Christian Churches of God

No. F042iv





Commentary on Luke

Part 4

(Edition 2.0 20220708-20220710)


Commentary on Chapters 13-16.



Christian Churches of God

PO Box 369,  WODEN  ACT 2606,  AUSTRALIA






(Copyright © 2022 Wade Cox)


This paper may be freely copied and distributed provided it is copied in total with no alterations or deletions. The publisher’s name and address and the copyright notice must be included.  No charge may be levied on recipients of distributed copies.  Brief quotations may be embodied in critical articles and reviews without breaching copyright.


This paper is available from the World Wide Web page: and



Commentary on Luke Part 4

Luke Chapters 13-16 (RSV)


Chapter 13

1There were some present at that very time who told him of the Galileans whose blood Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices. 2And he answered them, "Do you think that these Galileans were worse sinners than all the other Galileans, because they suffered thus? 3I tell you, No; but unless you repent you will all likewise perish. 4Or those eighteen upon whom the tower in Silo'am fell and killed them, do you think that they were worse offenders than all the others who dwelt in Jerusalem? 5I tell you, No; but unless you repent you will all likewise perish." 6And he told this parable: "A man had a fig tree planted in his vineyard; and he came seeking fruit on it and found none. 7And he said to the vinedresser, 'Lo, these three years I have come seeking fruit on this fig tree, and I find none. Cut it down; why should it use up the ground?' 8And he answered him, 'Let it alone, sir, this year also, till I dig about it and put on manure. 9And if it bears fruit next year, well and good; but if not, you can cut it down.'" 10Now he was teaching in one of the synagogues on the sabbath. 11And there was a woman who had had a spirit of infirmity for eighteen years; she was bent over and could not fully straighten herself. 12And when Jesus saw her, he called her and said to her, "Woman, you are freed from your infirmity." 13And he laid his hands upon her, and immediately she was made straight, and she praised God. 14But the ruler of the synagogue, indignant because Jesus had healed on the sabbath, said to the people, "There are six days on which work ought to be done; come on those days and be healed, and not on the sabbath day." 15Then the Lord answered him, "You hypocrites! Does not each of you on the sabbath untie his ox or his ass from the manger, and lead it away to water it? 16And ought not this woman, a daughter of Abraham whom Satan bound for eighteen years, be loosed from this bond on the sabbath day?" 17As he said this, all his adversaries were put to shame; and all the people rejoiced at all the glorious things that were done by him. 18He said therefore, "What is the kingdom of God like? And to what shall I compare it? 19It is like a grain of mustard seed which a man took and sowed in his garden; and it grew and became a tree, and the birds of the air made nests in its branches." 20And again he said, "To what shall I compare the kingdom of God? 21It is like leaven which a woman took and hid in three measures of flour, till it was all leavened." 22He went on his way through towns and villages, teaching, and journeying toward Jerusalem. 23And some one said to him, "Lord, will those who are saved be few?" And he said to them, 24"Strive to enter by the narrow door; for many, I tell you, will seek to enter and will not be able. 25When once the householder has risen up and shut the door, you will begin to stand outside and to knock at the door, saying, 'Lord, open to us.' He will answer you, 'I do not know where you come from.' 26Then you will begin to say, 'We ate and drank in your presence, and you taught in our streets.' 27But he will say, 'I tell you, I do not know where you come from; depart from me, all you workers of iniquity!' 28There you will weep and gnash your teeth, when you see Abraham and Isaac and Jacob and all the prophets in the kingdom of God and you yourselves thrust out. 29And men will come from east and west, and from north and south, and sit a table in the kingdom of God. 30And behold, some are last who will be first, and some are first who will be last." 31At that very hour some Pharisees came, and said to him, "Get away from here, for Herod wants to kill you." 32And he said to them, "Go and tell that fox, 'Behold, I cast out demons and perform cures today and tomorrow, and the third day I finish my course. 33Nevertheless I must go on my way today and tomorrow and the day following; for it cannot be that a prophet should perish away from Jerusalem.' 34O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, killing the prophets and stoning those who are sent to you! How often would I have gathered your children together as a hen gathers her brood under her wings, and you would not! 35Behold, your house is forsaken. And I tell you, you will not see me until you say, 'Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord!'"


Intent of Chapter 13

vv. 1-9 Jesus calls for Repentance

v. 2. Jews thought that God’s judgment carried painful experience and so Christ deals with this concept (Jn. 9:2-3). Christ does not argue here, (as in Mat. 5:45) for a disconnection between natural and moral good and evil. Here suffering represents God’s judgment and is a call to repentance lest spiritual catastrophe occur.

v. 4. Siloam – a section of Jerusalem damaged in catastrophe.

The Parable of the Fig Tree 

vv. 6-9 Mat. 21:18-20; Mk. 11:12-14, 20-21. v. 7 Mat. 3:10; 7-19; Lk. 3:9. Following Christ’s call to repentance, this parable was issued to demonstrate judgment in the individuals called into the Kingdom of God in terms of the Holy Spirit (No. 117), which is in fact the vine dresser here.


The Law provided for the specific years of growth and offerings. These are the physical aspects of the growth and then the products of the trees. The first of the produce are considered the Firstfruits of the Lord (see Fruit of the Holy Spirit (No. 146)). So also the Sabbaths of the cycles are holy, and part of the Jubilee cycle from Sabbath to Sabbath (see God’s Calendar (No. 156)).


Thus under the calling from their baptism the individual is expected to produce fruit but each person is allowed three years of growth and then in the fourth year it is further boosted and after the fifth year of grace it is then decided whether it is cut down from the garden and removed from the Kingdom.

See also The Seven Great Passovers of the Bible (No. 107); Samson and the Judges (No. 073) and Israel as the Vineyard of God (No. 001C).


13:10-17 An infirm woman healed on the Sabbath

v. 14 Ex. 20:9-10 The Law regarding the Fourth Commandment and the Sabbath was to become enforced to deny healing on the Sabbath (see also Mat. 12:11-12; Lk. 6:6-11; 14:1-6; Jn. 5:1-18).

 v. 16 Jesus attributes physical (and psychical) disorders to the work of Satan (see Mat. 4:1 n. 12:24 n). They are in no conflict with God’s purpose and His Covenant (No. 152) with Abraham and mankind (see also First and Second Statements of the Covenant (No.096B) concerning His Plan of Salvation (No. 001A) (4:18; Mat. 8:14-17).


vv. 18-21 Jesus teaches about the kingdom of God Parables of the Mustard Seed, and Leaven (see also Mat. 13:31-33 n; Mk. 4:30-32).

The lesson is of the operation of the Holy Spirit (No. 117) in the elect and as leaven in the person called into the kingdom of God.

13:22-30 Jesus teaches about entering the kingdom, and, On the End of the Age

vv. 22-24  Mat. 7:13-14; Jn. 10:7; Lk. 9:51 n.

Here Christ speaks about entering the kingdom of God. He says here that entry will be very restricted and the door is narrow. Here he says that many will say they know him and that they ate and drank in his presence and that he taught in their streets. He will reject them because they rejected God and His Law. They did not do what he said and obey the Laws of God and the testimony of the prophets. Those who obey him and the law and the prophets are the elect and the saints of God; those who keep the Commandments of God (L1) and the Faith and Testimony of Jesus Christ (Rev. 12:17; 14:12 cf. Isa. 8:20).  He is Lord of the Sabbath (No. 031B) (cf. Lk. 6:5 n). The Sabbath (No. 031) is the Seventh Day of the week, not the day of the Sun; nor is the Passover, the festival of the goddess Easter or Ishtar (see Origins of Christmas and Easter (No.235)); nor does Tabernacles in Tishri commemorate the birth of Messiah and nor that of the Sun god Attis on 25 December (see God’s Calendar (No. 156)). Such as do these things will not enter the kingdom of God.   

v. 25 Mat. 25:10-12, vv. 26-30 The host is the Messiah (comp. 14:15-24).  

Abraham, Isaac and Jacob and all the patriarchs, prophets and saints will be in the kingdom of God at the return of Messiah at the First Resurrection (No. 143A) and those that do not do what they say will be thrust out, weeping and gnashing their teeth (vv. 28-29) and others will come from all over the earth and assume their proper places in the kingdom of God (v. 30).


13:31-33 Words to Herod Antipas

v. 31 here - Herod’s domain was Galilee and Perea; v. 32 Behold ... no cunning threats of that fox can shorten my course. The Third Day – Literally, EENT beginning Thursday 6 April 30 CE, Friday 7 April and Sabbath 8 April 30 CE at beginning EENT in accord with the Sign of Jonah (No. 013); as also explained in the Timing of the Crucifixion and the Resurrection (No. 159).

v. 33 It cannot be - bitter irony concerning the death of the prophets and all the valid messengers of God including as here, the Messiah.


13: 34-35 Lament over Jerusalem

(Mat. 23:37-39); v. 34 How often – see Mat. 23:37 n.  v. 35 Jer. 22:5; Psa. 118:26.

This lament foretold the end of the Sign of Jonah (No. 013) in its first phase and then the Completion of the Sign of Jonah (No. 013B) at the end of this Age.


Chapter 14

1One sabbath when he went to dine at the house of a ruler who belonged to the Pharisees, they were watching him. 2And behold, there was a man before him who had dropsy. 3And Jesus spoke to the lawyers and Pharisees, saying, "Is it lawful to heal on the sabbath, or not?" 4But they were silent. Then he took him and healed him, and let him go. 5And he said to them, "Which of you, having a son or an ox that has fallen into a well, will not immediately pull him out on a sabbath day?" 6And they could not reply to this. 7Now he told a parable to those who were invited, when he marked how they chose the places of honor, saying to them, 8"When you are invited by any one to a marriage feast, do not sit down in a place of honor, lest a more eminent man than you be invited by him; 9and he who invited you both will come and say to you, 'Give place to this man,' and then you will begin with shame to take the lowest place. 10But when you are invited, go and sit in the lowest place, so that when your host comes he may say to you, 'Friend, go up higher'; then you will be honored in the presence of all who sit at table with you. 11For every one who exalts himself will be humbled, and he who humbles himself will be exalted." 12He said also to the man who had invited him, "When you give a dinner or a banquet, do not invite your friends or your brothers or your kinsmen or rich neighbors, lest they also invite you in return, and you be repaid. 13But when you give a feast, invite the poor, the maimed, the lame, the blind, 14and you will be blessed, because they cannot repay you. You will be repaid at the resurrection of the just." 15When one of those who sat at table with him heard this, he said to him, "Blessed is he who shall eat bread in the kingdom of God!" 16But he said to him, "A man once gave a great banquet, and invited many; 17and at the time for the banquet he sent his servant to say to those who had been invited, 'Come; for all is now ready.' 18But they all alike began to make excuses. The first said to him, 'I have bought a field, and I must go out and see it; I pray you, have me excused.' 19And another said, 'I have bought five yoke of oxen, and I go to examine them; I pray you, have me excused.' 20And another said, 'I have married a wife, and therefore I cannot come.' 21So the servant came and reported this to his master. Then the householder in anger said to his servant, 'Go out quickly to the streets and lanes of the city, and bring in the poor and maimed and blind and lame.' 22And the servant said, 'Sir, what you commanded has been done, and still there is room.' 23And the master said to the servant, 'Go out to the highways and hedges, and compel people to come in, that my house may be filled. 24For I tell you, none of those men who were invited shall taste my banquet.'" 25Now great multitudes accompanied him; and he turned and said to them, 26"If any one comes to me and does not hate his own father and mother and wife and children and brothers and sisters, yes, and even his own life, he cannot be my disciple. 27Whoever does not bear his own cross and come after me, cannot be my disciple. 28For which of you, desiring to build a tower, does not first sit down and count the cost, whether he has enough to complete it? 29Otherwise, when he has laid a foundation, and is not able to finish, all who see it begin to mock him, 30saying, 'This man began to build, and was not able to finish.' 31Or what king, going to encounter another king in war, will not sit down first and take counsel whether he is able with ten thousand to meet him who comes against him with twenty thousand? 32And if not, while the other is yet a great way off, he sends an embassy and asks terms of peace. 33So therefore, whoever of you does not renounce all that he has cannot be my disciple. 34"Salt is good; but if salt has lost its taste, how shall its saltness be restored? 35It is fit neither for the land nor for the dunghill; men throw it away. He who has ears to hear, let him hear."


Intent of Chapter 14

vv. 1-6 Jesus heals a man with dropsy

(medieval term: a morbid accumulation of watery fluid in the serous cavities or the connective tissue of the body).

(Mat. 12:9 -14; Mk. 3:1-6; Lk. 6:6-11; 13:10-17)

vv. 7-14 On Humility Jesus teaches about seeking honour. v. 8 Prov. 25:6-7; Lk. 11:43; 20:46.  v. 12 Jas. 2:2-4; Mat. 5:43-48.

v. 14 Jesus appeals here, not to a spirit of material gain as reward in the judgment, but to man’s faith that the principle that Love will be vindicated (Col. 3:23-24).


vv. 15-24 Parable of the great feast

(Mat. 22:1-10 see also Mat. 8:11; 26:29; Lk. 5:32 n; 13:29). The reality may be that even though men think they highly prize the thought of sharing God’s kingdom, they may actually be rejecting appeals to act so that they may enter it.

v. 15 Lk. 22:16, 18:28-30; Rev. 19:9 (F066v).

v. 20 Deut. 24:5; 1Cor. 7:33.  v. 24 You is plural here. Jesus drops the parabolic form and speaks to the guests (v. 15) in person.


vv. 25-35 The cost, or conditions, of being a disciple. vv. 26-27 Mat. 10:37-38. v. 26 Jn. 12:25. Hate here is hyperbolic. The parallel passage in Mat. 10:37 reflects the intent of Jesus’ message.

v. 27 See Mat. 10:38. vv. 31-32 Standard practice for undertaking war campaigns at that era, unhindered by dire necessity. Only those that have nothing further to lose, and have renounced all, are fit to follow him in the service of God. 

v. 33 9:57-62; 12:33; 18:29-30; Phil. 3:7.

vv. 34-35 Mat. 5:13; Mk. 9:49-50.


Chapter 15

1Now the tax collectors and sinners were all drawing near to hear him. 2And the Pharisees and the scribes murmured, saying, "This man receives sinners and eats with them." 3So he told them this parable: 4"What man of you, having a hundred sheep, if he has lost one of them, does not leave the ninety-nine in the wilderness, and go after the one which is lost, until he finds it? 5And when he has found it, he lays it on his shoulders, rejoicing. 6And when he comes home, he calls together his friends and his neighbors, saying to them, 'Rejoice with me, for I have found my sheep which was lost.' 7Just so, I tell you, there will be more joy in heaven over one sinner who repents than over ninety-nine righteous persons who need no repentance. 8"Or what woman, having ten silver coins, if she loses one coin, does not light a lamp and sweep the house and seek diligently until she finds it? 9And when she has found it, she calls together her friends and neighbors, saying, 'Rejoice with me, for I have found the coin which I had lost.' 10Just so, I tell you, there is joy before the angels of God over one sinner who repents." 11And he said, "There was a man who had two sons; 12and the younger of them said to his father, 'Father, give me the share of property that falls to me.' And he divided his living between them. 13Not many days later, the younger son gathered all he had and took his journey into a far country, and there he squandered his property in loose living. 14And when he had spent everything, a great famine arose in that country, and he began to be in want. 15So he went and joined himself to one of the citizens of that country, who sent him into his fields to feed swine. 16And he would gladly have fed on the pods that the swine ate; and no one gave him anything. 17But when he came to himself he said, 'How many of my father's hired servants have bread enough and to spare, but I perish here with hunger! 18I will arise and go to my father, and I will say to him, "Father, I have sinned against heaven and before you; 19I am no longer worthy to be called your son; treat me as one of your hired servants."' 20And he arose and came to his father. But while he was yet at a distance, his father saw him and had compassion, and ran and embraced him and kissed him. 21And the son said to him, 'Father, I have sinned against heaven and before you; I am no longer worthy to be called your son.' 22But the father said to his servants, 'Bring quickly the best robe, and put it on him; and put a ring on his hand, and shoes on his feet; 23and bring the fatted calf and kill it, and let us eat and make merry; 24for this my son was dead, and is alive again; he was lost, and is found.' And they began to make merry. 25"Now his elder son was in the field; and as he came and drew near to the house, he heard music and dancing. 26And he called one of the servants and asked what this meant.  27And he said to him, 'Your brother has come, and your father has killed the fatted calf, because he has received him safe and sound.' 28But he was angry and refused to go in. His father came out and entreated him, 29but he answered his father, 'Lo, these many years I have served you, and I never disobeyed your command; yet you never gave me a kid, that I might make merry with my friends. 30But when this son of yours came, who has devoured your living with harlots, you killed for him the fatted calf!' 31And he said to him, 'Son, you are always with me, and all that is mine is yours. 32It was fitting to make merry and be glad, for this your brother was dead, and is alive; he was lost, and is found.'"


Intent of Chapter 15

Parables of the Lost

vv. 1-7 Parable of the lost sheep

Mat. 18:12-14 (F040iv). The parable reflects God’s concern for men who lack ability to find Him and reflects the calling of the elect over time (see Predestination (No. 296)); (see also Mat. 18:13).


vv. 8-10 Parable of the lost coin

This second parable also ties in the concern of the Loyal Host over a sinner that repents and is returned to the Kingdom. The drachma was a silver coin roughly equivalent to a denarius as a day’s wage for a labourer. The wage ties in as the payment for labour in the field of God and all were paid the same wage which was Salvation no matter how long they were given to labour (Mat. 20 (F040v).   


vv. 11-32 Parable of the lost son

v. 12 12:13 n. v. 15 swine the culminating indignity under the law of God.

vv. 22-24 His place as son is freely restored.

v. 22 Gen. 41:42; Zech. 3:4; v. 24 1Tim. 5:6; Eph. 2:1;  Lk. 9:60.  vv. 25-32  Jesus’ aim  was to demonstrate the difference between God’s love and forgiveness and the self centred complacency that not only denies love but cannot understand it.


In each case the elect are sought for and restored when found, or on repentance. All mankind are brought to repentance in the Second Resurrection (No. 143B).


The major example in the last case refers to all of the sons of God. In this case, the other son of God that was lost in a foreign land and on repentance was restored to the Kingdom of God, as a son of God, extended even to Satan and the Fallen Host. The restoration extends to the entire Host of the sons of God as we see explained in the paper Lost Sheep and the Prodigal Son (No. 199).


The extent of the mercy of God was extended to the Host in Tartaros, when Messiah visited them (Forty Days Following Christ’s Resurrection (No. 159A); and then the restoration is explained in Judgment of the Demons (No. 080).


Chapter 16

1He also said to the disciples, "There was a rich man who had a steward, and charges were brought to him that this man was wasting his goods. 2And he called him and said to him, 'What is this that I hear about you? Turn in the account of your stewardship, for you can no longer be steward.' 3And the steward said to himself, 'What shall I do, since my master is taking the stewardship away from me? I am not strong enough to dig, and I am ashamed to beg. 4I have decided what to do, so that people may receive me into their houses when I am put out of the stewardship.' 5So, summoning his master's debtors one by one, he said to the first, 'How much do you owe my master?' 6He said, 'A hundred measures of oil.' And he said to him, 'Take your bill, and sit down quickly and write fifty.' 7then he said to another, 'And how much do you owe?' He said, 'A hundred measures of wheat.' He said to him, 'Take your bill, and write eighty.' 8The master commended the dishonest steward for his shrewdness; for the sons of this world are more shrewd in dealing with their own generation than the sons of light. 9And I tell you, make friends for yourselves by means of unrighteous mammon, so that when it fails they may receive you into the eternal habitations. 10"He who is faithful in a very little is faithful also in much; and he who is dishonest in a very little is dishonest also in much. 11If then you have not been faithful in the unrighteous mammon, who will entrust to you the true riches? 12And if you have not been faithful in that which is another's, who will give you that which is your own? 13No servant can serve two masters; for either he will hate the one and love the other, or he will be devoted to the one and despise the other. You cannot serve God and mammon." 14The Pharisees, who were lovers of money, heard all this, and they scoffed at him. 15But he said to them, "You are those who justify yourselves before men, but God knows your hearts; for what is exalted among men is an abomination in the sight of God. 16"The law and the prophets were until John; since then the good news of the kingdom of God is preached, and every one enters it violently. 17But it is easier for heaven and earth to pass away, than for one dot of the law to become void. 18"Every one who divorces his wife and marries another commits adultery, and he who marries a woman divorced from her husband commits adultery. 19"There was a rich man, who was clothed in purple and fine linen and who feasted sumptuously every day. 20And at his gate lay a poor man named Laz'arus, full of sores, 21who desired to be fed with what fell from the rich man's table; moreover the dogs came and licked his sores. 22The poor man died and was carried by the angels to Abraham's bosom. The rich man also died and was buried; 23and in Hades, being in torment, he lifted up his eyes, and saw Abraham far off and Laz'arus in his bosom. 24And he called out, 'Father Abraham, have mercy upon me, and send Laz'arus to dip the end of his finger in water and cool my tongue; for I am in anguish in this flame.' 25But Abraham said, 'Son, remember that you in your lifetime received your good things, and Laz'arus in like manner evil things; but now he is comforted here, and you are in anguish. 26And besides all this, between us and you a great chasm has been fixed, in order that those who would pass from here to you may not be able, and none may cross from there to us.' 27And he said, 'Then I beg you, father, to send him to my father's house, 28for I have five brothers, so that he may warn them, lest they also come into this place of torment.' 29But Abraham said, 'They have Moses and the prophets; let them hear them.' 30And he said, 'No, father Abraham; but if some one goes to them from the dead, they will repent.' 31He said to him, 'If they do not hear Moses and the prophets, neither will they be convinced if some one should rise from the dead.'"


Intent of Chapter 16

vv. 1-18 Parable of the dishonest steward

The parable of the dishonest steward is given with the point made in v. 8 and the application in v. 9.

The master is the rich man of verse 1.

The dishonest steward was prudent in using the things of this life to ensure the future.  There is an element of naivety in the Sons of Light of the kingdom. They are the spiritually enlightened of the kingdom (cf. its use in Jn. 12:36; Eph. 5:8; 1Thes. 5:5; and the DSS in contrast to the Sons of Darkness. v. 10 Mat. 25:21; Lk. 19:17; v. 13 Mat. 6:24 n. vv 14-15 Mat. 19:16-30; Lk. 18:9-14; What is exalted  To what men give regard, when that status should be allotted only to God.

v. 17 Mat. 5:17-18; Lk. 21:33; v. 18 Mat. 5:31-32; 19:9. Mk. 10:11-12; 1Cor. 7:10-11.


vv. 19-31 The Rich Man and Lazarus

This parable was told using the false theology of the Mystery and Sun Cults, when Lazarus was to be resurrected by the Messiah, as we will see.  The purpose and explanation was to be that Lazarus was then left to live out his life, die, and then go on to the First Resurrection (No. 143A) of the elect.


The purpose is to warn those of the punishment awaiting them.


Lazarus and the Rich Man (No. 228)

The main point here is that vv. 27-31 shows that the Law of God speaks a call to repentance (v. 17).  The parable illustrated (vv. 10-15). The Messiah uses this story to castigate the Antinomian Gnostic myths being used to infiltrate pagan and Judaic Gnostic myths from Alexandria that would later be used to enter and destroy Christianity.


Bullinger’s Notes on Luke Chs. 13-16 (for KJV)


Chapter 13

Verse 1

were present = arrived.

at = in. Greek. en. App-104 . Not the same word as in Luke 13:24 .

told Him = telling Him.

of = about. Greek. peri. App-104 .

Galilaeans . . . Pilate. Probably the cause of the enmity of Luke 23:12 .

with . Greek. meta. App-104 .


Verse 2

Jesus ( App-98 . X). Read "He" with [L] T Tr. A WI R.

were = happened to be.

sinners = defaulters. Connecting it with Luke 12:58 .

above . Greek para. App-104 .

suffered = have suffered.


Verse 3

tell = say to.

Nay . Greek. ouchi. App-105 .

except ye repent = if ( App-118 ) ye repent ( App-111 ) not ( App-105 ).


Verse 4

upon . Greek. epi. App-104 .

in . Greek en. App-104 . Not the same word as in Luke 13:21 .

Siloam. See App-68 . Compare Nehemiah 3:16 . Isaiah 8:6 . John 19:7 .

slew = killed.

men. Greek. anthropos. App-123 .


Verse 6

this parable . Combining the fig tree and the vineyard. See John 15:1 .

a fig tree. The symbol of Israel's national privilege. See notes on Judges 9:8-12 . Here it denotes that special privilege of that generation. Compare Jeremiah 24:3 .Hosea 9:10 . Matthew 21:19 .

vineyard . Psalms 80:8-11 . Compare Isaiah 5:2 , &c.

thereon = on (Greek. en. App-104 .) it.

none = not ( App-105 . a) any.


Verse 7

unto . Greek. pros. App-104 .

dresser of vineyard . One word in Greek. Occurs only here. Behold. Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6 .

these three years . Can refer only to the period of the Lord's ministry. The texts add aph' hou = from which, or since (three years). on. Greek. en. App-104 .

cut it down = cut it out: i.e. from among the vines.

cumbereth it the ground = injureth it the soil also. The Authorized Version omits this "also", though it stands in the Greek text.

cumbereth. Greek. katargeo. Only here in the Gospels. Twenty-five times in the Epistles in the sense of vitiate. See Romans 3:3 .


Verse 8

Lord. App-98 .

this : i.e. this third year.

about . Greek. peri. App-104 .

dung it = put manure. Greek. kopria. Only here, and Luke 14:35 .


Verse 9

if , &c. App-118 .

not . Greek. mege, compound of me. App-105 .

after that in (Greek. eis. App-104 .) the future.

thou shalt . Note, not I will.


Verse 10

sabbath . Plural See on Luke 24:1 .


Verse 11

spirit. Greek. pneuma. An evil demon. App-101 .12.

of = causing. Genitive of Origin. App-17 .

eighteen years . A type of the condition of the nation. A long-standing case, as "Signs" "C" and "C". App-176 .

bowed together = bent double. Occurs only here in N.T.

could in no wise lift = wholly unable to lift, &c.

in no wise . Not. Greek. ou me, as in Luke 13:35 ; but me eis to panteles = not unto the furthest extent = unable to the uttermost. Occurs only here (complete human inability), and Hebrews 7:25 (complete Divine ability).

lift up. Occurs only here, Luke 21:28 and John 8:7 , John 8:10 in the N.T.


Verse 12

saw. App-133 .

loosed. Used of disease only here in N.T., because she had been bound with a demoniac band. See note on Mark 7:35 .


Verse 13

made straight = set upright again. Greek. anorthoo. Occurs only here, Acts 16:16 . Hebrews 12:12 . Compare am = again, in analuo Luke 12:36 ("return ").


Verse 14

not . Greek. me. App-105 .


Verse 15

hypocrite. See note on Luke 11:44

not. Greek. ou. App-105 .

loose. Compare note on Luke 13:12 , and see the Structure.

from. Greek. apo. App-104 .


Verse 16

ought. The same word as the ruler's, but as an Interrogative. The former was based on ceremonial law; the Lord's, on the necessity of Divine love.

daughter. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Species), App-6 . for descendant.

lo. Greek. idou. App-133 . Same as Behold, Luke 13:7 .

bond. See note on Mark 7:35 .


Verse 17

when He had said = while He was saying.

ashamed = put to shame

for = at. Greek. epi. App-104 .

done = coming to pass.

by . Greek. hupo. App-104 .


Verse 18

Then said He, &c. Repeated with variations from Matthew 13:31 , &c.

Unto what . . . ? Compare Isaiah 40:18 .

the kingdom of God . App-114 .


Verse 19

into . Greek. eis. App-104 .

waxed = became into (Greek. eis).

great. Omit [L] T [Tr. A] WH R.

fowls = birds.

the air = the heaven. Singular. See notes on Matthew 6:9 , Matthew 6:10 .

lodged = nested. Greek. kataskenoo. Occurs four times: here; Matthew 13:32 .Mark 4:32 , Acts 2:26 .


Verse 21

leaven. See note on Matthew 13:33 .

in. Greek. eis. App-104 .


Verse 22

through . Greek. kata. App-104 .

journeying = progressing.

toward . Greek. eis . App-104 .


Verse 23

Lord . App-98 . A.

are there = if ( App-118 . a) there are.

be = are being.


Verse 24

Strive = Struggle, literally agonize. Occurs elsewhere only in John 18:36 . 1 Corinthians 9:25 .Colossians 1:29 ; Colossians 4:12 . 1 Timothy 6:12 . 2 Timothy 4:7 .

at = through. Greek. dia. App-104 .Luke 13:1 .

strait = narrow.

gate . All the texts read "door", as in Luke 13:25 . In Matthew 7:13 it is "gate".


Verse 25

When once = From (Greek. apo. App-104 . iv) whatsoever time. master of the house. App-98 .

is risen up = may have risen up (Greek. an).

shut to . Occurs only here.

Lord, Lord . Note the Figure of speech Epizeuxis ( App-6 ), for emphasis. See note on Genesis 22:11 .

I know. Greek. oida. App-132 .

whence : i, e. of what family or household.


Verse 26

in Thy presence = before Thee.

Thou hast taught , &c. This shows to whom these words are addressed, and thus limits the interpretation to "this generation".


Verse 27

iniquity = unrighteousness. Greek adikia. App-128 .


Verse 28

weeping = the weeping. See note on Matthew 8:12 .

when . Defining the special occasion.

see . App-133 .

thrust out = being cast outside. This is the occasion referred to.


Verse 29

they shall come . A reference to Isaiah 49:12 .

and . Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton. App-6 .

sit down = recline (at table). Compare Luke 7:36 ; Luke 12:37 .


Verse 31

The same day = In, or on, &c. (Greek. en. App-104 .) = just then.

day . LT Tr. WH R read" hour".

certain of the Pharisees = certain Pharisees.

will = wishes: i.e. means to. See App-102 .


Verse 32

fox . Figure of speech Hypocatastasis. App-6 .

devils = demons.

do cures = perform, or effect cures.

cures. Occurs only here

and Acts 4:22 , Acts 4:30 .

I shall be perfected = I come to an end [of My work]: viz. by the miracle of John 11:40-44 . Compare John 19:30 .


Verse 33

walk = journey: i.e. through Herod's country.

it cannot be = it is not ( App-105 .) fitting. Greek. endechomai. Occurs only here in N.T.

a prophet. See next verse.

out of: i.e. except in.


Verse 34

Jerusalem, Jerusalem . Figure of speech Epizeuxis ( App-6 ). See note on Genesis 22:11 . Repeated on the second day before the Passover (Matthew 23:37 ). See App-156 .

killest the prophets. See Luke 11:47 ; Luke 20:14 ; Luke 23:34 . Compare Isaiah 1:21 .

would I have gathered = I desired to gather. Compare Luk 13:36

children . App-108 .

hen . Specially contrasted with "fox", Luke 13:32 . Compare Matthew 23:37 .

under. Greek. hupo. App-104 .

ye would not = ye did not desire it.


Verse 35

your house = the Temple. It had been Jehovah's house. Compare John 2:16 . Now it was no longer owned as His. Compare Luke 19:46 .

desolate . Every place is "desolate" where Christ is not.

verily. See note on Matthew 5:18 .

not = by no means. Greek. ou me. App-105 . until. Greek. heos an all the texts omit "an", but it does not alter the conditional sense, which is in the verb).

Blessed. Figure of speech Benedictio, as in Luke 1:42 ; Luke 19:38 ; not Beatitude, as in Luke 12:37 , Luke 12:38 , Luke 12:43 , or Luke 14:14 , Luke 14:15 . Quoted from Psalms 118:26 . Referring to the final and national repentance of Israel, which might have been then (Acts 3:18-20 )near, but Acts 28:25-28 is yet future, while all blessedness has been postponed.

He That cometh = the coming One.

LORD = Jehovah. App-4 and App-98 .


Chapter 14

Verse 1

it came to pass . A Hebraism. See on Luke 2:1 .

as He went = in (Greek. en App-104 .) His going. into. Greek. eis. App-104 .

chief Pharisees = rulers of the Pharisees ( App-120 ).

bread . Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the Part) for any kind of food.

the sabbath day = a certain Sabbath.

watched = were engaged in watching.


Verse 2

behold . Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6 .

man ( App-123 .1) . . . which had the dropsy = dropsical (a medical term). Occurs only here.

before Him. Not one of the guests.


Verse 3

Jesus . App-98 .

unto . Greek. pros. App-104 .

lawyers = doctors of the law.


Verse 4

took = took bold of. Compare Luke 20:20 . 1 Timothy 6:12 .


Verse 5

answered them = answering unto (Greek. pros; as in Luke 14:3 ) them.

an ass . All the texts read huios = a son, instead of onos = an ass, which latter has no MS. authority. In O.T. always ox and ass. Compare Exodus 23:12 .

not. Greek. ou. App-105 . Not the same word as in verses: Luke 8:12 , Luke 8:28 , Luke 8:29 ,

straightway = immediately.

pull . . . out = draw. . . up. The Greek word occurs only here and Acts 11:10 .


Verse 6

answer again = reply.

to = as

to . Greek pros. App-101 .


Verse 7

to. Greek. pros. App-104 . Not the same word as in Luke 14:8 .

bidden = invited or called. Greek. kaleo

chose out = were picking out. Going on before His eyes.

chief rooms = first couches. Greek protoklisia. Same as "highest room", Luke 14:8 . Compare Luke 20:46 . Matthew 23:6 .


Verse 8

of = by. Greek hupo. App-104 . Not the same word as in verses: Luke 14:28 , Luke 14:33 .

to. Greek. eis. App-104 .

a wedding = wedding feast.

sit = recline.

not. Greek me. App-105 . Not the same word as in verses: Luke 14:5 , Luke 14:6 , Luke 14:14 , Luke 5:20 , Luke 5:26 , Luke 5:27 , Luke 5:28 , Luke 5:30 .

in . Greek. eis. App-104 .


Verse 9

place. Greek. topes.

begin. Compare Proverbs 25:6 , Proverbs 25:7 .

with . Greek. meta. App-104 .

to take = to take (and keep in it).

lowest = last. Greek eschatos room = place, as above. Compare Luke 14:22 with Luke 2:7 .


Verse 10

Friend . Greek. philos, Noun of phileo. App-135 .

go up = go up, forward.

Occurs only here.

worship = honour. Greek. doxa = glory.

at meat = at table.


Verse 11

For, &c. This is repeatedon two other occasions. Compare Luke 18:14 and Matthew 23:12 .

abased = humbled.


Verse 12

also to him = to him also. The host.

dinner . . . supper. See note on Matthew 22:4 .

call. Greek. phoneo. Compare 19. 15.

nor. Figure of speech Paradiastole ( App-6 ), for emphasis.

neither . . . nor. Greek mede, compound of me. App-105 .

bid . . . again. Greek. antikaleo. Occurs only here.

be made thee = take place, when such an one asks for gifts, not friends.


Verse 13

feast, or reception . Occurs only here and in Luke 5:29 .

call. Same word as bid, Luke 14:7 .

the poor. Note the Figure of speech Asyndeton ( App-6 ), not emphasizing the particular classes, but hastening us on to the climax in Luke 14:14 . Note the opposite Figure in Luke 14:21 .

maimed = crippled. Only here, and Luke 14:21 .


Verse 14

And thou shalt be blessed . This is the climax.

blessed = happy, Figure of speech Beatitudo, not Benedictio.

cannot = have not [wherewith to]. App-105 .

at = in. Greek. en. App-104 .

resurrection. App-178 .


Verse 15

in. Greek. en. App-104 .

the kingdom of God . See App-114 .


Verse 16

made. T Tr. A Val and R read "was making". This parable is in Luke only. For the interpretation, see App-140 .:17 sent. According to custom.


Verse 17

servant = bondman.


Verse 18

with one consent = from (Greek. apo. App-104 . iv) one [mind],

make excuse . beg off.

a piece of ground = a field.

must needs = have need to.

go = go out (i.e. from the city). Greek. exerchomai, as in verses: Luke 14:21 , Luke 14:23 .

and see = to see. App-133 .

I pray. App-134 .

have = consider me.


Verse 19

another . App-124 .

go = go forth.

prove = try.

have = hold.


Verse 20

therefore = on account of (Greek. dia) this.

cannot = am not (Greek. ou. App-105 ) able to.


Verse 21

shewed = reported to.

lord . App-98 .

the master of the house . App-98 . Note these different titles, appropriate to each case, and see App-140 .

the city. Jerusalem. See App-140 .

the poor . Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton ( App-6 ) in this verse, emphasizing each class (with no climax at the end). The opposite of the Figure of speech in verses: Luke 14:13 , Luke 14:14 .

and. This is the Figure.

halt = lame. The same word as "lame" in Luke 14:13 .


Verse 22

Lord. App-98 . B. Note the various titles throughout.

hast commanded = didst command,

yet = still.


Verse 23

compel = constrain. See all the nine occur here: Matthew 14:22 .Mark 6:45 .Acts 26:11 ; Act 28:19 . 2 Corinthians 12:11 .Galatians 1:2 , Galatians 1:3 , Galatians 1:14 ; Galatians 6:12 . Compulsion necessary, because the "will" is a fallen "will", and therefore no stronger than that of our first parents when unfallen. See Psalms 14:2 , Psalms 14:3 ; Psalms 53:2 , 3 John 1:53 John 1:5 :40 . Romans 3:10-18 . Man's fallen will has never been used for God, without the compulsion of Philippians 2:13 .

may be filled . Used of loading a ship.


Verse 24

none = not (Greek. ou. App-105 ) one.

men . App-123 . Not the same word as in verses: Luke 14:2 , Luke 14:16 , Luke 14:30 .


Verse 26

If any . The case being assumed. App-118 .

hate not. See Matthew 10:37 .

life = soul. See App-110 .


Verse 27

his = his own.


Verse 28

of = out of. Greek. ek. App-104 . Not the same word as in Luke 14:8 .

intending = desiring. See App-102 .

not. App-105 .

counteth = reckoneth, or calculateth. Greek psephizo. Occurs only here and in Revelation 13:18 in N.T. It is from psephos = a pebble, with which calculations were made, or votes given. Occurs only in Acts 26:10 . Revelation 2:17

cost . Greek. dapane. Occurs only here.

whether. Same as "if" in Luke 14:26 .

sufficient to finish it = the [means] for (Greek. pros. App-104 ., but the texts read eis) [its] completion. Greek. apartismos. Occurs only here.


Verse 29

the foundation = its foundation.

able = strong enough.

finish it finish it off . Greek. ekteleo. Only here and Luke 14:30 .

behold . Greek. theoreo. App-133 .

begin . As they see him nearing the end of his resources.


Verse 30

Saying, &c. = Saying that this man, &c. See note on Luke 4:21 ; Luke 19:9 . Mark 14:30 , &c.


Verse 31

to make war = to encounter for (Greek. eis. App-104 .) war.

with = in [the midst of]. Greek en. App-104 .

to meet . Greek. apantao, as in Matthew 28:9 .

against. Greek. epi. App-104 .


Verse 32

Greek.else = If not.

ambassage = embassy. Only here and Luke 19:14 .

desireth = asketh, or seeketh. App-134 .

conditions = the [terms].

of = for. Greek. pros. App-104 .


Verse 33

forsaketh = taketh leave of.

he hath = himself possesses.


Verse 34

Salt , &c. See note on Matthew 5:13 .

if , &c. A contingent assumption. App-118 .

lost his savour = become tasteless. Compare Matthew 5:13 .

wherewith = with (Greek. en App-104 .) what.

seasoned . Only here, Mark 9:50 . Colossians 4:6 .


Verse 35

for. Greek. eis. App-104 . land. App-129 .

the dunghill = manure.

out = without

He that hath, &c. See App-142 .


Chapter 15

Verse 1

Then drew near = Then were drawing near.

all . Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the Part), App-6 , for a large number.

publicans = tax-gatherers.

for to hear = to hear.


Verse 2

Pharisees. See App-120 . This settles the scope of all that follows.

murmured = were muttering. The word implies subdued threatening. Occurs only here and Luke 19:7 .

sinners . See on Matthew 9:10 .


Verse 3

this parable. It had already been uttered in Matthew 18:12-14 with another object (Luke 15:11 ), and with a different application (Luke 15:14 ). It is now repeated, later, under different circumstances (Luke 15:1 , Luke 15:2 ), in combination with two other similar parables, with quite another application (verses: 6, 7; 9, 10; 23, 24). Hence the change of certain words.

unto. Greek. pros. App-104 .

them. This determines the scope of the three parables.


Verse 4

man. Greek. anthropos. App-123 . Here representing Christ.

of = from among. Greek. ek. App-104 .

if he lose = having lost.

not . Greek. ou. App-105 .

in . Greek. en. App-104 .

wilderness . A place of wild fertility. Compare Luke 2:8 . after. Greek. epi. App-104 .

until he find it? Note the importance of this expression.


Verse 5

when he hath found it = having found it. In Matt., "If so be that he find it. "For the reason, see note on Luke 15:3 .

on. Greek. epi. App-104 .

his shoulders = his own shoulders; not those of another.


Verse 6

when he cometh = having come.

home = into (Greek. eis. App-104 .) the house.

with me ; not with the sheep (because of the scope of the parable). See note on Luke 15:3 . The joy is in heaven (Luke 15:7 ).


Verse 7

I : i.e. I who know. John 1:51 .

you . Murmuring Pharisees. This is the point of the parable.

heaven. Singular. See notes on Matthew 6:9 , Matthew 6:10 .

over . Greek. epi. App-104 .

that repenteth = repenting. App-111 .

just persons: i.e. the Pharisees. Compare Luke 15:2 ; Luke 16:15 ; Luke 18:9 . Greek. ou. App-105 .

repentance. App-111 . Compare Matthew 3:2 .


Verse 8

Either . This parable is recorded only in Luke.

woman. Here representing the Holy Spirit.

ten . See the Structures of Luke 15:2 in the Luke book comments.

pieces of silver. Greek drachmas. Occurs only here, and in Luke 15:9 . See App-51 .

if she lose. An uncertain contingency. App-118 .

not . Greek. ouchi. App-105 .

candle = lamp. App-130 .

diligently . A medical word. Used only here.

till . Same as "until" in Luke 15:4 .


Verse 9

friends . Female friends (feminine)

the piece. Not "my", as in Luke 15:6 .

I had lost = I lost. Compare "was lost" in Luke 15:6 .


Verse 10

is = becomes, or takes place, or results. Same as "arose" in Luke 15:14 .

in the presence of = before. It does not say that the angels rejoice; but it is the divine joy in their presence.

God . App-98 .


Verse 11

And He said . This parable is peculiar to this gospel. Seenote on Luke 15:8 .

man (as in Luke 15:4 ). Here representing the Father (God).

two sons . See the Structure (V3, above).


Verse 12

give me . Contrast "make me" (Luke 15:19 ).

the portion. According to Jewish law, in the case of two sons the elder took two-thirds, and the younger one-third of movable property, at the father's death.

goods = movable property. Greek. ousia. Only here and Luke 15:13 .

falleth to me. This is the technical term in the Papyri, in such cases. See Deissmann's Light, &c., p. 152, and Bib. Stud., p. 230.

them . Including the elder, who did not ask it.

living. Greek. bios, life. App-170 . Put by Figure of speech Metonomy (of Effect), App-6 , for his means or property which supported his life.


Verse 13

after . Greek meta. App-104 . Referring to the rapidity of the fall of Israel.

took his journey = went abroad.

into . Greek. eis. App-104 .

far country. Compare Acts 2:39 . Ephesians 2:17 .

substance = property. Same word as "goods" in Luke 15:12 .

with riotous living = living ruinously. Greek. asotos. Occurs only here. The kindred noun (asotia) occurs only in Ephesians 5:18 . Titus 1:6 . 1 Peter 4:4 .


Verse 14

when he had spent = having spent. Greek. dapanao. Elsewhere only Mark 5:26 . Acts 21:24 . 2 Corinthians 12:15 .James 4:3 .

in = throughout. Greek. kata. App-104 . Not the same word as in verses: Luke 15:4 , Luke 15:7 , Luke 15:25 .

began to be in want . Contrast "began to be merry" (Luke 15:24 ).


Verse 15

joined himself to = cleaved to (Greek. Pass. of kollao glue together); i.e. he forced himself.

a citizen = one of the citizens. Contrast Philippians 1:3 , Philippians 1:20 .


Verse 16

would fain have filled = was longing to fill.

with = from. Greek. apo. App-104 .

husks = pods of the carob tree. Only here in N.T.

did eat = were eating.

and. Note the emphasis of the Figure of speech Polysyndeton ( App-6 ), here.

no man. Greek. oudeis, compound of ou . App-105 .


Verse 17

came to himself . Compare "came to his father" (Luke 15:20 ).

to. Greek. eis. App-104 .

have bread enough and to spare , or abound in food.

I perish = I (emph.) am perishing.

with hunger = from the famine. The texts add hode = here.


Verse 18

to . Greek. pros. App-104 .

sinned . App-128 .

against . Greek. eis. App-104 .

heaven. Singular with Art. See notes on Matthew 6:9 , Matthew 6:10 . "Heaven" put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Subject), App-6 , for God Himself.

before. Greek. enopion. Same word as in Luke 15:10 "in the presence of".


Verse 19

am no more worthy = I no longer deserve. make me. Contrast "give me " (Luke 15:12 ).


Verse 20

came to his father . Compare "came to himself" (Luke 15:17 ).

his = his own.

and. Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton ( App-6 ).

ran . Compare Isaiah 6:6 , "Then flew". See note on Luke 15:21 , and compare Isaiah 65:24 .

kissed = fervently kissed. Same word as in Matthew 26:49 .


Verse 21

I have sinned = I sinned. Confession of sin is the necessary condition for receiving the blessing. Compare 2 Samuel 12:13 .Psalms 32:5 .Isaiah 6:5 , Isaiah 6:6 . Isaiah 5:8 , &c. And so with Israel (Leviticus 26:40-42 .Isaiah 64:6 , Isaiah 64:7 . Hosea 5:15 ; Hosea 14:1 , Hosea 14:2 ).

in thy sight . Same Greek words as "before thee" in Luke 15:18 .

son. Note the Figure of speech Aposiopesis ( App-6 ), for he did not finish what he meant to have said.


Verse 22

servants = bond-servants.

Bring forth. L [Tr. ] A WH R add "quickly".

best = first. Either the first that comes to hand, or the former robe the son used to wear. See on Genesis 27:15 .

and. Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton ( App-6 ), emphasizing each particular.

put it on him = clothe him with it.

ring = a signet-ring. Occurs only here. See James 2:2 , and compare Genesis 41:42 .

on = for (Greek. eis. App-104 .)

shoes = sandals. The ring and the sandals mark a free man. Servants went barefoot.


Verse 23

kill it = sacrifice it. It was a sacrificial feast.


Verse 24

was . Not the past tense of the verb "die", but of the verb "to be". He had been as a dead man (Greek. nekros. App-189 ) to his father.

is found = was; i.e. "when he came to himself" (Luke 15:17 ), which shows that that was the result of the father's seeking. began, &c. Contrast "began to be in want" (Luke 15:14 ).


Verse 25

his elder son . This is the point of the parable (Compare Luke 15:2 ). It was addressed "unto them" specially (v 3), as the correction of their murmuring.

musick and dancing. Greek. symphonies and chorus, i.e. a "choral dance". Both words Occurs only here.


Verse 26

called = called to him.,

servants = young men. Greek. pais . See App-108 . Not the same word as in verses: Luke 15:17 , Luke 15:19 , Luke 15:22 .

asked = began to inquire. Imperf. tense.

meant = might be.


Verse 27

is come . . . safe and sound. Corresponding with the father's dead and lost . . . alive and found (Luke 15:24 ).


Verse 28

he was angry . Referring to the deep-seated feeling of the Pharisees against Messiah and those who followed Him. This increased steadily (and is seen to-day). Compare Acts 11:2 , Acts 11:3 , Acts 11:17 , Acts 11:18 ; Acts 13:45 , Acts 13:50 ; Acts 14:5 , Acts 14:19 ; Acts 17:5 , Acts 17:6 , Acts 17:13 ; Acts 18:12 , Acts 18:13 ; Acts 19:9 ; Acts 21:27-31 ; Acts 22:18-22 .Galatians 5:11 . 1 Thessalonians 2:14-16 ,

would not go in = was not willing ( App-102 .) to go in.

intreated. Greek. parakaleo. App-134 .


Verse 29

Lo . Greek. idou. App-133 . Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6 .

neither transgressed I , &c. This was the Pharisees' claim and boast. Compare Luke 18:11 , Luke 18:12 ; Luke 18:18-21 .

a kid. In contrast with "the fatted calf" (Luke 15:23 ). with. Greek. meta. App-104 .

friends. Contrast with harlots (Luke 15:30 .


Verse 30

thy son. Not "my brother". Contrast with "thy brother" (Luke 15:32 ).

was come = came as though a stranger. Not "returned".

devoured = eaten up. Contrast with Luke 15:23 .

thy. Malignant thought.

harlots. Contrast with "my friends" (Luke 15:29 ).


Verse 31

Son =. Child. Greek. teknon. Affectionately reminding him of his birth. App-108 .

ever = always. App-151 .

all that I have. See Romans 9:4 , Romans 9:5 , and compare Matthew 20:14 .


Verse 32

It was meet. Compare Acts 11:18 .

thy brother. Contrast with "thy son" (Luke 15:30 ).


Chapter 16

Verse 1

also unto His disciples = unto His disciples also. Note the Structure R and R, p. 1479, which gives the scope of the two chapters: both peculiar to this gospel.

unto . Greek. pros. App-104 .

a certain rich man . Compare Luke 16:19 .

man. Greek. anthropos. App-123 .

steward . A house manager, or agent, managing the house and servants, assigning the tasks, &c., of the latter. Compare Eliezer (Genesis 15:2 ; Genesis 24:2 ), Joseph (Genesis 39:4 ).

was accused . Greek. diaballomai. Occurs only here = to be struck through, implying malice, but not necessarily falsehood.

that he had wasted = as wasting.


Verse 2

How is it . . . ? = What is this . . ?

of = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104 . Not the same word as in Luke 16:9 .

give = render.

an = the.

stewardship = the office of the steward (Luke 16:1 ).

mayest = canst.

no . Greek. ou . App-105 .


Verse 3

within = in. Greek. en. App-104 .

lord = master, as in Luke 16:13 . App-98 . A.

taketh away = is taking away.

from. Greek. apo. App-104 .

I cannot dig, &c. = to dig, I am not (Greek. ou. App-105 ) strong enough.

beg. Greek. epaiteo. Compare App-134 . Occurs only here in Authorized Version, but See Luke 18:35 .

ashamed . Ashamed to beg, but not ashamed to embezzle.


Verse 4

I am resolved , &c.; or, I haveit!

I know , &c. App-132 .

to do = I will do.

when I am put out of = when I shall have been removed from.

they: i.e. the debtors.

into . Greek. eis. App-104 .

their = their own.


Verse 5

called. Separately.

every = each.


Verse 6

measures. Greek. p1. of batos. the Hebrew bath. App-51 . (11) (7). Not the same word as in Luke 16:7 .

Take = Take back.

thy bill = writings, i.e. agreement.

sit. write = sitting down,

quickly write,

quickly . It was a secret and hurried transaction.


Verse 7

another. Greek. heteros. App-124 .

thou. Note the emphasis: "And thou, How much owest thou? "

measures. Greek. Plural of koros. App-51 . (11) (8). Not the same word as in Luke 16:6


Verse 8

the lord = his master.

wisely = shrewdly. Occurs only here.

children = sons. App-108 .

world = age. App-129 .

in their generation wiser, &c. these two clauses should be transposed.

in = to; i.e. with reference to. Greek. eis. App-104 .

their = their own.

wiser = more shrewd.

than = above. Greek. huper. App-104 .

children of light. Supply the Ellipsis: [are with reference to theirs]. In the former case they are all unscrupulousalike.


Verse 9

And = And, Do say unto you? &c. Is this what I say to you? In verses: Luke 16:10-12 the Lord gives the reason why He does not say that; otherwise these verses are wholly inconsequent, instead of being the true application of verses: Luke 16:1-8 (Z, above). For this punctuation see App-94 .Luke 16:3 .

of = out of, or by. Greek. ek. App-104 .

mammon. Aramaic for "riches". See App-94 .:32.

ye fail. All the texts read "it shall fail".

everlasting = eternal. Greek. aionios. App-151 .

habitations = tents. Answering to the "houses" of Luke 16:4 .


Verse 10

He that is faithful , &c. This is the Lord's own teaching, which gives the reason why "No! "is the true answer to His question in Luke 16:9 .

faithful. App-150 .

in . Greek. en. App-104 .

also in much = in much also.


Verse 11

If. Assuming it as a fact. App-118 . not. Greek. ou . App-105 .

commit to your trust = entrust to you. App-150 . true. App-175 .


Verse 12

another man's = a foreigner's. Compare Acts 7:6 and Hebrews 11:9 ("strange "), and Matthew 17:25 , Matthew 17:26 ("stranger "). Greek. allotrios ( App-124 .)

your own . Greek. humeteros. But, though all themodern critical texts (except WH and Rm) read it thus, yet the primitive text must have read hemeteros = ours, or our own; for it is the reading of "B "(the Vatican MS.) and, before this or any other Greek MS. extant, Origen (186-253), Tertullian (second cent.), read hemon --ours; while Theophylact (1077), and Euthymius (twelfth cent.), with B (the Vatican MS.) read hemeteros = our own, in contrast with "foreigners "in preceding clause. See note on 1 John 2:2 . This makes true sense; otherwise it is unintelligible.


Verse 13

servant = domestic household servant. Greek. oiketes. Occurs only here; Acts 10:7 . Rom 14:4 . 1 Peter 2:18 .

can = isable to.

serve = do bondservice. Greek. douleuo. As in Luke 15:29 .

masters = lords, as in verses: Luke 16:3 , Luke 16:5 , Luke 16:5 , Luke 3:8 .

the other . Same as "another" in Luke 16:7 .

cannot = are not (Greek. ou. App-105 ) able to.

God. See App-98 .


Verse 14

the Pharisees . See App-120 .

were = being then. Greek. huparcho, as in Luke 16:23 , and see on Luke 7:25 .

covetous = money-lovers (referring to mammon, verses: 11, 13); Occurs only here, and 2 Timothy 3:2 .

derided = were turning up their noses at. Occurs only here and Luke 23:35 . Found in the LXX. Pas. Luke 2:4 ; Luke 22:7 ; Luke 22:35 . is. This was the immediate cause of the second Parable (verses: Luke 16:19-30 ), and the solemn application (Luke 16:31 ).


Verse 15

unto them . Addressed to the Pharisees. See the Structure "R" and "R", p. 1479.

justify yourselves . See notes on Luke 15:7 , Luke 15:29 ; and Compare Luke 7:39 . Matthew 23:25 .

among . Greek. en. App-104 . abomination. In contrast with their derision.

in the sight of . Same word as "before" in preceding clause.


Verse 16

The law . See note on Matthew 5:17 .

since that time = since (Greek. apo. App-104 .) then.

the kingdom of God . See App-114 .

preached . Greek. euangelizo. See App-121 .

every man . Greek. pas, all. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the Genus), App-6 , for many. "But not ye! "

presseth . See note on Matthew 11:12 .


Verse 17

heaven . Singular with Art. See note on Matthew 6:9 , Matthew 6:10 .

earth. Greek. ge . App-129 .

tittle . See note on Matthew 5:18 and App-93 .


Verse 18

Whosoever, &c. This verse is not "loosely connected", or "out of any connexion" with what precedes, as alleged. The Structure above shows its true place, in C1, how the Pharisees made void the law (as to divorce); and C2, how they made void the prophets (verses: Luke 16:16 , Luke 16:17 ) and the rest of Scripture as to the dead (verses: 19-23).

putteth away , &c. The Rabbis made void the law and the prophets by their traditions, evading Deuteronomy 22:22 , and their "scandalous licence" regarding Deuteronomy 24:1 . See John Lightfoot, Works (1658), J. R. Pitman's edn. (1823), vol. xi, pp. 116-21 for the many frivolous grounds for divorce.


Verse 19

There was, &c . = But there was. This commences the second part of the Lord's address to the Pharisees, against their tradition making void God's word as to the dead, which may be seen in Psalms 6:5 ; Psalms 30:9 ; Psalms 31:17 ; Psalms 88:11 ; Psalms 115:17 ; Psalms 146:4 .Ecclesiastes 9:6 , Ecclesiastes 9:10 ; Ecclesiastes 12:7 . Isaiah 38:17-19 , &c. It is not called a "parable", because it cites a notable example of the Pharisees' tradition, which had been brought from Babylon. See many other examples in Lightfoot, vol. xii, pp. 159-68. Their teaching has no Structure. See C2 above.

was clothed = was habitually clothed. Imperf. tense. See on Luke 8:27 .

sumptuously = in splendour. Greek. Adverb of lampros, is translated "gorgeous" in Luke 23:11 . Only here.


Verse 20

beggar = poor man. App-127 .

Lazarus. A common Talmudic contraction of the Hebrew Eleazar; but introduced by the Lord to point to His own closing comment in Luke 16:31 .

laid = cast down.

at . Greek. pros. App-104 .

full of sores . Greek. helkoo. Occurs only here.


Verse 21

desiring = eagerly desiring; but in vain, as in Luke 15:16 ("would fain ").

with = from. Greek. apo. App-104 .

the crumbs . Some texts read "the things". moreover, &c. = but [instead of finding food] even the dogs, &c.

licked = licked off; i.e. licked clean. Greek. apoleicho. Occurs only here. The texts read epileicho, licked over.

sores . Greek. helkos (= ulcer),


Verse 22

by. Greek. hupo. App-104 .

the angels . The Pharisees taught that there were three sets of angels for wicked men; and others for good men. See Luke 16:18 ; and Lightfoot, Works, vol. xii, pp. 159-61.

Abraham's bosom. The Pharisees taught that there were three places: (1) Abraham's bosom; (2) "under the throne of glory"; (3) in the garden of Eden(Greek. Paradise). Speaking of death, they would say "this day he sits in Abraham's bosom". Lightfoot, Works, vol. xii, pp. 159-63.

and was buried 23. in hell . Tatian (e. D. 170), the Vulgate and Syriac, omit the second "and", and read, "and was buried in Hades".


Verse 23

hell. Greek. Hades = the grave. See App-131 .

lift up = having lifted up. Compare similar imagery in Judges 9:7-15 .Isaiah 14:9-11 .

being = being there. See note on "were", Luke 16:14 .

torments. Greek. basanos. Occurs only here, Luke 16:28 , and Matthew 4:24 .

afar off = from (Greek. apo. App-104 .) afar.

seeth . . . Lazarus . The Pharisees taught that in life two men may be "coupled together", and one sees the other after death, and conversations take place. See Lightfoot, quoted above.


Verse 24

he cried and said = crying out, he said. The Pharisees gave long stories of similar imaginary conversations and discourses. See Lightfoot, vol. xi, pp. 165-7. Father Abraham. Compare Matthew 3:9 . John 8:39 .

cool. Greek. katapsucho. Occurs only here. A medical word. tormented distressed. Greek. odunaomai. Occurs only in Luke (here, Luke 2:48 , and Acts 20:38 , "sorrowing").


Verse 25

Son = Child. Greek. teknon. App-108 .

lifetime = life. Greek. zoe, as being the opposite of death. See App-170 .

receivedst = didst receive back, or had all.

evil things. See App-128 .


Verse 26

beside . Greek. epi. App-104 .

is = has been.

gulf = chasm. A transliteration of the Greek chasma, from chasko, to gape. A medical word for an open wound.

fixed = set fast, established. Compare Luke 9:51 (set His face). Rom 1:11 . 2 Peter 1:12 .

would = desire to. Greek thelo. App-102 .

to . Greek pros. App-101 .

cannot = are not (Greek. me. App-105 ) able.

neither. Greek. mede.


Verse 27

I pray = I entreat. Greek. erotao. App-134 .

to = unto. Greek. eis. App-104 .


Verse 28

testify = earnestly testify.

lest they also = that they also may not (Greek. me. App-105 ).


Verse 29

Moses and the prophets. The latter including the historical books. See App-1 . Referring to Luke 16:16 . Compare John 1:45 ; John 5:39 , John 5:46 .

Moses . See note on Luke 5:14 .


Verse 30

Nay. Greek ouchi. App-105 .

if. Implying a contingency. See App-118 .

from = away from. App-104 . Contrast the Lord's ek ( App-104 in next clause).

the dead. No Art. See App-139 .

repent . See App-111 .


Verse 31

And , &c. The lesson of the parable. From these final words of the Lord (Luke 16:31 , B) Lightfoot says "it is easy to judge what was the design and intention of this parable" (vol. xii, p. 168). The Lord's words were proved to be true, by the results of the resurrection of another Lazarus (John 12:9 ), and of Himself (Matthew 28:11-13 ).

be persuaded. Much less "repent", as in Luke 16:30 .

though = not even if.

from = from among. Note the Lord's true word, in contrast with the rich man's in Luke 16:30 .