Christian Churches of God

No. 045ii





Commentary on Romans

Part 2

(Edition 1.0 20210313-20210313)


Commentary on Chapters 6-10.


Christian Churches of God

PO Box 369,  WODEN  ACT 2606,  AUSTRALIA






(Copyright © 2021 Wade Cox)


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Commentary on Romans


Intent of the chapters

As we continue on from Part I, also using some points developed in Love and the Structure of the Law (No. 200), we see that Paul develops the concept in Chapter 6 of us being dead to sin and therefore we cannot live in it.


Chapter 6

What, then, do we continue in sin that grace may abound? By no means! We are dead to sin. How can we live in it? And sin is transgression of the Law (Rom. 6:1-4). All who were baptised into Christ were baptised into his death. We were buried therefore with him by baptism into death so that as Christ was raised from death by the glory of the Father, we too might walk in newness of life. From verse 5 Paul says that: “If we were united with him in a death like his, we shall certainly be united with him in a resurrection like his.”  The structure is clear that we proceed to the Resurrection under Christ.


He says: we know that our old self was killed on the stake (sunestauroothe) with him (not crucified) so that the sinful body might be destroyed and we might no longer be enslaved to sin.  He who has died is free from sin and we who have died with Christ shall also live with him (vv. 6-8). We know that Christ who was raised from the dead will never die again as death no longer has dominion over him.  The death he died he dies once for all but the life he lives he lives for God (vv. 9-10).  


We were baptised into Christ’s death. Therefore, the old man who was dead to God and to eternal life was made alive to the love of God. Christ was raised as a son of God in power from his resurrection from the dead (cf. Rom. 1:4 in pt. 1). He was raised, as we see, from the dead by the glory of the Father and by no power of his own. So too are we made to walk in newness of life by the glory of the Father who now dwells in us through the power of the Holy Spirit.


We are dead to sin in Christ, so that the body is no longer enslaved to sin as the sinful body is destroyed; Christ died to sin once for all. The life he lives he lives to God. So too the elect live to God being dead to sin and alive to God in Christ Jesus (Rom. 6:5-11).


The love of God is now in us through His grace and we are thus able to be obedient unto death as we are no longer under the bondage of sin. Sin has no dominion over the elect because they are not under the Law but under grace and are slaves to God (Rom. 6:12-14).


So do we then sin? No. Sin is transgression of the Law. Thus we are obedient to God as slaves of God. If we sin we are slaves of the flesh and of sin, and thus we are subject to death. We are slaves to obedience, which leads to righteousness;

becoming obedient from the heart to the standard of teaching to which we were committed (Rom. 6:15-19).


Righteousness is justice and justice is obedience to the Laws of God through the power of the Holy Spirit. We cannot turn to those things of which we were ashamed for the end of them is death (Rom. 6:20-21).


We have been set free from sin and given the gift of eternal life. That gift flows from the knowledge of God and His Son, Jesus Christ (Rom. 6:22-23).


Chapter 7

(cf. also Love and the Structure of the Law (No. 200)). We are now dead to the Law so that we serve not under the old written code but under the spirit of the Law (Rom. 7:4-6).


Through the Law we understand sin. Covetousness itself does not come from an understanding of the Law. The knowledge of what it means to be covetous comes from an understanding of the Law. The power not to be covetous comes not from the Law but from the grace of God, who has given the Holy Spirit so that the love of God abides in us. How can we love our neighbour if we covet that which is his? If we covet what is our neighbour’s we envy and then we murder and steal. If we place another thing above the Laws of God, then we are in breach of the First Commandment and thus the entire Law is breached. Without the Holy Spirit the sin that comes from the iniquity of the mind finds opportunity and kills the individual, because without the love of God in the Holy Spirit, sin overcomes the capacity of the individual to obey the Law.


The Law then is not the problem; it is the weakness of the individual that cannot overcome sin without the power of the Holy Spirit given by the love of God through the obedience of His Son. The Law is holy and the Commandments are holy and just and good, because God is holy and just and good (Rom. 7:12).


Paul (and those of the elect) could not entirely overcome sin. The lust of the flesh battles with the desires of the heart and the love of God in the Holy Spirit (Rom. 7:13-25).


The Relationship between Salvation by Grace and the Law (No. 082) shows that The Protestant argument of grace eliminating Law is based on the statement that the elect are dead to the law, from the text at Romans 7:4. Antinomianism couples this distortion with misuse of the doctrine of predestination (Rom. 7:4; cf. Rom. 8:28-30 below).


Romans 7:5-7: This structure does not eliminate the Law but rather emphasises the power of the Holy Spirit in regulating the individual by the nature of God that proceeds from Him through the Holy Spirit. The distinction is made between living in the flesh, and attempts to regulate one’s relationship with God by regulations made to interpret the Law, which is of itself holy and righteous and good. The Law is not a physical thing. Those of the flesh treat it as a physical thing. We are dead to that aspect because we no longer live in the flesh. Messiah will reintroduce the Law in its entirety for the Millennium according to Scripture, and Scripture cannot be broken. How then is the Law done away with as a reality? The Law does not give life; the Holy Spirit does that through Christ.


Without the Holy Spirit the lusts of the flesh are aroused by the knowledge of good and evil, which is enshrined in the Law. Without the nature of God we cannot keep the Law in holy righteousness. Thus we are discharged from the Law into Jesus Christ. That does not discharge us into licence. If we love God we keep His Commandments.

John 14:15 "If you love me, you will keep my commandments. (RSV)

For the Law is holy, and the Commandments are holy and just and good (Rom. 7:12)


Christ said: “If you would enter into life, keep the commandments”.

Matthew 19:17  And he said to him, "Why do you ask me about what is good? One there is who is good. If you would enter life, keep the commandments." (RSV)


So we cannot inherit eternal life unless we keep the Commandments. Here God is seen as the centre of ultimate Good, hence the word God. The Law hangs in its entirety on the two Great Commandments (Mat. 22:40).

Matthew 22:36-40 "Teacher, which is the great commandment in the law?" 37And he said to him, "You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind. 38This is the great and first commandment. 39And a second is like it, You shall love your neighbour as yourself. 40On these two commandments depend all the law and the prophets." (RSV)


The Law is thus destined to an end or purpose, which is in Christ and intended to reconcile us to God. The Law, being spiritual, proceeds from God and thus is kept in our natures in order to reconcile us to God. The Law then does not cause death but rather it is sin, which is transgression of the Law, working within the individual that causes death (Rom. 7:13).


The Law is spiritual but humanity is carnal, sold under sin (Rom. 7:14).


Paul says that he does not understand his own actions. He does not do what he wants but the very thing that he hates. So if he does what he does not want then he agrees that the law is good. And it is not he that does it but sin which dwells within him (vv. 15-17). He says: For I know that nothing good dwells within him (i.e. in his flesh). He can will what is right but he cannot do it; for he says that he does not do the good that he wants but he does the evil he does not want to do and thus it is no longer he, but sin that dwells within him (vv. 15-20). 


In effect he is saying that the world and the demons under the god of this world that runs it (2Cor. 4:4) affect his influences and cause the elect to sin contrary to their wills and desires. The elect are influenced by the Spirit (117) which guides them away from sin but the earthly influences lead them into sin which is transgression of the law. It is for that reason that the Second Sacrament of the Lord’s Supper on 14 Abib at Passover is established by Messiah.


The entire argument that the Law is not spiritual, and hence, not of the New Covenant as detailed in the New Testament, is utterly false. The truly converted person delights in the Law of God in their inner selves.

Psalm 119:1 Blessed are those whose way is blameless, who walk in the law of the LORD! (RSV)


Romans 7:22   For I delight in the law of God, in my inmost self, (RSV)


For the Law leads men to Christ, who is the end of the Law (Rom. 10:4). The end of the Law (telos gar nomou) here is the conclusion as the goal or the objective, being the point or act or state aimed at. It is not the cessation of the Law.


Paul says that he sees another law at war with that of his mind and making him captive to the law of sin (which is transgression of the law of God) which dwells in his members. He then says wretched man that I am, who will deliver me from this body of death.  So he says that he serves the law of God with his mind but with his body he serves the law of sin which is transgression of the law of God. No sane person could say from this text that Paul did away with the law of God, and as given by Christ at Sinai (Acts 7:33-55; 1Cor 10:1-4 and through the patriarchs and prophets).


Being led by the Spirit liberates the individual from being under the Law.

Galatians 5:18  But if you are led by the Spirit you are not under the law. (RSV)


Here over the first Seven chapters of Romans Paul details the basis of sin in idolatry and rejection or breach of the Law and that it is only through the Holy Spirit given on the acceptance of Christ before the throne of God as the Wave Sheaf  Offering (No. 106B).


It is through Chapter 8 that we see that is it God that determines who is to be called and when and how that person is developed, for they are given to Christ in that process and that was determined from the foundation of the earth through the Omniscience of God and His Divine Prescience.


Chapter 8

As has been detailed in the text Antinomian Attacks on the Law of God (No. 164D) the faith has been undermined by the Antinomian Gnostics from the start of the Church.


We see that there is no condemnation for those who are in Christ (Rom. 8:1). For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus has set the elect free from sin and death. For God has done what the law weakened by the flesh could not do:  sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin; He condemned sin in the flesh (vv. 2-3). The Law is thus fulfilled in us who walk according to the Spirit (Rom. 8:4).


The Spirit directs the mind according to its purpose (Rom. 8:5-6).


The mind that is set on the flesh is hostile to God; it does not submit to God's Law and indeed cannot submit to the Law (Rom. 8:7). Thus the carnal or unconverted mind is identified by its resistance to the keeping of the Laws of God. The argument that grace has eliminated the Law is essentially that of an unconverted mind. The entire Grace-Law argument identifies those who are obedient to God and those who are not obedient to God. The dispensation is not “if” but “how” the Law is kept. Let no man judge you in respect of food and drink, or for festivals, New Moons or Sabbaths (Col. 2:16-17). They are a shadow of what is to come but the substance belongs to Christ. Christ thus gave the Law under direction of God and is the mediator and objective of the Law. So nothing will pass from the Law until all is accomplished – namely, the restoration of the planet to the Law and thence to God at the end of the Millennium. That is why Christ restores all of the Holy Days, New Moons and Sabbaths on his return (Isa. 66:23-24; Zech. 14:16-19). If he requires those things kept in the Millennium, then they are binding on the elect for all time.


The Spirit of Him, who raised Christ from the dead, lives in the Christian, giving life through the Spirit dwelling in the individual (Rom. 8:11).


All who are led by the Spirit of God are sons of God (Rom. 8:14). And this is by the grace of God. The Law was given through Moses; grace and truth came through Jesus Christ.

John 1:17  For the law was given through Moses; grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. (RSV)


We thus cry Abba or Father, developing the same sonship as was given to our brother Jesus Christ (Rom. 8:15-16).


The Law itself does not provide justification. A person is justified through faith in Jesus Christ.

Galatians 2:16  yet who know that a man is not justified by works of the law but through faith in Jesus Christ, even we have believed in Christ Jesus, in order to be justified by faith in Christ, and not by works of the law, because by works of the law shall no one be justified. (RSV) (cf. F048).


The lives the elect live is by faith in the Son of God (Gal. 2:20-21). 

Galatians 2:20-21 I have been crucified with Christ; it is no longer I who live, but Christ who lives in me; and the life I now live in the flesh I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave himself for me. 21I do not nullify the grace of God; for if justification were through the law, then Christ died to no purpose. (RSV)

(See also the paper The Works of the Law Text – or MMT (No. 104) and Commentary on Galatians (F048).


Romans 8:11-17: The Holy Spirit is the mechanism by which the elect are sons of God. We receive the down payment on our baptism, and the redemption or the full allocation on the adoption, which is the redemption of our bodies (Cf. How God Became a Family (No. 187)).


Romans 8:22-23: We also are destined to be co-heirs with him as sons of God from our resurrection from the dead. We were predestined to receive the adoption as sons (Eph. 1:5; Gal. 4:5) from before the foundation of the world. We are meant to be sons of God in power from the resurrection. We will be joined with the angelic Host as sons of God under the High Priesthood of Melchisedek being vested in Messiah (Heb. 5:6,10; 6:20; 7:1-21) (ibid).


The final union of the entire creation occurs at the end of the Second (or General) Resurrection for the dead, when the City of God is brought down and all is placed under God the Father so that He may be all in all (Eph. 4:6; see the paper The City of God (No. 180)). The angelic Host are our brothers (Rev. 6:11; 12:10). They are our brothers because they also are sons of God as we are from the First Resurrection (see Rev. 20:1-6). The text in 1Corinthians 6:2-4 refers to judging the fallen Host and this has often caused misunderstanding. The angels are also the elect (1Tim. 5:21).


It is not by our own power that we overcome sin but by the power of the Holy Spirit working within us. There is no condemnation for those who are in Christ. Does this mean they are no longer under the requirement to obey God as He has given His Law of liberty to Messiah and through Moses? No. The Laws of the Temple and the sacrifice are given away, being fulfilled once and for all in Christ Jesus. The Laws of the worship of God are not so fulfilled. The entire problem comes from the mind. To set the mind on the flesh is death but to set the mind on the Spirit is life and peace (Rom. 8:6) (cf. Love and the Structure of the Law (No.  200)).


We are not in the flesh; we are in the spirit (Rom. 8:9-17). How then are we to regulate ourselves? Is it to be like the old man dead to the glory of God and the power of the resurrection? No. We are children of God and heirs of God as co-heirs with Christ. Thus there must be a purpose in the Law of God, which proceeds from His very nature.


The antinomians would have us do away with the Law, holding that it was nailed to the cross from Colossians 2:14. But we know that what was nailed to the stake was the cheirographon or the bill of indebtedness that came from our transgressions. It was not the Law of God itself, which was holy, righteous and good (cf. Commentary on Colossians (F051)).


How then do we proceed? What is required of us?


We see that the Laws of God rest on the Two Great Commandments (cf. the papers The First Great Commandment (No. 252); The Second Great Commandment (No. 257)). These are subdivided into the four and six. From the four and the six, the ordinances, which regulate the society according to the will of God, are regulated according to the love of God, and this is interpreted by the power of the Holy Spirit living in us. Through this power of the Spirit of God, both God and Christ live within us and God becomes all in all (Eph. 4:6).


The Philosophy of Biblical Law thus assumes the regulation of society. But there is only one structure by which God’s Law can be interpreted and by which it can operate. It does not change because God does not change (Mal. 3:6). Thus there can only be one system for regulating God’s society.


We find from this structure that another cross-structure emanates from the matrix of the Commandments of God.


We see that the pillars of law are embodied in the Commandments and the ordinances that form the sub-matrix to the Two Great Commandments and the Ten Commandments of God.


We find that the religio-political system is enshrined, flowing from the First Great Commandment. From the Laws of God relating to His worship and obedience we regulate the calendar and our daily lives from the First Second, Third, and Fourth Commandments (cf. also God’s Calendar (No. 156)).


Our environment is regulated also by our food consumed under His Law and by His authority under these laws (cf. The Food Laws (No. 015)).


Family law flows from the Fifth, Sixth, Seventh and Tenth Commandments specifically, and as interpreted by the others in relation to all the sub-ordinances.


Crime and punishment (or criminal law) is regulated according to the system He laid down. Cruel and unnatural punishment is prohibited under the Laws of God.


Equity law is also regulated by the land and social structure. Commerce is regulated by the rules relating to debt and usury and respect of persons.


In order to understand the substructure of the Law and the way in which the society is regulated, it is necessary to develop the Philosophy of Biblical Law in its entirety.


This can only be done by the careful exposition of the entire structure of the Law over the Sabbath years commencing with the First month (Abib/Nisan) of the Sacred Years (i.e. 1998, 2005, 2012, 2019 and 2026 and the Jubilee in 2027).


The Reading of the Law was the most important task undertaken by the priests in the Sabbath year of the Jubilee system. These years occurred every seven years in the seventh, fourteenth, twenty-first, twenty-eighth etc. years of the cycle until the forty-ninth year. At Atonement in the forty-ninth year the Jubilee was blown and lasted until the following Atonement of the fiftieth year when the entire restoration of the new system was affected and commenced anew for the harvest of the first year of the new Jubilee (cf. the papers The Law of God (No. L1) and the Law Series (Nos. 252-263)).


God has given the elect His Spirit so that they might see how they can make the system work correctly when they have a true and Spirit-begotten love for Him and for each other as true sons of God. They are given control of the planet in the millennial system so that they might show the fallen Host how it should have been done according to the will of God our Father (cf. Rev. 20:4-6).

Revelation 20:4-6 And I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given unto them: and I saw the souls of them that were beheaded for the witness of Jesus, and for the word of God, and which had not worshipped the beast, neither his image, neither had received his mark upon their foreheads, or in their hands; and they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years. 5But the rest of the dead lived not again until the thousand years were finished. This is the first resurrection. 6Blessed and holy is he that hath part in the first resurrection: on such the second death hath no power, but they shall be priests of God and of Christ, and shall reign with him a thousand years. (KJV)


The elect will reign with Christ for the thousand years and run the planet according to the Law-order given by Christ to Moses at Sinai. God did not give Moses a faulty system when he was issued the Law. Not one jot or tittle, in other words, not the smallest part of the Law, will pass from the Law until all is accomplished (Mat. 5:18; Lk. 16:17). We will make the planet function in accordance with the Laws of God over the entire 1,000-year period by using the Spirit of God, which will be made available to mankind under the supervision of Christ and the Church. All will be accomplished only when God rules from the Earth in the City of God, in all of us, as God (see the paper The City of God (No. 180)).


As is explained in The Relationship between Salvation by Grace and the Law (No. 082):

Christ was slain from the foundation of the world.

Revelation 13:8 All inhabitants of the earth will worship the beast - all whose names have not been written in the book of life belonging to the Lamb that was slain from the creation [foundation] of the world.


Thus sin was known from the foundation of the world, as was our calling. The predestination of the elect is seen from Romans 8:28-30.


See also the text God and the Church (No. 151):

The Church was established in 30 CE in Jerusalem and was persecuted. Many came, but many also were not chosen by God. The “Parable of the Sower” was given to show this fact. Many are called but few are chosen (Mat. 20:16). The predestination of the elect is found at Romans 8:28-30.


People are Chosen according to the Omniscience of God. The necessity for the sacrifice of Christ and the sequential choosing of the elect was known from the foundation of the world. These people were known and predestined from the laying down of the world. God knows all true propositions from His Omnipotence and hence has chosen the elect as sons of God to replace the demons in the Reign of Messiah in the Millennium. Hence they are called when it is appropriate for them to be called and they are then trained and justified and thence glorified. Nothing can interfere with that process (vv. 31-32). Thus none can bring a charge against God’s elect as it is God who justifies (v. 33). Christ intercedes for the elect and none can separate the elect from the love of Christ no matter what persecution they suffer. As it is written: “For thy sake we are being killed all the day long. We are regarded as sheep to be slaughtered” (Ps. 44:22). Being a true Christian over the two millennia has been dangerous and the dead and persecuted have been in the millions.


Thus from the texts here, not all who say they are called are indeed called, or chosen of God. The Church is seen for its obedience to the Laws of God. If they speak not according to the Law and the Testimony there is no light in them (Isa. 8:20). The saints are those who obey the Commandments of God and the Testimony or Faith of Jesus. The Church has no power to alter these Laws as laid down in the Bible. Any who do are disqualified from the faith and the First Resurrection (No. 143A).


The Faith is spoken in parables so that, as a general rule, only those who are able to come into judgment for the First Resurrection are called. The long-term damage is thus limited. However, many hear and are called though they are not ready. Christ spoke of this problem. Hence, the Law was introduced to increase the trespass so that the understanding of the regulation of affairs according to the love of God was obvious to those who sought God. However, Israel (and the world) was not obedient. By one man's obedience many will be made righteous, that is, by grace that reigns through righteousness to eternal life in the anointed Jesus (Rom. 5:20-21).


Chapter 9

Paul proceeds in chapters 9 and 10 to develop the law of God as key to the retention of the faith and the retention of the elect as part of the Body of Israel. This aspect was constantly attacked by the Antinomians and the Baal Worshippers of the Sun and Mystery Cults (cf. also Antinomian Attacks on the Law of God (No. 164D)).


In the first elements of the chapter Paul shows that not all who say they are Israelites are Israelites, and not all who claim to be sons of Abraham are so despite being his descendants (vv. 1-7): But through Isaac shall your descendants be named (Gen. 21:12).  


Israel’s unbelief caused them to fail as we see from this text (v. 3; Ex 32:32; v. 4) concerning the son-ship (Ex. 4:22; Jer. 31:9); Glory / God’s Presence (Ex. 16:10; 24:16); The Covenants with Israel were often renewed (cf. Gen. 6:18; 9:9; 15:8; 17:2,7.9; Ex. 2:24); Giving the law (Ex. 20:1-17; Deut. 5:1-21) and also worship of Eloah in the Tabernacle and the Temple (Ezra. 4:23-7:27).  


From 9:6-13 we see that God’s promise to Israel has not failed because the promise was not made simply to Abraham’s physical descendants, nor to those of Isaac as such but to those that God had chosen and predestined to be called into the Israel of God, as given by Eloah to Christ, as their elohim, at Deut. 32:8ff (cf. Ps. 45:6-7; Heb. 1:8-9. So also v. 7 Gen 21:12; v. 9 Gen. 18:10; vv. 10-12: Gen. 25:21,23; v. 13: Mal. 1:2-3).  These things were done in order that God’s Purpose of Election and Predestination (No. 296) might continue. Without a comprehensive knowledge of the OT one cannot understand Paul from Romans onwards, nor John and Revelation.


From verses 14-15 Paul negates any charge of injustice to God by resort to His assertion to Moses (through Christ (1Cor. 10:1-4): “I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy and I will have compassion on whom I will have compassion” (Ex. 33:19).


So the faith depends not on man’s will or exertion but on God’s mercy: For the Scripture says to Pharaoh “I have raised you up for the very purpose of showing my power in you; so that my name might be proclaimed in all the earth” (vv. 16-17). So He has mercy on whomever He wills and hardens the hearts of whomever He wills (v. 18).


From verses 19-21 Paul then produces a dialogue where he says: You will say to me then why does he still find fault? For who can resist his will? But who are you a man to answer back to God? Will what is moulded say to its moulder “Why have you made me thus.” Has the Potter no right to make out of the clay one vessel for beauty and another for menial use. 


He then poses the question: What if God. Desiring to show his wrath and to make known his power, has endured with much patience the vessels of wrath made for destruction, in order to make known the riches of his glory for the vessels of mercy, which he has prepared beforehand for glory, even us whom he has called, not from the Jews only but also from the Gentiles (vv. 22-24). He then quotes Hosea (2:23; 1:10) “’For those who were not my people I will call my people’ and her who was not beloved I will call my beloved.’ ”

“In this very place where it was said to them, ‘you are not my people’ they will be called ‘Sons of the Living God’ (vv. 25-26). Paul then says (quoting Isa. 10:22; 1:9): And Isaiah cries out concerning Israel: “Though the numbers of the sons of Israel be as the sand of the sea only a remnant of them will be saved: for the Lord will execute his sentence upon the earth with rigour and dispatch: And as Isaiah predicted “If the Lord of Hosts had not left us children we would have fared like Sodom and Gomorrah” (Gen. 19:24-25) (vv. 27-29).


Paul then asks a key question that will cover 9:30-10:13; What shall we say then? That Gentiles who did not pursue righteousness have attained it, that is righteousness through the faith; but that Israel who pursued the righteousness that is based on law did not succeed in fulfilling that law. Why? Because they did not pursue it through faith, but as if it were based on works. They have stumbled over the stumbling stone as it is written.: “ Behold I am laying in Zion a stone that will make men stumble, a rock that will make them fall; and he who believes in him will not be put to shame: (Isa. 28:16; 8:14-15); (9:30 deals with true righteousness by faith: 3:22; 10:6, 20; Gal. 2:16; 3:24; Phil. 3:9; Heb. 11:7).


From Romans 9:32: The Law of God is pursued by faith and not by works as also in Commentary on James (F059). However faith without works is dead (Jas. 2:17).


Obedience to the Commandments is a necessary prerequisite to the retention of the Holy Spirit, which dwells in those who keep God's Commandments.


1John 3:24 All who keep his commandments abide in him, and he in them. And by this we know that he abides in us, by the Spirit which he has given us. (RSV)


Acts 5:32 And we are witnesses to these things, and so is the Holy Spirit whom God has given to those who obey him." (RSV)


Thus it is impossible to be a Christian and love God and Christ without keeping the Law. Of necessity, this involves keeping the Sabbath as the Fourth Commandment and God’s Calendar (No. 156).


Chapter 10

Chapter 10 continues the structure of the Law and of Faith from verses 1 to 13 where true Righteousness is by faith. None of that negates the Law of God.


Paul says that his desire and prayer is that Israel may be saved.  His view is that they have a zeal for God but it is not enlightened. They are ignorant of the righteousness that comes from God and seeking to establish their own they did not submit to God’s Righteousness. For Christ is the end of the law, that everyone who has faith may be justified (vv. 1-4) (Gal. 3:23-26). 


As we see in The Relationship between Salvation by Grace and the Law (No. 082)  Romans 10:4: For the Law leads men to Christ, who is the end of the Law. The end of the Law (telos gar nomou) here is the conclusion as the goal or the objective, being the point or act or state aimed at. It is not the cessation of the Law.


Being led by the Spirit liberates the individual from being under the Law.

Galatians 5:18  But if you are led by the Spirit you are not under the law. (RSV)


From verse 5ff Paul then refers to Moses who wrote that when the man who practises righteousness based on the law [he] shall live by it (Lev. 18:5; Gal. 3:12). He then speaks of the righteousness based on faith. It is faith that enables the elect to keep the law through faith. He poses some questions that seek to vary the position of Christ by posing the problem of who is ascending from the grave or into heaven. That comparison seeks to bring Christ down from heaven or up from the dead. He then draws attention to the fact that the Spirit is in our hearts and on our lips (in baptism). Thus the power of God is not seen in physical terms but is among us. If we confess with our lips that Jesus is Lord and believe with our heart that God raised him from the dead then we will be saved (vv. 8-9). The elect believe with their hearts and are justified and confess with their lips and are saved (v. 10). It is written: No one who believes in him shall be put to shame (v.11) (Isa. 28:16). The elect were freed from the sacrificial law (cf. also 3:9-20). There is no distinction between Jew and Gentile (v. 12) (Joel. 2:32). The same Lord is Lord of all and bestows his riches upon all who call on him. For all who call on him will be saved (v. 13). It is these Messianic references that refer to the Christ who was Elohim of Israel.


Israel was responsible for its own failure. From verse 14ff he says: “But how are men to call upon him who have not believed.” And how are they to believe who have never heard of him and without a preacher. Thus the gospel message is critical to the faith. How can men preach unless they are sent.  As it is written: “How beautiful are the feet of he who preaches good news” (v. 15) (Isa. 52:7).


In verse 16 Paul refers to Isaiah 53:1. “Lord who has believed what he has heard from us.” So faith comes from what is heard and what is heard comes from the preaching of Christ (v. 17). Thus the elect explain the gospel of the Kingdom of God.


In verse 18, Paul quotes Psalm 19:4. ‘Their voice has gone out to all the earth and their words to the ends of the world.’  In verse 19 he says: Again I ask did Israel not understand?  First Moses says: ‘I will make you jealous of those who are not a nation; with a foolish nation I will make you angry’ (Deut. 32:21).


He shows that Isaiah told Israel that they would not understand or refuse to understand the gospel (Isa. 65:1-2) (vv. 20-21).


‘I have been found by those who did not seek me.  I have shown myself to those who did not ask for me;’

But of Israel God says through the prophet: ‘All day long I have held out my hands to a disobedient and contrary people.’




Chapter 6

1What shall we say then? Are we to continue in sin that grace may abound? 2By no means! How can we who died to sin still live in it? 3Do you not know that all of us who have been baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death? 4We were buried therefore with him by baptism into death, so that as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, we too might walk in newness of life. 5For if we have been united with him in a death like his, we shall certainly be united with him in a resurrection like his. 6We know that our old self was crucified with him so that the sinful body might be destroyed, and we might no longer be enslaved to sin. 7For he who has died is freed from sin. 8But if we have died with Christ, we believe that we shall also live with him. 9For we know that Christ being raised from the dead will never die again; death no longer has dominion over him. 10The death he died he died to sin, once for all, but the life he lives he lives to God. 11So you also must consider yourselves dead to sin and alive to God in Christ Jesus. 12Let not sin therefore reign in your mortal bodies, to make you obey their passions. 13Do not yield your members to sin as instruments of wickedness, but yield yourselves to God as men who have been brought from death to life, and your members to God as instruments of righteousness. 14For sin will have no dominion over you, since you are not under law but under grace. 15What then? Are we to sin because we are not under law but under grace? By no means! 16Do you not know that if you yield yourselves to any one as obedient slaves, you are slaves of the one whom you obey, either of sin, which leads to death, or of obedience, which leads to righteousness? 17But thanks be to God, that you who were once slaves of sin have become obedient from the heart to the standard of teaching to which you were committed, 18and, having been set free from sin, have become slaves of righteousness. 19I am speaking in human terms, because of your natural limitations. For just as you once yielded your members to impurity and to greater and greater iniquity, so now yield your members to righteousness for sanctification. 20When you were slaves of sin, you were free in regard to righteousness. 21But then what return did you get from the things of which you are now ashamed? The end of those things is death. 22But now that you have been set free from sin and have become slaves of God, the return you get is sanctification and its end, eternal life. 23For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.


Chapter 7

1Do you not know, brethren--for I am speaking to those who know the law--that the law is binding on a person only during his life? 2Thus a married woman is bound by law to her husband as long as he lives; but if her husband dies she is discharged from the law concerning the husband. 3Accordingly, she will be called an adulteress if she lives with another man while her husband is alive. But if her husband dies she is free from that law, and if she marries another man she is not an adulteress. 4Likewise, my brethren, you have died to the law through the body of Christ, so that you may belong to another, to him who has been raised from the dead in order that we may bear fruit for God. 5While we were living in the flesh, our sinful passions, aroused by the law, were at work in our members to bear fruit for death. 6But now we are discharged from the law, dead to that which held us captive, so that we serve not under the old written code but in the new life of the Spirit. 7What then shall we say? That the law is sin? By no means! Yet, if it had not been for the law, I should not have known sin. I should not have known what it is to covet if the law had not said, "You shall not covet." 8But sin, finding opportunity in the commandment, wrought in me all kinds of covetousness. Apart from the law sin lies dead. 9I was once alive apart from the law, but when the commandment came, sin revived and I died; 10the very commandment which promised life proved to be death to me. 11For sin, finding opportunity in the commandment, deceived me and by it killed me. 12So the law is holy, and the commandment is holy and just and good. 13Did that which is good, then, bring death to me? By no means! It was sin, working death in me through what is good, in order that sin might be shown to be sin, and through the commandment might become sinful beyond measure. 14We know that the law is spiritual; but I am carnal, sold under sin. 15I do not understand my own actions. For I do not do what I want, but I do the very thing I hate. 16Now if I do what I do not want, I agree that the law is good. 17So then it is no longer I that do it, but sin which dwells within me. 18For I know that nothing good dwells within me, that is, in my flesh. I can will what is right, but I cannot do it. 19For I do not do the good I want, but the evil I do not want is what I do. 20Now if I do what I do not want, it is no longer I that do it, but sin which dwells within me. 21So I find it to be a law that when I want to do right, evil lies close at hand. 22For I delight in the law of God, in my inmost self, 23but I see in my members another law at war with the law of my mind and making me captive to the law of sin which dwells in my members. 24Wretched man that I am! Who will deliver me from this body of death? 25Thanks be to God through Jesus Christ our Lord! So then, I of myself serve the law of God with my mind, but with my flesh I serve the law of sin.


Chapter 8

1There is therefore now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus. 2For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus has set me free from the law of sin and death. 3For God has done what the law, weakened by the flesh, could not do: sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh, 4in order that the just requirement of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not according to the flesh but according to the Spirit. 5For those who live according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the Spirit set their minds on the things of the Spirit. 6To set the mind on the flesh is death, but to set the mind on the Spirit is life and peace. 7For the mind that is set on the flesh is hostile to God; it does not submit to God's law, indeed it cannot; 8and those who are in the flesh cannot please God. 9But you are not in the flesh, you are in the Spirit, if in fact the Spirit of God dwells in you. Any one who does not have the Spirit of Christ does not belong to him. 10But if Christ is in you, although your bodies are dead because of sin, your spirits are alive because of righteousness. 11If the Spirit of him who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he who raised Christ Jesus from the dead will give life to your mortal bodies also through his Spirit which dwells in you. 12So then, brethren, we are debtors, not to the flesh, to live according to the flesh-- 13for if you live according to the flesh you will die, but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body you will live. 14For all who are led by the Spirit of God are sons of God. 15For you did not receive the spirit of slavery to fall back into fear, but you have received the spirit of sonship. When we cry, "Abba! Father!" 16it is the Spirit himself bearing witness with our spirit that we are children of God, 17and if children, then heirs, heirs of God and fellow heirs with Christ, provided we suffer with him in order that we may also be glorified with him. 18I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worth comparing with the glory that is to be revealed to us. 19For the creation waits with eager longing for the revealing of the sons of God; 20for the creation was subjected to futility, not of its own will but by the will of him who subjected it in hope; 21because the creation itself will be set free from its bondage to decay and obtain the glorious liberty of the children of God. 22We know that the whole creation has been groaning in travail together until now; 23and not only the creation, but we ourselves, who have the first fruits of the Spirit, groan inwardly as we wait for adoption as sons, the redemption of our bodies. 24For in this hope we were saved. Now hope that is seen is not hope. For who hopes for what he sees? 25But if we hope for what we do not see, we wait for it with patience. 26Likewise the Spirit helps us in our weakness; for we do not know how to pray as we ought, but the Spirit himself intercedes for us with sighs too deep for words. 27And he who searches the hearts of men knows what is the mind of the Spirit, because the Spirit intercedes for the saints according to the will of God. 28We know that in everything God works for good with those who love him, who are called according to his purpose. 29For those whom he foreknew he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, in order that he might be the first-born among many brethren. 30And those whom he predestined he also called; and those whom he called he also justified; and those whom he justified he also glorified. 31What then shall we say to this? If God is for us, who is against us? 32He who did not spare his own Son but gave him up for us all, will he not also give us all things with him? 33Who shall bring any charge against God's elect? It is God who justifies; 34who is to condemn? Is it Christ Jesus, who died, yes, who was raised from the dead, who is at the right hand of God, who indeed intercedes for us? 35Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? Shall tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword? 36As it is written, "For thy sake we are being killed all the day long; we are regarded as sheep to be slaughtered." 37No, in all these things we are more than conquerors through him who loved us. 38For I am sure that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor things present, nor things to come, nor powers, 39nor height, nor depth, nor anything else in all creation, will be able to separate us from the love of God in Christ Jesus our Lord.


Chapter 9

1I am speaking the truth in Christ, I am not lying; my conscience bears me witness in the Holy Spirit, 2that I have great sorrow and unceasing anguish in my heart. 3For I could wish that I myself were accursed and cut off from Christ for the sake of my brethren, my kinsmen by race. 4They are Israelites, and to them belong the sonship, the glory, the covenants, the giving of the law, the worship, and the promises; 5to them belong the patriarchs, and of their race, according to the flesh, is the Christ. God who is over all be blessed for ever. Amen. 6But it is not as though the word of God had failed. For not all who are descended from Israel belong to Israel, 7and not all are children of Abraham because they are his descendants; but "Through Isaac shall your descendants be named." 8This means that it is not the children of the flesh who are the children of God, but the children of the promise are reckoned as descendants. 9For this is what the promise said, "About this time I will return and Sarah shall have a son." 10And not only so, but also when Rebecca had conceived children by one man, our forefather Isaac, 11though they were not yet born and had done nothing either good or bad, in order that God's purpose of election might continue, not because of works but because of his call, 12she was told, "The elder will serve the younger." 13As it is written, "Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated." 14What shall we say then? Is there injustice on God's part? By no means! 15For he says to Moses, "I will have mercy on whom I have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion." 16So it depends not upon man's will or exertion, but upon God's mercy. 17For the scripture says to Pharaoh, "I have raised you up for the very purpose of showing my power in you, so that my name may be proclaimed in all the earth." 18So then he has mercy upon whomever he wills, and he hardens the heart of whomever he wills. 19You will say to me then, "Why does he still find fault? For who can resist his will?" 20But who are you, a man, to answer back to God? Will what is molded say to its molder, "Why have you made me thus?" 21Has the potter no right over the clay, to make out of the same lump one vessel for beauty and another for menial use? 22What if God, desiring to show his wrath and to make known his power, has endured with much patience the vessels of wrath made for destruction, 23in order to make known the riches of his glory for the vessels of mercy, which he has prepared beforehand for glory, 24even us whom he has called, not from the Jews only but also from the Gentiles? 25As indeed he says in Hose'a, "Those who were not my people I will call 'my people,' and her who was not beloved I will call 'my beloved.'" 26"And in the very place where it was said to them, 'You are not my people,' they will be called 'sons of the living God.'" 27And Isaiah cries out concerning Israel: "Though the number of the sons of Israel be as the sand of the sea, only a remnant of them will be saved; 28for the Lord will execute his sentence upon the earth with rigor and dispatch." 29And as Isaiah predicted, "If the Lord of hosts had not left us children, we would have fared like Sodom and been made like Gomor'rah." 30What shall we say, then? That Gentiles who did not pursue righteousness have attained it, that is, righteousness through faith; 31but that Israel who pursued the righteousness which is based on law did not succeed in fulfilling that law. 32Why? Because they did not pursue it through faith, but as if it were based on works. They have stumbled over the stumbling stone, 33as it is written, "Behold, I am laying in Zion a stone that will make men stumble, a rock that will make them fall; and he who believes in him will not be put to shame."


Chapter 10

1Brethren, my heart's desire and prayer to God for them is that they may be saved. 2I bear them witness that they have a zeal for God, but it is not enlightened. 3For, being ignorant of the righteousness that comes from God, and seeking to establish their own, they did not submit to God's righteousness. 4For Christ is the end of the law, that every one who has faith may be justified. 5Moses writes that the man who practices the righteousness which is based on the law shall live by it. 6But the righteousness based on faith says, Do not say in your heart, "Who will ascend into heaven?" (that is, to bring Christ down) 7or "Who will descend into the abyss?" (that is, to bring Christ up from the dead). 8But what does it say? The word is near you, on your lips and in your heart (that is, the word of faith which we preach); 9because, if you confess with your lips that Jesus is Lord and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. 10For man believes with his heart and so is justified, and he confesses with his lips and so is saved. 11The scripture says, "No one who believes in him will be put to shame." 12For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek; the same Lord is Lord of all and bestows his riches upon all who call upon him. 13For, "every one who calls upon the name of the Lord will be saved." 14But how are men to call upon him in whom they have not believed? And how are they to believe in him of whom they have never heard? And how are they to hear without a preacher? 15And how can men preach unless they are sent? As it is written, "How beautiful are the feet of those who preach good news!" 16But they have not all obeyed the gospel; for Isaiah says, "Lord, who has believed what he has heard from us?" 17So faith comes from what is heard, and what is heard comes by the preaching of Christ. 18But I ask, have they not heard? Indeed they have; for "Their voice has gone out to all the earth, and their words to the ends of the world." 19Again I ask, did Israel not understand? First Moses says, "I will make you jealous of those who are not a nation; with a foolish nation I will make you angry." 20Then Isaiah is so bold as to say, "I have been found by those who did not seek me; I have shown myself to those who did not ask for me." 21But of Israel he says, "All day long I have held out my hands to a disobedient and contrary people."


Bullinger’s Notes on Romans for KJV (Chs 6-10)

Chapter 6

Verse 1

What, &c. See Romans 3:5.

continue. Greek. epimeno. See Acts 10:48.

sin. App-128.

that = in order that. Greek. hina.

grace. App-184.

abound. See Romans 5:20.


Verse 2

God forbid. See Romans 3:4.

are dead = died.

therein = in (App-104.) it.


Verse 3

Know ye not. Literally Are ye ignorant. Greek. agnoeo. See Romans 2:4.

baptized. App-115.

into. App-104.

Jesus Christ = Christ Jesus. App-98. Compare Matthew 20:20-22.


Verse 4

are = were.

buried with. Greek. sunthapto. Only here and Colossians 2:12.

by. App-104.

baptism. App-115.

Christ. App-98.

raised up. App-178.

from. App-104.

dead. App-139.

glory. i.e. glorious power.

Father. App-98.

newness. Greek. kainotes. Only here and Romans 7:6.

life. App-170.


Verse 5

if. App-118.

been = become.

planted together. i.e. with Him. Greek. sumphutos. Only here. Compare John 12:24. 1 Corinthians 15:36.

in. Dative case.

likeness. See Romans 1:23.

we . . . resurrection = yea, we shall be (in the likeness) of His resurrection also.

resurrection. App-178.


Verse 6

Knowing. App-132.

old man. The old Adam nature. Here, Ephesians 4:22. Colossians 3:9.

man. App-123.

crucified with. See John 19:32.

the body of sin = the old nature which is the slave of sin. Compare Colossians 2:11, Colossians 2:12.

destroyed = annulled. Greek. katargeo. See Romans 3:3 and Luke 13:7.

henceforth. Greek. meketi.

serve. App-190.


Verse 7

is dead = died (i.e. with Christ).

is freed = has been justified, cleared from the claims of sin. App-191.

from. App-104.


Verse 8

we be dead with = we died together with (Greek. sun. App-104).

believe. App-150.

also live with = live also with. Greek. suzao; only here, 2 Corinthians 7:3. 2 Timothy 2:11.


Verse 9

Knowing. App-132.

being = having been.

no more. Greek. ouketi.

hath . . . dominion. Literally "lords it over". Greek. kurieuo. Here, Romans 6:14; Romans 7:1; Romans 14:9. Luke 22:25. 2 Corinthians 1:24. 1 Timothy 6:15.


Verse 10

in that He died = (the death) He died.

unto = to. Dative case.

once = once for all. Greek. ephapax. Only here, 1 Corinthians 15:6. Hebrews 7:27; Hebrews 9:12; Hebrews 10:10.

God. App-98.


Verse 11

reckon. See Romans 4:4.

also yourselves = yourselves also. through = in. App-104.

our Lord. The texts omit.


Verse 12

mortal = subject to death. Greek. thnetos. Here, Romans 8:11. 1 Corinthians 15:53, 1 Corinthians 15:54; 2 Corinthians 4:11; 2 Corinthians 5:4.

that ye should obey = for (App-104.) obeying. The texts omit "it in" and read "obey its desires".


Verse 13

Neither. Greek. mede.

yield = present.

instruments = weapons. Greek. hoplon. Here, 13, 12. John 18:3. 2 Corinthians 6:7; 2 Corinthians 10:4.

unrighteousness. App-128.

righteousness. App-191.


Verse 14

under. App-104.

the. Omit.


Verse 15

Shall we = are we to.

sin. Compare Romans 2:12 App-128.


Verse 16

servants. App-190.

to obey = for (App-104.) obedience.

his . . . obey = ye are servants to him whom ye obey.

whether. Greek. etoi. An emphatic word. Only here.


Verse 17

But . . . thanked = But thanks (Greek. charis. App-184.) to God. Compare 1 Corinthians 15:57.

were. But that service is past.

form. Greek. tupos. See Romans 5:14.

doctrine = teaching. Greek. didach. Only here and Romans 16:17 in Rom.

which . . . you = unto (App-104.) which ye were delivered.


Verse 18

Being . . . free = Having, then, been set free. Greek. eleutheroo. Only here, Romans 6:22; Romans 8:2, Romans 8:21. John 8:32, John 8:36. Galatians 1:5, Galatians 1:1.

became the servants = were made bond-servants or enslaved.

Verse 19


after the manner, &c. Greek. anthropinos. Here, 1 Corinthians 2:4, 1 Corinthians 2:13; 1 Corinthians 4:3; 1 Corinthians 10:13. James 3:7. 1 Peter 2:13. Compare Romans 3:5.

infirmity. Greek. astheneia. See John 11:4.

flesh. See Romans 1:3.

servants. Greek. doulon. Only here. See App-190.

uncleanness. Greek. akatharsia. See Romans 1:24.

iniquity. App-128.

unto. Greek. eis. App-104. to work.

holiness. Greek. hagiasmos. Only here, Romans 6:22. 1 Corinthians 1:30. 1 Thessalonians 4:3, 1 Thessalonians 4:4, 1 Thessalonians 4:7; 2 Thessalonians 2:13. 1 Timothy 2:15. Hebrews 12:14. 1 Peter 1:2.


Verse 20

from = with regard to.


Verse 21

fruit. Paul uses "fruit" of good results, never of evil ones. Compare Romans 6:22. Galatians 1:5, Galatians 1:22. Ephesians 5:9. Philippians 1:11, Philippians 1:22; Philippians 4:17. Hebrews 12:11.

whereof. = in respect of (Greek. epi. App-104.) which.

end. Greek. telos. Antithesis to the telos of Romans 6:22.

death. The second death. Compare Romans 6:23. Revelation 20:6; Revelation 21:8.


Verse 22

everlasting. App-151.


Verse 23

wages = rations. Greek. opsonion. Only here, Luke 3:14. 1 Corinthians 9:7. 2 Corinthians 11:8. In Luke 3:14 the "wages" are the fish ration issued to Roman soldiers. Compare Romans 6:13.

gift. App-184.

eternal. App-151.

Jesus Christ. The texts read "Christ Jesus". App-98.


Chapter 7

Verse 1

Know ye not. See Romans 6:3.

speak. App-121.

know. App-132.

the. Omit.

law. Greek. nomas. Occurs over 190 times, of which about two-thirds are in Paul"s Epistles, the greater number being in Romans and 31 in Galatians. There are 23 in this chapter.

dominion over. See Romans 6:9Romans 6:14.

a = the.

man. Greek. anthropos. App-123. The general term, meaning either man or woman.

as long = for (App-104.) such time (Greek. chronos).


Verse 2

which hath, &c. Greek. hupandros. Only here.

husband. App-123.

so long, &c. Literally while living.

if. App-118.

be dead = should have died.

loosed = free. Greek. katargeo. See Romans 3:3.

from. App-104.

he = the.


Verse 3

be married to. Literally become for.

another. App-124.

man. App-123.

be called. Greek. chrematizo. See Luke 2:26.

that = the.

no = not (App-105) an This is an illustration of the fact that death breaks all bonds; husband and wife, master and servant.


Verse 4

are become dead = were put to death. Greek. thanatoo. See Matthew 10:21Mark 13:122 Corinthians 6:91 Peter 3:18.

the law. Compare Romans 2:12-14.

by. App-104. Romans 7:1.

the body: i.e. the crucified body, not the body of Christ mystical (Ephesians 1:23).

Christ. App-98.

that = to the end (App-104.) that.

raised. App-178.:4.

from the dead. Greek. ek nekron. App-139.

that = in order that. Greek. hina.

should = may.

unto = to.

God. App-98. No analogy here with the persons in the illustration. There the husband is dead. The law is not dead. But we have died to its claims. See Romans 3:19Romans 6:14Galatians 1:3Galatians 1:23Galatians 1:24.

Verse 5

in the flesh. Compare Romans 1:3Romans 2:28Romans 8:8Romans 8:9.

motions of sins = sinful passions (emphasis on "sinful"). Figure of speech Antimereia, App-6.

motions. Greek. pathema. Usually translated sufferings, afflictions. See Romans 8:182 Corinthians 1:52 Corinthians 1:62 Corinthians 1:7Galatians 1:5Galatians 1:24Philippians 1:3Philippians 1:10Colossians 1:242 Timothy 3:11Hebrews 2:9Hebrews 2:10Hebrews 10:321 Peter 1:111 Peter 4:131 Peter 5:11 Peter 5:9.

sins. App-128.

were = were (called out).

the law. i.e. the Mosaic Law.

to. Greek. eis. App-104.


Verse 6

delivered. Greek. katargeo. See Romans 7:2.

that . . . held = having died (to that) in which we were held.

wherein = in (App-104.) which.

that = so that.

serve. App-190. Compare Romans 6:6.

newness. See Romans 6:4.

spirit. App-101.

not. App-105.

oldness. Greek. palaiotes. Only here. We now serve, not, as in our old nature, the letter of the Law, but, following the new nature, on a new and different principle. Compare Romans 2:292 Corinthians 3:6.


Verse 7

What, &c. See Romans 3:5.

God forbid. See Romans 3:4.

known. App-132.

but. Literally if (App-118) not (App-105).

known = recognized (it as). App-132.

lust = desire, i.e. of the old nature. See John 8:44.

except. Same as "but".

covet. Greek. epithumeo. Quoted here and Romans 13:9 from the Septuagint of Exodus 20:17. The word is used of any strong desire, and applies to the desires of the new nature as well as to those of the old. Compare Galatians 1:5Galatians 1:17.


Verse 8

occasions opportunity. Greek. aphorme. Here, Romans 7:112 Corinthians 5:122 Corinthians 11:12Galatians 1:5Galatians 1:131 Timothy 5:14.

wrought = worked out. Greek. katergazomai; See Romans 1:27.

concupiscence. Same as "lust"Romans 7:7.

without = apart from. Greek. choris.

was = is.

dead. App-139.


Verse 9

came. App-106.

revived. Greek. anazao. Here, Romans 14:9Luke 15:24Luke 15:32Revelation 20:5.


Verse 10

to, unto. App-104.

life. App-170.

I found = was itself found by me.


Verse 11

deceived. Greek. exapatao. Here, Romans 16:181 Corinthians 3:182 Corinthians 11:32 Thessalonians 2:3.

Verse 12

the law = the law indeed (Greek. men. Omitted by Authorized Version and Revised Version.)

just = righteous. App-191.


Verse 13

Was . . . made. Did, then, that which is good become.

But = Nay!

appear = be seen to be. App-106.

working = working out. See Romans 1:27.

in. Dative case. No preposition.

exceeding. Greek. kath" (App-104) huperbolen.

sinful. Greek. hamartolos. So translated in Mark 8:38Luke 5:8Luke 24:7. Elsewhere, "sinner". Compare App-128.


Verse 14

spiritual. See Romans 1:11.

carnal. Greek. sarkikos, according to the Received Text (App-94), but the Critical Texts read sarkinos (compare 2 Corinthians 3:3).

under. App-104.


Verse 15

do. Same as work, verses: Romans 8:13.

allow = approve. The same as know, verses: Romans 7:1; Rom_7:-7.

what, &c. = not what I wish, this I practice.

would. App-102. 1, Note the use of thelo, on the fight side, seven times in verses: Romans 7:15-21.

that . . . not = this do I practice (Greek. prasso. See Romans 1:32John 5:29).

that do I = this I do (Greek. poieo). There are three Greek. words in this verse for "do". The first is katergazomai, work out, in verses: Romans 8:13Romans 8:15Romans 8:17Romans 8:18Romans 8:20. The second is prasso, practice, in verses: Romans 15:19, and the third poieo, do, in verses: Romans 15:16Romans 15:19Romans 15:20Romans 15:21,


Verse 16

If . . . not = But if what I do not wish, this I do.

If. App-118.

consent. Greek. sumphemi. Only here.


Verse 17

Now then = But now.

no more = no longer. Greek. ouketi.

sin . . . me = the indwelling sin (App-128.)

dwelleth. Greek. oikeo. Here, verses: Romans 18:20Romans 8:9Romans 8:11 -. 1 Corinthians 3:161 Corinthians 7:121 Corinthians 7:131 Timothy 6:16.


Verse 18

flesh, i.e. old nature.

no = not. App-105.

to will. Same as "would", verses: Romans 7:15Romans 7:16Romans 7:19Romans 15:20Romans 15:21.

is present. Greek. parakeimai, to be at hand. Only here and Romans 7:21.

perform. Same as "work"Romans 7:13, and "do-", Romans 7:15.

I find. The texts read (is) "not" (present).


Verse 19

evil. App-128.

do = practice. Greek. prasso. As Romans 7:15 -.


Verse 20

Now, &c. = But if what I do not myself wish, this I do.

it is, &c. = no longer I myself (emph.)


Verse 21

a law, &c. = the law with me who wish.


Verse 22

delight. Greek. sunedomai. Only here. Compare Psalms 1:2Psalms 112:1Psalms 119:35 (Septuagint)

inward. Greek. eso. Adverb used as Adjective. Compare 2 Corinthians 4:16Ephesians 3:161 Peter 3:4.


Verse 23

see. App-133.

warring against. Greek. antistrateuomai. Only here.

bringing . . . into captivity = (seeking to) lead captive. Greek. aichmalotizo. Only here. Luke 21:242 Corinthians 10:52 Timothy 3:6. The kindred verb, aichmaloteuo, only in Ephesians 4:8.

law of sin: i.e. the old nature.


Verse 24

O. Omit. This exclamation is an instance of Figure of speech Ecphonesis. App-6.

wretched. Greek. talaiporos. Only here and Revelation 3:17. Compare talaiporia, misery, Romans 3:16James 5:1; and the verb talaiporeo, only in James 4:9.

deliver = rescue. See first Occurance Matthew 6:13. Greek. rhuomai.

the body of this death. The body of sin. Compare Romans 7:13Romans 6:6Romans 8:13.


Verse 25

I thank. Greek. eucharisteo. See Acts 27:35. The texts read "Thanks". Compare Romans 6:17. Supply the Ellipsis (App-6), He will deliver me.

through. App-104. Romans 7:1.

Jesus Christ. App-98. XL

mind = mind (the new nature) indeed. This is the experience of every one who is the subject of the grace of God, and has received the gift of the new nature as the sign of God"s justification. Not the experience of one man in two successive stages, but the co-existence of the two experiences in the one man at the same time. See The Church Epistles, by E. W. Bullinger, D. D., p. 64.


Chapter 8

Verse 1

no. Greek. oudeis. Emphatic, as it stands first in the Greek.

condemnation. Greek. katakrima. See Romans 5:16.

in. App-104.

Christ Jesus. App-98. Compare Romans 6:23.

who . . . Spirit. All the texts omit. Probably a gloss from Romans 8:4.


Verse 2

the . . . life = the spiritual law of life. Figure of speech Antimereia. App-6.

Spirit. App-101.

life. App-170.

hath made me free = freed me. Greek. eleutheroo. See Romans 6:18.

from. App-104.

sin. App-128.


Verse 3

what, &c. Literally the impossible thing of the law.

weak = impotent. Greek. astheneo.

through. App-104. Romans 8:1.

God. App-98.

sending = having sent. App-174. Compare John 17:3.

Son. App-108.

likeness. See Romans 1:23Romans 6:5Not sinful flesh, for "in Him was no sin"nor the likeness of flesh, because His was real flesh, but the likeness of sin"s flesh.

sinful flesh = flesh of sin (Romans 8:3).

condemned. App-122.

flesh. By "the perfect humanity and perfect walk of the Incarnate Son", God exhibited a living condemnation of sinful flesh.


Verse 4

That = In order that. Greek. hina.

righteousness = righteous requirement. App-191.

fulfilled. App-125.

flesh = the old nature.


Verse 5

are: i.e. live.

do mind = set affection on. Greek. phroneo. Occurs ten times in Romans; here, Romans 12:3Romans 12:3Romans 12:12Romans 12:16Romans 12:16Romans 14:6Romans 14:6Romans 14:6Romans 14:6Romans 15:6. Compare Colossians 3:2.


Verse 6

to be, &c. = the minding (Greek. phronema. Only here and Romans 8:7Romans 8:27) of the flesh.

is: i.e. results in.

to be spiritually, &c. = the minding of the spirit (App-101. as in Romans 8:2). Compare Philippians 1:4Philippians 1:8Philippians 1:9Colossians 3:2.

peace. Compare Romans 5:1.


Verse 7

carnal mind = minding of the flesh, as Romans 8:6.

enmity. Greek. echthra. Here, Luke 23:12Galatians 1:5Galatians 1:20Ephesians 2:15Ephesians 2:16James 4:4.

against. App-104.

it is not subject to = does not submit itself to. Greek. hupotasso. See Romans 10:3.

neither. Greek. oude.

Verse 8

So, &c. Compare Romans 7:15-17Galatians 1:5Galatians 1:17.

cannot = are not (Romans 8:7) able to.


Verse 9

if so be. Greek. eiper.

if. App-118.

dwell. See Romans 7:17.

Now = But.

any man = any one. App-123.

the. Omit.

Christ. App-98. See also App-101.

none = not. App-104.

And = But.

body = body indeed (Greek. men).

dead. Greek. nekros. App-139. See Romans 6:11.

because of. App-104. Romans 8:2.

righteousness. App-191.


Verse 11

raised up. See Romans 4:24.

Jesus. App-98.

from the dead. Greek. ek nekron. App-139.

also, &c. = quicken (Greek. zoopoieo. See Romans 4:17) your mortal (See Romans 6:12) bodies also.

dwelleth = indwelleth. Greek. enoikeo. Compare Romans 8:7.


Verse 12

Therefore = So then.

debtors. Greek. opheiletes, as Romans 1:14Romans 15:27.


Verse 13

shall die. Literally are about to die. Revised Version, must die.

through. Dative case. No preposition.

do mortify = are putting to death. Greek. thanatoo. See Romans 7:4.

deeds = practices. Greek. praxis. Occurances, Romans 12:4Matthew 16:27Luke 23:51Acts 19:18Colossians 3:9.


Verse 14

led. See Romans 2:4.

the Spirit. See App-101. In this chapter we have pneuma Christou and pneuma Theou, both referring to the new nature.


Verse 15

have. Omit.

the = a.

spirit. App-101.

bondage. App-190.

adoption = sonship. Greek. huiothesia. Occurs here, Romans 8:23Romans 9:4Galatians 1:4Galatians 1:5Ephesians 1:5. An "adopted" child may partake of all the privileges of the family, yet it is not begotten and born in the family. But the subjects of this verse are begotten of the Spirit (John 3:6) and are, therefore, sons of God by spiritual generation. It is thus a real sonship-spirit that enables them to cry, "Abba, Father. "

whereby = in (App-104.) which.

Abba: i.e. Father. See App-94. (Hebrew. "ab). It is said that slaves were never allowed to use the word "Abba". Strictly, therefore, it can be employed only by those who have received the gift of the Divine nature.


Verse 16

Spirit Itself = Spirit Himself. App-101.

beareth witness. See Romans 2:15.

children. App-108. See note 2, p. 1511.


Verse 17

then heirs = heirs also.

heirs. See Romans 4:13.

heirs of God = heirs indeed of God.

joint-heirs. Greek. sunkleronomos. Here, Ephesians 3:6Hebrews 11:91 Peter 3:7.

suffer with. Greek. sumpascho. Only here and 1 Corinthians; Romans 12:26. The "suffering together with" (Him) here is that of Romans 6:3Romans 6:4Romans 6:6Romans 6:8Romans 6:11, and not the sufferings of this present time.

also . . . together = glorified together with (Greek. sundoxazomai. Only here) (Him) also.


Verse 18

reckon. See Romans 4:4.

sufferings. Greek. pathema. See Romans 7:5.

this present time. Literally the now time or season (Greek. kairos).

with. App-104.

revealed. App-106.

in = unto or with regard to. App-104.


Verse 19

earnest expectation = anxious looking with outstretched head. Greek. apokaradokia. Only here and Philippians 1:1Philippians 1:20.

creature = creation.

waiteth for. Greek. apekdechomai. Occurs here: Romans 8:23Romans 8:25Romans 8:7Galatians 1:5Galatians 1:5Philippians 3:20Hebrews 9:28.

manifestation. App-106.


Verse 20

For, &c. This verse is in parenthesis, save the last two words.

vanity. Greek. mataiotes. Only here, Ephesians 4:172 Peter 2:18. Here the meaning is disappointing misery, in which sense the word is frequently used by the Septuagint for the Hebrew hebel, e.g. Ecclesiastes 1:14Ecclesiastes 2:11Ecclesiastes 2:17Ecclesiastes 9:9.

willingly. Greek. hekon. Only here and 1 Corinthians 9:17.

by reason of. Greek. dia. App-104. Romans 8:2.

in hope. Read, (waiteth, I say) in hope (See Romans 4:18).


Verse 21

delivered = set free, as in Romans 8:2.

corruption. Greek. phthora. Here, 1 Corinthians 15:421 Corinthians 15:50Galatians 1:6Galatians 1:8Colossians 2:222 Peter 1:42 Peter 2:122 Peter 2:19.

glorious liberty = freedom of the glory.


Verse 22

groaneth = is groaning together. Greek. sustenazo. Only here.

travaileth . . . together = travails together. Greek. sunodino. Only here.


Verse 23

firstfruits of the Spirit. The gifts of the Holy Spirit as the foretaste and pledge of the eternal inheritance. Compare Ephesians 1:14Hebrews 6:5. See Exodus 23:19Leviticus 23:10, &c.

firstfruits. Greek. aparche. Occurs here, Romans 11:16Romans 16:51 Corinthians 15:201 Corinthians 15:231 Corinthians 16:15James 1:18Revelation 14:4.

groan. Greek. stenazo. Here, Mark 7:342 Corinthians 5:22 Corinthians 5:4Hebrews 13:17James 5:9. Compare Romans 8:21.

within. App-104.

redemption. See Romans 3:24.


Verse 24

are = were. See Romans 5:9.

hope. The creation also is waiting and hoping.

a man = any one, as Romans 8:9.

yet hope for = hope for also.


Verse 25

with = through. App-104. Romans 8:1.

patience. See Romans 2:7.


Verse 26

helpeth. Greek. sunantilambanomai. Only here and Luke 10:40.

infirmities. The texts read infirmity. Greek. astheneia. See Romans 6:19.

pray for. Greek. proseuchomai. See App-184.

maketh intercession. Greek. huperentunchano. Only here.

for us. All the texts omit.

with. No preposition.

groanings. Greek. stenagmos. Only here and Acts 7:34.

which . . . uttered = unutterable. Greek. alaletos. Only here.


Verse 27

And = But.

He: i.e. the Holy Spirit.

searcheth. Greek. ereunao. See John 5:39 and 1 Corinthians 2:10.

mind. Greek. phronema, as verses: Romans 8:6Romans 8:7.

maketh intercession. Greek. entunchano. See Acts 25:24.

saints. See Romans 1:7.

according to. App-104.


Verse 28

And = But.

work together. Greek. sunergeo. Only here, Mark 16:201 Corinthians 16:162 Corinthians 6:1James 2:22.

love. Greek. agapao. App-135.

purpose. Greek. prothesis. See Acts 11:23.

Verse 29

did foreknow = foreknew. Greek. proginosko. App-132.

also did predestinate = foreordained (Greek. proorizo. See Acts 4:28) also.

conformed. Greek. summorphos. Only here and Philippians 1:3Philippians 1:21. Compare Philippians 1:3Philippians 1:10.

image. See Romans 1:23.

that He might be. Literally unto (App-104.) His being.

the firstborn. Greek. prototokos. Here, Matthew 1:25Luke 2:7Colossians 1:15Colossians 1:18Hebrews 1:6Hebrews 11:28Hebrews 12:23Revelation 1:5 (firstborn of the dead). Compare Acts 13:33Colossians 1:18

among. App-104.

brethren. Compare Hebrews 2:11Hebrews 2:12.


Verse 30

Moreover = But.

also called = called also. See 1 Corinthians 1:9. a

lso justified = justified (App-191.) also. Compare Romans 2:13.

also glorified = glorified (See Romans 1:21) also. In this beautiful Climax (App-6), by another Figure of speech (Heterosis of Tenses, App-6) the called ones are spoken of as already (in the Divine purpose) in Christ, justified, and glorified!


Verse 31

What, &c. See Romans 3:6.

to. App-104.

be = is.

can be = is.

against. App-104.


Verse 32

spared. Greek. pheidomai. See Acts 20:29.

delivered . . . up See John 19:30.

freely give. App-184.


Verse 33

lay any thing = bring charges, i.e. call to judicial account. Greek. enkaleo. See Acts 19:38.

to the charge of. App-104.

It . . . justifieth = Shall God Who justifies (them)?


Verse 34

It is = Shall.

even = also.

at. App-104.

also, &c. = intercedes also.


Verse 35

separate. Greek. chorizo. See Acts 18:1.

love. App-135. Compare Romans 5:52 Corinthians 5:14.

tribulation. See Romans 2:9.

distress. Rendered "anguish" in Romans 2:9.

persecution. See Acts 8:1.

peril. Greek. kindunos. Only here and 2 Corinthians 11:26. These four questions and answers in verses: Romans 8:33-35 form the Figure of speech Anaphora. Romans 8:35 gives the Figure of speech Paradiastole. See App-6.


Verse 36

As = Even as. App-6.

written. See Romans 1:17.

For Thy sake = On Thine account.

accounted. See Romans 4:5.

sheep, &c. Quoted from Psalms 44:22.

for the = of.


Verse 37

more than conquerors. Greek. hupernikao; only here.


Verse 38

persuaded. Compare Romans 2:8 (obey). App-150.:2.

neither, nor. Greek. oute.

principalities. Greek. arche. See Ephesians 6:12.

powers. App-172and App-.

present. Greek. enistemi. Elsewhere, 1 Corinthians 3:221 Corinthians 7:26Galatians 1:1Galatians 1:42 Thessalonians 2:22 Timothy 3:1Hebrews 9:9.


Verse 39

height. Greek. hupsoma; only here and 2 Corinthians 10:5.

creature = created thing. See Romans 8:21.

Lord. App-98. The question in Romans 8:35, followed by the answer in verses: Romans 8:38Romans 8:39, is a striking example of the Figure of speech Paradiastole. App-6. These verses: illustrate the importance also of the number 17, as there are seven things enumerated in Romans 8:35"tribulation", &c, and ten in verses: Romans 8:38Romans 8:39, "neither death", &c. See App-10. Compare another illustration of the number 17 in Hebrews 12:18-24. See App-10.


Chapter 9

Verse 1

in. Greek. en. App-104.

Christ. App-98.

bearing . . . witness. See Romans 2:15.

the Holy Ghost. App-101.


Verse 2

heaviness = sorrow.

continual. Greek. adialeiptos. Only here and 2 Timothy 1:3.

sorrow = pangs. Greek. odune. Only here and 1 Timothy 6:10.


Verse 3

could = used to. Figure of speech Anamnesis. App-6.

wish. App-134.

accursed. See Acts 23:14.

Christ = the Christ. See Romans 9:1. The words in Romans 9:3 "For I" to "Christ" are in a parenthesis. Figure of speech Epitrechon. App-6.

according to. Greek. kata. App-104. The sorrow was on behalf of his brethren.

Verse 4

to whom, &c. = whose are.

adoption. See Romans 8:15.

glory. See p. 1511.

covenants. See Matthew 26:28.

giving, &c. Greek. nomothesia. Only here.

service. App-190.


Verse 5

as, &c. Read "is the Christ as to the flesh".

as concerning. Same as according to, Romans 9:3.

all. Compare John 17:21 Corinthians 15:271 Corinthians 15:28Colossians 1:16-19Colossians 2:9.

God. App-98.

blessed. See Romans 1:25.

for ever. App-151. a. This is an example of the Figure of speech Anamnesis. App-6. Note the seven privileges of Paul"s people in Romans 9:4. App-10. To account for various readings, the Revised Version sometimes appeals in the margin to ancient authorities, meaning Greek MSS., &c, but here, and here only, modern interpreters are allowed to introduce, by varying punctuation, devices for destroying this emphatic testimony to the Deity of the Lord. See App-94.


Verse 6

word. Greek. logos. App-121.

God. App-98.

taken, &c Literally fallen out = failed. Compare 1 Corinthians 13:8.


Verse 7

Neither. Greek. oude.

children. Greek. teknon. App-108.


Verse 8

counted. Greek. logizomai. See Romans 2:26.

for. Greek. eis. App-104.


Verse 9

son. Greek. huios. App-108. See Genesis 18:14.


Verse 10

by. Greek. ek. App-104.

Verse 11


neither. Greek. mede.

evil. Greek. kakos. App-128.

that = in order that. Greek. hina.

purpose. Greek. prothesis. See Acts 11:23.

stand = abide. Greek. meno. Only here translated "stand". Compare 1 Peter 1:231 Peter 1:25.


Verse 12

unto = to.

elder = greater.

serve. Greek. douleuo. App-190.

younger = less. See Genesis 25:23.

Verse 13

have. Omit.

loved. Greek. agapao. App-135. See Deuteronomy 21:15.


Verse 14

What, &c. See Romans 3:5.

unrighteousness. Greek. adikia. App-128.

with. Greek. para. App-104.

God forbid. See Luke 20:16.


Verse 15

have mercy = pity.

will. Omit.

have compassion on = compassionate. Greek. oikteiro. Only here. Compare Romans 12:1. See Exodus 33:19.


Verse 16

willeth. Greek. thelo. App-102. Isaac willed, Esau ran.


Verse 17

purpose. Literally thing.

raised . . . up. App-178. The same word is used in the Septuagint of 2 Samuel 12:11.

shew. See Romans 2:15.

power. App-172.

declared. See Luke 9:60 (preach). App-121.

throughout. App-104.

earth. App-129. Quoted from Exodus 9:16.


Verse 18

hardeneth. See Acts 19:9. Compare Exodus 4:21.


Verse 19

find fault. Greek. memphomai. Only here, Mark 7:2Hebrews 8:8.

will. App-102.


Verse 20

repliest against. Greek. antapokrinomai. Only here and Luke 14:6. Compare App-104and App-122:3.

Shall. Question preceded by me, as Romans 9:14.

thing formed. Greek. plasma. Only here.

formed. Greek. plasso. Only here and 1 Timothy 2:13. Quoted from Isaiah 45:9.


Verse 21

power. App-172.

over = of.

clay. See John 9:6.

lump. Greek. phurama. Only here, Romans 11:161 Corinthians 5:61 Corinthians 5:7Galatians 1:5Galatians 1:9.

unto. App-104. Compare Isaiah 45:9Isaiah 64:8Jeremiah 18:1-6.

dishonour = not shame, but lack of honour.


Verse 22

if. App-118.

power. Greek. to dunaton.

with. App-104.

the. Omit.

fitted = pieced up together, as a broken vessel. App-125.

to. App-104.

destruction = perdition, as in John 17:12. From this is it not clear that in the resurrection the unjust come forth from the grave in the self-same bodies in which they entered it (John 5:28John 5:29)?


Verse 23

riches. See Romans 2:4.

afore prepared. Greek. proetoimazo. Only here and Ephesians 2:10.


Verse 24

Even, &c. = "Us whom He called . . . but of the Gentiles also? "


Verse 25

also, &c. = in Hosea also.

people. See Acts 2:47. Quoted from Hosea 2:23. Compare 1 Peter 2:10.


Verse 26

come to pass = be.

children. App-108. Quoted from Hosea 1:9Hosea 1:10.


Verse 27

concerning = over. App-104.

Though. App-118.

a = the.

remnant. Greek. kataleimma. Only here.


Verse 28

finish = close. Greek. sunteleo. See Acts 21:27.

work = account. Greek. logos. App-121.

cut . . . short. Greek. suntemno. Only here and next clause.

righteousness. App-191.

the Lord. App-98.

upon. App-104. Quoted almost verbatim from the Septuagint of Isaiah 10:22Isaiah 10:23. App-107.


Verse 29

Except = If (App-118. a) not (App-105.)

Sabaoth = Hosts. Only here and James 5:4. First occurance: 1 Samuel 1:11. Quoted from Isaiah 1:9. App-107.

left. Greek. enkataleipo. See Acts 2:27.


Verse 30

have attained to = obtained. Greek. katalambano. See John 12:35.

faith. App-150. That is, on faith-principle, as in Romans 1:17.


Verse 31

the = a.

hath = omit.

attained. Greek. phthano. Not the same word as in 30. See Luke 11:20.


Verse 32

of the law. The texts omit.

stumbled. Greek. proskopto. Here, Romans 14:211 Peter 2:8, and five times in the Gospels.

stumblingstone. Greek. proskomma. Here, Romans 9:33Romans 14:13Romans 14:201 Peter 2:8.


Verse 33

Behold. App-133.

Sion. App-68.

offence. See 1 Corinthians 1:23.

whosoever. The texts read "he who".

believeth. App-150.

ashamed = put to shame. See Romans 5:6. Quoted from Isaiah 28:16.


Chapter 10

Verse 1

desire. Greek. eudokia. See Luke 2:14, and compare, Ephesians 1:5Ephesians 1:9Philippians 1:1Philippians 1:15Philippians 2:132 Thessalonians 1:11.

prayer. App-134.

to. App-104.

God. App-98.

for. App-104.

Israel. The texts read them.

that, &c. = for (Greek. eis) salvation.


Verse 2

bear . . . record. Greek. martureo. See Romans 3:21.

not. App-105.

according to. App-104.

knowledge. App-132.


Verse 3

ignorant. See Romans 1:13.

righteousness. App-191.

going about = seeking.

unto = to.


Verse 4

Christ. App-98.

believeth. App-150.


Verse 5

Moses. See Romans 5:14.

man. App-123.

by. App-104. Quoted from Leviticus 18:5.


Verse 6

faith. App-150. Compare Romans 1:17.

ascend. See John 3:13Acts 2:34.

into. App-104.

heaven = the heaven. Matthew 6:9Matthew 6:10.


Verse 7

deep. Greek. abussos. See Luke 8:31.

from the dead. Gr. ek nekron. App-139.


Verse 8

word. Greek. rhema. See Mark 9:32. These quotations are from Deuteronomy 30:12-14.

faith = the faith. App-150.

preach. App-121.


Verse 9

with. Greek. en.

the Lord Jesus = Jesus as Lord. Compare John 13:131 John 4:15.

Lord. App-98.

Jesus. App-98.

believe. App-150.

hath. Omit.

raised. See Romans 4:24.


Verse 10

with. No preposition. Dative case.

man believeth = it is believed.

unto. App-104.

confession, &c. = it is confessed.


Verse 11

believeth. App-150.

ashamed. See Romans 9:33. Quoted from Isaiah 28:16.


Verse 12

difference. See Romans 3:22.

over = of.

call upon. See Acts 2:21.


Verse 13

name. See Acts 2:38.

Lord. App-98. Quoted from Joel 2:32.


Verse 14

believed. App-150.

believe. App-150.

without = apart from.

a preacher = one preaching (App-121.)


Verse 15

except = if (App-118. b) not (Greek. me).

sent. App-174.

beautiful. Greek. horaios. Literally happening in its time. Only here, Matthew 23:27Acts 3:2Acts 3:10. Compare Ecclesiastes 1:3Ecclesiastes 1:1Ecclesiastes 1:11.

preach the gospel. App-121.

bring glad tidings. Same as above. Quoted from Isaiah 52:7 (Septuagint)


Verse 16

gospel. See App-140.

hath. Omit.

our report = the hearing of us. Quoted from Isaiah 53:1.


Verse 17

by. App-104.

by. App-104. Romans 10:1.

God. The texts read "Christ".


Verse 18

sound. Greek. phthongos. Only here and 1 Corinthians 14:7. Compare Acts 4:18.

earth. App-129.

ends Greek. peras. Here, Matthew 12:42Luke 11:31Hebrews 6:16.

world. App-129. Quoted from Psalms 19:4. This Romans 10:18, by the Figure of speech Prolepsis (App-6), anticipates the objection that they had not heard.


Verse 19

know. App-132.

provoke . . . to jealousy. Greek. parazeloo. Only here, Romans 11:11Romans 11:141 Corinthians 10:22.

by. App-104.

people. Greek. ethnos.

foolish. See Romans 1:21.

nation = people, as above.

anger. Greek. parorgizo. Only here and Ephesians 6:4. Used frequently in the Septuagint of provoking Jehovah to anger. Deuteronomy 32:21, &c.


Verse 20

very bold. Greek. apotolmao. Only here.

manifest. Greek. emphanes. Only here and Acts 10:40.

asked. See Acts 5:27. Quoted from Isaiah 65:1.


Verse 21

stretched forth. Greek. ekpetannumi. Only here. Used of a bird expanding its wings.

unto. App-104.

disobedient. See Romans 2:8.

gainsaying. Greek. antilego. See Acts 13:45.

people. See Acts 2:47. Quoted from Isaiah 65:2.