noema. See 2 Corinthians 2:11,

them, &c. = the unbelieving. Greek. apistos. Compare App-150.

lest, &c. = to (Greek. eie. App-104.) the end that the light . . . should not (Greek. me as in 2 Corinthians 4:2).

light = illumination. Greek. photismos. App-130. glorious

gospel = gospel (or good news) of the glory. Compare 1 Timothy 1:11Titus 2:13. See App-140.

Christ = the Christ. App-98.

image. See 2 Corinthians 3:18. Co 2 Corinthians 1:12 Corinthians 1:15Hebrews 1:3 (charakter).

shine. Greek. augazo. Only here. Compare apaugasma, Hebrews 1:3.

unto them. The texts omit,


Verse 5

preach. Greek. kerusso. App-121.

Christ Jesus. App-9.

the Lord = as Lord. App-96. Compare Romans 10:9.

servants. Greek doulos. App-190.

for, &c. = on account of (Greek. dia App-104) Jesus (App-98).


Verse 6

commanded. Literally spoke. Compare Genesis 1:3.

light. Greek. phos. App-130.

out of. Greek. ek, App-104.

give the light = the illumination. Greek photismos, as in 2 Corinthians 4:4.

knowledge. Greek. gnosis. App-132.

Jesus Christ. App-98. XL The texts omit "Jesus".


Verse 7

earthen. Greek. ostrakinos Only here and 2 Timothy 2:20. From ostrakon, a potsherd. Compare App-94. Treasure in the East is often hidden in the earth and in a potter"s vessel to protect from damp, &c. Compare Jeremiah 32:14.

that = Go order that. Greek. hina,

excellency. Greek. huperbole. Compare 2 Corinthians 12:7 (abundance).

power. Greek. dunamis. App-172.

of = out of. Greek. eh. App-104. It does not emanate from us. "of God" is the possessive case. The power net only emanates from God, but belongs to Him. Heoes not part with it.


Verse 8

troubled = afflicted, Greek. thlibo. See 2 Corinthians 1:6.

on every side = in (Greek. en) every thing.

distressed. Greek. stenochoreomai, Only here and 2 Corinthians 6:12, where it is translated "straitened". The Syriac rends "suffocated", referring probably to a wrestler who is compressed by his antagonist.

perplexed. Greek apareomai. Not knowing which way to turn. See Acts 25:20.

in despair. Greek. exaporeomai. See 2 Corinthians 1:8.

Verse 9


forsaken = abandoned. Greek. enkataleipo. See Acts 2:27.

cast down. Greek. kataballo. Only here, Hebrews 6:1Revelation 12:10.

destroyed. Greek. apollumi, as in 2 Corinthians 4:3. Notice the four"note" in these two verses. Fig, Mesodiplosis. App-6.


Verse 10

Always. App-151. to. i.

bearing about. Greek. periphero. Mark 6:55Ephesians 4:14Hebrews 13:9Jude 1:12.

dying. Greek. nekrosis. Only here and Romans 4:19. It means the condition of a corpse. It was his constant experience. See next verse.

Lord. The texts omit,

life. Greek. zoe. App-170.

made manifest. Greek. phaneroo. App-106.


Verse 11

which live, Literally the living. Greek. zao. Compare App-170.

alway. App-151.

delivered. Greek. paredidomi. See John 19:30.

unto. Greek. eis. App-104.

mortal. Gr. thnetos. See Romans 6:12.


Verse 12

worketh. Greek. energeo. See Romans 7:5.


Verse 13

spirit. App-101.

faith. App-160. It is the Genitive of Apposition (App-17) faith being the Spirit"s gift. 1 Corinthians 12:9.

according as, &c. = according to (Greek. kata. App-104) that which has been written.

believed. App-150.

and. Omit,

have I spoken = I

spoke. Greek. laleo. App-121.

and therefore speak = therefore we also speak.


Verse 14

Knowing. Greek. oida App-132.

raised up. Greek. egeiro. App-178.

Lord. App-98.

by = through. Greek. dia, but the texts read "with", Greek. sun.

with. Greek. sun. App-104.


Verse 15

for your sakes = on account of (Greek. dia. App-104. 2 Corinthians 4:2) you.

abundant = abounding. Greek. pleonazo. See Romans 5:20

grace. Greek charis. App-184.

through. Greek. eis. App-104, 2 Corinthians 4:1.

thanksgiving. Greek. eucharistia. See Acts 24:3. Compare 2 Corinthians 1:11.

many = the majority, es in 2 Corinthians 2:6,

redound = over flow, or excel. Greek. periaaseo

to. Greek. eis. App-104.


Verse 16

For which cause = Therefore.

though = even if. App-118.

outward (Greek. exo) man (Greek. anthropos, App-123.) This expression Occurs only here. It is one of the rearms of the old nature. Compare Romans 6:61 Corinthians 2:14Ephesians 4:22Colossians 3:9.

perish = is corrupted or destroyed, Greek diaphtheire. Occurs elsewhere, Luke 12:331 Timothy 6:5Revelation 8:9Revelation 11:1.

inward. Greek. eadthen. In Romans 7:22Ephesians 3:16, the word is eso.

renewed. Greek. anakainoo Only here and Colossians 3:10.


Verse 17

our light, &c. Literally the momentary lightness of our affliction.

light. Greek. elaphros. Only here and Matthew 11:30. Compare "lightness", 2 Corinthians 1:17.

affliction. Greek. thlipsis as in 2 Corinthians 1:4. Compare the verb, 2 Corinthians 4:8.

for a moment. Greek. parautika. Only here.

worketh. Greek. katergazomai. To work out. See Romans 7:8.

far more exceeding. Literally according to (Greek. kata. App-104,) excess unto (Greek. eis. App-104.) excess. The Greek for "excess" is hyperbole, as in 2 Corinthians 4:7.

eternal. Greek. aionios. App-161. B, i.

weight. Greek. baros. See Acts 16:24.


Verse 18

look. Greek. skopeo. See Luke 11:35.

seen. Greek. blepo. App-133.:6.

temporal = temporary, for a season. Greek. proskairos, Only here, Matthew 13:21Mark 4:17Hebrews 11:25.