Christian Churches of God

No. F045





Commentary on Romans:

Introduction and Part 1

(Edition 1.0 20210307-20210307)


Commentary on Chapters 1-5.



Christian Churches of God

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Commentary on Romans


The Letter to the Romans appears first in the Canonical Order of Paul’s writings and it is the longest and weightiest of his writings and perhaps the most influential text, along with 1Corinthians. Most scholars consider that the peak of his work was in the years 54-58 CE. It develops the full theology of his experience with Christ and perhaps the power of his writings.


When Paul wrote this text he was in the process of completing the collections for the relief of the Jerusalem Church from the churches in Greece and Asia Minor. Some scholars think that his hope in completing the collections was to allay suspicions about him that he had instigated in his persecution of the church and especially in Judaea (cf. 15:25-27; 1Cor. 16:3-5 and 2Cor. Chs. 9-10).  He was awaiting the opportunity to go to Jerusalem with the collection. From 15:28 we see that he intended to go to Spain and to stop at Rome on his way to see the members of the church there, which had already been established under Linus who, with Aristobulus,  had been ordained by Christ as part of the Seventy (Lk, 10:1,17 cf. Establishment of the Church under the Seventy (No. 122D)).


Peter did not found the Church at Rome. He founded and operated from Antioch into the north in Parthia, Scythia and Thrace with his brother Andrew. He went to Italy much later in his life. He was never bishop of Rome.


Aristobulus’ family was at Rome (16:10b) and he had gone on to establish the church in Britain on the 12 hides of land at Glastonbury, donated by Arviragus (as king of the Silurians). Arviragus was Linus’ uncle and Joseph of Aramathea’s grandson in law. At this time, Arviragus had been captive in Rome with Caradog (Caractacus), Linus’ father, king of the Cantii and the Catavellauni. Linus was martyred after the death of Claudius and Caradog from the ascension of Nero. Arviragus’ grandson Meurig went to Britain as client king of the Britons. His wife was the daughter of his second cousin, Cyllin ap Caradog. She returned to Britain with him. He was known also as St. Marius (cf. Origin of the Christian Church in Britain (No. 266); Hittites in the House of David (No. 067C)).


The comments re Paul having the same mother as Rufus (16:13) gives rise to the contention that Paul may have been married to Rufus’ sister and also from his pleas elsewhere to be entitled to have his wife, (and that of another worker there) treated as a cost of the churches (cf. 1Cor. 9:5-6).


Paul wrote this letter explaining the gospel and the predestination of God with the aim of securing their support for the work to the west in Spain.


Paul develops the text from the Salutation and Thanksgiving with the statement of the world’s need of redemption (1:18-3:20). He speaks of the Law and the fact of it being written on the heart and kept by those of the faith through faith (3:21-27) (cf. chapters 2-3), by both Jew and Greek and all the Barbarians. He then discusses God’s saving act in Christ. He discusses the nature of that act and the righteousness of that act being manifested apart from the law, although the law and the prophets bear witness to it (3:21-4:25) and the new life made available from that act (5:1-8:39).


Chapter 8 is the critical text of the Predestination of the elect in the calling of God. He writes then concerning the place of the people of Judah in that plan with the calling of Jews and Gentiles and their place in the calling and the place of Israel in that structure (chs. 9-11). From chapter 12 Paul develops the ethical teachings of the faith and finishes with some personal remarks. The intent and structure of the chapters are explained below. 


Book Overview – Romans

by E.W. Bullinger

Romans 1:7. SALUTATION.
Romans 1:16 - Romans 8:39. DOCTRINAL.
Romans 9:1 - Romans 11:35. DISPENSATIONAL.
Romans 12:1 - Romans 15:7. PRACTICAL.
Romans 15:8-12. DISPENSATIONAL.

Romans 16:1-24. SALUTATION.


1. ROMANS comes first in order of the three great doctrinal epistles (Appdx-192). And rightly so, for it contains the ABC of the believer’s education. Until its lesson is learned, we know and can know nothing. The Holy Spirit has placed it first in Canonical order because it lies at the threshold of all "church" teaching, and if we are wrong here we shall be wrong altogether. The design and scope of the Epistle supply the key to a right interpretation, as is shown by the Structure of the Epistle as a whole. The great subject is the revelation of God’s wrath against sin, and of the ground upon which alone the sinner can stand in righteousness before Him. The fundamental text is "The just shall live by faith" (Romans 1:17), and it shows Jew and Gentile alike short of the standard of God’s glory (Romans 3:23). All alike sinners, shut up under sin, and needing a Divine righteousness, the only difference being that to the Jew had been committed the oracles (utterances or revelations) of God.

2. The prominent feature of the Epistle is the long doctrinal portion from Romans 1:16 to Romans 8:39. This shows that doctrine (instruction, 2 Timothy 3:16) is the important part and dominates the whole. It reveals what God has done with "sins" and with "sin "; and how the saved sinner, taken out from the deepest degradation, is justified by faith, and united to Christ in His death, burial, and resurrection-life. It teaches him that though his "old Adam" nature continues with him till the end, in ever-present hostility to God, yet that for those in Christ there is no judgment and, consequently, no separation "from the love of God which is in Christ Jesus our Lord".

3. Chapters Romans 9:11 are dispensational, and explain to us God’s dealings with "Jew" and "Gentile". The Jew is for the time being set aside "until the fullness of the Gentiles be come in", and during this period "blindness (hardness) in part is happened to Israel" (Romans 11:25).

Romans 11:4. The remainder of the Epistle is taken up with practical counsel as to the believer’s life, and closes with the postscript concerning the "mystery" (Romans 16:25, Romans 16:26); for which see Appdx-193.

5. The Epistle was written from Corinth in the spring of A.D. 58, during the fourth year of Nero (see Appdx-180 and 192); probably during Paul’s sojourn in Greece after the departure from Ephesus (Acts 20:2, Acts 20:3). It was sent by Phebe, "a servant of the Cenchrea" (Romans 16:1).



Romans - Free Bible Commentary in easy English

A word list at the end [of the text at the url above] explains words with a *star by them.


About the first Christians in Rome

Rome was the most important city in the world at the time of Paul. It had a vast army. That army controlled all the countries that surround the Mediterranean Sea. So the rulers of Rome were extremely powerful and wealthy. They employed many people. Many slaves had to work in Rome. And Rome was also an important city for trade.


Paul had not visited Rome at the time when he wrote this letter. Paul wrote most of his letters to churches that he himself had established. But the church at Rome was different. There were already many Christians in Rome long before Paul arrived there.


The Bible and other ancient records help us to understand the history of this important church:

1. About 30 *A.D.. The first Christian church began in Jerusalem, on the day called *Pentecost. On that day, Peter *preached to many visitors to Jerusalem. Among them were ‘visitors from Rome, both *Jews and *Gentiles who believed the *Jewish religion’. Some of these were probably among the 3000 that became Christians (Acts 2:9-11; 2:41). They carried the *gospel to Rome.


2. 49 *A.D.. The *Emperor Claudius ordered *Jews to leave Rome. There had been some trouble among the *Jews. A *Roman called Suetonius wrote that someone called ‘Chrestus’ had caused the trouble. Chrestus may have been a *Jew who caused the trouble. But ‘Chrestus’ may be the same as ‘Christus’ (that is, *Christ). *Jews opposed those who *preached the message about *Christ. So the trouble might have begun at that time.


3. Aquila and Priscilla from Rome were probably (sic) Christians before they met Paul in Corinth (Acts 18:1-3). Later they probably returned to Rome, after they worked in Corinth and Ephesus. Christians used to gather in their home (Romans 16:3-5).


4. 57 *A.D.. Paul probably wrote this letter about 57 *A.D.. He had not yet visited Rome. But he knew many people in the church at Rome. Many *Gentile as well as *Jewish Christians were already members of the church there. In his letter, Paul says that *Gentile Christians must not consider themselves more important than the *Jewish Christian *brothers (Romans 11:18-20).


5. 60 *A.D.. Paul reached Rome as a prisoner. Christians from Rome met him on the Appian road to go with him to Rome (Acts 28:14-16). Paul spent two years in Rome. Although he was a prisoner, he was able to *preach and to teach (Acts 28:30-31). His plan was to visit Spain (Romans 15:24). But we do not know whether he was able to do this.


6. 64 *A.D.. Christians received the blame for the great fire that the *Emperor Nero himself may have started. The writer Tacitus spoke about great numbers of Christians. He called them ‘enemies of the human family of people’.


7. There is evidence of Christian graves in the catacombs (underground graves in Rome) before 100 *A.D..


Paul’s letter

1. Paul dictated his letter to Tertius (Romans 16:22). Paul wrote it during his stay in Corinth, probably about 57 *A.D..

2. Paul established churches in many cities. But he was careful not to upset anyone else’s work (Romans 15:20). However, the church in Rome was not the result of the work of any one particular person. [other than Linus’ ed.]  So Paul would not be upsetting anyone’s work if he visited Rome. And for many years, Paul had wanted to visit the Christians in Rome. He had completed his work in the east. There were elders (leaders in the church) to take care of the new churches. Paul wanted to visit Rome on his way to Spain (Romans 15:23-24).


3. There were several reasons for the letter:

a) to prepare the church in Rome for his visit.

b) to give a clear explanation of the *gospel.

c) to give the truth about the Christian *faith to any Christians in Rome who had false ideas about it.

d) to give practical advice about how Christians should behave towards each other (chapters 14-15).

e) to give practical advice about how Christians should behave towards their rulers (Romans 13:1-7).

f) to unite *Jewish and *Gentile Christians. In many churches, there had been serious arguments between *Jewish Christians and *Gentile Christians. The *Jewish Christians said that God had given his law in the Bible. So they told the *Gentile Christians to obey it. But the *Gentile Christians said that God had given them freedom. So, they did not want to obey any *Jewish rules or traditions.

g) to urge the Christians in Rome to help Paul in his work. He might need their help in order to continue his journey to Spain (Romans 15:24). And he needed the Christians in Rome to support and to encourage him by their prayers (Romans 15:30-32).



Intent of the Chapters

Chapter 1

In chapter 1:1-7 Paul states his credentials and his purpose in writing.


1Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God

It is God’s gospel and it was given to Jesus Christ. All of us are set apart for that purpose (v. 1).

2which he promised beforehand through his prophets in the holy Scriptures, 3the gospel concerning his Son, who was descended from David according to the flesh 4and designated Son of God in power according to the Spirit of holiness by his resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord,


Christ was a son of God, one of the multiple sons of the Host, before his incarnation (Job 38:4-7, 1:6; 2:1; Deut. 32:8; Ps. 45:6-7; Heb. 1:8-9). He laid all that aside and became a human being. We cannot say Christ retained any part of himself in the Godhead or outside of himself. Paul quite clearly says here that Christ was designated son of God in power according to the Holy Spirit, by his resurrection from the dead. He laid aside his sonship to become a human in order that he might become the first son of God of the human species. By that process he could become High Priest of both the heavenly and the earthly hosts combined. Nothing of Jesus Christ remained outside of his human existence. That is the doctrine of Antichrist. The doctrine of Antichrist teaches that Christ has some part of himself separate to his entity as a human being and somehow he retained some part of his divinity external to his physical existence. He did not (vv. 2-4).


The faith was then extended into the nations. It was the structure of the obedience of faith. Our faith is obedience to God and the acknowledgment that only God is True God (v. 5).


Our requirement for the inheriting of Eternal Life (No. 133) and On Immortality (No. 165) from John 17:3 is the knowledge of the One True God and of his son Jesus Christ. Jesus Christ is not the One True God. The Bible is emphatic on that. It is quite clear that the obedience of the faith is to the One True God, that is God the Father, God Most High. It is the requirement for the receipt of the sonship on the redemption of our bodies, from the Predestination (No. 296) of Romans 8:29-30. That includes all who are called to belong to Jesus Christ (v. 6-7).


Thus we establish the Godhead in the first seven verses and the understanding of the faith of the One True God, and that Christ laid aside his sonship and became a human and received his heavenly position in the sonship again from the redemption of his body at his resurrection. Christ was preiesistent as we see explained in the paper The Pre-Existence of Jesus Christ (No. 243). There is, however,  no existence of Jesus Christ outside of his humanity until his resurrection (cf. The Forty Days Following Christ’s Resurrection (No. 159A)). To assert that as a fact denies the sacrifice of Jesus Christ and denies the totality of his resurrection, and is a doctrine of demons. The Trinity is itself a doctrine of demons, and from it two other doctrines flow (cf. Binitarianism and Trinitarianism (No. 076) and Ditheism (No. 076B)).


There is no doubt in Paul’s mind that he served God in the gospel, in the way it was laid down by his master Jesus Christ. There is no conflict in Paul’s mind about there possibly being two gods or that Christ was a true god (v. 8-9).


From verse 10-11 he says he longs to succeed in coming to them so that he may impart some spiritual gift to strengthen them. Why did he need to do that? The Church was in Rome, the centre of the empire of iron, which followed the bronze empire, which we see symbolised and foretold in the statue in Daniel (Dan. 2:1-49). The empire of iron tore down and destroyed everything. Its seat was the centre of idolatry following on from Babylon, as head of its system.


From verses 8-10, he addresses the Romans and states that their faith is proclaimed throughout the world and that he mentions them (in prayer) without ceasing (v. 9) and asking that he comes to them. The saints there needed strengthening and understanding (vv. 10-13). Paul says he was under an obligation to preach the gospel to the Greeks and the barbarians and so also he was eager to preach the gospel to those in Rome (vv. 14-15). He says he is not ashamed of the gospel for it is the power of God for salvation for everyone who has faith, either firstly to Jew, or Greek. For in it the righteousness of God is revealed through faith for faith. It is written “He who through faith is righteous shall live (Hab. 2:4).  Faith is the basis of salvation (Heb. Ch. 11). It is in this text that some academics claim faith as the sole condition of salvation, and, by that seek to eliminate the Law of God (L1), as the basis of the faith. However, Paul does not allow that from his comments below and elsewhere (cf. Paul Part I: Paul and the Law (No. 271)).


Notice the verses are broken up into sequence. There are seven verses to establish the godhead, then another five. We are dealing with seven and five to twelve; dealing with the function of the numbers of grace and the spirit. These relate to the parables also. 


Here in verses 14-17, we see the requirements of faith and the requirements of mutual encouragement and the fact that faith leads to righteousness. However, faith itself does not lead to righteousness. It is faith that God gives, faith that the word of God is true and that God has given His word for the education of the saints. That faith gives us the capacity then to be righteous in the Holy Spirit (No. 117), through obedience to the law under the grace of God through Jesus Christ (vv. 14-17).



Paul came to Rome as prisoner in 60 CE in the 33rd year of the Jubilee in the Fifth year of the Fifth Sabbath Cycle of the Temple Calendar (No. 156). Paul was met on the Appian Way by fellow Christians and escorted to Rome (Acts 28:14-16).


Paul was to be executed at Rome after Linus had been earlier martyred following the poisoning of Claudius (ca. 54 CE) (and seemingly his father Caradog). Peter was, reportedly, also ordered crucified by Nero (r. 54-68 CE), or his representative, on his trip to Italy from Parthia after the death of Paul.  In 63/4 CE James, bother of Christ and Bishop of Jerusalem, was martyred there. That was followed in 64 CE by Nero setting fire to Rome and blaming the Christians of Rome. That was in the Second year of the Sixth Cycle and over the following eighth years to the First Year of the Seventh Cycle Jerusalem was to be systematically reduced and destroyed by 70 CE in accordance with the prophecy of the Sign of Jonah and also the Seventy Weeks of Years (Dan. 9:24-27). (cf. The Sign of Jonah and the History of the Reconstruction of the Temple (No. 013); Commentary on Daniel (F027ix), and xiii); Establishment of the Church under the Seventy (No. 122D); and War with Rome and the Fall of the Temple (No. 298)).


From 64 CE after the martyrdom of James brother of Christ, his uncle Clophas (husband of Maria, Christ’s aunt, was elected in  his stead but died that year and Clophas’ son Simeon (Simon) was appointed in his stead and took the church to Pella for protection against the final destruction of the seventieth week of years.


From verses 18-32 Paul then sets the faith so that the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and wickedness of men who by their wickedness suppress the truth. Paul then advances the basic principle of Truth and that is that: “What can be known about God is evident from the creation, because God has shown it to them.” Ever since God’s creation of the world (Job 38:4-7), His invisible nature, namely, His eternal power and deity, is clearly perceived in the things that have been made. So they are without excuse. As John also says: “Sin is transgression of the Law” (1Jn 3:4). As Christ taught: Until heaven and earth pass away, not an iota or a dot will pass from the law until all is accomplished (Mat. 5:18). That is so because the Law proceeds from the Nature of God (cf. B5).   


Paul says that although they knew God, they did not honour Him as God or give thanks to Him. They became futile in their thinking and through their idolatry their senseless minds became darkened (vv. 19-21). Claiming to be wise they became fools and exchanged the Glory of the Immortal God for images resembling mortal man, or birds or animals or reptiles (vv. 22-23).


Thus it was in the failure to worship the One True God and to keep His Laws in righteousness through faith they were then turned over to their own lusts and sin as we see detailed from verse 24. Therefore God gave them up in the lusts of their hearts to the dishonouring of their bodies among themselves, because they exchanged the truth about God for a lie and worshipped and served the creature rather than the creator who is blessed forever amen (vv. 24-25).


As the churches were penetrated by the Binitarians/Ditheists of the worship of the god Attis and the Baal systems and which later developed into the Trinitarians (ca 381-451 CE) they began to make idols and to worship them and create images and days of the Mystery and Sun Cults and the older festivals and days of worship entered the church from 110-386 CE (cf. Origins of Christmas and Easter (No. 235)).  Whilst Paul and the Churches of God kept and taught according to the Law and the Testimony (Isa. 8:20), within a hundred years it all began to break down from the introduction of Gnosticism and the Sun Cults, as it had in Galatia and Collossae (cf. Commentaries (F048) and (F051) below and from Heresy in the Apostolic Church (No. 089)) .


Tied to the Idolatry mentioned by Paul in Chapter 1:16-32, they also began creating Doctrines of Demons tied to that idolatry and those aspect are covered in the texts of The Doctrines of Demons of the Last Days (No. 048). The first doctrine of demons is the teaching that one should abstain from marriage. The doctrine is of Spiritism, which seeks for spiritual union or affinity. The intent of this doctrine of demons is to strike at the very basis of the teaching unit that God has chosen to deal with as an example of His system. That unit is the family. By destroying the stability of the family, the demons destroy the basic building block of our society.  We are watching this society crumble before our eyes because people are starting to live together outside of marriage. It is fundamental to our understanding and our relationship with Jesus Christ and our worship of God (1st Great Commandment) that the family unit is understood (5th Commandment). The breakdown of the family and national systems then goes into the perversion of Sodom and Gomorrah (6th, 7th, 8th, 10th).


The process of this doctrine is accompanied by idolatry. This concept is developed by Paul in Romans 1 in its entirety. These verses relate to the whole question of worship and the cause of adultery and immorality in the society. It is the same basis as spiritual adultery in our relationship with God, which is idolatry and witchcraft.

18For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and wickedness of men who by their wickedness suppress the truth.


That text is also translated “withhold the truth in unrighteousness”. The concept Paul is getting at is that people who do not tell the truth, withhold information. Paul is quite clear that whoever withholds the truth in unrighteousness will receive the wrath of God from heaven. That is a promise God makes through Paul (v. 18).


We now turn from the structure of the Godhead (stemming from the One True God) and the faith, to the observation of the Godhead and the proof from the creation (vv. 19-20). As our knowledge increases, we are now actually demonstrating the existence of God. Evolution is being progressively discarded. It is fundamentally disjointed and dysfunctional. We are finding that the universe shows a power of God. The only thing arguable among the scientists is what the nature of God actually is (vv. 21-23).


That change doesn’t happen as a direct transposition. It is a progressive thing and it took a long while to achieve. They went from the acknowledgment of God as God, and within Christianity they then elevated Jesus Christ to God and began worshipping him. Having done that, they then elevated the saints to the same status and began worshipping them (vv. 21-23). Then finally they began praying to images of “Mary” and other such idols, losing sight completely of the understanding of the resurrection. Mariam, wrongly called Mary, is dead! (cf. the paper The Virgin Mariam and the Family of Jesus Christ (No. 232)). Mariam, called Mary, will be resurrected along with the rest of the saints in the First Resurrection (No. 143A). Jesus Christ is the only person who has been resurrected and taken to heaven (Jn. 3:13).


The consequence then of this idolatry is a progressive deterioration in the thinking of the people involved. Their minds become less and less clear. This is what happens when we get to the steps in verse 24 and verse 25. Once we get to the mental deterioration of idolatry, we are given up to unnatural lusts (vv. 24-25). This perversion then goes into adultery and then into other perversions such as homosexuality and lesbianism and it will get worse and worse. People do not understand the sequence of the progression of the deterioration.


The doctrine of demons established at the start in the attack of the Godhead, and then progresses. Then God gives the people up to their own lusts. We are seeing that now in this society where people became godless, but they did not do it without penalty. Their society has always broken down. The society became fundamentally perverted, which it now is. The society has to repent of perversion. One has to restore one’s relationship with God to overcome it and we cannot overcome these problems until we acknowledge God and we repent and restore our relationship with God through Jesus Christ. If we worship Jesus Christ we are doing exactly the same thing as if we were worshipping any other one of the elohim, other than God the Father. We are attributing to Christ the same sin as we attribute to Satan (The First Commandment: The Sin of Satan (No. 153)).


One sentence explains it. The breach of the understanding of the Godhead results in the perversions and the baseness of this society (vv. 25-28). The commandments breached are listed with the sins as follows:

All manner of wickedness (1st Great), evil (1st G), covetousness (10th), malice (6th), envy (6th, 10th), murder (6th), strife (2nd G, 6th), deceit (9th), malignity (6th, 9th,,10th), gossip (6th, 9th), slanderers (6th,9th), haters of God (1st G, 1st,, 2nd, 3rd, 4th), insolence (1st G, 3rd, 5th). Haughtiness (1st G, 2nd, G, 3rd, 10th), boastfulness (ibid), inventors of evil (1st G, 2nd G), disobedience to parents (5th), foolishness (1st G and 2nd G, 3rd), faithlessness (ibid, 7th), heartlessness (ibid, 7th, 10th), ruthlessness (3rd, 6th), and these things follow from the breaching of our relationship with God. All of these things deal with the relationships to the family unit and to the social unit and they are the end result of the problems of the Godhead (vv. 29-32). Though they know God’s laws and decrees and that those who do such things deserve to die (under the law) they not only do them but approve those who practise them.


It is now getting to the stage where people call good bad and bad good. People who denounce these practices are themselves denounced (v. 32).


Chapter 2

From Chapter 2 Paul then proceeds to condemn those who judge others.  They condemn those for doing the things they themselves do and thus incur the judgment of God (vv. 1-2). Those that do such things incur the judgment of God (v. 3) (cf. Rev. Ch 3). He then leads into the concept of God’s kindness, forbearance and patience. It is by the hardness and impenitence of their hearts that they are storing up wrath for themselves when God’s Righteous Judgment will be revealed at the end of the age (vv. 4-5).  For God will render to every man according to his works (v. 6). It is by patience in well doing, the elect seek for glory and honour and immortality. He will give Eternal Life (No. 133). However, those who are factious and do not obey the truth will see wrath and fury (v. 8). There will be tribulation and distress for every individual who does evil, which is sin, which is transgression of the law of God (1Jn 3:4); firstly the Jew and then the Greek and every other individual (v. 9). But glory and honour and peace for everyone who does good both Israelite and Gentile, for God shows no partiality or Respect of Persons (No. 221).


From verses 12-16 Paul then develops the Law and the pivotal factor in salvation (cf. The Relationship between Salvation by Grace and the Law (No. 082)).


Those who sin without the Law will perish without the Law. Those who sin under the Law will perish under the Law. Thus those who exist outside of the law will perish and thus not enter the Kingdom of God. So also those who sin under the law will be judged by the Law in the Resurrections. The elect are judged before the First Resurrection (No. 143A), and if necessary, confined to the Second Resurrection (No. 143B) with the general populace for retraining. It is God’s will that no flesh shall perish (2Pet. 3:9), therefore none shall perish and only those that are capable of ensuring the proper retraining of the world will enter the First Resurrection for the Millennial Sabbath under Messiah..


Sin is lawlessness or transgression of the Law (1Jn. 3:4). The penalty of sin is death whether it is committed in administrations under the Law, or outside of the Law. It is irrelevant whether the administration decrees differing laws. Those who sin die unless they are restored to the newness of life in the salvation of Christ. They then keep the Law of God as given to mankind by Christ both at Sinai through Moses for Israel or to the world through his incarnation at Judea (cf. Acts 7:33-55; 1Cor. 10:1-4 (F046ii).


It is only by receipt of the Holy Spirit under Direction of God through His Divine Predestination (No. 296) (cf. Rom. 8:28-30 below in Part II) can a human remain sinless under the law as Christ was.  That is done through Baptism and the laying on of hands in the Church of God as a repentant adult for the Holy Spirit (No. 117) (cf. Repentance and Baptism (No. 052)). The Sacrament of the Lord’s Supper ensures the continual replenishment of that Spirit through the Lord’s Supper (No. 103, 103b). (cf. The Old and the New Leaven (No. 106a))


We are spiritually circumcised by the Holy Spirit. If we break the Law, we become uncircumcised and hence not of the promise. We fall into the same condemnation as of those who keep the Law. A man is a Jew if he is one inwardly, circumcised by the Spirit and not by the written code. Thus we obey the written code from the heart, through desire. If one breaks the law they become as uncircumcised.  Circumcision is of the heart and not the flesh (Rom. 2:25-29). It is those who obey God and keep His laws from the heart that receive their praise from God, for they keep God’s laws inwardly from the heart. No person who does not keep the laws of God is of the elect and the First Resurrection (No. 143A).


The Church is confronted with those who say that they are Jews and are not. Sometimes, the exclamations of conversion to Israel accompany an insipient anti-Semitism. Disclaiming the inherent and unavoidable embracing of Israel attendant upon conversion as a member of spiritual Israel, these false converts claim to be of spiritual Israel but deny the reality of the process and symbolism (The Plan of Salvation (No. 001A)).


Revelation 3:9 Behold, I will make those of the synagogue of Satan who say that they are Jews and are not, but lie - behold, I will make them come and bow down before your feet, and learn that I have loved you.


The word here for worship is proskuneo, which in effect is to prostrate oneself at arm’s length on the face before someone in obeisance. Thus the word used for worship does not always have the connotation of doing reverence to God. These false Christians or false Israelites will, in the end, be made to prostrate themselves before the elect, whom they have persecuted.


The Law is written on the hearts or minds of the elect from conversion (Heb. 8:10).  


Thus it is not abolished or muted. By practise and teaching of these Commandments the elect are called great in the Kingdom of God (Mat. 5:17-20).

(See also the paper Lazarus and the Rich Man (No. 228).)


Chapter 3

From Chapter 3, Paul goes on to describe the advantages of Judah and inherently Israel and the value of Circumcision in Israel. He says that they were entrusted with the oracles (logia) of God (v. 2). This text led the Church of God in the 20th century into error assuming that the Jews then had the oracles of God in the Twentieth Century which was totally false as the responsibility rests in the Churches of God from the appointment of the Seventy in Luke 10:1,17 (cf. Oracles of God (No. 184)).


Paul then asks what if some were unfaithful? Does their faithlessness nullify the Faithfulness of God? By no means! Let God be true though every man be false. As it is written: “That thou mayest be justified in thy words and prevail when thou art judged.” (Ps. 51:4) (cf. also Chapters 9-11 below)


From verse 5 Paul says (by way of human reason): But if our wickedness serves to show the justice of God, what shall we say? That God is unjust to inflict wrath upon us? By no means! For then how could God judge the world? Paul then asks: “But if through my falsehood God’s truthfulness abounds to His glory, why am I still being condemned as a sinner? And why not do evil that good may come? (as some people slanderously charge us with saying). Their condemnation is just” (vv. 5-8).


What then? Are the Jews any better off? No not at all; for Paul has already charged that all men of all nations, are under the power of sin, which is transgression of the law. None is righteous, not one and he then quotes the texts as follows:  (Pss. 14:1-2; 53:1-2; 5:9; 140:3; 10:7; Is. 59:7-8); Ps. 36:1) (vv.10-18).


From verse 19 Paul says: Now we know that whatever the laws says it speaks to those who are under the law, so that every mouth may be stopped, and the whole world may be held accountable to God. For no human being will be justified in His sight by works of the law, since through the law comes knowledge of sin (19-20).


Thus the law is not done away but all people sin under the law and are held responsible for that sin under the law. Man is thus not saved by conduct and works under the law but by Faith and the saving Grace of God in the Holy Spirit. Nor is the law done away by any means as the world is judged by the law of God as it stems from His Very Nature and can never be removed.


As we saw (cf. The Old and the New Leaven (No. 106a)) the Law is the Ten Commandments and all that flows from those statutes, as laid down by God through Christ as the Angel at Sinai, when it was given to Moses. The Law is found in the Old Testament and is thus interlinked with the New Covenant. The ‘Works of the Law’ or Ergon Nomou, referred to by Paul in Galatians 2 and 3, is a specific body of teaching of the first-century sects termed Miqsat Ma’ase Ha-Torah or MMT. In short, the Works of the Law is distinct from what we understand as the Ten Commandments. Paul’s comments cannot be taken in isolation (see the papers Distinction in the Law (No. 096), Love and the Structure of the Law (No. 200), Works of the Law Text – or MMT (No. 104) and The Relationship Between Salvation by Grace and the Law (No. 082)).


Through the Law we become conscious of sin. The Law is to silence every mouth and make all accountable to God (vv. 19-20). Sin thus achieves awareness from the Law, but the Law is holy, righteous and good because it springs from the nature of God (see the paper The Government of God (No. 174)). God has passed over our sins through divine forbearance (vv. 21-26).


All men are justified by faith but through that faith do they overthrow the law? By no means! By faith the Christian upholds the law (vv. 27-31).


Chapter 4

From Chapter 4 Paul then goes back to Abraham and how Abraham was not justified by works but by faith as is so comprehensively explained in Hebrew ch. 11 (cf. F058).


Abraham believed God and it was reckoned to him as righteousness (Gen. 15:6) as it was with David, who pronounced a blessing on those to whom God reckons righteousness apart from works (Ps. 32:1-2) (vv. 1-6). The justification of Abraham occurred before he was circumcised and cannot therefore be dependent upon circumcision.


See also the blessings to the descendants (cf. Love and the Structure of the Law (No. 200) pp. 7-11).


The promise made to the descendants of Abraham was not made in the concept of keeping of the Law, but through the concept of Faith. God is love and the liberty inherent in the Law makes us justified by faith and bound to God in the Holy Spirit. From this process we see the promise given to Abraham inherited in the elect by faith (Rom. 4:13-25).


We are justified through the resurrection of Jesus Christ whom God has raised; for our faith is in Him that raised Jesus Christ from death. Christ was put to death for our transgressions and raised for our justification.


Chapter 5

(cf. also Love and the Structure of the Law (No. 200))


We are not saved by our own deeds. Paul explains the complex issue of the saving grace of Jesus Christ in Romans 5:1-21.


Here in this first section of Romans 5:1-4, Paul shows us that it is because we are justified by faith that we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ. It was through Christ that we obtained access to the grace on which we stand. Our hope is in sharing eternal life in the glory of God, as Christ mentions in John 17:3, 5, 24.


We learn endurance by the things we suffer as Christ learnt endurance by what he suffered.


We are not disappointed in our hope because God’s love is poured out in us through the Holy Spirit (Rom. 5:5).


We were reconciled to God by the death of Christ while we were still enemies. Why? Because the carnal mind is enmity towards God (Rom. 8:7). We will see how this works. Sin entered the world with disobedience of one man – Adam. However, it spread to all men because all men sinned. (Rom. 5:6-11)


This has enormous implications for the doctrine of original sin. That doctrine has been examined separately (cf. The Doctrine of Original Sin Part 1 The Garden of Eden (No. 246) and Doctrine of Original Sin Part 2 The Generations of Adam (No. 248)).


The concept of sin is that sin is the ‘transgression of the Law’.

1John 3:4 Every one who sins breaks the law; in fact sin is lawlessness (or anomia) [or, the transgression of the law (KJV)], being outside the law.


Romans 5:12-14 Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned: 13(For until the law sin was in the world: but sin is not imputed when there is no law. 14Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the similitude of Adam's transgression, who is the figure of him that was to come. (KJV)


Christ was slain from the foundation of the world.

Revelation 13:8 All inhabitants of the earth will worship the beast - all whose names have not been written in the book of life belonging to the Lamb that was slain from the creation [foundation] of the world.


Thus sin was known from the foundation of the world, as was our calling. The predestination of the elect is seen from Romans 8:28-30.


Sin was in the world, yet it is not counted where there is no law. There was sin and thus the Law must have existed as an inherent basis of the creation and the organisation of the planet. That sin was there – even over those whose sins were not as the sin of Adam (cf. Rom. 5:12-14).


The sin of Adam and the condemnation of the planet were to show that the salvation of the planet could also be achieved by one man – Jesus Christ. For without the understanding of the failure of the first Adam, we could not understand the salvation in the success of the second Adam. The salvation of Christ through the gift and the grace of God enabled us to achieve a higher relationship with the Father in the perfect Law of Liberty (Rom. 5:15-17).


So by obedience came salvation and through grace that gift of salvation was extended to all so that we might live to the glory of God in the obedience we find through the grace of God. We find we can be obedient because the love of God is poured out to us in the Holy Spirit (Rom. 5:18-19).


Hence, the Law was introduced to increase the trespass so that the understanding of the regulation of affairs according to the love of God was obvious to those who sought God. However, Israel was not obedient. By one man's obedience many will be made righteous, that is, by grace that reigns through righteousness to eternal life in the anointed Jesus (Rom. 5:20-21).


As was explained in the text of Antinomian Attacks on the Law of God (No. 164D) we see that: Grace thereby abounded because of the redemption of man from sin and the Law. Where sin increased under the Law, grace abounded.


The end of the Law (telos gar nomou) here is the conclusion as the goal or the objective, being the point or act or state aimed at. It is not the cessation of the Law.


Being led by the Spirit liberates the individual from being under the Law (Gal. 5:18). Not because it does away with the Law, but rather because it enables the Law to be kept from inner desire and right action, being in our very nature. Paul’s position on the necessity of keeping the law is examined in the paper Paul: Part 1 Paul and the Law (No. 271).


Thus all men died and were consigned to the Second Resurrection outside of the Law. Under the Law, the Patriarchs and the Prophets attained the First Resurrection.


The Law is not opposed to the promise of God. However, the promise was given to those who believe by faith, in Christ our mediator.


Galatians 3:20-22 A mediator, however, does not represent just one party; but God is one. Is the law, therefore, opposed to the promises of God? Absolutely not! For if a law had been given that could impart life, then righteousness would certainly have come by the law. But the Scripture declares that the whole world is a prisoner of sin, so that what was promised, being given through faith in Jesus Christ, might be given to those who believe. 


1Timothy 2:5 For there is one God and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus who gave himself as a ransom for all men - the testimony given in its proper time.

(See also The Old and the New Leaven (No. 106a).)




Romans RSV

Chapter 1

1Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God 2which he promised beforehand through his prophets in the holy scriptures, 3the gospel concerning his Son, who was descended from David according to the flesh 4and designated Son of God in power according to the Spirit of holiness by his resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord, 5through whom we have received grace and apostleship to bring about the obedience of faith for the sake of his name among all the nations, 6including yourselves who are called to belong to Jesus Christ; 7To all God's beloved in Rome, who are called to be saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 8First, I thank my God through Jesus Christ for all of you, because your faith is proclaimed in all the world. 9For God is my witness, whom I serve with my spirit in the gospel of his Son, that without ceasing I mention you always in my prayers, 10asking that somehow by God's will I may now at last succeed in coming to you. 11For I long to see you, that I may impart to you some spiritual gift to strengthen you, 12that is, that we may be mutually encouraged by each other's faith, both yours and mine. 13I want you to know, brethren, that I have often intended to come to you (but thus far have been prevented), in order that I may reap some harvest among you as well as among the rest of the Gentiles. 14I am under obligation both to Greeks and to barbarians, both to the wise and to the foolish: 15so I am eager to preach the gospel to you also who are in Rome. 16For I am not ashamed of the gospel: it is the power of God for salvation to every one who has faith, to the Jew first and also to the Greek. 17For in it the righteousness of God is revealed through faith for faith; as it is written, "He who through faith is righteous shall live." 18For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and wickedness of men who by their wickedness suppress the truth. 19For what can be known about God is plain to them, because God has shown it to them. 20Ever since the creation of the world his invisible nature, namely, his eternal power and deity, has been clearly perceived in the things that have been made. So they are without excuse; 21for although they knew God they did not honor him as God or give thanks to him, but they became futile in their thinking and their senseless minds were darkened. 22Claiming to be wise, they became fools, 23and exchanged the glory of the immortal God for images resembling mortal man or birds or animals or reptiles. 24Therefore God gave them up in the lusts of their hearts to impurity, to the dishonoring of their bodies among themselves, 25because they exchanged the truth about God for a lie and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed for ever! Amen. 26For this reason God gave them up to dishonorable passions. Their women exchanged natural relations for unnatural, 27and the men likewise gave up natural relations with women and were consumed with passion for one another, men committing shameless acts with men and receiving in their own persons the due penalty for their error. 28And since they did not see fit to acknowledge God, God gave them up to a base mind and to improper conduct. 29They were filled with all manner of wickedness, evil, covetousness, malice. Full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, malignity, they are gossips, 30slanderers, haters of God, insolent, haughty, boastful, inventors of evil, disobedient to parents, 31foolish, faithless, heartless, ruthless. 32Though they know God's decree that those who do such things deserve to die, they not only do them but approve those who practice them.


Chapter 2

1Therefore you have no excuse, O man, whoever you are, when you judge another; for in passing judgment upon him you condemn yourself, because you, the judge, are doing the very same things. 2We know that the judgment of God rightly falls upon those who do such things. 3Do you suppose, O man, that when you judge those who do such things and yet do them yourself, you will escape the judgment of God? 4Or do you presume upon the riches of his kindness and forbearance and patience? Do you not know that God's kindness is meant to lead you to repentance? 5But by your hard and impenitent heart you are storing up wrath for yourself on the day of wrath when God's righteous judgment will be revealed. 6For he will render to every man according to his works: 7to those who by patience in well-doing seek for glory and honor and immortality, he will give eternal life; 8but for those who are factious and do not obey the truth, but obey wickedness, there will be wrath and fury. 9There will be tribulation and distress for every human being who does evil, the Jew first and also the Greek, 10but glory and honor and peace for every one who does good, the Jew first and also the Greek. 11For God shows no partiality. 12All who have sinned without the law will also perish without the law, and all who have sinned under the law will be judged by the law. 13For it is not the hearers of the law who are righteous before God, but the doers of the law who will be justified. 14When Gentiles who have not the law do by nature what the law requires, they are a law to themselves, even though they do not have the law. 15They show that what the law requires is written on their hearts, while their conscience also bears witness and their conflicting thoughts accuse or perhaps excuse them 16on that day when, according to my gospel, God judges the secrets of men by Christ Jesus. 17But if you call yourself a Jew and rely upon the law and boast of your relation to God 18and know his will and approve what is excellent, because you are instructed in the law, 19and if you are sure that you are a guide to the blind, a light to those who are in darkness, 20a corrector of the foolish, a teacher of children, having in the law the embodiment of knowledge and truth-- 21you then who teach others, will you not teach yourself? While you preach against stealing, do you steal? 22You who say that one must not commit adultery, do you commit adultery? You who abhor idols, do you rob temples? 23You who boast in the law, do you dishonor God by breaking the law? 24For, as it is written, "The name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles because of you." 25Circumcision indeed is of value if you obey the law; but if you break the law, your circumcision becomes uncircumcision. 26So, if a man who is uncircumcised keeps the precepts of the law, will not his uncircumcision be regarded as circumcision? 27Then those who are physically uncircumcised but keep the law will condemn you who have the written code and circumcision but break the law. 28For he is not a real Jew who is one outwardly, nor is true circumcision something external and physical. 29He is a Jew who is one inwardly, and real circumcision is a matter of the heart, spiritual and not literal. His praise is not from men but from God.


Chapter 3

1Then what advantage has the Jew? Or what is the value of circumcision? 2Much in every way. To begin with, the Jews are entrusted with the oracles of God. 3What if some were unfaithful? Does their faithlessness nullify the faithfulness of God? 4By no means! Let God be true though every man be false, as it is written, "That thou mayest be justified in thy words, and prevail when thou art judged." 5But if our wickedness serves to show the justice of God, what shall we say? That God is unjust to inflict wrath on us? (I speak in a human way.) 6By no means! For then how could God judge the world? 7But if through my falsehood God's truthfulness abounds to his glory, why am I still being condemned as a sinner? 8And why not do evil that good may come? --as some people slanderously charge us with saying. Their condemnation is just. 9What then? Are we Jews any better off? No, not at all; for I have already charged that all men, both Jews and Greeks, are under the power of sin, 10as it is written: "None is righteous, no, not one; 11no one understands, no one seeks for God. 12All have turned aside, together they have gone wrong; no one does good, not even one." 13"Their throat is an open grave, they use their tongues to deceive." "The venom of asps is under their lips." 14"Their mouth is full of curses and bitterness." 15"Their feet are swift to shed blood, 16in their paths are ruin and misery, 17and the way of peace they do not know." 18"There is no fear of God before their eyes." 19Now we know that whatever the law says it speaks to those who are under the law, so that every mouth may be stopped, and the whole world may be held accountable to God. 20For no human being will be justified in his sight by works of the law, since through the law comes knowledge of sin. 21But now the righteousness of God has been manifested apart from law, although the law and the prophets bear witness to it, 22the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ for all who believe. For there is no distinction; 23since all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, 24they are justified by his grace as a gift, through the redemption which is in Christ Jesus, 25whom God put forward as an expiation by his blood, to be received by faith. This was to show God's righteousness, because in his divine forbearance he had passed over former sins; 26it was to prove at the present time that he himself is righteous and that he justifies him who has faith in Jesus. 27Then what becomes of our boasting? It is excluded. On what principle? On the principle of works? No, but on the principle of faith. 28For we hold that a man is justified by faith apart from works of law. 29Or is God the God of Jews only? Is he not the God of Gentiles also? Yes, of Gentiles also, 30since God is one; and he will justify the circumcised on the ground of their faith and the uncircumcised through their faith. 31Do we then overthrow the law by this faith? By no means! On the contrary, we uphold the law.


Chapter 4

1What then shall we say about Abraham, our forefather according to the flesh? 2For if Abraham was justified by works, he has something to boast about, but not before God. 3For what does the scripture say? "Abraham believed God, and it was reckoned to him as righteousness." 4Now to one who works, his wages are not reckoned as a gift but as his due. 5And to one who does not work but trusts him who justifies the ungodly, his faith is reckoned as righteousness. 6So also David pronounces a blessing upon the man to whom God reckons righteousness apart from works: 7"Blessed are those whose iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins are covered; 8blessed is the man against whom the Lord will not reckon his sin." 9Is this blessing pronounced only upon the circumcised, or also upon the uncircumcised? We say that faith was reckoned to Abraham as righteousness. 10How then was it reckoned to him? Was it before or after he had been circumcised? It was not after, but before he was circumcised. 11He received circumcision as a sign or seal of the righteousness which he had by faith while he was still uncircumcised. The purpose was to make him the father of all who believe without being circumcised and who thus have righteousness reckoned to them, 12and likewise the father of the circumcised who are not merely circumcised but also follow the example of the faith which our father Abraham had before he was circumcised. 13The promise to Abraham and his descendants, that they should inherit the world, did not come through the law but through the righteousness of faith. 14If it is the adherents of the law who are to be the heirs, faith is null and the promise is void. 15For the law brings wrath, but where there is no law there is no transgression. 16That is why it depends on faith, in order that the promise may rest on grace and be guaranteed to all his descendants--not only to the adherents of the law but also to those who share the faith of Abraham, for he is the father of us all, 17as it is written, "I have made you the father of many nations" --in the presence of the God in whom he believed, who gives life to the dead and calls into existence the things that do not exist. 18In hope he believed against hope, that he should become the father of many nations; as he had been told, "So shall your descendants be." 19He did not weaken in faith when he considered his own body, which was as good as dead because he was about a hundred years old, or when he considered the barrenness of Sarah's womb. 20No distrust made him waver concerning the promise of God, but he grew strong in his faith as he gave glory to God, 21fully convinced that God was able to do what he had promised. 22That is why his faith was "reckoned to him as righteousness." 23But the words, "it was reckoned to him," were written not for his sake alone, 24but for ours also. It will be reckoned to us who believe in him that raised from the dead Jesus our Lord, 25who was put to death for our trespasses and raised for our justification.


Chapter 5

1Therefore, since we are justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ. 2Through him we have obtained access to this grace in which we stand, and we rejoice in our hope of sharing the glory of God. 3More than that, we rejoice in our sufferings, knowing that suffering produces endurance, 4and endurance produces character, and character produces hope, 5and hope does not disappoint us, because God's love has been poured into our hearts through the Holy Spirit which has been given to us. 6While we were still weak, at the right time Christ died for the ungodly. 7Why, one will hardly die for a righteous man--though perhaps for a good man one will dare even to die. 8But God shows his love for us in that while we were yet sinners Christ died for us.  Since, therefore, we are now justified by his blood, much more shall we be saved by him from the wrath of God. 10For if while we were enemies we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son, much more, now that we are reconciled, shall we be saved by his life. 11Not only so, but we also rejoice in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received our reconciliation. 12Therefore as sin came into the world through one man and death through sin, and so death spread to all men because all men sinned-- 13sin indeed was in the world before the law was given, but sin is not counted where there is no law. 14Yet death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those whose sins were not like the transgression of Adam, who was a type of the one who was to come. 15But the free gift is not like the trespass. For if many died through one man's trespass, much more have the grace of God and the free gift in the grace of that one man Jesus Christ abounded for many. 16And the free gift is not like the effect of that one man's sin. For the judgment following one trespass brought condemnation, but the free gift following many trespasses brings justification. 17If, because of one man's trespass, death reigned through that one man, much more will those who receive the abundance of grace and the free gift of righteousness reign in life through the one man Jesus Christ. 18Then as one man's trespass led to condemnation for all men, so one man's act of righteousness leads to acquittal and life for all men. 19For as by one man's disobedience many were made sinners, so by one man's obedience many will be made righteous. 20Law came in, to increase the trespass; but where sin increased, grace abounded all the more, 21so that, as sin reigned in death, grace also might reign through righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.


Bullinger’s Notes on Romans Chs. 1-5 (for KJV)

Chapter 1

Verse 1

Paul. Paul"s name heads all his Epistles, except Hebrews.

servant. Greek. doulos. App-190. Compare 2 Corinthians 4:5Galatians 1:1Galatians 1:10Philippians 1:1Philippians 1:1Titus 1:1.

Jesus Christ. App-98. XL

called, &c. Literally a called apostle; called at his conversion (Acts 26:17Acts 26:18).

apostle. App-189.

separated = set apart. Greek. aphorizo. Compare Acts 13:2Acts 19:92 Corinthians 6:17Galatians 1:1Galatians 1:15Galatians 2:12. Note the three stages in Paul"s "separation" for God"s purpose: birth (Galatians 1:1Galatians 1:15Galatians 1:16); conversion (Acts 9:15); work (Acts 13:2).

unto. Greek. eis. App-104.

the gospel of God: i.e. the "gospel of the grace of God" (Acts 20:24. Compare Acts 15:7), not the "gospel of the kingdom". See App-140. .

God. App-98.


Verse 2

had. Omit.

promised afore. Greek. proepangello. Only here: epangello occurs fifteen times; always rendered "promise", save 1 Timothy 2:101 Timothy 6:21 (professing).

Prophets. App-189.

scriptures. Greek. graphe. Occurs fifty-one times (sing, and plural) Fourteen times by Paul, but only here with adjective hagios, holy.


Verse 3

Concerning. Greek. peri. App-104.

Son. Greek. huios. App-108.

Jesus . . . Lord. In the Greek these words follow after "dead" in Romans 1:4. Figure of speech Hyperbaton. App-6.

Lord. App-98.

Which was made = Who was born (Galatians 1:4Galatians 1:4, Revised Version.)

seed: i.e. of David"s line, but ending specifically in Mary, who was here the "seed" of David. App-99. And Christ was "the Seed" of the woman (Genesis 3:15Isaiah 7:14Matthew 1:23).

David. Compare John 7:422 Timothy 2:8.

according to. Greek. kata. App-104.

flesh = human nature. Greek. sarx. See Romans 9:3Romans 9:5.


Verse 4

declared = marked out. Greek. horizo. See Acts 2:23. Compare Psalms 2:7.

Son of God. App-98.

with power = in (Greek. en) power (Greek. dunamis. App-172.); i.e. powerfully. Compare Philippians 3:10.

spirit. App-101.

holiness. Greek. hagiosune. Only here, 2 Corinthians 7:11 Thessalonians 3:13. Nowhere in Greek. literature. It is the Genitive of apposition (App-17.) The expression is not to be confounded with pneuma hagion (App-101.) His Divine spiritual nature in resurrection is here set in contrast with His human flesh as seed of David.

resurrection. Greek. anastasis. App-178. Compare Acts 26:23.

from = of.

dead. App-139. See Matthew 27:52Matthew 27:53.


Verse 5

grace and apostleship. Some see here the Figure of speech Hendiadys (App-6), and read "apostolic grace".

grace. Greek. charis. App-184.

apostleship. See Acts 1:25.

obedience to the faith = faith-obedience.

faith. App-150.

among. Greek. en. App-104.

nations = Gentiles. Greek. ethnos. Occurs in Romans twenty-nine times; translated "Gentiles" except here, Romans 4:17Romans 4:18Romans 10:19Romans 16:26.

for = on behalf of. Greek. huper. App-104.

name. See Acts 2:21.


Verse 6

the called. Compare 1 Corinthians 1:24.


Verse 7

all, &c.: i.e. all God"s beloved ones in Rome.

beloved. Greek. agapetos. App-135.

saints. See Acts 9:13, and compare Psalms 16:3.

our Father. Compare Romans 8:15Galatians 1:4Galatians 1:6; and see App-98.

the = our.

Lord. App-98. This salutation is found in all Paul"s Epistles save Hebrews and the three Pastorals, where "mercy" is added.


Verse 8

thank. See Acts 27:35.

through. Greek. dia. App-104. Romans 1:1. Compare John 14:6.

for. Greek. huper, as in Romans 1:5, but the texts read peri, concerning (App-104.)

spoken of. Greek. katangello. App-121.

throughout. Greek. en. App-104.

world. Greek. kosmos. App-129.


Verse 9

witness. Greek. martus; only here in Romans. Compare 2 Corinthians 1:23Philippians 1:1Philippians 1:81 Thessalonians 2:51 Thessalonians 2:10.

serve. Greek. latreuo. App-137 and App-190.

spirit. App-101. Compare Philippians 1:3Philippians 1:3.

the gospel of His Son. This expression only here; elsewhere, the Apostle speaks of "the gospel of Christ", 1 Corinthians 9:121 Corinthians 9:182 Corinthians 2:12Philippians 1:27. Compare 2 Corinthians 4:4.

without ceasing, Greek. adialeiptos. Only here and 1 Thessalonians 1:31 Thessalonians 2:131 Thessalonians 5:17.

make mention. Compare Ephesians 1:16Philippians 1:31 Thessalonians 1:21 Thessalonians 3:62 Timothy 1:3Philemon 1:4. The same expression appears in a papyrus of second cent., from the Fayoum, in a letter from a Roman soldier to his sister.

prayers. Greek. proseuche. App-134.


Verse 10

Making request. Greek. deomai. App-134.

if by any means. Greek. eipos. App-118.

might . . . journey. Greek. euodoumai. Elsewhere, 1 Corinthians 16:23 John 1:2.

will. Greek. thelema. App-102.

come. Greek. erchomai. App-106.


Verse 11

long. Greek. epipothes. Elsewhere, 1 Corinthians 5:21 Corinthians 9:14Philippians 1:1Philippians 1:8Philippians 2:261 Thessalonians 3:62 Timothy 1:4James 4:51 Peter 2:2.

see. App-133.

that = in order that. Greek. hina.

impart. Greek. metadidomi. Elsewhere, Romans 12:8Luke 3:11Ephesians 4:281 Thessalonians 2:8.

unto = to.

spiritual. Greek. pneumatikos. See 1 Corinthians 12:1.

gift. Greek. charisma. App-184. Compare Romans 12:61 Corinthians 12:4, &c.

to the end. Greek. eis. App-104.

established. Greek. sterizo. Elsewhere, Romans 16:25Luke 9:51Luke 16:26Luke 22:321 Thessalonians 3:21 Thessalonians 3:132 Thessalonians 2:172 Thessalonians 3:3James 5:81 Peter 5:102 Peter 1:12Revelation 3:2.


Verse 12

That is, &c. = But this (imparting some spiritual gift) is (or means) our being comforted by our mutual faith.

comforted together. Greek. sumparakaleo. Only here.

mutual = in (Greek. en) one another.


Verse 13

would, &c. First of six occurances: Romans 11:251 Corinthians 10:11 Corinthians 12:12 Corinthians 1:81 Thessalonians 4:13. See the positive form, 1 Corinthians 11:3Colossians 2:1.

would. Greek. thelo. App-102.

have you, &c. = that you should be ignorant. Greek. agnoeo. Compare Mark 9:32Luke 9:45.

purposed. Greek. protithemi; only here, Romans 3:25Ephesians 1:9.

let = hindered. (Anglo-Saxon lettan, to delay.) Greek. kdluo; Occurs twenty-three times (seventeen times "forbid").

other. Greek. loipos. App-124. Paul frequently uses the significant term, "the rest", to designate the unsaved. See Romans 11:7Ephesians 2:3Ephesians 4:171 Thessalonians 4:131 Thessalonians 5:6. See also Revelation 20:5.


Verse 14

the. Omit.

Greeks. Greek. Hellen. See John 7:35 with John 12:20.

Barbarians. See Acts 28:2Acts 28:4.

wise. Corresponds generally to "learned".

unwise. Greek. anoetos, unintelligent. Such as the Pharisees despised (John 7:49). Elsewhere, Luke 24:25Galatians 1:3Galatians 1:1Galatians 1:31 Timothy 6:9Titus 3:3.


Verse 15

as much as in me is = as for (Greek. kata. App-104.) me.

ready. Greek. prothumos. Only here. Matthew 26:41Mark 14:38.

preach the gospel. Greek. euangelizo. App-121.

you, &c. = you also that are at (Greek. en) Rome.


Verse 16

For. This is Figure of speech Aetiologia. App-6.

I am, &c: i.e. I count it my highest honour and glory to proclaim the gospel. Figure of speech Tapeinosis. App-6.

ashamed. Greek. epaischunomai. Here, Romans 6:21Mark 8:38Luke 9:262 Timothy 1:82 Timothy 1:122 Timothy 1:16Hebrews 2:11Hebrews 11:16.

of Christ. All the texts omit.

believeth. App-150.

first. In point of national precedence and privilege. Compare Romans 2:9Romans 2:10Romans 8:1Romans 8:2.

Greek. See Romans 1:14. Representing all non-Jews.


Verse 17

therein = in (Greek. en) it.

the. Omit.

righteousness of God = God"s righteousness.

righteousness. Greek. dikaiosune. App-191.

revealed. Greek. apokalupto. App-106.

from. Greek. ek. App-104.

to. Greek. eis. App-104. God"s righteousness is revealed on the ground of faith (faith-principle) (ek pisteos), as the absolute condition of salvation, and is operative only for those who believe (eis pistin). For the use of ek pisteos, Compare Romans 3:26Romans 3:30Romans 4:16Romans 5:1Romans 10:6Romans 14:23Galatians 1:2Galatians 1:16.

written. See Matthew 2:5 (first occ).

just. Greek. dikaios. App-191.

live. Quoted from Habakkuk 2:4. Compare Galatians 1:3Galatians 1:11Hebrews 10:38.


Verse 18

For. In the gospel not only is God"s salvation revealed, but God"s wrath also, and both are the revelation of God"s righteousness.

the wrath of God. This expression Occurs only here, John 3:36Ephesians 5:6Colossians 3:6. Compare Revelation 19:15. Referred to many times in N.T., e.g. Romans 2:5Romans 5:9Romans 9:22Matthew 3:7Ephesians 2:3Ephesians 5:6Revelation 6:16Revelation 6:17.

heaven. Singular. No article. See Matthew 6:10.

against. Greek. epi, App-104.

ungodliness. Greek. asebeia. App-128.

unrighteousness. Greek. adikia. App-128.

men. Greek. anthropos. App-123.

hold = hold down, suppress. Compare 2 Thessalonians 2:6.

the truth. Greek. alethieia, p. 1511. Compare App-175and App-2.


Verse 19

known. See Acts 1:19.

manifest. Greek. phaneros. App-106.

hath. Omit.

shewed = manifested. Greek. phaneroo. App-106.


Verse 20

invisible. Greek. aoratos. Here, Colossians 1:15Colossians 1:161 Timothy 1:17Hebrews 11:27.

clearly seen. Greek. katkorao. Only here.

things that are made. Greek. poiema. Only here and Ephesians 2:10.

eternal. Greek. aidios. App-151.

Godhead. App-98.

so that, &c. = to the end (Greek. eis) of their being. Compare Romans 1:11.

without excuse. Greek. anapologetos. Only here and Romans 2:1.


Verse 21

knew. Greek. ginosko. App-132.

glorified. Seep. 1511.

but. Emphatic.

became vain. Greek. mataioomai. Only here. Compare Acts 14:15.

imaginations = reasonings. See Matthew 15:19.

foolish. Greek. asunetos, as Romans 1:31.


Verse 22

Professing, &c. = saying that they were. Greek. phasko. See Acts 24:9.

became fools. Literally were fooled (i.e. by their perverted mind). Greek. moraino. Here, Matthew 5:13Luke 14:341 Corinthians 1:20.


Verse 23

changed. Greek. allasso. see Acts 6:14.

glory. Greek. doxa. See p. 1511.

uncorruptible. Greek. aphthartos. Here; 1 Corinthians 9:251 Corinthians 15:521 Timothy 1:171 Peter 1:41 Peter 1:231 Peter 3:4.

image, &c. = likeness (Greek. homoioma. Here, Romans 5:14Romans 6:5Romans 8:3Philippians 1:2Philippians 1:7Revelation 9:7) of an image of.

image. Greek. eikon. Occurs twenty-three times; always so rendered. This is the Figure of speech Pleonasm. App-6.

corruptible. Greek. phthartos. Here, 1 Corinthians 9:251 Corinthians 15:531 Corinthians 15:541 Peter 1:181 Peter 1:23.

birds, &c. In Egypt they worshipped the hawk and the ibis.

fourfooted beasts. Greek. tetrapous. See Acts 10:12. As the bull and the cow, held by the Egyptians sacred to. Apis and Hathor (Venus); the dog to Anubis; &c.

creeping things. Greek. herpeton. See Acts 10:12. The asp, sacred to the gods of Egypt and found in every heathen pantheon; indeed, the worship of the serpent plays a prominent part in all forms of Paganism. The crocodile, tortoise, frog, and the well-known Scarabaeus beetle, sacred to the sun and to Pthah, and used as an emblem of the world (Wilkinson).


Verse 24

also. Omit.

gave them up. See John 19:30.

uncleanness. Greek. akatharsia. Occurs ten times, always so rendered. The cognate word akathartes in Revelation 17:4 only. Ceasing to know God (Romans 1:21) results in idolatry, and idolatry ends in "filthiness of the flesh and spirit" (2 Corinthians 7:1).

through. App-104.

lusts. See John 8:44.

to dishonour, &c. = that their bodies should be dishonoured. Greek. atimazo. See Acts 5:41.

between. Greek. en. App-104.


Verse 25

Who = Since they.

changed. Greek. metallasso; only here and Romans 1:26. A stronger word than in Romans 1:23.

the truth of God into a lie = the truth of God for the lie. Man transferred his worship from God (the Truth) to the devil. Compare John 8:44Ephesians 4:252 Thessalonians 2:9-11.

a lie = the lie. Greek. to pseudos. Compare 2 Thessalonians 2:11. The He is that Satan is man"s benefactor and is to be worshipped.

worshipped. Greek. sebazomai. App-137. Only here.

served. Greek. latreuo. App-137and App-190.

creature = the things created; not only sun, moon, stars, men, the animate creation, but Satan himself, the arch-enemy, who by means of his "lie" (Genesis 3:4Genesis 3:5) transferred the worship of man from the Creator to himself, the creature.

more than. Greek. para. App-104.

blessed. Greek. eulogetos. Compare Romans 9:5Mark 14:61. (The) Blessed One. Not a statement of doctrine, but a well-known Hebraism of praise to God as Creator.

for ever. App-151. a.

Amen. See Matthew 5:18John 1:51, and p. 1511.


Verse 26

For this cause = Because of (App-104. Romans 1:2) this.

vile affections = passions of infamy (Greek. atimia. Here, Romans 9:211 Corinthians 11:141 Corinthians 15:432 Corinthians 6:82 Corinthians 11:212 Timothy 2:20).

affections = passions, or lusts. Greek. pathos. Only here; Colossians 3:51 Thessalonians 4:5.

natural. Greek. phusikos. Only here, Romans 1:272 Peter 2:12.

use. Greek. chresis. Only here and Romans 1:27.

against. Greek. para. App-104.


Verse 27

also the men = the men also.

men. App-123.

leaving = having forsaken. App-174.

burned = were inflamed. Greek. ekkaiomai. Only here.

lust. Greek. orexis. Only here.

toward. App-104.

working. Greek. katergazomai. Occurs eleven times in Romans, seven in 2 Corinthians. See also James 1:3James 1:201 Peter 4:3.

that which is unseemly. Greek. aschemosune. Only here and Revelation 16:15. Compare Genesis 19:7.

receiving = receiving back, or in full. Greek. apolambano.

that = the.

recompence. Greek. antimisthia, retribution; only here and 2 Corinthians 6:13.

error. Greek. plane, literally a wandering = wrong action, wickedness. Here, Matthew 27:64Ephesians 4:141 Thessalonians 2:32 Thessalonians 2:11James 5:202 Peter 2:182 Peter 3:171 John 4:6Jude 1:11.


Verse 28

And even . . . mind. There is a play upon two words here, not easily expressed in Eng. "As they rejected God, God rejected them. "

did . . . like. Greek. dokimazo, to accept after testing, to approve. Compare Romans 2:18Romans 12:2Romans 14:221 Corinthians 9:27.

knowledge. App-132.

reprobate. Greek. adokimos. The negative of dokimos. Compare dokimazo, above. Here, 1 Corinthians 9:272 Corinthians 13:52 Corinthians 13:62 Corinthians 13:72 Timothy 3:8Titus 1:16Hebrews 6:8.

convenient. Greek. kathekon. See Acts 22:22.


Verse 29

filled. Greek. pleroo. App-125.

fornication. The texts omit.

wickedness Greek. poneria. App-128.

maliciousness. Greek. kakia. App-128.

envy = jealousy. Greek. phthonos. Compare Matthew 27:18.

murder. Greek. phonos. Note the Paronomasia, phthonos, phonos. App-6. See Acts 9:1.

debate = strife.

deceit. Greek. dolos. See Acts 13:10.

malignity. Greek. kakoetheia, literally disposition for mischief. Only here.

whisperers = calumniators. Greek. psithuristes. Only here.


Verse 30

Backbiters = evil speakers (not necessarily behind the back). Greek. katalalos. Only here. Compare 2 Corinthians 12:201 Peter 2:1.

haters of God = hateful to God. Greek. theostuges. Only here.

despiteful = insolent. Greek. hubristes. Only here and 1 Timothy 1:13.

proud. Greek. huperephanos. Here, Luke 1:512 Timothy 3:2James 4:61 Peter 5:6.

boasters. Greek. alazon. Only here and 2 Timothy 3:2.

inventors. Greek. epheuretes. Only here.

evil. Greek. kakos. App-128.

disobedient. See Acts 26:19.


Verse 31

Without understanding. Greek. asunetos. See Romans 1:21. Note the Paronomasia with next word. App-6.

covenantbreakers. Greek. asunthetos. Only here.

without natural affection. Greek. astorgos. Only here and 2 Timothy 3:3.

implacable. The texts omit.

unmerciful = pitiless. Greek. aneleemon. Only here.


Verse 32

knowing. Greek. epiginosko. App-132.

judgment = righteous sentence. Greek. dikaioma. App-177.

commit = practise.

have pleasure in = consent also to. See Acts 8:1.

do. Same as "commit", above. This list of heathen iniquities is the Figure of speech Synathroesmos. App-6.


Chapter 2

Verse 1

Therefore. That is, on account of the decrees of God, Romans 1:32.

inexcusable. Same word as Romans 1:20.

man. Greek. anthropos. App-123.

whosoever, &c. Literally every one judging.

judgest. Greek. krino. App-122.

wherein = in (Greek. en. App-104.) which

another = the other. Greek. heteros. App-124.

condemnest. Greek. katakrino. App-122. The three occurances of krino and one of katakrino give the Figure of speech Paregmenon (App-6).

doest = practisest. Same word as "commit", Romans 1:32.


Verse 2

are sure = know. Greek. oida. App-132.

judgment. Greek. krima. App-177.

God. App-98.

truth. See Romans 1:18.

commit. Same as "do", Romans 2:1.


Verse 3

thinkest = reckonest. Greek. logizomai. First of nineteen occurances in Romans of this important word; here, Romans 2:26Romans 3:28Romans 4:3Romans 4:4Romans 4:5Romans 4:6Romans 4:8Romans 4:9Romans 4:10Romans 4:11Romans 4:22Romans 4:23Romans 4:24Romans 6:11Romans 8:18Romans 8:36Romans 9:8Romans 14:14. First occurance. Mark 11:31 (reasoned).


Verse 4

riches. Compare Romans 9:23Romans 11:33Ephesians 1:7Ephesians 1:18Ephesians 2:7Ephesians 3:8Ephesians 3:16Philippians 1:4Philippians 1:19Colossians 1:27Colossians 2:2.

goodness. Greek. chrestotes. App-184. (a).

forbearance. Greek. anoche. Only here and Romans 3:25.

not knowing. Greek. agnoeo. See Romans 1:13.

goodness. Greek. chrestos. App-184. Neut. adjective used as noun.

repentance. Greek. metanoia. App-111.


Verse 5

after. Greek. kata. App-104.

hardness. Greek. sklerotes. Only here.

impenitent. Greek. ametanoetos. Only here. Compare App-111.

treasurest up. Greek. thesaurizo. Here, Matthew 6:19Matthew 6:20Luke 12:211 Corinthians 16:22 Corinthians 12:14James 5:32 Peter 3:7.

unto = to.

the day of wrath. Compare Revelation 6:17Revelation 19:15Isaiah 61:2Isaiah 63:4.

revelation. Greek. apokalupsis. App-106.

righteous judgment. Greek. dikaiokrisia. Only here. Compare App-191and App-177.


Verse 6

render = recompense, as in Romans 12:17.

every man = each one. The two following verses: giving details, form the Figure of speech Merismos. App-6.


Verse 7

by = according to, as in Romans 2:2.

patient continuance = patience.

in well doing. Literally of a good work.

glory. See Romans 1:23.

immortality = incorruption. Greek. aphthartis. Here, 1 Corinthians 15:421 Corinthians 15:501 Corinthians 15:531 Corinthians 15:54Ephesians 6:242 Timothy 1:10Titus 2:7.

eternal. App-151.

life. Greek. zoe App-170.

Verse 8

contentious = of (Greek. ek. App-104.) contention. Greek. eritheia. Here, 2 Corinthians 12:20Galatians 1:5Galatians 1:20Philippians 1:1Philippians 1:16Philippians 2:3James 3:14James 3:16.

do not obey. Greek. apeitheo. See Acts 14:2.

obey. Greek. peitho. App-150.

unrighteousness. Greek. adikia. App-128.


Verse 9

Tribulation. Greek. thlipsis. See Acts 7:10.

anguish. Greek. stenochoria. Here, Romans 8:352 Corinthians 6:42 Corinthians 12:10.

soul. Greek. psuche. App-110.

doeth = worketh. Greek. katergazomai. See Romans 1:27.

evil = the evil. Greek. kakos. App-128.

Jew . . . Gentile. Compare Romans 1:16.

also. Omit.

Gentile = Greek.


Verse 10

worketh. Greek. ergazomai, as Romans 4:1.


Verse 11

respect of persons = partiality. Greek. proaopolepsia. Only here, Ephesians 6:9Colossians 3:25James 2:1.


Verse 12

have. Omit. The standpoint is the judgment time.

sinned. Greek. hamartano. App-128.

without law. Greek. anomos. Only here.

also perish = perish also. The Mosaic Law will not be cited against non- Jews.

the. Omit.

by. App-104. Romans 2:1.


Verse 13

hearers. Greek. akroates. Only here and James 1:22James 1:23James 1:25. Compare Acts 25:23.

the. The texts omit.

just. See Romans 1:17.

before. Greek. para. App-104.

justified. Greek. dikaioo. App-191.


Verse 14

the. Omit.

by nature. See Romans 1:26.

contained in = of.

having, &c. = not having law.


Verse 15

shew = shew forth. Greek. endeiknumi.

written. Greek. graptos. Only here.

conscience. See Acts 23:1.

also. Omit.

bearing witness = bearing witness therewith. Greek. summartureo. Here, Romans 8:16Romans 9:1Revelation 22:18.

thoughts = reckonings. Greek. logismos. Only here and 2 Corinthians 10:5.

excusing. Greek. apologeomai. See Acts 19:33.


Verse 16

shall = will.

secrets. Greek. kruptos.

Jesus Christ. App-98.


Verse 17

Behold. Greek. ide. The texts read "But if".

restest in = restest upon. Greek. epanapauomai. Only here and Luke 10:6.

the. The texts omit.

makest, &c. = gloriest, as Romans 5:3, and 1 Corinthians 1:291 Corinthians 1:31. Greek. kauchaomai. Only in Paul"s Epistles (thirty-six times) and in James 1:9James 4:16.


Verse 18

knowest. Greek. ginosko. App-132.

will. Greek. thelema. App-102.

approvest. Greek. dokimazo. See Romans 1:28.

more excellent. Greek. diaphero. See Acts 27:27.

being instructed. Greek. katecheo. See Acts 18:25.

out of. Greek. ek. App-104.


Verse 19

art confident. Greek. peitho. App-150.

light. Greek. phos. App-130.


Verse 20

instructor = preceptor. Greek. paideutes. Only here and Hebrews 12:9.

teacher. App-98. Romans 2:4.

babes. Greek. nepios. App-108.

form = external form. Greek. morphosis. Only here and 2 Timothy 3:5.

knowledge. Greek. gnosis. App-132.


Verse 21

therefore. Ironical use of Greek. oun.

another. As Romans 2:1, but without article.

preachest. Greek. kerusso. App-121.

a man, &c. Literally not to steal.


Verse 22

a man, &c. Literally not to commit.

abhorrest. Greek. bdelussomai. Only. here and Revelation 21:8.

commit sacrilege = rob temples. Greek. hierosuleo. Only here. Compare Acts 19:37.


Verse 23

through. Greek. dia. App-104. Romans 2:1.

breaking, &c. = the transgression (Greek. parabasia. Compare App-128.:3) of the law.

dishonourest. Greek. atimazo. See Romans 1:24.

Verse 24

blasphemed. Compare Acts 13:45.

among. Greek. en. App-104.

it is written. Compare Ezekiel 36:20Ezekiel 23:23

keep = practice, as in Romans 2:1.

breaker. Greek. parabates. App-128.


is made = has become.

Verse 26

righteousness = righteous requirements. Greek. dikaioma. App-191.

shall = will.

not. App-105.

counted. Same as "think", Romans 2:3. i.e. in the day of Romans 2:5.


Verse 27

not. Supplied from Romans 2:26.

by. App-104.

the letter = that which is written. Greek. gramma, i.e. ta dikaiomata of Romans 2:26.

dost transgress = art a transgressor. Greek. parabates, as Romans 2:25.


Verse 28

outwardly . . . which is outward = in (Greek. en) outward (Greek. phaneros. App-106.) guise.

neither. Greek. oude.


Verse 29

inwardly = in (Greek. en) secret.

the. Omit.

spirit. App-101.

of. Greek. ek. App-104.


Chapter 3

Verse 1

What, &c. = What then is the advantage of the Jew, or what is the, &c.

profit. Greek. opheleia. Only here and Jude 1:16.


Verse 2

every way = according to (Greek. kata. App-104) every way.

unto . . . committed = they were entrusted with. Greek. pisteuo. App-150. Compare 1 Thessalonians 2:4.

oracles. Greek. logion. See Acts 7:38.

God. App-98.


Verse 3

some. Greek. tines. App-124.

did not believe. Greek. apisteo. See Acts 28:24.

shall. The question is introduced by me (App-105).

unbelief. Greek. apistia. Occurs twelve times; first Matthew 13:58. In Rom., here, Romans 4:20Romans 11:20Romans 11:23.

make . . . without effect = nullify. Greek. kalargeo. See Luke 13:7.

faith = faithfulness. Greek. pistis. App-150.


Verse 4

God forbid. Literal. Let it not be. Greek. me (App-105) genoito. This strong asseveration occurs fifteen times. Here, verses: Romans 3:3Romans 3:6Romans 3:31Romans 6:2Romans 6:15Romans 7:7Romans 7:13Romans 9:14Romans 11:1Romans 11:11Luke 20:161 Corinthians 6:15Galatians 1:2Galatians 1:17Galatians 3:21Galatians 6:14.

true. Greek. alethes. App-175.

man. Greek. anthropos. App-123.

liar. Greek. pseustes. In Paul"s Epp, only here, 1 Timothy 1:10Titus 1:12.

written. Quoted from Psalms 51:4 (Septuagint)

justified. Greek. dikaioo. App-191. See Romans 2:13.

sayings. Greek. logos. App-121.

when Thou art judged. Literally in (Greek. en) Thy being judged (Greek. krino. App-122.)


Verse 5

unrighteousness. Greek. adikia. App-128.

commend = establish, set forth. Greek. sunistemi.

righteousness. Greek. dikaiosune. App-191. Compare Romans 1:17.

what shall we say? Greek. ti eroumen. This expression occurs seven times; here, Romans 4:1Romans 6:1Romans 7:7Romans 8:31Romans 9:14Romans 9:30.

Is, &c. See "shall", Romans 3:3.

taketh = inflicts. Greek. epiphero. Occurances: Jude 1:9.

vengeance = the wrath. See Romans 1:18.

as. Greek. kata. App-104. Compare Romans 6:19. This is the Figure of speech Hypotimesis. App-6.


Verse 6

world. App-129. Compare Genesis 18:26.


Verse 7

hath more abounded = abounded, as Romans 5:15Romans 15:13. Greek. perisseuo. Literally overflow. See 2 Corinthians 8:2, &c.

through. Greek. en. App-104.

lie. Greek. pseusma. Only here.

glory. Greek. doxa. See Romans 1:23 and John 1:14.

sinner. Greek. hamartolos. Compare App-128.


Verse 8

not . . . come? = (why) not (say), as we be slanderously reported, and as some affirm that we say. Let us do, &c. Figure of speech Epitrechon (App-6).

slanderously reported. Greek. blasphemeo. Compare Romans 2:24Acts 13:45.

affirm. Greek. phemi. Only here in Romans. Occurs fifty-eight times, always "say", except here.

evil. Literal. the evil things. Greek. kakos. App-128.

that = in order that. Greek. hina.

good. Literally the good things.

damnation. Greek. krima. App-177.

just. Greek. endikos. App-191.


Verse 9

are . . . they? = have we any advantage? or, have we any excuse to put forward? Gr. proecho. Only here; may be mid, or pass, voice.

No, in no wise = Not (Greek. ou. App-105) at all (Greek. pantos).

before proved = before convicted. Greek. proaitiaomai. Only here. Compare Romans 1:21.

Gentiles = Greeks. See Romans 2:9.

that they are = to be.

all Emph.

under. Greek. hupo. App-104.

sin. Greek. hamartia. App-128. Sin is the root, and "sins" are the fruit.


Verse 10

The quotation (Romans 3:10-18) is from several passages, of O.T. All refer to the same subject. Figure of speech Gnome (App-6). verses: Romans 3:10-12 (general) are from Ecclesiastes 7:20Psalms 14:2Psalms 14:3Psalms 53:2Psalms 53:3-4; verses: Romans 3:13-18 (particular) are from Psalms 5:9-10Psalms 140:3Psalms 10:7Isaiah 59:7Isaiah 59:8Psalms 36:1. Verification of these references, from the standpoint of Paul"s argument, throws much light upon the O.T. passage, in which they occur.

There . . . one. Literally: There is not (Greek. ou) a righteous (man), not even one.

righteous. Greek. dikaios. App-191. Compare Romans 1:17.

no, not. Greek. oude.


Verse 11

none. Greek. ou. App-105.

understandeth. Greek. suniemi. Occurs twenty-six times.

Always "understand", save Mark 6:52 and 2 Corinthians 10:12.

seeketh after. Greek. ekzeteo. See Acts 15:17.


Verse 12

In Psalm 14 the Hebrew stands as in Authorized Version, but in the Septuagint (Alex. MS.) additional matter appears, word for word as in these verses: Romans 3:12-18. This is not found in Psa 53, a practical repetition of Psa 14.

They, &c. = All went.

gone . . . way. Greek. ekklino. Only here, Romans 16:171 Peter 3:11.

become unprofitable = are worthless. Greek. achreioomai. Only here.

good. Greek. chrestotes. App-184.

no, not one = there is not as far as (Greek. heos) one.


Verse 13

Their. Psalms 5:9 shows that this refers to the boasters and workers of iniquity of Romans 3:5. Compare Romans 1:24-32Romans 2:17Romans 2:23.

throat: i.e. speech; by Figure of speech Metonymy. App-6. Greek. larunx;. Only here.

open sepulchre = opened sepulchre; literally a tomb that has been opened, emitting noisomeness.

sepulchre. Greek. taphos. Only here, Matthew 23:27Matthew 23:29Matthew 27:61Matthew 27:64Matthew 27:66Matthew 28:1. Applied to any place where dead bodies are deposited. Mnemeion, rendered "sepulchre", is found only in Gospels and Acts 13:29, and means a monumental tomb. Compare Matthew 27:60.

tongues. See Psalms 140:11.

have used deceit = deceived. Greek. dolioo; only here. The kindred verb occurs 2 Corinthians 4:2.

the. Omit. poison. Greek. ioa. Occurs here and James 3:8James 5:3.

asps. Rendered "adders" in Psalms 140:3. Greek. aspis. Only here. Compare James 3:5James 3:6James 3:8Deuteronomy 32:33.

lips = language. Figure of speech Metonymy. App-6.


Verse 14

Whose mouth, &c. Compare Psalms 10:7.

full. Greek. gemo. Compare Matthew 23:25Matthew 23:27.

cursing and bitterness = bitter imprecations. Figure of speech Hendiadys. App-6.

cursing. Greek. ara. Only here. Properly a prayer, but commonly a prayer for evil, an imprecation.

bitterness. Greek. pikria. See Acts 8:23.


Verse 15

Their feet, &c. See Proverbs 1:16Isaiah 59:7.

swift = sharp. Greek. oxys. Occurs only here and seven times in Rev., always "sharp".

shed. Greek. ekcheo. Only here in Rom. Elsewhere seventeen times, generally "pour out".


Verse 16

Destruction. Greek. suntrimma. Only here. Literally a breaking, or bruising. Compare Romans 16:20John 19:36.

misery = distress. Greek. talaiporia. Here and James 5:1. Compare Romans 7:24James 4:9.


Verse 17

have they not known = they knew not.


Verse 18

This is quoted from Psalms 36:1.

before. Greek. apenanti. See Acts 3:16.


Verse 19

know. Greek. oida. App-132.

law. See Romans 2:12.

saith. Greek. laleo. App-121.

under. Greek. App-104.

every mouth. No partiality for the Jew.

stopped = closed. Greek. phrasso. Here; 2 Corinthians 11:10Hebrews 11:33.

guilty = under penalty. Greek. hupodikos. Only here.


Verse 20

the deeds of the law = works of law. Compare Romans 3:27.

the law = law. See Romans 2:12.

knowledge. App-132.


Verse 21

now = at this present time. Greek. nuni. First of twenty-one occurances.

without the law = apart from (Greek. choris) law.

is manifested. Greek. phaneroo. App-106. Compare Romans 1:19.

witnessed. Greek. martureo. Compare Romans 10:22 Timothy 2:6.

by. Gr hupo. App-104.

the law and the prophets. An expression for the whole O.T. Compare Matthew 7:12Luke 24:44.

prophets. App-189.


Verse 22

Even = And.

Jesus Christ. App-98.

and upon all. Most texts omit.

believe. App-150.

difference = distinction. Greek. diastole. Elsewhere, Romans 10:121 Corinthians 14:7.


Verse 23

have. Omit.

Sinned. Greek. hamartano. App-128. In the first Adam as the federal head of the old creation.

come short. Greek. hustereo. Only here in Romans. Occurs sixteen times, always in the sense of failing, or lacking. Compare Matthew 19:20 (first occ). Mark 10:21John 2:3Hebrews 12:15.


Verse 24

freely. Greek. dorean. See John 15:25.

by. Dative case. No preposition.

grace. Greek. charis. App-184. Compare Romans 3:28Romans 5:1Romans 5:9.

through. Greek. dia. App-104. Romans 3:1.

redemption. Greek. apolutrosis. Occurs ten times. Here; Romans 8:23Luke 21:281 Corinthians 1:30Ephesians 1:7Ephesians 1:14Ephesians 4:30Colossians 1:14Hebrews 9:15Hebrews 11:35.

Christ Jesus. App-98.


Verse 25

hath. Omit.

set forth = foreordained (margin) Greek. protithemi. See Romans 1:13.

to be = as.

propitiation. Greek. hilasterion. Only here and Hebrews 9:5. The word comes to us from the Septuagint. In Exodus 25:17 kapporeth (cover) is rendered hilasterion epithema, propitiatory cover, the cover of the ark on which the blood was sprinkled as the means of propitiation.

to, &c. = for (Greek. eis. App-104.) a declaration of (Greek. endeixis. Occurs also, Romans 3:262 Corinthians 8:24Philippians 1:1Philippians 1:28).

for = by reason of. Greek. dia. App-104. Romans 3:2.

remission. Literally the passing over. Greek. paresis. Only here.

sins. Greek. hamartema. App-128.

past. Greek. proginomai. Only here. Compare Acts 17:30.

forbearance. Greek. anoche. See Romans 2:4.


Verse 26

at this time = in (Greek. en) the present season (App-195).

that, &c. = to (Greek. eis) His being.

just. Same as "righteous", Romans 3:10.

which believeth, &c. Literally the one out of (App-104.) faith of Jesus; i.e. on the principle of faith in Jesus. Compare Romans 1:17.

Jesus. App-98.


Verse 27

boasting. i.e. of the Jew; Romans 2:17-23. Greek. kauchesis, which means the act of boasting, while kauchema (Romans 4:2) refers to the subject of the boast.

excluded. Greek. ekkleio. Only here and Galatians 1:4Galatians 1:17.

what. Literally what manner of. Compare 1 Peter 1:11.

works. Same as "deeds", Romans 3:20.

Nay. Greek. ouchi. App-105.

the = a.


Verse 28

conclude = reckon. Greek. logizomai. See Romans 2:3.

the. Omit.


Verse 29

Is . . . only? Read, "What, is He, &c."? The question opens with the Greek conjunction e, translated "what" in 1 Corinthians 6:161 Corinthians 6:191 Corinthians 14:36.

not. Same as "nay", Romans 3:27.

also of the Gentiles = of Gentiles also.

Gentiles. See Romans 1:5.


Verse 30

Seeing = Since. Greek. epeiper. Only here.

it is one God = God is One, i.e. for both Jew and Gentile.

Which shall = Who will.


Verse 31

make void. Greek. katargeo, as Romans 3:3.

Yea = Nay. Greek. alla.


Chapter 4

Verse 1

What, &c. See Romans 3:5. Forcible form of Figure of speech Erotesis (App-6). Resuming from Romans 3:21.

father = forefather, as the texts read. Figure of speech Synecdoche of Species, App-6.

as pertaining to. Greek. kata. App-104.

the flesh. All the Jews claimed Abraham as their father, See Romans 9:5Luke 1:73John 8:39 (Compare Romans 4:56). Acts 7:2.


Verse 2

if App-118.

justified. App-191.

by. Greek. ek. App-104.

glory. Greek. kauchema. See Romans 3:27 and 2 Corinthians 9:3.

not. App-105.

before. Greek. pros. App-104.

God. App-98.


Verse 3

the ScriptureGenesis 15:6.

Abraham. Read, "Now Abraham. "

believed. App-150. counted = reckoned, imputed. Greek. logizomai. See Romans 2:3 (Paul quotes the Septuagint)

unto = to.

righteousness. App-191.


Verse 4

reckoned. Same as "counted"Romans 4:3.

grace. App-184.

debt. Greek. opheilema. Only here and Matthew 6:12.


Verse 5

believeth. App-150.

ungodly = impious. Greek. asebes. Here, Romans 5:61 Timothy 1:91 Peter 4:182 Peter 2:52 Peter 3:7Jude 1:15. Compare App-128.

faith. App-150.


Verse 6

describeth = says of.

blessedness. Greek. makarismos. Here, Romans 4:9Galatians 1:4Galatians 1:15.

man. App-123.

imputeth. Same as "count"Romans 4:3.

without = apart from. See Romans 3:21.


Verse 7

Blessed. App-63.

iniquities. App-128.

forgiven. App-174.

sins. App-128.

covered = covered over. Greek. epikalupto. Only here.


Verse 8

LORD. App-98.

not. App-105. Quoted from Psalms 32:1Psalms 32:2. App-107.


Verse 9

Cometh, &c. = This blessing, then, is it?


Verse 11

sign. App-176.

being uncircumcised = in (Greek. en) uncircumcision.

that, &c. = unto (App-104.) his being.

them, &c. Literally of all the believing (ones). App-150.

though, &c. = through (App-104. Romans 4:1) uncircumcision.

also. Omit.


Verse 12

walk. Greek. stoicheo. See Acts 21:24.

steps. Greek. ichnos. Only here, 2 Corinthians 12:181 Peter 2:21.


Verse 13

For, &c. The Greek reads, "For not through law was the promise. "Compare Galatians 1:3Galatians 1:18.

heir. Compare Galatians 1:3Galatians 1:29 and Hebrews 11:8-10.

world. App-129.

through. App-104. Romans 4:1.


Verse 14

the. Omit.

is made void = Literally has been emptied. Greek. kenoo. Elsewhere, 1 Corinthians 1:171 Corinthians 9:152 Corinthians 9:3Philippians 1:2Philippians 1:7.

made of none effect. Greek. katargeo. See Romans 3:3.


Verse 15

worketh. See Romans 1:27.

for. The texts read "but".

no = not. App-105.

no = neither. Greek. oude.

transgression. See Romans 2:23.


Verse 16

Therefore = On account of (App-104. Romans 4:2) this.

of faith. See Romans 1:17.

that = in order that. Greek. hina.

by. Greek. kata. App-104.

to the end. Greek. eis. App-104.

might = may.

sure. Greek. bebaios. Here, 2 Corinthians 1:7Hebrews 2:2Hebrews 3:6Hebrews 3:14Hebrews 6:19Hebrews 9:172 Peter 1:102 Peter 1:19.

all the seed. To every child of faithful Abraham, Jew and Gentile alike.

of the faith. See Romans 1:17.


Verse 17

writtenGenesis 17:5.

made = set, appointed. Greek. tithemi.

believed. App-150.

quickeneth = maketh alive. Greek. zoopoieo. Here, Romans 8:11John 5:21John 6:631 Corinthians 15:221 Corinthians 15:361 Corinthians 15:452 Corinthians 3:6Galatians 1:3Galatians 1:211 Timothy 6:131Ti 6:1 Pet.

the dead. App-139.

calleth, &c. Primarily of Isaac. Compare Gen 15.


Verse 18

against. App-104.

believed in. App-150.

the. Omit.

nations. Greek. ethnos. See Romans 1:5.

according to. Greek. kata. App-104.

So, &c. Quoted from Genesis 15:5.


Verse 19

being, &c. Figure of speech Tapeinosis. App-6. See this Figure of speech in Romans 5:6 also.

considered. App-133.

not. The texts omit.

now = already.

dead. Greek. nekroo. See Colossians 3:5Hebrews 11:12.

when he was = be being. Greek. huparcho. See Luke 9:48.

an hundred years old. Greek. hekatontaetes. Only here.

neither yet = and.

deadness. Greek. nekrosis. Only here and 2 Corinthians 4:10.


Verse 20

staggered. Greek. diakrino. App-122. Compare Matthew 21:21.

through = by.

was strong. Greek. endunamoo. See Acts 9:22.

glory. See Romans 1:23 and John 1:14.

Verse 21

fully persuaded. Greek. plerophoreo. Occurances, Romans 14:5Luke 1:12 Timothy 4:52 Timothy 4:17.

also, &c. = to perform also.


Verse 22

And therefore = Wherefore also.


Verse 23

for his sake = on account of him.


Verse 24

for us = on account of us.

shall = is about to.

if we believe = to (us) believing.

the dead. App-.


Verse 25

delivered. See John 19:30.

offences. App-128.

again. Omit.

justification = justifying. App-191.


Chapter 5

Verse 1

justified. See Romans 2:13. App-191.

by. App-104.

faith. App-150., i.e. on faith-principle. See Romans 1:17.

we have peace. The Revised Version "let us have peace" is not warranted. The apostle"s teaching is plain. Having been justified, therefore we have peace with God.

with. App-104.

God. App-98.

through. App-104. Romans 5:1.

Lord. App-98.

Jesus Christ. App-98.


Verse 2

also. Read after "access".

have = have had, have obtained.

access. Literally the introduction. Greek. prosagoge, Only here and Ephesians 2:18Ephesians 3:12.

by. Dat. No preposition.

grace. See Romans 1:5.

wherein = in (Greek. en) which.

rejoice. Same as "boast"Romans 2:17.

glory. See Romans 1:23 with Romans 4:20.


Verse 3

glory . . . also = rejoice (as Romans 5:2) also in &c.

tribulations = the afflictions. Greek. thlipsis. See Acts 7:10.

knowing. App-132.

worketh. See Romans 1:27.


Verse 4

experience. Greek. dokime. Here; 2 Corinthians 2:92 Corinthians 8:22 Corinthians 9:132 Corinthians 13:3Philippians 1:2Philippians 1:22.

hope. Compare Titus 2:13. See Romans 4:18.


Verse 5

maketh . . . ashamed = causeth shame. Greek. kataischuno. Here, Romans 9:33Romans 10:11Luke 13:171 Corinthians 1:271 Corinthians 11:41 Corinthians 11:51 Corinthians 11:222 Corinthians 7:142 Corinthians 9:41 Peter 2:61 Peter 3:16.

love. App-135.

is shed abroad. Greek. ekchuno. See Acts 1:18Acts 10:45.

Holy Ghost. App-101.

is = was.

unto = to.


Verse 6

without strength. Greek. asthenes.

due time = season. Compare Galatians 1:4Galatians 1:4.

Christ. App-98.

ungodly. See Romans 4:5.


Verse 7

scarcely. Greek. molis. See Acts 14:18.

righteous. App-191.

one. App-123.

yet = for.

peradventure. Greek. tacha. Only here and Philemon 1:15.

some = one. See above.

dare = venture.


Verse 8

commendeth. See Romans 3:5. In this verse the subject of the sentence comes last, and reads "commendeth His own love toward us God", giving the Figure of speech Hyperbaton (App-6), for emphasis.

toward. Greek. eis. App-104.

in that = because.

sinners. Greek. hamartolos. Compare App-128.


Verse 9

blood. Compare Romans 5:1 with Romans 3:24.

saved. First of eight occurances in Romans.

wrath. See Romans 1:181 Thessalonians 1:10.


Verse 10

if. Greek. ei. App-118.

enemies. Note the Figure of speech Catabasis, App-6; without strength, sinners, enemies verses: Romans 5:6Romans 5:8Romans 5:10.

reconciled. Greek. katallasso, a more intensive word than allasso (Romans 1:23). Elsewhere, 1 Corinthians 7:112 Corinthians 5:182 Corinthians 5:192 Corinthians 5:20.

Son. App-108. Compare Romans 6:10Galatians 1:2Galatians 1:19Galatians 1:20.

life. App-170.


Verse 11

joy = rejoice (Romans 5:2).

atonement = reconciliation, restoration to favour. Greek. katallage, Here, Romans 11:152 Corinthians 5:182 Corinthians 5:19.


Verse 12

Wherefore = On account of (App-104. Romans 5:2) this. Having described the fruits of sin, the apostle now goes on to deal with the root.

as = just as.

man. App-123. Compare 1 Corinthians 15:21.

sin. App-128.

world. App-129.

death, &c. = by means of sin, death.

passed = passed through.

upon = unto. App-104.

for that = because. Greek. eph" (App-104.) ho.

have. Omit.

sinned. i.e. in Adam, as representative. See Romans 3:23. App-128.


Verse 13

imputed. Not the same word as in Romans 4:6, &c. Greek. ellogeo. Only here and Philemon 1:18.

when, &c. = there not (Greek. me) being law.

Verse 14


to = until. Greek. mechri.

Moses. Occurs twenty-two times in the Epistles. Compare Matthew 8:4.

similitude = likeness. See Romans 1:23.

transgression. Greek. parabasis. See Romans 2:23.

the = a. figure. Greek. tupos. See John 20:25.

Him . . . come = The Coming One. A well-known Hebraism for the Messiah. See Matthew 11:3. Adam was a type (App-6) as the federal head of a new-created race.


Verse 15

offence. App-128. See Romans 4:25.

free gift. App-184.

through = by. Dative. No preposition.

one, many = the one, the many.

be dead = died.

gift. Greek. dorea. See John 4:10.

by = of. Genitive case.

hath. Omit.

abounded. See Romans 3:7.


Verse 16

And not, &c. Read, And not as by means of one having sinned is the free gift; for the judgment indeed of one (was) unto condemnation; but the free gift is of (or resulted from) many transgressions unto justification.

gift. Greek. dorema. Not the same word as Romans 5:15. Occurs only here and James 1:17.

judgment. Greek. krima. App-177.

condemnation. Greek. katakrima. Only here, Romans 5:18Romans 8:1. Compare App-122.; Romans 177:6.

justification. Greek. dikaioma, a righteous acquittal. App-191.


Verse 17

For . . . one = For if by the trespass of the one, death reigned through the one.

by. Dative. No preposition.

abundance = the abundance. Greek. perisseia. Here, 2 Corinthians 8:22 Corinthians 10:15James 1:21.

righteousness. See Romans 1:17.


Verse 18

Therefore, &c. = So then as by means of one (act of) transgression (sentence came) upon all men unto condemnation, even so by means of one righteous act also (the free gift came) upon all men to justification of life.

righteousness of one = one righteous act. Greek. dikaioma. App-191., as Romans 5:16. Add "also".

justification. Greek. dikaiosis. App-191.

of = issuing in. App-17.


Verse 19

disobedience. App-128. Romans 5:2.

many = the many.

made = constituted.

so = so also.

obedience. The obedience unto death of Philippians 1:2Philippians 1:8. This was the one righteous act of Romans 5:18.


Verse 20

entered. Literally came in beside. Greek. pareiserchomai, Only here and Galatians 1:2Galatians 1:4.

that = in order that. Greek. hina.

abound = multiply. Greek. pleonazo. Here, Romans 6:12 Corinthians 4:152 Corinthians 8:15Philippians 1:4Philippians 1:171 Thessalonians 3:122 Thessalonians 1:32 Peter 1:8.

did much more abound = superabounded. Greek. huperperisseuo. Only here and 2 Corinthians 7:4.


Verse 21

hath. Omit.

even so, &c. = so might grace also.

eternal. App-151.