Christian Churches of God


No. F042






Commentary on Luke: Introduction and Part 1

(Edition 1.5 20220622-20220627)


Commentary on Chapters 1-4.



Christian Churches of God

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Commentary on Luke: Introduction and Part 1


We know that Mark and Luke were offended by Christ’s saying re eating his body and drinking his blood and they both fell away and had to be restored to the faith in Parthia, Mark by Peter, at Babylon (1Pet. 5:13) (F041), and Luke by Paul, probably at Antioch (Acts 13:1). The gospels were most probably written at Babylon and Antioch and released there after their restoration. Luke’s gospel may have been again published at Caesarea (see n. 14 and n. 15 in the Establishment of the Church Under the Seventy (No. 122D)).


The name Luke (Lukas) is a short or affectionate form of Lukios. It occurs three times in the NT texts (Col. 4:14; 2Tim. 4:11; Phil. 24).  Lukios (Lat. Lucius) appears twice (Acts 13:1; Rom. 16:21).  The first three references tell us that Luke was a physician beloved by Paul, and his fellow worker (sunergos Phil. 24), while he was imprisoned, perhaps in Caesarea, or Rome.  It is thought that Lucius of Cyrene at Antioch and Lucius my kinsman (suggenes of Rom. 16:21) are both references to Luke of the gospel and Acts. The use of the term kinsman has led some to believe that he was a Jew and hence a different Luke but there are other reasons for this term, as there were for Peter’s use of son for Mark, in his text (1Pet. 5:13). The solution seems obvious. Luke’s father was a gentile of Cyrene and his mother was of the family of Paul. The appearance of “we” in the western text of Acts 11:28, if not original, is at least proof of the early belief that Luke was at least present with Paul in Antioch at the time of Agabus’ prophecy. This was held to be indicative that Luke was the Lucius of Cyrene of Acts 13:1 and that view was held by Ephrem Syrus (ca. Fourth Century). Acts 20:3-6 may also imply that Luke was with Paul at Corinth from which readers are greeted by Lucius (Rom. 16:21) (see also Blair E.P. Luke (evangelist), Interpret. Dict. of the Bible. Vol. 3, pp.179-180).  There is no certainty about the identity of those named in the texts. Eusebius and Jerome favour Antioch, Syria as his place of residence and some Bible texts seem to favour Philippi. The “we” passages from 16:10 are thought to indicate he was the “man of Macedonia” that joined Paul at Troas for the evangelisation of his native land. He remained in Phillippi and rejoined them some years later.  Irenaeus, who sat at the feet of John and was trained by Polycarp, held that Luke wrote both.  As did the Muratorian Canon (ca 170-190). That seems certain.


Bullinger’s introduction to the gospel is a good summary of the structure and is left here intact for study. If using the KJV one should use the Companion Bible with Bullinger’s notes, as also herein.


Bullinger Introduction - Luke

Date. It was probably written about A. D. 60 or 63, certainly before the fall of Jerusalem, A. D. 70, and likely while Luke was with Paul in Rome or during the two years at Caesarea.


Author. The author is Luke, who also wrote Acts, and was a companion of Paul on his second missionary journey (Acts 16:11-40). He rejoins Paul at Philippi (Acts 20:1-7) on the return from the third missionary journey, remaining with him at Caesarea and on the way to Rome (Acts Chs. 20-28), He is called the "Beloved physician" (Col. 4:14) and Paul's "fellow laborer" (Philemon 24).


From the context of Col. 4:4 we learn that he was "not of the circumcision" and, therefore, a Gentile. From his preface (Lu. 1:1) we learn that he was not an eye witness of what he wrote. He is thought to be "the brother" whose praise is in the gospel throughout all the churches (2 Cor. 8:18), and, by tradition, is always declared to be a Gentile and proselyte. As is indicated by the gospel itself, he was the most cultured of all the gospel writers.


Characteristics and Purpose.

1. It is a Gospel of Song and Praise. There are a number of songs such as the song of Mary (1:46-55), the song of Zacharias (1:68-79), the song of the angels (2:14) and the song of Simeon (2:29-33). There are many expressions of praise such as (2:2; 5:29; 7:16; 13:13; 17:15; 18:43; 23:47).


2. It Is a Gospel of Prayer. Jesus prays at his baptism, (3:21), after cleansing the leper (5:16), before calling the twelve (6:12), at his transfiguration (9:28), before teaching the disciples to pray (11:1), for his murderers as he was on the cross (23:34), with his last breath (23:46). Luke gives us Christ's command to pray (21:36) and two parables, the midnight friend (11:5-13) and the unjust judge (18:1-8) to show the certain and blessed results of continued prayer.


3. It is a Gospel of Womanhood. No other gospel gives her anything like so large a place as Luke. Indeed, all of the first three chapters or a greater part of their contents may have been given him, as he "traced out accurately from the first" (1:3), by Mary and Elizabeth. He gives us the praise and prophecy of Elizabeth (1:42-45), the song of Mary (1:46-55). Anna and her worship (2:36-38), sympathy for the widow of Nain (7:12-15), Mary Magdella the sinner (7:36-50), the woman associates of Jesus (8:1-3), tender words to the woman with an issue of blood (8:48), Mary and Martha and their disposition (10:38-42). sympathy and help for the "daughter" of Abraham (13:16), the consolation of the daughters of Jerusalem (23:28). These references have been collected by others and are the most conspicuous ones and serve to show how large a place woman is given in this gospel.


4. It Is a Gospel of the Poor and Outcast. More than any other of the evangelists Luke reports those teachings and incidents in the life of our Savior which show how his work is to bless the poor and neglected and vicious. Among the more striking passages of this character are the oft repeated references to the publicans (3:12; 5:27, 29, 30, etc.), Mary Magdella, who was a sinner (7:36-50), the woman with an issue of blood (8:43-48), the harlots (15:30), the prodigal son (13:11-32), Lazarus, the beggar (16:13-31), the poor, maimed, halt and blind invited to the supper (14:7-24). the Story of Zacchaeus (19:1-9), the Savior's business declared to be to seek and save the lost (8:10), the dying robber saved (23:39-43).


5. It Is a Gentile Gospel. The book is everywhere filled with a world wide purpose not so fully expressed in the other evangelists. Here we have the angel’s announcement of great joy which shall be to all people (2:10) and the song about Jesus as "a light for revelation to the Gentiles" (2:32). The genealogy traces Christ's lineage back to Adam (2:38) and thus connects him not with Abraham as a representative of humanity. The fuller account of the sending out of the seventy (10:1-24). the very number of whom signified the supposed number of the heathen nations, who were to go, not as the twelve to the lost sheep of the house of Israel, but to all those cities whither Jesus himself would come, is suggestive of this broader purpose of Luke. The good Samaritan (10:25-37) is Christ's illustration of a true neighbor and in some way also intends to show the nature of Christ's work which was to be without nationality. Of the ten lepers healed (17:11-19) only one, a Samaritan, returned to render him praise, thus showing how others than the Jews would not only be blessed by him but would do worthy service for him. The Perean ministry, across the Jordan (9:51- 18:4, probably 9:51-19:28). is a ministry to the Gentiles and shows how large a place Luke would give the Gentiles in the work and blessings of Jesus.


6. It Is a Gospel for the Greeks. If Matthew wrote for Jews and Mark for Romans, it is but natural that some one should write in such a way as to appeal, specially, to the Greeks as the other representative race. And, such the Christian writers of the first centuries thought to be Luke's purpose. The Greek was the representative of reason and humanity and felt that his mission was to perfect humanity. "The full grown Greek would be a perfect world man", able to meet all men on the common plane of the race. All the Greek gods were, therefore, images of some form of perfect humanity. The Hindu might worship an emblem of physical force, the Roman deify the Emperor and the Egyptian any and all forms of life, but the Greek adored man with his thought and beauty and speech, and, in this, had most nearly approached the true conception of God. The Jew would value men as the descendants of Abraham; the Roman according as they wielded empires, but the Greek on the basis of man as such.


The gospel for the Greek must, therefore, present the perfect man, and so Luke wrote about the Divine Man as the Savior of all men. Christ touched man at every point and is interested in him as man whether low and vile or high and noble. By his life he shows the folly of sin and the beauty of holiness. He brings God near enough to meet the longings of the Greek soul and thereby furnish him a pattern and brother suited for all ages and all people. The deeds of Jesus are kept to the background while much is made of the songs of others and the discourses of Jesus as they were calculated to appeal to the cultured Greek. If the Greek thinks he has a mission to humanity, Luke opens a mission ground enough for the present and offers him an immortality which will satisfy in the future.


7. It Is an Artistic Gospel. Renan calls Luke the most beautiful book in the world, while Dr, Robertson says "the charm of style and the skill in the use of facts place it above all praise". The delicacy and accuracy, picturesqueness and precision with which he sets forth the different incidents is manifestly the work of a trained historian. His is the most beautiful Greek and shows the highest touches of culture of all of the gospels.


Subject. Jesus the World's Savior.


Introduction. The dedication of the gospel, 1:1-4.

   I. The Savior's Manifestation, 1:5-4:13.

1. The announcement of the Forerunner, 1:5-25.

2. The announcement of the Savior. 1:26-38.

3. Thanksgiving of Mary and Elizabeth, 1:29-56.

4. The birth and childhood of the Forerunner, 1:37 end.

5. The birth of the Savior, 2:1-20.

6. The childhood of the Savior. 3:1-4:13.

  II. The Savior's Work and Teaching in Galilee, 4:14-9:50.

1. He preaches in the synagogue at Nazareth. 4:14-30.

2. He works in and around Capernaum, 4:31-6:11.

3. Work while touring Galilee, 6:12-9:50.

  III. The Savior's Work and Teaching After Leaving Galilee Up to the Entrance Into Jerusalem, 9:31-19:27.

1. He journeys to Jerusalem, 9:51 end.

2. The mission of the Seventy and subsequent matters, 10:1-11:13.

3. He exposes the experience and practice of the day, 11:14-12 end.

4. Teachings, miracles warnings and parables, 13:1-18:30.

5. Incidents connected with his final approach to Jerusalem, 18:31-19:27.

  IV. The Savior's Work and Teaching in Jerusalem, 19:28-22:38.

1. The entrance to Jerusalem, 19:28 end.

2. Questions and answers. Ch. 20.

3. The widow's mites, 21:1-4.

4. Preparation for the end, 21:5-22:38.

   V. The Savior Suffers for the World, 22:39-23 end.

1. The agony in the garden, 22:39-46.

2. The betrayal and arrest, 22:47-53.

3. The trial. 22:54-23:26.

4. The cross, 23:27-49.

5. The burial, 23:30 end.

 VI. The Savior is Glorified, Ch. 24.

1. The resurrection, 1-12.

2. The appearance and teachings, 13-49.

3. The ascension, 50 end.


For Study and Discussion.

1. Six miracles peculiar to Luke. (1) The draught of fishes, 5:4-11. (2) The raising of the widow's son, 7:11-18. (3) The woman with the spirit of infirmity, 13:11-17. (4) The man with the dropsy, 14:1-6. (5) The ten lepers, 17:11-19. (6) The healing of Malchus' ear. 22:50-51.


2. Eleven parables, peculiar to Luke. (I) The two debtors, 7:41-43. (2) The good Samaritan, 10:25-37. (3) The importunate friend, 11:5-8. (4) The rich fool, 12:16-19. (5) The barren fig-tree, 13:6-9. (6) The lost piece of silver, 15:8-10. (7) The prodigal son, 15:11-32. (8) The unjust steward, 16:1-13. (9) The rich man and Lazarus, 16:19-31. (10) The unjust judge, 18:1-8. (11) The Pharisee and publican, 18:9-14.


3. Some other passages mainly peculiar to Luke. (1) Chs. 1-2 and 9:51-18:14 are mainly peculiar to Luke. (2) John the Baptist's answer to the people. 3:10-14. (3) The conversation with Moses and Elias, 9:30-31. (4) The weeping over Jerusalem, 19:41-44. (5) The bloody sweat, 22:44. (6) The sending of Jesus to Herod, 23:7-12. (7) The address to the daughters of Jerusalem, 23:27-31. (8) "Father forgive them", 23:34. (9) The penitent robber, 23:40-43. (10) The disciples at Emmaus, 24:13-31; (11) Particulars about the ascension. 24:50-53.


4. The following words and phrases should be studied, making a list of the references where each occurs and a study of each passage in which they occur with a view of getting Luke's conception of the term. (1) The "son of man" (23 times). (2) The "son of God" (7 times). (3) The "kingdom of God" (32 times). (4) References to law, lawyer, lawful (18 times). (5) Publican (11 times). (6) Sinner and sinners (16 times). Mr. Stroud estimates that 59 percent of Luke is peculiar to himself and Mr. Weiss figures that 541 have no incidences in the other gospels.


- Luke

by E.W. Bullinger




"BEHOLD THE MAN" (Zechariah 6:12 ). 


Luke 3:1-20 THE FORERUNNER. 



Luke 4:14 - Luke 5:11 THE KINGDOM 

Luke 5:12 - Luke 9:21 THE KING         

Luke 9:22 - Luke 18:43 THE KING 

Luke 19:12 - Luke 2:38  THE KINGDOM 

Luke 22:39-46 THE AGONY: IN THE GARDEN. 


Luke 24:13-49 THE SUCCESSORS. 



For the New Testament, and the order of the Books, see Appdx-96.

For the inter-relation of the Four Gospels, see the Structures on p. 1304.

For the Diversity of the Four Gospels, see Appdx-96.

For the Unity of the Four Gospels, see Appdx-97.

For the Fourfold Ministry of the Lord, see Appdx-119.

For the words, &c., peculiar to Luke’s Gospel, see some 260 words recorded in the notes. 



The Divine purpose in the Gospel by Luke is to set forth the Lord not so much as the Messiah, "the King of Israel", as in Matthew''s Gospel, or as Jehovah''s servant, as in Mark; but as what He was in Jehovah''s sight, as the ideal MAN Man Whose name is the BRANCH" (Zechariah 6:12). See the Structure of the Four Gospels on p. 1304.


In Luke, therefore, the Lord is specially presented as "the friend of publicans and sinners" the outcasts of society (Luke 5:29 , &c.; Luke 7:29Luke 7:34Luke 7:37, &c.; 15; Luke 18:9, &c.; 23:39, &c.); as manifesting tenderness, compassion, and sympathy (Luke 7:13Luke 7:11, &c.; Luke 19:41, &c.; 23:28, &c.). Hence Luke alone gives the parable prejudice (Luke 6:6Luke 6:27, &c.; 11:41, &c.; 13:1, &c.; 14:1, &c.; 17:11, &c.). Hence Luke alone gives the parable of the good Samaritan (Luke 10:30, &c.); and notes that the one leper who gave thanks to God was a Samaritan (Luke 17:16Luke 17:18).


Hence also many references to women, who, so alien to Jewish custom, find frequent and honourable mention: Elisabeth, Anna, the widow of Nain (Luke 7:11, Luke 7:15 ); the penitent woman (Luke 7:37, &c.); the ministering women (Luke 8:2 , &c.); the "daughters of Jerusalem" (Luke 23:27 , &c.); Martha (Luke 10:38 Luke 10:41) and Mary, of Bethany (Luke 10:39 , Luke 10:42); Mary Magdalene (Luke 24:10).


As the ideal Man, the Lord is presented as dependent on the Father, in prayer (Luke 3:21Luke 5:16Luke 1:12Luke 9:18Luke 9:29Luke 11:1Luke 18:1Luke 22:32Luke 22:41; Luke 34:46). On six definite occasions the Lord is shown in prayer; and no less than seven times "glorifying God" in praise is mentioned (Luke 2:20Luke 5:25Luke 7:16Luke 13:13Luke 17:15Luke 18:43Luke 23:47).


The Four Hymns are peculiar to Luke:the Magnifiac of Mary (Luke 1:46-55); the Benedictus of Zacharias (Luke 1:68-79); the Nunc Dimittis of Simeon (Luke 2:29-32); and the Gloria in Excelsis of the angels (Luke 2:14). 


The six Miracles peculiar to Luke (all characteristic of the presentation of the Lord in Luke) are: 

1. The Draught of Fishes (Luke 5:4 -11). 

2. The Raising of the Widow''s Son at Nain (Luke 7:11-18). 

3. The Woman with a Spirit of Infirmity (Luke 13:11-17). 

4. The Man with Dropsy (Luke 14:1-6).

5. The Ten Lepers (Luke 17:11-19). 

6. The Healing of Malcus (Luke 22:50, 51). 


The eleven Parables peculiar to Luke (all having a like significance) are: 

1. The Two Debtors (Luke 7:41-43). 

2. The Good Samaritan (Luke 10:30-37). 

3. The Importunate Friend (Luke 11:5-8). 

4. The Rich Fool (Luke 12:16-21). 

5. The Barren Fig-tree (Luke 13:6-9). 

6. The Lost Piece of Silver (Luke 15:8-10). 

7. The Lost Son (Luke 15:11-32). 

8. The Unjust Steward (Luke 16:1-12 ). 

9. The Rich Man and Lazarus (Luke 16:19-31). 

10. The Unjust Judge and Importunate Widow (Luke 18:1-8). 

11. The Pharisee and the Publican (Luke 18:9-14).


Other remarkable incidents and utterances peculiar to Luke may be studied with the same object and result (Luke 3:10-14Luke 10:1, Luke 10:20Luke 19:1-10Luke 19:41-44Luke 22:44Luke 23:7-12Luke 23:27-31Luke 23:34Luke 23:40-43Luke 24:50Luke 24:53).


As to Luke himself: his name (Gr. Loukas ) is probably an abbreviation of the Latin Lucanus Lucilius or Lucius .* While he was the author of the Acts of the Apostles, he does not once name himself; and there are only three places where his name is found: Colossians 4:14; 2 Timothy 4:11Philemon 1:24 .


From these and the "we" portions of the Acts (Acts 16:10-17Acts 20:5-15Acts 21:1-18Acts 27:1-44Acts 28:1-16) we may gather all that can be known of Luke. We first hear of him at Troas (Acts 16:10), and from thence he may be followed through the four "we" sections. See the notes on the Structure of the Acts as a whole.


It will be noted in the Structure of this Gospel as a whole that, while in John there is no Temptation, and no Agony, in Luke we not only have these, but the Pre-Natal Section (Luke 1:5 Luke 2:5, A2, p. 1430) as well as the Pre-Ministerial, which is common to all the four Gospels.


* It was held till recently that Loukas never represented the Latin Lucius; but Sir W Ramsay saw, in 1912, an inscription [on] the wall of a temple in Antioch in Pisidia, in which the names Loukas and Loukios are used of the same person. See The Expositor, Dec. 1912. [Loukas and Lucius are now taken as normal usage for the same names -ed].


Luke Chapters 1-4 (RSV)


Chapter 1

1Inasmuch as many have undertaken to compile a narrative of the things which have been accomplished among us, 2just as they were delivered to us by those who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and ministers of the word, 3it seemed good to me also, having followed all things closely for some time past, to write an orderly account for you, most excellent The-oph'ilus4that you may know the truth concerning the things of which you have been informed. 5In the days of Herod, king of Judea, there was a priest named Zechari'ah, of the division of Abi'jah; and he had a wife of the daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elizabeth. 6And they were both righteous before God, walking in all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord blameless. 7But they had no child, because Elizabeth was barren, and both were advanced in years. 8Now while he was serving as priest before God when his division was on duty, 9according to the custom of the priesthood, it fell to him by lot to enter the temple of the Lord and burn incense. 10And the whole multitude of the people were praying outside at the hour of incense. 11And there appeared to him an angel of the Lord standing on the right side of the altar of incense. 12And Zechari'ah was troubled when he saw him, and fear fell upon him. 13But the angel said to him, "Do not be afraid, Zechari'ah, for your prayer is heard, and your wife Elizabeth will bear you a son, and you shall call his name John. 14And you will have joy and gladness, and many will rejoice at his birth; 15for he will be great before the Lord, and he shall drink no wine nor strong drink, and he will be filled with the Holy Spirit, even from his mother's womb. 16And he will turn many of the sons of Israel to the Lord their God, 17and he will go before him in the spirit and power of Eli'jah, to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just, to make ready for the Lord a people prepared." 18And Zechari'ah said to the angel, "How shall I know this? For I am an old man, and my wife is advanced in years." 19And the angel answered him, "I am Gabriel, who stand in the presence of God; and I was sent to speak to you, and to bring you this good news. 20And behold, you will be silent and unable to speak until the day that these things come to pass, because you did not believe my words, which will be fulfilled in their time." 21And the people were waiting for Zechari'ah, and they wondered at his delay in the temple. 22And when he came out, he could not speak to them, and they perceived that he had seen a vision in the temple; and he made signs to them and remained dumb. 23And when his time of service was ended, he went to his home. 24After these days his wife Elizabeth conceived, and for five months she hid herself, saying, 25"Thus the Lord has done to me in the days when he looked on me, to take away my reproach among men." 26In the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God to a city of Galilee named Nazareth, 27to a virgin betrothed to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David; and the virgin's name was Mary. 28And he came to her and said, "Hail, O favored one, the Lord is with you!" 29but she was greatly troubled at the saying, and considered in her mind what sort of greeting this might be. 30And the angel said to her, "Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God. 31And behold, you will conceive in your womb and bear a son, and you shall call his name Jesus. 32He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Most High; and the Lord God will give to him the throne of his father David, 33and he will reign over the house of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there will be no end." 34And Mary said to the angel, "How shall this be, since I have no husband?" 35And the angel said to her, "The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; therefore the child to be born will be called holy, the Son of God. 36And behold, your kinswoman Elizabeth in her old age has also conceived a son; and this is the sixth month with her who was called barren. 37For with God nothing will be impossible." 38And Mary said, "Behold, I am the handmaid of the Lord; let it be to me according to your word." And the angel departed from her. 39In those days Mary arose and went with haste into the hill country, to a city of Judah, 40and she entered the house of Zechari'ah and greeted Elizabeth. 41And when Elizabeth heard the greeting of Mary, the babe leaped in her womb; and Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit 42and she exclaimed with a loud cry, "Blessed are you among women, and blessed is the fruit of your womb! 43And why is this granted me, that the mother of my Lord should come to me? 44For behold, when the voice of your greeting came to my ears, the babe in my womb leaped for joy. 45And blessed is she who believed that there would be a fulfilment of what was spoken to her from the Lord." 46And Mary said, "My soul magnifies the Lord, 47and my spirit rejoices in God my Savior, 48for he has regarded the low estate of his handmaiden. For behold, henceforth all generations will call me blessed; 49for he who is mighty has done great things for me, and holy is his name. 50And his mercy is on those who fear him from generation to generation. 51He has shown strength with his arm, he has scattered the proud in the imagination of their hearts, 52he has put down the mighty from their thrones, and exalted those of low degree; 53he has filled the hungry with good things, and the rich he has sent empty away. 54He has helped his servant Israel, in remembrance of his mercy, 55as he spoke to our fathers, to Abraham and to his posterity for ever." 56And Mary remained with her about three months, and returned to her home. 57Now the time came for Elizabeth to be delivered, and she gave birth to a son. 58And her neighbors and kinsfolk heard that the Lord had shown great mercy to her, and they rejoiced with her. 59And on the eighth day they came to circumcise the child; and they would have named him Zechari'ah after his father, 60but his mother said, "Not so; he shall be called John." 61And they said to her, "None of your kindred is called by this name." 62And they made signs to his father, inquiring what he would have him called. 63And he asked for a writing tablet, and wrote, "His name is John." And they all marveled64And immediately his mouth was opened and his tongue loosed, and he spoke, blessing God. 65And fear came on all their neighbors. And all these things were talked about through all the hill country of Judea; 66and all who heard them laid them up in their hearts, saying, "What then will this child be?" For the hand of the Lord was with him. 67And his father Zechari'ah was filled with the Holy Spirit, and prophesied, saying, 68"Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, for he has visited and redeemed his people, 69and has raised up a horn of salvation for us in the house of his servant David, 70as he spoke by the mouth of his holy prophets from of old, 71that we should be saved from our enemies, and from the hand of all who hate us; 72to perform the mercy promised to our fathers, and to remember his holy covenant, 73the oath which he swore to our father Abraham, 74to grant us that we, being delivered from the hand of our enemies, might serve him without fear, 75in holiness and righteousness before him all the days of our life. 76And you, child, will be called the prophet of the Most High; for you will go before the Lord to prepare his ways, 77to give knowledge of salvation to his people in the forgiveness of their sins, 78through the tender mercy of our God, when the day shall dawn upon us from on high 79to give light to those who sit in darkness and in the shadow of death, to guide our feet into the way of peace." 80And the child grew and became strong in spirit, and he was in the wilderness till the day of his manifestation to Israel.


Intent of Chapter 1

vv. 1-4 Luke’s purpose in writing

(Jn. 20:30-31; 21:25 The writers of the gospels used sources of information now lost see also 6:17-49 n). v. 2 Acts 1:21; 10:39; Heb. 2:3; 1Jn. 1:1, v. 3 See Acts 1:1 and the n. Theophilus was unknown but seemingly of social prominence (most excellent see Acts 23:26 n.) v. 4  Jn. 20:31.                                                      


1:5 -2:40 The Birth of John and Jesus

vv. 5-25 An Angel promises the birth of John to Zechariah.

v. 5 Herod the Great reigned from 37- 4 BCE. He died between 1 and 13 Abib 4 BCE. Christ therefore could not have been born later than the beginning of January 4 BCE and probably earlier in 5 BCE before the winter, given the shepherds in the fields, with John being born in the year 6-5 BCE before the Passover of 5 BCE, at the latest. The appearance of Gabriel to Zecharias therefore was probably around Pentecost 7 or 6 BCE when the Eighth division was on duty. See the Age of Jesus Christ at Baptism and the Duration of his Ministry (No. 019). For the Eighth division of Abijah see 1Chron. 24:10. It is also important to note that there was no Exilarch appointed over the period of the entire life of Jesus, until after his death (see From David and the Exilarchs etc (No. 067)).

1:8-9 2Chron. 31:2; Ex. 30:1, 6-8;

14-17 Canticle in honour of John.

v. 15 Num. 6:1-4; Lk. 7:33.

v. 17 Mal. 4:5-6; Mat. 11:14.

v. 19 Dan. 8:16; (F027viii) 9:21 (F027ix).

v. 25 Barrenness was seen as a sign of disfavour and reproach in the eyes of God as fertility was a divine blessing under the law (Gen. 16:2 n. 30:23; 1Sam. 1:1-18 n; Ps. 128:3).

vv. 26-38 Visit of Angel Gabriel to Mariam re the birth of Jesus

v. 31 Mat. 1:21;

v. 33 Mat. 28:18; Dan. 2:44;

vv. 39-56 Mary visits Elizabeth

v. 42 11:27 -28;

vv. 46-55 This text (termed Magnificat in Latin) is based on Hannah’s prayer in 1Sam. 2:1-10 and magnifies the greatness of God.

v. 47 1Tim. 2:3; Tit. 3:4; Jude 25;

v. 55 Gen. 17:7; 18:18; 22:17; Mic. 7:20;

vv. 57-67 John the Baptist is born

v. 59 Lev. 12:3; Gen. 17:12; Lk. 2:21;

v. 63 see v. 13;

v. 65 Fear, rendered awe in 5:26, recognises the limits of human understanding and power before God (2:9; 7:16; Acts 2:43,46-47; 5:5,11; 19:17);

vv. 68-79 Prophesy of Zecharias

The Benedictus is derived from the First word of the Latin translation.

v. 69 A horn of salvation here represents a king who will bring strength to his people and effectively salvation; which was the purpose of the Messiah (Ps. 18:1-3; 92:10-11; 132:17-18).

v. 76 Mal. 4:5; Lk. 7:26;

v. 77 Mk. 1:4; v. 78 Mal. 4:2; Eph. 5:14; The day will be when God fulfils His purpose to bless mankind. v. 79 Isa. 9:2; Mat. 4:16; Lk. 4:18;

v. 80 John lived in the desert until he appeared publicly to Israel. That time was a period of some thirty years. The day of his manifestation (see 3:2, 3).


Chapter 2

1In those days a decree went out from Caesar Augustus that all the world should be enrolled. 2This was the first enrollment, when Quirin'i-us was governor of Syria. 3And all went to be enrolled, each to his own city. 4And Joseph also went up from Galilee, from the city of Nazareth, to Judea, to the city of David, which is called Bethlehem, because he was of the house and lineage of David, 5to be enrolled with Mary, his betrothed, who was with child. 6And while they were there, the time came for her to be delivered. 7And she gave birth to her first-born son and wrapped him in swaddling cloths, and laid him in a manger, because there was no place for them in the inn. 8And in that region there were shepherds out in the field, keeping watch over their flock by night. 9And an angel of the Lord appeared to them, and the glory of the Lord shone around them, and they were filled with fear. 10And the angel said to them, "Be not afraid; for behold, I bring you good news of a great joy which will come to all the people; 11for to you is born this day in the city of David a Savior, who is Christ the Lord. 12And this will be a sign for you: you will find a babe wrapped in swaddling cloths and lying in a manger." 13And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God and saying, 14"Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace among men with whom he is pleased!" 15When the angels went away from them into heaven, the shepherds said to one another, "Let us go over to Bethlehem and see this thing that has happened, which the Lord has made known to us." 16And they went with haste, and found Mary and Joseph, and the babe lying in a manger. 17And when they saw it they made known the saying which had been told them concerning this child; 18and all who heard it wondered at what the shepherds told them. 19But Mary kept all these things, pondering them in her heart. 20And the shepherds returned, glorifying and praising God for all they had heard and seen, as it had been told them. 21And at the end of eight days, when he was circumcised, he was called Jesus, the name given by the angel before he was conceived in the womb. 22And when the time came for their purification according to the law of Moses, they brought him up to Jerusalem to present him to the Lord 23(as it is written in the law of the Lord, "Every male that opens the womb shall be called holy to the Lord") 24and to offer a sacrifice according to what is said in the law of the Lord, "a pair of turtledoves, or two young pigeons." 25Now there was a man in Jerusalem, whose name was Simeon, and this man was righteous and devout, looking for the consolation of Israel, and the Holy Spirit was upon him. 26And it had been revealed to him by the Holy Spirit that he should not see death before he had seen the Lord's Christ. 27And inspired by the Spirit he came into the temple; and when the parents brought in the child Jesus, to do for him according to the custom of the law, 28he took him up in his arms and blessed God and said, 29"Lord, now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, according to thy word; 30for mine eyes have seen thy salvation 31which thou hast prepared in the presence of all peoples, 32a light for revelation to the Gentiles, and for glory to thy people Israel." 33And his father and his mother marveled at what was said about him; 34and Simeon blessed them and said to Mary his mother, "Behold, this child is set for the fall and rising of many in Israel, and for a sign that is spoken against 35(and a sword will pierce through your own soul also), that thoughts out of many hearts may be revealed." 36And there was a prophetess, Anna, the daughter of Phan'u-el, of the tribe of Asher; she was of a great age, having lived with her husband seven years from her virginity, 37and as a widow till she was eighty-four. She did not depart from the temple, worshiping with fasting and prayer night and day. 38And coming up at that very hour she gave thanks to God, and spoke of him to all who were looking for the redemption of Jerusalem. 39And when they had performed everything according to the law of the Lord, they returned into Galilee, to their own city, Nazareth. 40And the child grew and became strong, filled with wisdom; and the favor of God was upon him. 41Now his parents went to Jerusalem every year at the feast of the Passover. 42And when he was twelve years old, they went up according to custom; 43and when the feast was ended, as they were returning, the boy Jesus stayed behind in Jerusalem. His parents did not know it, 44but supposing him to be in the company they went a day's journey, and they sought him among their kinsfolk and acquaintances; 45and when they did not find him, they returned to Jerusalem, seeking him. 46After three days they found him in the temple, sitting among the teachers, listening to them and asking them questions; 47and all who heard him were amazed at his understanding and his answers. 48And when they saw him they were astonished; and his mother said to him, "Son, why have you treated us so? Behold, your father and I have been looking for you anxiously." 49And he said to them, "How is it that you sought me? Did you not know that I must be in my Father's house?" 50And they did not understand the saying which he spoke to them. 51And he went down with them and came to Nazareth, and was obedient to them; and his mother kept all these things in her heart. 52And Jesus increased in wisdom and in stature, and in favor with God and man.

(v. 14 rendering of men with whom he is pleased means those with whom God has chosen in accord with his good pleasure  (as with other ancient authorities) cf. n. Ox. Ann. RSV).


Intent of Chapter 2

vv. 1-7 Jesus is born in Bethlehem

v. 1 Mat. 1:18-2:23. Augustus ruled from 27 BCE to 14 CE. For the identification of the decree in question it is important that we examine (No. 019) below. The term world refers to the Roman Empire. Whilst Christ’s birth is of great importance it was made deliberately obscure so we could not celebrate it. Such practice is idolatrous and demonic (see Birthdays (No. 287)).  The only things of which we can be certain is that it could not have been on 25 December, the festival of the birth of the Sun in Baal worship (see Origins of Christmas and Easter (No. 235)).  And nor could it have been later than the beginning of January in 4 BCE, given the Biblical account in Luke, the divisions of Abijah, and the death of Herod between 1 and 13 Abib 4 BCE. The festival was never kept in Christianity until it was introduced from Baal worship in Syria in 375 CE at the beginning of the Dark Ice Age.

v. 7. First born son is claimed by Trinitarians of the mother goddess cult to be a Semitic legal term not necessarily implying subsequent births, even though the gospels refer to many other children born to Mariam (her real name in both the Bible and the Quran texts; the name Mary does not exist in the original texts in reference to the mother of Christ. Mariah was the name of her sister, the wife of Clophas, Christ’s aunt) (see the Virgin  Mariam and the Family of Jesus Christ (No. 232)).

Swaddling clothes are strips of cloth wrapped around a new born infant.

vv. 8-20 Shepherds and the Angels

v. 9 Fear 1:65 n, v. 11 The city of David – Bethlehem.  The three great claims re Yahoshua called Jesus from the Greek rendering of Joshua in the LXX Iesous, is that he was Saviour, Messiah (Christ or anointed one of God) and Lord as son of God (Mat. 1:21 n.; 16:16 n; Jn. 4:42; 2:36; 5:31; Phil. 2:11; v. 14 3:32; 19:38  Peace... The lack of one letter in the later Greek manuscripts accounts for the note re v. 14 above. The position of the action on delegation as saviour is explained in the text God Our Saviour (No. 198). See also the following papers for the importance of the event of the birth of the Messiah in Joshua the Messiah, the Son of God (No. 134); also the historical details of the events and timing of the period of the birth of the Messiah are in Age of Jesus Christ at his Baptism and the Duration of His Ministry (No. 019);see also Arche of the Creation of God as Alpha and Omega (No. 229).

vv. 21-40 Jesus presented in the temple

v. 21 Mat. 1:21 n.

vv. 22-24  Lev. 12:2-8;  v. 23 Ex. 13:2,12;

vv. 25-38 The time came for the purification of Jesus at the Temple (Purification and Circumcision (No. 251)). Simeon and Anna (not otherwise known) express faith in Jesus as Saviour, Christ and Universal Lord (see v. 11 n and as above). They had both been instructed by the Holy Spirit (No. 117) of the birth of the Messiah and that they would not see death until they had seen him and were present awaiting his presentation at the Temple. Until this time only the prophets and patriarchs could have access to the Holy Spirit by express provision of God. The birth of the Christ was to change that system in the Plan of God and Plan of Salvation (No. 001A) forever for all men through the availability of the Holy Spirit to all those baptised in the Churches of God from Pentecost 30 CE.

v. 25 The consolation of Israel was the Salvation which Messiah was to bring (vv. 26, 38; 23:51).

v. 26 The Lord’s Christ = The Christ of God (9:20).

vv. 29-32  The “Nunc Dimitus” so called from the first words of the Latin translation.

v. 29 Lettest...depart.The figure is taken from the manumission of a slave. In peace is the state of peace with God. v. 30 3:6; Isa. 52:10;

v. 32 Isa. 42:6; 49:6; Acts 13:47; 26:23;

v. 33 Joseph is termed father here as he was Jesus’ legal father and guardian (notwithstanding 1:34-35) (comp. Mat. 13:55; Lk. 3:23).

v. 36 Jos. 19:24;

vv. 41-52 Boy Jesus speaks with religious teachers at the Temple  - The only text re Jesus maturing. v. 41 Ex. 23:15; Deut. 16:1-8;

v. 46 The teachers were the experts in the Jewish faith. They had to be twenty-five to enter the service of the Temple and thirty years of age to teach under the Law. Hence John and the Christ could not begin to teach until they were at least thirty years of age. v. 48 Mk. 3:31-35,

vv. 50-51 2:19; v. 52 1Sam. 2:26; Lk. 1:80; 2:40.


Chapter 3

1In the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiber'i-us Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of the region of Iturae'a and Trachoni'tis, and Lysa'ni-as tetrarch of Abile'ne2in the high-priesthood of Annas and Ca'iaphas, the word of God came to John the son of Zechari'ah in the wilderness; 3and he went into all the region about the Jordan, preaching a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins. 4As it is written in the book of the words of Isaiah the prophet, "The voice of one crying in the wilderness: Prepare the way of the Lord, make his paths straight. 5Every valley shall be filled, and every mountain and hill shall be brought low, and the crooked shall be made straight, and the rough ways shall be made smooth; 6and all flesh shall see the salvation of God." 7He said therefore to the multitudes that came out to be baptized by him, "You brood of vipers! Who warned you to flee from the wrath to come? 8Bear fruits that befit repentance, and do not begin to say to yourselves, 'We have Abraham as our father'; for I tell you, God is able from these stones to raise up children to Abraham. 9Even now the axe is laid to the root of the trees; every tree therefore that does not bear good fruit is cut down and thrown into the fire." 10And the multitudes asked him, "What then shall we do?" 11And he answered them, "He who has two coats, let him share with him who has none; and he who has food, let him do likewise." 12Tax collectors also came to be baptized, and said to him, "Teacher, what shall we do?" 13And he said to them, "Collect no more than is appointed you." 14Soldiers also asked him, "And we, what shall we do?" And he said to them, "Rob no one by violence or by false accusation, and be content with your wages." 15As the people were in expectation, and all men questioned in their hearts concerning John, whether perhaps he were the Christ, 16John answered them all, "I baptize you with water; but he who is mightier than I is coming, the thong of whose sandals I am not worthy to untie; he will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and with fire. 17His winnowing fork is in his hand, to clear his threshing floor, and to gather the wheat into his granary, but the chaff he will burn with unquenchable fire." 18So, with many other exhortations, he preached good news to the people. 19But Herod the tetrarch, who had been reproved by him for Hero'di-as, his brother's wife, and for all the evil things that Herod had done, 20added this to them all, that he shut up John in prison. 21Now when all the people were baptized, and when Jesus also had been baptized and was praying, the heaven was opened, 22and the Holy Spirit descended upon him in bodily form, as a dove, and a voice came from heaven, "Thou art my beloved Son; with thee I am well pleased." 23Jesus, when he began his ministry, was about thirty years of age, being the son (as was supposed) of Joseph, the son of Heli, 24the son of Matthat, the son of Levi, the son of Melchi, the son of Jan'na-i, the son of Joseph, 25the son of Mattathi'as, the son of Amos, the son of Nahum, the son of Esli, the son of Nag'ga-i26the son of Ma'ath, the son of Mattathi'as, the son of Sem'e-in, the son of Josech, the son of Joda, 27the son of Jo-an'an, the son of Rhesa, the son of Zerub'babel, the son of She-al'ti-el, the son of Neri, 28the son of Melchi, the son of Addi, the son of Cosam, the son of Elma'dam, the son of Er, 29the son of Joshua, the son of Elie'zer, the son of Jorim, the son of Matthat, the son of Levi, 30the son of Simeon, the son of Judah, the son of Joseph, the son of Jonam, the son of Eli'akim31the son of Me'le-a, the son of Menna, the son of Mat'tatha, the son of Nathan, the son of David, 32the son of Jesse, the son of Obed, the son of Bo'az, the son of Sala, the son of Nahshon, 33the son of Ammin'adab, the son of Admin, the son of Arni, the son of Hezron, the son of Perez, the son of Judah, 34the son of Jacob, the son of Isaac, the son of Abraham, the son of Terah, the son of Nahor, 35the son of Serug, the son of Re'u, the son of Peleg, the son of Eber, the son of Shelah, 36the son of Ca-i'nan, the son of Arphax'ad, the son of Shem, the son of Noah, the son of Lamech, 37the son of Methuselah, the son of Enoch, the son of Jared, the son of Maha'lale-el, the son of Ca-i'nan38the son of Enos, the son of Seth, the son of Adam, the son of God.


Intent of Chapter 3

Ministry of John the Baptist

vv. 1-18 John the Baptist prepares the way for Jesus (Mat. 3:1-12; Mk. 1:1-8).

v. 1 The Fifteenth year of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being Governor of Judea. Pilate as Roman procurator had final authority in Judea (23:1). The remainder of the kingdom of Herod the Great was divided between his sons Herod Antipas (9:7; 23:6,7) and Phillip (for tetrarch see Mat. 14:1 n.) Abilene, north of Philip’s rule, was closely associated with it during the First Century. The year in question is 27 CE. The years for kings begins at Abib. However, the civil year in the Babylonian etc., Calendars begin on the New Moon of Tishri in the Seventh Month ( God’s Calendar (No. 156)). The New Moon was a Sabbath in the Temple Calendar ( God’s Calendar (No. 156)). The Hillel Jewish Calendar was not introduced until 358 CE by Rabbi Hillel II and was rejected by the Churches of God.

v. 2 Annas and his son in Law Caiphas (Jn 18:13) controlled the Temple as priests. Caiaphas was high priest at the time (Mat. 26:3 see notes to F040vi; Mk. 14:53-65 (F041iv); Jn. 11:49; 18:12-14).  In the trial of Christ, Annas appears to have acted in the role of Ab Beth Din as discussed in the notes to Matthew and Mark above although Schurer thinks the role did not occur until later (see also Acts 4:6). Luke contrasts the authority men recognise with the authority of the word of God (1Cor. 1:26-31). John see Mat. 3:1 n,

v. 3 Mk. 1:4 n; vv. 4-6 Isa. 40:3-5,

v. 5 The text expresses moral and spiritual renewal but the coming of God’s Salvation implies judgement (v. 7; Am. 5:18-20),

v. 7 viper a poisonous snake that in habited the area (Isa. 30:6; 59:5; Mat. 12:34; 23:33); Wrath see Mat. 3:7 n, v. 8 John demands right living based on God’s will (Mat. 7:15-20; Gal. 5:22-23) and suited to the fruits of repentance (Mat. 3:2 n). The claims to have Abraham as father is one of privilege based on birth rather than conduct within the Law and Will of God which was the message extended to the gentiles with Messiah over this next phase (Jn. 8:33,39; Rom. 2:28-29). v. 9 Fire a symbol of Judgment (Mat. 7:19; 13:40-42; Heb. 6:7-8).

vv. 10-11 6:29 Acts 2:44-45; 4:32-35.

vv. 12-13 19:2,8; v. 15 Acts13:25; Jn. 1:19-22 Lk. 7:19; v. 16 Acts 1:5; 11:16; 19:4 ;

v. 18 He preached good news = He preached the gospel of the coming Kingdom of God through forgiveness in repentance (v. 3) and the coming of a new relationship with God (vv. 15-17).


This was the commencement of the ministry in accordance with the Sign of Jonah, with John taking up the first phase on a year for a day basis in 27 CE and then Messiah taking over when John was placed in prison  after Passover 28 CE with the next two year phase taken over by Messiah after Passover in 28 CE to Passover 30 CE, when he would also be killed  on Wednesday 5 April 30 CE and spend three days and three nights in the belly of the earth, and then be resurrected on Saturday at end Sabbath 8 April and ascend to the Throne Room of God on Sunday Morning at 9 AM,  9 April 30 CE as the Wave Sheaf Offering (No. 106B) of the Barley Harvest. Judah was then given Forty Years for Repentance on a year for a day basis to Nineveh who repented and Judah did not repent and were destroyed in 70 CE (Sign of Jonah and the History of the Reconstruction of the Temple (No. 013)). This was to be the only Sign given the Church as we see in the other gospels also. See also the Commentary on Jonah (F032) and also Completion of the Sign of Jonah (No. 013B).


vv. 19-20 Herod puts John in prison.

(Mat. 14:3-4; Mk. 6:17-18).  

The notation for vv. 19-20 occurs out of sequence here as John was not imprisoned until after the baptism of the Christ and then a period of trial in the wilderness and the selection of his ministry. After the Passover of 28 CE John and his disciples were baptising at Aenon near Salim and Christ nearby with his disciples although Christ himself did not baptise. (Mat. 14:3-4; Mk. 6:17-18).


vv. 21-22 John baptizes Jesus (Mat. 3:13-17; Mk. 1:9-11; Jn. 1:29-34). See Mat. 3:16-17 n; v. 21  Prayer was part of many recorded momentous events in the life and ministry of Christ (e.g. Mk. 1:35; Lk. 5:16; 6:12; 9:18,28; 11:1; 22:41-46).

v. 22 Beloved see Mk. 1:11 n; Ps. 2:7; Isa. 42:1; Lk. 9:35.

The Age of Jesus Christ at His Baptism and the Duration of His Ministry (No. 019).

We see  from this text:

“We know from Luke 3:1 that John “began to preach in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius”, which cannot have commenced any earlier than October of the year 27 CE if the civil calendar in use in the East was used. Tiberius commenced to reign on 17 September 14 CE, and the year 27 CE is arrived at only if the month of September is counted as the first year and the second year commences in October 14 CE. This then commences the 15th year in October 27 CE. John’s call for repentance probably commences from Atonement of that year, and continued until Passover of 28 CE when he was arrested. We know that Christ was baptised some time after October 27 CE, and before the Passover of 28 CE. Christ’s baptism preceded the official commencement of his ministry and a number of activities took place after his baptism, prior to the commencement of his ministry at the imprisonment of John the Baptist.


From Luke 3:21, we know that Christ was not among the first that John baptised, but rather he was baptised after the majority; therefore, his baptism was some time after October 27 CE – possibly well into 28 CE.


The sequence of time from his baptism includes the day of this baptism, then a fast of 40 days and 40 nights. He returned to John the Baptist and recruited his disciples over 3 days (Jn. 1:35-45). On the third day was the marriage at Cana where he performed the miracle of water into wine (Jn. 2:1). He then went to Capernaum where he abode “not many days” (Jn. 2:12). Then the Passover was at hand.


Therefore, the time period between Christ’s baptism and the Passover of 28 CE covered an absolute minimum of 44 days, plus ‘a few days’ (say 6). From the text in Luke chapter 3 we see that his baptism and the Temptation in the wilderness all took place before his declaration at Atonement of the Acceptable Year of the Lord. Therefore the timing of the Fifteenth year of Tiberias must be calculated from 1 Abib according to the years of Kings and not Tishri. So, at baptism he was also the minimum of 31 years of age and probably older.


We know from Matthew chapter 4 that Christ did not commence preaching until after John the Baptist had been imprisoned, when he moved to Capernaum (vv. 12-13). Verse 17 specifically states: “From that time Jesus began to preach, and to say, Repent: for the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand”. The sequence from verses 18-22 indicates that Peter, Andrew, James and John were called after the imprisonment of John the Baptist, but this is a harmonistic arrangement of the story flow to assist the sequence from verse 23. This sequence is present at Mark 1:14-20, and verse 21 follows on to the entry to Capernaum.


We know from John 2 that Jesus performed the miracle of the water into wine before his ministry commenced (cf. Jn. 2:4). His “time (or hour) had not come”; and he had his disciples present with him, and this was prior to his visit to Capernaum.


From John 1:35 we know that Andrew, the brother of Peter, was a disciple of John and turned to follow Christ. He took Peter to Christ telling him he had found the Messiah (Jn. 1:41), who named him Peter (Cephas). Matthew 4:18-22 and Mark 1:14-20 are therefore simplifications of the detailed story of the calling of the first disciples. It is most likely from John that they had indeed been called and possibly baptising prior to this point, and that this was a summons which commenced the actual work.


John 2:22 shows that after the wedding at Cana in Galilee, Jesus and his disciples went into the country of Judea, where he spent some time with them baptising, although he himself did not baptise (Jn. 4:2). John the Baptist was also baptising at Aenon near Salim, and this was near the Passover of 28 CE (Jn. 2:13).


Moffatt places this section in a sequence transposing John 3:22-30 in between John 2:12 and 13, as John had not yet been cast into prison in this section; but as Jesus began to perform miracles on the Passover he takes this to indicate that John was imprisoned at that time. Matthew is quite emphatic that Christ did not commence to preach until after John had been imprisoned. Indeed, Christ could not have commenced to preach earlier than the Passover of 28 CE or the Gospels are in disagreement, and the Word of God is compromised.


The Authorised text of John’s Gospel, if taken in sequence, indicates that he entered the Temple on the Passover of 28 CE performing miracles, and then retired into the countryside of Judea where his disciples baptised whilst John baptised at Aenon. The Authorised text therefore demonstrates that Christ’s actual preaching was less than two years, commencing after the Passover of 28 CE.”


The sequence of the ministry from the Baptism through to the Resurrection and Final Ascension is covered in the papers Timing of the Crucifixion and the Resurrection (No. 159) and The Forty Days following Christ’s  Resurrection (No. 159A).


Genealogy of the Messiah

vv. 23-38 The ancestors of Jesus (Mat. 1:1-17; F040i).

This lineage is the ancestry back to Adam the first man of the Adamic creation, and thus the common humanity of the Messiah. This ancestry is recognised as the lineage of Mariam the daughter of Heli son of Matthat (the lineage to Zerubbabel (v. 27) is otherwise not listed or known (see also No 119 below and Gen. 5:3-32; 11:10-26; Ru. 4:18-22; 1Chron. 1:1-4, 24-28; 2:1-15).  Heli’s wife was a Levite and the sister of the mother of Elisabeth, wife of Zechariah High Priest of the Eighth division of Abijah. She was a Levite and whilst the Bible is otherwise silent on her clan in Levi, she has to have had Levitical lineage being the wife of the High Priest. Also the prophecy referring to Messiah at his death when he was run through with a Roman spear, refers to David through Nathan, which is this lineage here, and also the prophecy refers to Levi through Shimei who also mourns with them over theirs who was pierced, (Zech. 12:10-14). So we knew Messiah was also of Levitical lineage and the prophecy indicates his lineage was also of Levi in the clan of Shimei: (termed Shimeites in the last section of the prophecy). 

For the detailed explanation, see the text:

The Genealogy of the Messiah (No. 119).

v. 23 Jesus was in his thirties as explained above (No. 019) (see also Jn. 8:57).


Chapter 4

1And Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit, returned from the Jordan, and was led by the Spirit 2for forty days in the wilderness, tempted by the devil. And he ate nothing in those days; and when they were ended, he was hungry. 3The devil said to him, "If you are the Son of God, command this stone to become bread." 4And Jesus answered him, "It is written, 'Man shall not live by bread alone.'" 5And the devil took him up, and showed him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time, 6and said to him, "To you I will give all this authority and their glory; for it has been delivered to me, and I give it to whom I will. 7If you, then, will worship me, it shall all be yours." 8And Jesus answered him, "It is written, 'You shall worship the Lord your God, and him only shall you serve.'" 9And he took him to Jerusalem, and set him on the pinnacle of the temple, and said to him, "If you are the Son of God, throw yourself down from here; 10for it is written, 'He will give his angels charge of you, to guard you,' 11and 'On their hands they will bear you up, lest you strike your foot against a stone.'" 12And Jesus answered him, "It is said, 'You shall not tempt the Lord your God.'" 13And when the devil had ended every temptation, he departed from him until an opportune time. 14And Jesus returned in the power of the Spirit into Galilee, and a report concerning him went out through all the surrounding country. 15And he taught in their synagogues, being glorified by all. 16And he came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up; and he went to the synagogue, as his custom was, on the sabbath day. And he stood up to read; 17and there was given to him the book of the prophet Isaiah. He opened the book and found the place where it was written, 18"The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim release to the captives and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty those who are oppressed, 19to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord." 20And he closed the book, and gave it back to the attendant, and sat down; and the eyes of all in the synagogue were fixed on him. 21And he began to say to them, "Today this scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing." 22And all spoke well of him, and wondered at the gracious words which proceeded out of his mouth; and they said, "Is not this Joseph's son?" 23And he said to them, "Doubtless you will quote to me this proverb, 'Physician, heal yourself; what we have heard you did at Caper'na-um, do here also in your own country.'" 24And he said, "Truly, I say to you, no prophet is acceptable in his own country. 25But in truth, I tell you, there were many widows in Israel in the days of Eli'jah, when the heaven was shut up three years and six months, when there came a great famine over all the land; 26and Eli'jah was sent to none of them but only to Zar'ephath, in the land of Sidon, to a woman who was a widow. 27And there were many lepers in Israel in the time of the prophet Eli'sha; and none of them was cleansed, but only Na'aman the Syrian." 28When they heard this, all in the synagogue were filled with wrath. 29And they rose up and put him out of the city, and led him to the brow of the hill on which their city was built, that they might throw him down headlong. 30But passing through the midst of them he went away. 31And he went down to Caper'na-um, a city of Galilee. And he was teaching them on the sabbath; 32and they were astonished at his teaching, for his word was with authority. 33And in the synagogue there was a man who had the spirit of an unclean demon; and he cried out with a loud voice, 34"Ah! What have you to do with us, Jesus of Nazareth? Have you come to destroy us? I know who you are, the Holy One of God." 35But Jesus rebuked him, saying, "Be silent, and come out of him!" And when the demon had thrown him down in the midst, he came out of him, having done him no harm. 36And they were all amazed and said to one another, "What is this word? For with authority and power he commands the unclean spirits, and they come out." 37And reports of him went out into every place in the surrounding region. 38And he arose and left the synagogue, and entered Simon's house. Now Simon's mother-in-law was ill with a high fever, and they besought him for her. 39And he stood over her and rebuked the fever, and it left her; and immediately she rose and served them. 40Now when the sun was setting, all those who had any that were sick with various diseases brought them to him; and he laid his hands on every one of them and healed them. 41And demons also came out of many, crying, "You are the Son of God!" But he rebuked them, and would not allow them to speak, because they knew that he was the Christ. 42And when it was day he departed and went into a lonely place. And the people sought him and came to him, and would have kept him from leaving them; 43but he said to them, "I must preach the good news of the kingdom of God to the other cities also; for I was sent for this purpose." 44And he was preaching in the synagogues of Judea.


Intent of Chapter 4

The Temptation of Christ

vv. 1-13 Satan tempts Jesus in the desert (Mat. 4:1-11; Mk. 1:12-13). The order of Temptation differs from Matthew’s list but the testing remains the same. v. 1 Full of the Holy Spirit is an early Christian phrase (Acts2:4; 6:3,5; 7:55; 11:24).

After Christ was baptised he went into the wilderness and was tempted for forty days (Lk. 4:1-2). There he was tempted by Satan and he resisted him over the period and by that Satan was himself judged. From Christ’s return a significant and little understood fulfilment of prophecy occurs (Luke 4:13-21).

vv. 16-30 Jesus rejected at Nazareth

vv. 16-19 Messiah had returned to Galilee from his forty days in the wilderness and in Nazareth had fulfilled this prophecy of God through Isaiah. The text is found in Isaiah 61:1-2 and also a compound from Isaiah 58:6 (see Mat. 3:1, n; Lk. 13:11, 16n);

Isaiah 61:1-2 The Spirit of the Lord GOD is upon me; because the LORD hath anointed me to preach good tidings unto the meek; he hath sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and the opening of the prison to them that are bound; 2To proclaim the acceptable year of the LORD, and the day of vengeance of our God; to comfort all that mourn; (KJV)


The texts of Luke omit the words: to heal the broken hearted. The words, to set at liberty those that are bruised, are a compound from Isaiah 58:6, which was allowed for in the readings (cf. The Companion Bible n. to Lk. 4:18). This term, the acceptable year of the Lord, is identified by Bullinger as referring to the Jubilee in the text in Isaiah, and he says it is either the Jubilee or it is simply called that because it is the year Christ’s ministry commenced. It was indeed the jubilee as the texts show (see No. 250 below).


It cannot be the commencement of Christ’s ministry, because Christ did not commence his ministry until after the Passover of 28 CE when John the Baptist was put in prison (Mat. 4:12-17; Mk. 1:12-14; Jn. 3:23-24). He uttered these words in Galilee, but after his baptism at Atonement and before Passover, and before John was put in prison. He was able to teach in the synagogue, under the law, as he was in his thirties.  


Luke 3:18-20 has a reference to John being put in prison, but it is an insertion to the narrative of the text. The imprisonment is not meant to fit in the text as a time indicator but rather in the sense of future complete action. The sequence is as a narrative encompassing the many acts of John and his ministry as he preceded Messiah and his ministry, even though they overlapped in detail. The activity in Luke chapter 4:1-20 is after his temptation and before the miracle at Cana, and before he selected his Apostles and went to Jerusalem for the period of the Passover from 1 Nisan and the Sanctification process through to the end of the period (cf. the paper Sanctification of the Temple of God (No. 241)).


So the ‘Reading of Isaiah’ took place in a Jubilee year, if it is compared with the timing in Ezekiel, and Naves Topical Bible refers to these texts as referring to the Jubilee (cf. Jubilee p. 755). It is also the Year of Liberty (ibid., cf. Ezek. 46:17). Thus Christ proclaimed the Jubilee in 27 CE from Atonement when it is proclaimed under the law, and prior to the commencement of the year at 1 Nisan. This act was after the activities of John the Baptist and his baptism and trial of Satan in the temptation in the wilderness. His ministry then began in the First year of the Tenth Jubilee since the restoration of Ezra and Nehemiah (cf. Reading the Law with Ezra and Nehemiah (No. 250)); The Golden Jubilee (No. 300) and Completion of the Sign of Jonah (No. 013B)). 


The declaration of the Jubilee was necessary at the beginning and at the end particularly for the restoration of lands for the harvest preparation for the First year of the next Jubilee cycle and the freedom of slaves who may have been reclaimed by misuse of the law over the Jubilee year.

v. 17 book - a scroll which Jesus unfurled.  The codex had not yet been invented.


vv. 20-30 Rejection

The popular reaction (v. 22) turned to rejection. The people of Nazareth/Galilee rejected him and refused to accept him and he could not do many mighty works there because of their unbelief. Christ then said that no prophet is acceptable in his own country (v. 24) and then gave the examples of Elijah when the heavens were shut up for three years and six month, (as it will be again in the last days before the Advent of Messiah; see (210A and 210B) (141D) (F066iii and v).


Elijah was sent to a Gentile woman, a widow, at Zarephath in the land of Sidon. So also with Elisha; there were many lepers in Israel but God cleansed none of them, but Naman the Syrian (vv. 25-27) (see also v. 15; Mat. 4:23; 9:35).(see also vv. 17, 20; comp. Acts13:15);

v. 28 When they heard him say this they became enraged. The intent of this text was to preach Salvation to the Gentiles (cf. Messages of Revelation 14 (No. 270)). The people sought to take him and throw him from a cliff but he walked away through their midst (vv. 29-30). 


vv. 31-37 Jesus teaches with great Authority (Mat. 7:28-29; Mk. 1:21-28).

v. 31  Jesus went to Capernaum a city of Galilee and he was teaching them on the Sabbath in the synagogue and they were astonished at his teachings (meaning the substance of what he taught) (v. 32). v. 33 See Mk. 1:23 n, Demons were thought of as non-material spirits, hostile to human welfare and hostile to God’s will and Law. They are dreaded and people were regarded as helpless before them. Jesus gave them power over the demons as we see in Lk. 10:1,17;  11:20-22 (see also Mat. 4:24 n.; 12:22 n; Lk. 7:33 n.; 13:16 n.)


vv. 38-41 Jesus heals Peter’s mother-in-law & many others (Mat. 8:14-17; Mk. 1:29-39);

v. 40 Every  one  Jesus gave attention to individuals, illustrating vv. 18-19.  v. 41 Demons see v. 33 n;

vv. 42-44 Jesus Preaches throughout Galilee (Mat. 4:23-25; Mk. 1:35-39);

v. 44 This is the only express mention outside of the Fourth Gospel of Jesus’ early Judean ministry but compare also Mat. 23:37; Lk. 13:34. The original text here, however, is uncertain for Galilee appears in some ancient witnesses here as well, as in the parallel accounts (Mat. 4:23; Mk. 1:39) (see Oxford RSV Note).


Bullinger’s Notes on Luke Chs. 1-4 (for KJV)


Chapter 1

Verse 1

Forasmuch as = Since, as is well known indeed. Greek. epeideper. Occurs only here in N.T.

have in hand. Implying previous non = success (Acts 19:13 ). Elsewhere only in Acts 9:29 . A medical word. Compare Colossians 4:14 .

to set forth in order = to draw up.

a declaration = a narrative. Greek. diegesis. Occurs only here in N.T., used by Galen of a medical treatise.

of = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104 . Not the same word as in verses: Luke 1:5 , Luke 1:27 , Luke 1:35 , Luk 5:61.

things = matters, or facts.

which are most surely believed = which have been fully accomplished; i.e. in fulfilment of prophetic announcement. among. Greek. en. App-104 . As in verses: Luke 1:25 , Luke 1:28 , Luke 1:42


Verse 2

from . Greek apo. App-104 .

from the beginning . Greek. ap' arches; i.e. from the birth or ministry of the Lord. Compare John 15:27 . Acts 1:1 , Acts 1:21 , Acts 1:22 .

were = became.

eyewitnesses. Greek autoptai. Occurs only here. Not the same word as in 2 Peter 1:16 . A medical word (Colossians 4:14 ). Compare our autopsy.

ministers = attendants. A technical word, often translated "officer".


Verse 3

having had perfect understanding = having followed up accurately.

all. The 1611 edition of the Authorized Version omitted this "all".

from the very first = from above. Greek. anothen. As in Matthew 27:51 (the top, Mark 15:38 ). John 3:3 , John 3:7 (again), John 3:31 (from above); Luke 19:11 , Luke 19:23 .James 1:17 ; James 3:1 , James 3:17 . It may mean from the beginning, as in Acts 26:5 , but there is no need to introduce that meaning here, as it is already in Luke 1:2 . Moreover, havingunderstood them "from above", he necessarily understood them from the very beginning, as well as perfectly, or accurately. The greater includes the less.

in order = with method. most excellent. A title of social degree, not of moral quality. See Acts 23:26 ; Acts 26:25 .

Theophilus. A common Roman name = beloved of God.


Verse 4

That = in order that.

mightest know = get to have full knowledge. Greek. epiginosko.) App-132 . Not the same word as in verses: Luke 1:18 , Luke 1:34 .

things = words.

wherein = concerning (Greek. peri. App-104 .) which.

thou hast been instructed = thou wast [orally]

taught. Greek. katecheo. See Acts 18:25 . 1 Corinthians 14:19 . Galatians 1:6 , Galatians 1:6 .


Verse 5

There was = There came to be. A Hebraism, Compare Luke 1:8 , and see on Luke 2:1 .

in . Greek en. App-104 . Not the same word as in verses: Luke 1:15 , Luke 1:20 , Luke 1:44-47 .

in the days . A Hebraism. See Matthew 2:1 . Compare Esther 1:1 .

Herod. See App-109 .

the king. This title had been conferred by the Roman Senate on the recommendation of Antony and Octavius.

of = out of. Greek. ek, App-104 .

Abia is named in 1 Chronicles 24:10 , and Nehemiah 12:17 . Out of the four who returned from Babylon twenty-four courses were formed (by lot) with the original names. See App-179 .

the daughters of Aaron . The female descendants of Aaron always married priests

Elisabeth. Aaron's wife, Elisheba (Exodus 6:23 )is spelled Elizabeth in the Septuagint.


Verse 6

before. The Texts read enantion, not enopion (= in the presence of, as Luke 1:19 ). Both are found in the Papyri in this sense.

God . App-98 .

ordinances = legal requirements. Greek. Plural of dlkaioma, which should always be so rendered in its other nine occurrences (Romans 1:32 ; Romans 2:26Luke 5:16 , Luke 5:18 ; Luke 8:4 ; Hebrews 9:1 , Hebrews 9:10 ; Revelation 15:4 ; Revelation 19:8 ). Compare Numbers 36:13 . Sometimes rendered "judgments" (Exodus 21:1 ; Exodus 24:3 ), where LXX has dikaioma.

the LORD. Must here and elsewhere be often rendered Jehovah. See App-98 . A. b.


Verse 7

no. Greek. ou. App-106 .

child. Greek. teknon. See App-108 .

because that = inasmuch as.

well stricken = advanced.


Verse 8

it came to pass. A Hebraism. See note on Luke 1:5 .

while he executed, &c. = in (Greek. en. App-104 .) executing. Greek. hierateuo, to act as a priest. Not peculiar to Biblical Greek, but found often in the Papyri.


Verse 9

According to . Greek. kata. App-104 .

his lot was = it fell to him by lot.

to burn incense. Greek. thumiao. Occurs only here in N.T. incense. The first recorded use of incense by man began in disobedience (Numbers 16:6 ), and the last ended in unbelief (Luke 1:20 ),

when he went = going.

into. Greek eis. App-104 .

the Temple = The Naos, or Shrine; i.e. "the Holy Place". Not

hieron (the Temple courts). See note on Matthew 23:1 , Matthew 23:8 .


Verse 10

praying. See App-134 .

at the time = at the hour. This was the signal.


Verse 11

appeared. App-106 . an angel. For the frequent references to angels in Luke, see Luke 1:26 ; Luke 2:9 , Luke 2:13 , Luke 2:21 ; Luke 12:8 ; Luke 15:10 ; Luke 16:22 ; Luke 22:43 ; Luke 24:4 , Luke 24:23 . Also frequently in Acts.

on = at. Greek ek. App-104 .

the right side = the propitious side. Compare Matthew 25:33 .Mark 16:5 .John 21:6 .

the altar of incense . See Exodus 30:1-10 ; Exodus 37:25-28 . 1 Kings 7:48


Verse 12

saw. Greek. eidon. App-138 .

upon . Greek. epi. App-104 . As in Luke 1:35 . Not the same word as in Luke 1:58 .


Verse 13

unto = to. Greek. pros. App-104 . Not the same word as in Luke 1:26 .

not. Greek. me. App-105 . As in verses: Luke 1:20 , Luke 1:30 , not as in verses: Luke 1:20 , Luke 1:22 , Luke 1:34 .

for = because.

prayer = a definite petition.

is heard = was heard: i.e. not now, or recently. Evidently the prayer for offspring, which was now no longer offered.

bear thee = bring forth to thee.

John = Jehovah sheweth favour.


Verse 14

joy and gladness. Figure of speech Hendiadys ( App-6 ) = joy, yea exultant joy.

at = upon[the occasion of]. Greek. epi. App-104 ., as in Luke 1:29 .

birth = bringing forth. Greek gennao, used of the mother. See note on Matthew 1:2 .


Verse 15

in the sight of = before.

See note on "before", Luke 1:6 .

shall drink neither = shallin no wise (Greek. ou me. App-105 .) drink,

strong drink . Greek. sikera, any intoxicating drink not from grapes.

shall be filled. Verbs of filling take the Genitive of what the person or vessel is filled with. See App-101 . note. Here pneuma hagion is in the Genitive case.

the Holy Ghost = holy spirit. Greek pneuma hagion, or "power from on high". See App-101 .

from. Greek ek. App-104 . i.e. before birth. Compare Luke 1:44 .


Verse 16

children = sons. See App-108 .

to = towards. Greek. epi. App-104 .

Lord . Greek. kurios. App-98 .


Verse 17

go = goforth.

the spirit and power. Figure of speech Hendiadys ( App-6 ) = the

spirit = yea, the powerful spirit (Malachi 4:5 ).

Elias = Elijah.

to turn, &c. Reference to Malachi 3:1 with Malachi 4:5 , Malachi 4:6 .

See App-107 .

disobedient = unbelieving. to = in. Greek. en. App-104 .

wisdom . Greek. phronesis (not sophia) = understanding. Occurs only here, and Ephesians 1:8 = the product of Sophia. See notes on Job 28:28 ; Job 40:4 .


Verse 18

Whereby = According to (Greek. kata, as in Luke 1:9 ) what [sign].

know = get to know. Greek. ginosko. App-182 .

for I am an old man. To Zechariah the promise seemed to come too late; to Mary (Luke 1:34 )too early.


Verse 19

answering said. See note on Deuteronomy 1:41 .

Gabriel = the mighty man of God. The messanger of the restoration (Luke 1:26 ; Daniel 8:16 ; Daniel 9:21 ), as Michael is the messanger of Israel's delieverance from judgement (Daniel 10:13 , Daniel 10:21 ; Daniel 12:1 .Jude 1:9 ; and Revelation 12:7 ). Probably two of the seven angels of Revelation 1:4 ; Revelation 3:1 ; Revelation 4:5 ; Revelation 5:6 ; Revelation 8:2 , Revelation 8:6 ; Revelation 15:1 , Revelation 15:6 , Revelation 15:7 , Revelation 15:8 ; Revelation 16:1 ; Revelation 17:1 ; Revelation 21:9 .

in the presence. Same as "before", Luke 1:6 .

am = was

shew = announce.


Verse 20

behold. Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6 .

thou shalt be dumb . The finite Verb and Participle denote continuous silence.

be performed = come to pass.

believest not = didst not believe. App-150 . Note the Negative.

not . Greek. ou. App-105 .

which = which are of a kind which. Greek. hoitines, denoting a class, or kind of words.

in = up to. Greek eis. App-104 . Marking the process continuing up to the end.


Verse 21

waited for = were looking for. The finite Verb and Participle denoting protracted waiting.

marvelled . Because such waiting was usually short.


Verse 22

speak : i.e. pronounce the usual blessing (Numbers 6:24 ).

perceived = clearly perceived, or recognised. Greek. epiginosko. App-132 .

had seen. Greek. horao. App-133 .

beckoned = kept making signs.


Verse 23

days = week.

ministration = public service. Greek leitourgia. Hence Eng. "liturgy".

to = unto. Greek. eis. App-104 .


Verse 24

after . Greek. meta. App-104 .

conceived . Greek. sullambano. A medical word, used in this sense in Luke and in James 1:15 . See App-179 .

hid = completely secluded. Probably to avoid all possibility of uncleanness, as in Judges 13:4 , Judges 13:5 , Judges 13:7 , = Jdg 13:1214 . Occurs only here in N.T.

saying = saying that (Greek. hoti); giving the words.


Verse 25

looked on . Greek. epeidon. App-133 . Occurs only in Luke here, and Acts 4:29 .

to take away my reproach. Compare Genesis 30:23 . 1 Samuel 1:6-10 . Hosea 9:14 . Contrast Luke 23:29 .


Verse 26

the sixth month . After the vision of Zachariah.

This (Compare Luke 1:36 ) is the passage which gives John's age as six months older than the Lord's. See App-179 .

from . Greek. hupo. App-104 .

unto . Greek. eis. App-104 . Galilee. One of the four Roman divisions of Palestine, comprising Zebulun, Naphtali, and Asher. Compare Matthew 4:13 .

Nazareth. Now enNazirah.

Aram . See App-94 . See on Matthew 2:23 .


Verse 27

To . Greek. pros. App-104 .

virgin. This settles the meaning of the Hebrew `almah in Isaiah 7:14 . There is no question about the Greek parthenos.

espoused = betrothed. A year before marriage. See Matthew 1:18 .

man = husband. Greek. aner. App-123 .

Mary = the Hebrew Miriam. Exodus 15:20 . See App-100 .


Verse 28

Hail. See note on Matthew 26:49

thou that art highly favoured = [thou] having been graced [by God] = endued with grace. Occurs only here, and Ephesians 1:6 = accepted through grace. "Grace" does not occur in Matthew or Mark.

with = in association with. Greek. meta. App-104 . Not the same word as in verses: Luk 30:37 , Luk 30:51 , Luk 30:56 .

blessed . . . women. Omitted by T [Tr. ] A WH R. Probably brought here from Luke 1:42 , where it is unquestioned.


Verse 29

when she saw him. Omitted by all

the texts. cast in her mind = beganto reason, or was reasoning. Imperfect Tense.


Verse 30

found. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Species), App-6 , for "received".

favour = grace: which is favourthe unworthy, as patience is favour to the obstinate, as mercy is favour to the miserable, as pity is favour to the poor, &c.

with = from. Greek. para. App-104 .


Verse 31

thou shalt conceive : i.e. forthwith conceive. The Tense marks a future action, the beginning of which in relation to future time is past, but the consequences of which still continue.

and . Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton in verses: Luk 31:32 , emphasizing each detail. Note the four statements of the angel, combining the four key = texts of the four Gospels shown in the Inter-relation of the Four Gospels:

Thou shalt . . . bring forth a Son: "Behold the Man".

Thou shalt call His name Jesus: " Behold My Servant".

He shall be great . . . the Son of the Highest (Luke 1:32 )

: " Behold your God".

He shall reign, &c. (Luke 1:33 )

: " Behold thy King".

JESUS. See note on Matthew 1:21 and App-48 and App-98 . X.


Verse 32

He shall be great , &c. Marks the break in the Dispensations, verses: Luke 1:32 , Luke 1:33 being yet future.

the Highest = the Most High. Greek hupsiatos. Occurs seven times in Luke (Luke 1:32 , Luke 1:35 , Luke 1:76 ; Luke 2:14 (plural); Luke 6:35 ; Luke 8:28 ; Luke 19:38 (plural); and twice in Acts (Luke 7:48 ; Luke 16:17 ). Else. where, only four times (Matthew 21:9 (plural) Mark 5:7 ; Mark 11:10 (plural); and Hebrews 7:1 ).


Verse 33

over. Greek. epi. App-104 .

Jacob. Put for all the natural seed of the twelve tribes.

for = unto. Greek eis. App-104 .

for ever = unto the ages. See App-151 . More Reading, see Psalms 45:6 . Daniel 7:13 , Daniel 7:14 , Daniel 7:27 . Mic 4:7 . 1 Corinthians 15:24-26 . Hebrews 1:8 . Revelation 11:16 .


Verse 34

seeing , &c. = since, &c. Mary's answer shows how she understood the angel's promise. She does not question the fact, as Zacharias did (Luke 1:18 ), but only inquires as to the mode. To Mary the promise seems too early, to Zacharias too late.

know = come to know. Greek. ginosko. App-132 .


Verse 35

shall overshadow. Compare Exodus 33:22 .Mark 9:7 .

therefore = wherefore.

that holy Thing. See Heb 7:26 . 1 Peter 2:22 , and note on Matthew 27:4 .

the Son of God = God's Son. App-98 .


Verse 36

cousin = kinswoman.

she hath also conceived = she also hath conceived.


Verse 37

nothing = not (Greek. ou. App-105 ) any word. Greek. rhema. See note on Mark 9:32 .


Verse 38

Behold . Greek idou. App-133 .

handmaid = bondmaid.

word. See note on Luke 1:37 . Same word.


Verse 40

entered. A detail, to emphasize the fact, by which she recognized the truth of the sign of Luke 1:36 .


Verse 41

leaped. Greek. skirtao. Only used in N.T. here, Luke 1:44 , and Luke 6:23 . Compare Genesis 25:22 . Septuagint has the same word.


Verse 42

spake out = cried out. Greek. anaphoneo . Occurs only here. A medical word. See Colossians 4:14 .


Verse 43

to. Greek. pros. App-104 .


Verse 44

lo. Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6 .

sounded in = came into.

for joy = in (Greek. en. App-104 .) exultation.


Verse 45

blessed = happy. Not the same word as in Luke 1:42 .

performance = fulfilment. from. Greek para. App-104 .


Verse 46

Mary. From a common practice of transcribers in replacing a pronoun by the corresponding proper noun, or name, some have thought that this hymn is a continuation of Elisabeth's words. And the Structure favours this idea. But there is no MS. evidence for it.

My soul = Imyself. For emphasis. See App-110 .


Verse 47

my spirit. See App-101 .

rejoiced = exulted.

in. Greek. epi. App-104 .

God my Saviour. Note the Article = the God [Who is] the Saviour [of me]. See Septuagint Deu 82:15 .Psalms 24:6Psalms 24:6; Luk 25:5 ; Luk 95:1 .


Verse 48

regarded = looked (Greek. epiblepo. App-133 .)

upon (Greek. epi. App-104 .) See James 2:3 , and compare 1 Samuel 1:11 .Psalms 33:14 ; Psalms 119:132 (Septuagint).


Verse 49

He That is mighty = the Mighty One.

His name. See note on Psalms 20:1 .


Verse 50

mercy = pity. Greek. eleos. See verses: Luke 1:54 , Luke 1:58 , Luke 1:72 , Luk 54:78 . Not the same word as in Luke 1:30 .

fear = reverence.

from generation, &c. = unto (Greek. eis. App-104 .) generations of generations.


Verse 51

with. Greek. en. App-104 .

His arm. Figure of speech Anthrapopatheia. App-6 . Compare Isaiah 52:10 ; Isaiah 59:1 , Isaiah 59:16 .


Verse 52

put down the mighty. Amaziah (2 Kings 14:10 ); Uzziah (2 Chronicles 26:16 ); Nebuchadnezzar (Daniel 5:20 ); Belshazzar (Daniel 5:23 ; Daniel 5:30 ).

seats = thrones.

them of low degree = the lowly.


Verse 54

holpen = laid hold of [for help], or taken by the hand. Compare Isaiah 41:8 , Isaiah 41:9 .

in remembrance = [in order] to remember.


Verse 55

As = according as.

our fathers. Compare Micah 7:20 . Galatians 1:3 , Galatians 1:16 . Acts 2:39 .

for ever = unto the age. See App-151 . a.


Verse 56

with = in fellowship with. Greek. sun. App-104 . Not the same word as in verses: Luke 1:28 , Luke 1:30 , Luke 1:37 , Luk 28:39 , Luk 28:61 , Luk 28:66 .

returned = returned back. Greek hupostrepho. Almost peculiar to Luke. Oct:. only in Mark 14:40 . Galatians 1:1 , Galatians 1:17 . Hebrews 7:1 . outside Luke and Acts.


Verse 57

full time = fulfilled time.

and. Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton ( App-6 ) throughout the passage verses: Luke 1:57-67 , eighteen "ands".

brought forth. Greek gennao. Correctly rendered here, of the mother. Used of the father it = beget. See note on Matthew 1:2 .


Verse 58

shewed great mercy = magnified His mercy. A Hebraism. Compare Genesis 19:19 . 2 Samuel 22:51 , Septuagint.

upon = with. Greek meta. App-104 . Not the same word as in verses: Luke 1:12 , Luke 1:35 .


Verse 59

on = in. Greek. en. App-104 . Not the same word as in Luke 1:65 .

on the eighth day. Genesis 17:12 .Leviticus 12:3 .Philippians 1:3 , Philippians 1:5 .

child . Greek. paidion. App-108 .

they called . Imperf. Tense = were for calling,

after . Greek. epi. App-104 . Not the same word as in Luke 1:24 .


Verse 60

Not so = No. Greek. ouchi. App-105 .


Verse 61

There is = That there is.

of = among. Greek en. App-104 .

that is = who is.


Verse 62

made signs. Imperf. Tense = were consulting him by signs; i.e. while the colloquy was going on,

would = wished to. Greek. thelo. App-102 .


Verse 63

writing table = writing tablet Table was used for tablet in 1611. Used by medical writers in Luke's day.

wrote, saying. A Hebraism. Compare 2 Kings 10:6 .

"John" = the grace of Jehovah, was thus the first written word of that dispensation.


Verse 64

immediately = at once. Greek parachrema. Occurs nineteen times. All in Luke or Acts, except Matthew 21:19 , Matthew 21:20 . A medical word (see Colossians 4:14 ), used thirteen times in connection with disease or healing. Rendered "straightway "in Luke 8:55 .Acts 5:10 .

spake = began to speak. Imperf. Tense.


Verse 65

on = upon. Greek. epi. App-104 .

sayings. Greek. Plural of rhema. See note on Mark 9:32 .

were noised abroad = were talked of.

throughout all = in (Greek. en. App-104 .) the whole.


Verse 66

that heard. The 1611 edition of the Authorized Version reads "that had heard".


Verse 68

Blessed . Hence the name "Benedictus" given to Zacharias's prophecy.

God = the God.

visited = lookedon. Not the same word as in Luke 1:48 . See App-133 .

redeemed = wrought a ransom for. Compare Titus 2:14 .


Verse 69

an horn of salvation. A Hebraism. See Psalms 132:17 . 1 Samuel 2:1 , 1 Samuel 2:10 . Ezekiel 29:21 .

His servant David. See Psalms 132:10 .


Verse 70

by = through.

Greek. dia. App-104 .Luke 1:1 .

since the world began = from [the] age i.e. of old. See App-151 .


Verse 72

to = with. Greek meta. App-104 .


Verse 73

The oath, &c. See Genesis 12:3 ; Genesis 17:4 ; Genesis 22:16 , Genesis 22:17 .


Verse 74

out of = from. Greek. ek. App-104 .

hand. The 1611 edition of the Authorized Version reads "hands". serve: or worship.


Verse 75

holiness. Toward God. righteousness. Toward men. Compare 1 Thessalonians 2:10 . Ephesians 4:24 .


Verse 76

before . Greek. pro. App-104 .


Verse 77

knowledge. Greek. gnosis. App-132 .

by = for. Greek. en. App-104 .


Verse 78

Through = On account of. Greek dia. App-104 .Luke 1:2 .

tender mercy = bowels of compassion. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia ( App-6 ).

whereby = in (Greek. en. App-104 .) which.

dayspring . Greek. anatole. Hebrew. zemach = branch (see page 1304), is rendered anatole in Jeremiah 23:6 and Zechariah 3:8 , because of its springing up. Both meanings (branch and light) are here combined. Compare Ezekiel 16:7 ; Ezekiel 17:10 .

on high. Greek. hupsos. Occurs five more times: Luke 24:49 . Ephesians 3:18 ; Ephesians 4:8 . James 1:9 . Revelation 21:16 .


Verse 79

give light to = shine upon.

the shadow of death. A Hebraism. ZalmavethJob 10:21 ; Job 38:17 . Psalms 23:4 ; Psalms 107:10 . Isaiah 9:2 .Matthew 4:16 , &c.

guide = direct. Wycliffe has "dress", through the O. French dresser = to arrange, still preserved as an English military term.


Verse 80

waxed strong = grew and was strengthened. spirit. Greek. pneuma. See App-101 .

the deserts. The article. indicating a well-known part.

shewing = public or official inauguration. Greek. anadeixis. Only occurs here. The verb anadeiknumi occurs Luke 10:1 . See note there.


Chapter 2

Verse 1

it came to pass in those days. The seventh and last occurrence of this ominous phrase. See note on Genesis 14:1 .

it came to pass. A Hebraism, frequent in Luke. Compare Luke 1:8 .

in. Greek. en. App-104 .

a decree = an edict, from. Greek. para. App-104 .

all . Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the whole) for a part of the whole; i.e. the Roman Empire.

world. Greek. oikoumene. See App-129 . Compare Acts 11:28 .

taxed = enrolled, or registered.


Verse 2

this taxing was first made = this was the first registration to be made. A second is recorded in Acts 5:37 .

Cyrenius. Greek for the Latin Quirinus. His full name was Publius Sulpicius Quirinus.


Verse 3

every one , &c. A Papyrus (in British Museum), being a rescript of the Prefect Gaius Vibius Maximus (A.D. 103-4), shows that Herod must have been acting under Roman orders. Vib. Max. was Prefect of Egypt, and wrote: "The enrolment by households being at hand, it is necessary to notify all who for any cause soever are outside their homes to return to their domestic hearths, that they may accomplish the customary dispensation of enrolment, and continue steadfastly in the husbandry that belongeth to them. "There is a large number of Papyri relating to these enrolments. See Deissmann's Light from the Ancient East, pp. 268, 269.

into = unto. Greek. eis. App-104 .


Verse 4

went up : literally true, the ascent from Nazareth to Jerusalem being at least 1,500 feet.

from = away from. Greek. apo. App-104 .

out of Greek ek. App-104 .

Nazareth. Aramaean. See note on Luke 1:26 . = Branch = Town, where He, Jehovah's "Branch "(Zechariah 3:8 ; Zechariah 6:12 ), wasbrought up (Luke 4:16 ).

unto . Greek. eis. App-104 . Not the same word as in verses: Luke 2:2 , Luke 2:15 -, Luke 2:20 , Luke 2:48 , Luke 2:49 .

the city of David. 1 Samuel 20:6 . Zion also so called, 2Sa 5:9 ; 2 Samuel 6:10 , 2 Samuel 6:12 , 2Sa 6:16 ; 1 Kings 2:10 , &c.

Bethlehem = the house of bread. Compare Genesis 35:19 ; Genesis 48:7 . Psalms 132:6 . NOW Beit Lahm, about five miles south of Jerusalem.

because he was = on account of (dia. App-104 .Luke 2:2Luke 2:2 )his being.

of. Greek. ek. App-104 .

lineage: i.e. the family.


Verse 5

with = in conjunction with. Greek. sun. App-104 . Not the same word as in verses: Luke 2:36 , Luke 2:51 , Luke 2:52 .

espoused = married. Not merely "betrothed "(Matthew 1:20 , Matthew 1:24 , Matthew 1:25 ). See note on Matthew 1:18 . Compare Deuteronomy 22:23 , Deuteronomy 22:24 .

great with child . Compare Luke 1:24 . Greek enkuos. Occurs only here in N.T.


Verse 6

so it was = it came to pass; as in Luke 2:1 .

while = in (Greek. en. App-104 .) the time.


Verse 7

her firstborn Son =

her son, the firstborn. App-179 .

wrapped . . . swaddling clothes. Greek sparganoo = to swathe. Occurs only here and Luke 2:12 . A medical term = bandage. See Co Luke 1:4 , Luke 1:14 . Eng. "swathe". Anglo = Saxon swathu = as much grass as is mown at one stroke of the scythe. From Low Germ. swade = a scythe. Hence a shred, or slice, then a bandage. Compare Ezekiel 16:4 .

a = the. But all the Texts omit the Art.

manger . Greek phatne (from pateomai, to eat). Occurs only in verses: Luke 12:16 , and Luke 13:15 . Septuagint for Hebrew. 'ebusProverbs 14:4 .

no . Greek. ou. App-105 .

the inn = the Khan. Not "guestchamber", as in Luke 22:11 and Mark 14:14 , its only other occurrences.


Verse 8

country = region where David fed his father's sheep, when sent for by Samuel (1 Samuel 16:11 , 1 Samuel 16:12 ).

over . Greek. epi. App-104 .


Verse 9

lo . Figure of speech Asterismos ( App-6 ), to call attention to the wondrous event.

the angel = an angel. No Art. See note on Luke 1:11 . App-179 .

LORD = Jehovah ( App-98 ).

came upon = stood by. Greek. ephistemi. Used eighteen times by Luke. Compare Luke 24:4 .Acts 12:7 ; Acts 23:11 .

the glory: the Shekinah, which symbolized the Divine presence. See Exo 24:16 . 1 Kings 8:10 . Isaiah 6:1-3 .Acts 7:55 .

were sore afraid = feared a great fear. Figure of speech Polyptoton. App-6 . See note on Genesis 26:28 .


Verse 10

not. Greek. me. App-105 .

behold. Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6 .

I bring you good tidings . Greek. euangelizomai = 1 evangelize (announce) to you great joy.

which . Denoting the class or character of the joy.

people = the People [of Israel].


Verse 11

For = That: meaning "born to-day"; not "I announce to-day". See note on Luke 23:43 .

is born = was born, or brought forth.

a Saviour. Not a helper: for a

Saviour is for the lost.

Christ the Lord = Hebrew. Mashiah Jehovah, i.e. Jehovah's Anointed. 1 Samuel 24:6 . App-98 .

the Lord. App-98 . B. a. The Lord of all power and might. Therefore able to save. Compare Romans 14:9 . 1Co 8:6 ; 1 Corinthians 12:3 . 2 Corinthians 4:5 .Philippians 1:2 , Philippians 1:11 . These three words define and contain the "Gospel" as being good news as to a Person; and as being Christianity as distinct from Religion, which consists of Articles, Creeds, Doctrines, and Confessions; i.e. all that is outward. Compare Philippians 1:3 , Philippians 1:4-7 , Philippians 1:9 , Philippians 1:10 , Philippians 1:20 , Philippians 1:21 . Note that in the Greek the words, "in the city of David", come last. Hence the z and z correspond in the Structure. p. 1436. D


Verse 12

the Babe = a babe.


Verse 13

heavenly host = host of heaven. So Tr. WH margin host = the Sabaioth of the O.T. Compare Daniel 8:10 . Romans 9:29 . James 5:4 .Revelation 5:11 , Revelation 5:12 .

God. App-98 .


Verse 14

Glory. Supply the Ellipsis: [be] to God. Compare Luke 19:38 .

on earth peace. But man murdered "the Prince of peace", and now vainly talks about "Peace". on. Greek. epi. App-104 .

earth. Greek. ge . App-124 .

good will toward men. All the texts read "among men of good pleasure", reading eudokias instead of eudokia. But the sense is the same, as the "good pleasure" is that of Jehovah alone = among men of [His] good pleasure: See Luke 12:32 , "It is your Father's good pleasure to give you the kingdom". But it was man's bad pleasure to reject the kingdom. See the Structure (F).

toward = among. Greek en. App-104 .


Verse 15

heaven = the heaven. Singular with Art.

to. Greek. pros. App-104 .

Let us now go = [Come now], let us go through.

unto = as far as.

see . Greek. eidon. App-133 .

thing = word, or saying. Greek. rhema. See note on Mark 9:32 .

is = has.

made known : i.e. the saying of Luke 2:12 . Greek gnorizo. Compare gnosis. App-132 .


Verse 16

found = discovered, after search, or in succession. Greek. aneurisko. Occ, only here and in Acts 21:4 .

Mary, and Joseph, and the Babe. Each has the Art. with conj. emphasizing the several parties referred to.


Verse 17

saying. Greek. rhema, as in Luke 2:15

concerning . Greek. peri. App-104 .

Child. As in Luke 1:59 .


Verse 18

at = concerning, as in Luke 2:17 .

them = to (Greek. pros, as in Luke 2:15 =) them.

by. Greek. hupo. App-104 .


Verse 19

kept = kept within herself.

and pondered = pondering; i.e. weighing them. Compare Gen 87:11 .


Verse 20

for = on. Greek. epi. App-104 .

as = according as.

unto. Greek. pros. App-104 .


Verse 21

eight days, &c.: i.e. on the last and great day of the Feast of Tabernacles (John 7:37 ).

accomplished = fulfilled. See Leviticus 12:3 .

name . Supply the logical Ellipsis thus: "[Then they circumcised Him] and called His Name", &c. Only four named before birth: Ishmael, Isaac, John, and the Lord.

JESUS. See note on Matthew 1:21 . App-98 . X

of = by. Greek. hupo, as in Luke 2:13 .

before. Greek. pro. App-104 .


Verse 22

the days: i.e. forty days after the birth of a son (eighty after a daughter). See Leviticus 12:2-4

her = their. So all the texts; i.e. Joseph and Mary.

according to. Greek. kata. App-104 . See Exodus 13:12 ; Exodus 22:29 ; Exodus 34:19 . Numbers 3:12 , Numbers 3:13 , Numbers 18:15 .

the law . Mentioned five times in this chapter, oftener than all the rest of Luke, to show the truth of Galatians 1:4 , Galatians 1:4 .

Him = brought Him up. to. Greek. eis. App-104 . present, &c. Exodus 13:2 .Numbers 18:15 , Numbers 18:16 .


Verse 23

Every male, &c. Quoted from Exodus 13:2 .Numbers 18:15 , holy. Seenote on Exodus 3:5 .


Verse 24

A pair , &c. Leviticus 12:2 , Leviticus 12:6 .


Verse 25

man. Greek. anthropos. See App-123 .

Simeon. In Hebrew. Shimeon = hearing. Compare Genesis 29:33 . Possibly the father of Gamaliel (Acts 5:34 .

devout. Greek eulabes. Used only by Luke = taking hold of well; i.e. careful and circumspect in observing the Law. Compare Acts 2:5 ; Acts 8:2 . The kindred word eulabeia, rendered "godly fear", occurs twice Hebrews 5:7 ; Hebrews 12:28 ).

waiting for . Compare Genesis 49:18 . Isaiah 49:23 ; and see App-36 . Joseph of Arimathaea was another who thus waited. Mark 15:43 . Compare Luke 2:38 ; Luke 3:15 ; Luke 24:21 .

the consolation of Israel. Compare Acts 28:20 and Isaiah 40:1 . "May I see the consolation of Israel! "was a Jewish formula of blessing; and an adjuration also: "May I not see it, if I speak not the truth! "

the Holy Ghost = pneumahagion = a spiritual gift. See App-101 .

upon. Greek. epi. App-104 .


Verse 26

it was revealed. Greek. chrematizo. Occurs nine times; seven times of a Divine communication; here, Matthew 2:12 , Matthew 2:22 .Acts 10:22 ; Acts 11:26 . Romans 7:3 .Hebrews 8:5 ;. Luke 11:17 ; Luke 12:25 .

the Holy Ghost. The Person being the revealer (with Articles). Not the same as in Luke 2:25 . See App-101 .

before. Greek. prin. See note on "Till", Matthew 1:25 .

the Lord's Christ = Jehovah's Anointed. See note on Luke 2:11 . App-98 .


Verse 27

by = in. Greek. en. App-104 .

the Spirit . The Holy Spirit Himself. See App-101 .

the temple = the Temple courts. Greek. hieron. See notes on Matthew 4:5 ; Matthew 23:10 .

for = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104 .

after = according to. As in Luke 2:22 .


Verse 28

took = received.

in = into, as in Luke 2:3 .


Verse 29

Lord = Master. Greek. Despotes. App-98 . Occurs ten times in N.T. (here; Act 4:24 . 1 Timothy 6:1 , 1Ti 6:2 ; 2 Timothy 2:21 . Tit 2:9 . 1 Peter 2:18 . 2 Peter 2:1 .Jude 1:4 .Revelation 6:10Revelation 6:10 ).

word = saying. See Luke 2:26 .


Verse 30

Thy salvation . Greek. to soterion (not the usual soteria). Used of Jehovah Himself (not merely of salvation as such). See Isaiah 62:11 . Compare Luke 3:6 .


Verse 31

before. Greek. kata. App-104 .

people = the peoples.


Verse 32

A light. Greek. phos. See App-130 . Quotedfrom Isaiah 42:6 .

to lighten = for (Greek. eis, as in Luke 2:34 ) a revelation of. Greek. apokalupsis = a revelation by unveiling and manifesting to view. The first of eighteen occurrences. All noted in App-106 . Compare Psalms 98:2 , Psalms 98:3 .Isaiah 42:6 ; Isaiah 49:6 ; Isaiah 52:10 , &c. the Gentiles. See Isaiah 26:7 . glory. The special blessing for Israel. Israel has had the "light". She is yet to have the glory.


Verse 33

Joseph. Most of' the texts (not the Syriac) read "His father".

marvelled = were marvelling.

at. Greek. epi. App-104 . Not the same word as in Luke 2:18 .

of = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104 . Not the same word as in verses: Luke 2:4 , Luke 2:35 ; Luk 2:-36 .


Verse 34

set = destined.

for. Greek. eis. App-104 . Not the same word as in verses: Luke 2:10 , Luke 2:11 , Luke 2:20 , Luke 10:27 , Luke 10:30 .

fall :i.e. a stumbling = block. See Isaiah 8:14 , and compare Matthew 21:42 , Matthew 21:44 .Acts 4:11 .Romans 9:33 . 1 Corinthians 1:23 .

rising again = rising up. Matthew 11:5 . App-178 . spoken against. See Acts 28:22 . Not a prophecy, but describing its character.


Verse 35

Yea = And thee.

sword. Greek. rhomphaia. Occurs only here and Revelation 1:16 ; Revelation 2:12 , Revelation 2:16 ; Revelation 6:8 ; Revelation 19:15 , Revelation 19:21 . Septuagint for Zechariah 13:7 .

pierce, &c. When on the Cross.

soul. Greek. psuche. App-110 . Luke 2:1 .

thoughts = reasonings. Compare Luke 5:22 .Matthew 15:19 . John 9:16 . 1 Corinthians 11:19 . 1 John 2:19 .

revealed = unveiled. Greek. apokalupto. App-106 .


Verse 36

Anna. Hebrew. Hannah , as in 1 Samuel 1:20 = He was gracious.

prophetess. Only here and Revelation 2:20 .

Aser = Asher; thus Anna of Israel united with Simeon of Judah.


Verse 37

not. Greek. ou. App-105 .

served. Same as Luke 1:74 .


Verse 38

coming in = standing by.

that instant = at the same time (or hour).

thanks = praise.

the Lord . All the texts read "God".

looked = waited.

redemption. See notes on Luke 2:24 ; Luke 24:21 .Mark 15:43 .


Verse 39

performed = ended.

Nazareth . See note on Matthew 2:23 .


Verse 40

in spirit . All the texts omit this. App-101 .Matthew 2:0 comes in here.

the grace , &c. Compare John 1:14 .Isaiah 11:2 , Isaiah 11:3 .


Verse 41

passover. See App-94 .


Verse 42

twelve years old : when every Jewish boy becomes "a son of the law "If they performed "all things" according to the Law, Joseph had paid the five shekels redemption money (Numbers 3:47 ; Numbers 3:18 , Numbers 3:16 ), which gave Joseph the legal right to be reckoned the "father", claiming the obedience shown in Luke 2:51 . See notes on Luke 2:45 , and Luke 3:23 , which, thus explain the genealogy there.


Verse 43

as they returned = in (Greek. en. App-101 .) their returning.

the Child . Now the Greek is pais = the youth as be = coming Jehovah's servant. See App-108 .

Joseph and His mother . All the Texts read "His parents".

knew not = did not get to know of it. Greek ginosko. App-132 .


Verse 44

supposing = surely reckoning. See note on Luke 3:23 .

the company: i.e. in the caravan.

a day's journey. Probably to Beeroth, about six miles north of Jerusalem. Now Bireh.

sought = searched up and down.

among. Greek. en. App-101 .

and = and among.


Verse 45

seeking = searching (all the way they went). Greek. anaz as in Luke 2:44 .


Verse 46

after = with. Greek. meta. App-104 .

sitting. This was strictly according to rule.

doctors = teachers: i.e. Rabbis.


Verse 48

Son. Greek. teknon = child. See App-108 .

Thy father. This was legally correct on the part of Mary. (See note on Luke 2:42 , above.) But not truly so; therefore the Lord's correction, "MY Father's business", Luke 2:49 .


Verse 49

wist ye not = knew ye not. Greek. oida. See App-132 .

must. These are the first recorded words of the Lord. The reference is to Psalms 40:5-11 , John 4:34 . Hence the Divine necessity. Compare Matthew 16:21 ; Matthew 26:54 .Mark 8:31 . Mar 4:43 ; Mark 9:22 ; Mark 13:33 ; Mar 24:7 , Mar 24:26 , Mar 24:46 . John 3:14 ; John 4:4 ; John 12:34 , &c. The last-recorded wordsthe Son of man were, "It is finished": i.e. the Father's business which He came to be about. Compare His first and last ministerial or official words. See note on Matthew 4:4 , "It is written".


Verse 50

understood not. Compare Luke 9:45 ; Luke 18:34 .Mark 9:322 John 1:102 John 1:10 , John 1:11 ; John 10:6 .


Verse 51

subject. See note on Luke 2:42 .


Verse 52

increased = advanced, in wisdom. See App-117 .

stature = maturity in all respects.

with = from beside. Greek. para. App-104 .

man = men. Greek. anthropos. App-123 .


Chapter 3

Verse 1

in. Greek. en. App-104 . fifteenth . . . Tiberius. See App-179 , note 2. Augustus died in A.D. 14, Tiberius was associated with him for two or three years. This would make Tiberius's fifteenth year A.D. 26 reign government. Greek hegemonia (not basileia = kingdom).

Pontius Pilate . First mention. sixth Procurator of Judaea, A.D. 25. After his deposition, he went to Rome, and (according toEusebius) committed suicide in A.D. 36. goverinor. Cognate word with "reign "above.

Herod . . Philip . See App-109 . Herod Antipas, half-brother of Philip I, who abducted Philip's wife, Herodias, and married her. This was the Herod to whom the Lord was sent for trial.


Verse 2

Annas. See App-94 .

Annas and Caiaphas being the high priests. Caiaphas was the High Priest as successor of Aaron; while Annas was the Nasi, or head of the Sanhedrin (as successor of Moses), and thus associated with Caiaphas in government. This explains John 18:13 , John 18:24 , and Acts 4:6 .

the word of God came, &c. See App-82 . Compare Jeremiah 1:2 .Ezekiel 6:1 , &c. John was the last and greatest of the prophets.

unto = upon. Greek. epi. App-104 . Not the same word as in Luke 9:12 , Luke 9:13 , Luke 9:14 .

John the son of Zacharias . In Matthew, John the Baptist.

the wilderness : i.e. in the cities and towns of the opencountry. See Luke 3:4 ; Joshua 15:61 , Joshua 15:62 ; and 1Sa 23:14 , 1 Samuel 23:24 .


Verse 3

came = went.

into. Greek. eis. App-104 .

preaching = proclaiming. See App-121 .

baptism . See App-115 .

repentance. See App-111 .

for = with a view to. Greek. eis. App-104 .

the remission = remission. A medical word (see Colossians 4:14 ). Used by Luke ten times. Rest of N.T. only seven times. See Luke 4:18 .

sins. App-128 .


Verse 4

the words , &c. See notes on Isaiah 40:3 , and Malachi 3:1 . See App-107 .

Esaias = Isaiah. See App-79 .

the LORD = Jehovah. App-4 and App-98 .

paths = beaten tracks.


Verse 6

flesh . Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Genus), App-6 , for people. see. Greek. opsomai. App-133 .

God. App-98 .


Verse 7

Then said he = He said therefore.

multitude = crowds.

baptized . App-115 .

of = by. Greek. hupo. App-104 . Not the sameword as in verses: Luke 3:8 , Luke 3:15 .

generation = offspring, or brood.

warned = forewarned; implying secrecy.

from = away from. Greek. apo. App-104 . Not the same word as in Luke 3:22 .

to come = about to come. Quite true; for, had the nation repented, all that the prophets had foretold, both as to the sufferings and following wrath and glory, would have been fulfilled.


Verse 8

repentance = the repentance which has been demanded, and which you profess.

not . Greek. me. App-105 . Not the same word as in Luke 3:16 .

within = among. Greek. en. App-104 .

father . Emphatic, by the Figure of speech Hyperbaton ( App-6 ), being put in the Greek as the first word of the sentence. See John 8:33 , John 8:53 .

of = out of. Greek. ek. App-104 . Not the same word as in Luke 3:7 .

these stones . Compare Luke 19:40 ; Matthew 3:9 . children. App-108 .


Verse 9

now also the axe is laid = already even the axe lies; or, and even the axe lies. Referring to national privileges.

unto. Greek. pros. App-104 .


Verse 11

answereth and saith. See note on Deuteronomy 1:41 .

coats = tunics. compare Matthew 5:40 ). One kind of garment, put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Species) for a garment of any kind,

none = not, as in Luke 3:8 .

meat = food, or victuals.


Verse 12

also publicans = the tax-farmers also.

baptized. App-115 .

Master = Teacher. App-98 . Luke 3:1 .


Verse 13

no = nothing. Greek. laden.

than = beside. Greek.

para . App-104 .


Verse 14

the soldiers = some soldiers (no Art.) going on service. Not the Noun, but the Participle = men under arms. Josephus (Antiquities xviii 5 § 1,2) tells us that Herod Antipas (Luke 3:1 ) was engagedin a war with Aretas his father-in-law, a petty king in Arabia Petrea, at this very time, and his soldiers were passing from Galilee through the very country where John was proclaiming.

Do violence = terrify with a view to extortion. Occurs only here in the N.T.

accuse any falsely. See note on Luke 19:3 .


Verse 15

in expectation. See notes on Luke 2:25 , Luke 2:38 ; Luke 24:21 .Mark 15:43 .

mused = reasoned.

of = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104 .

the Christ = the Messiah. App-98 .


Verse 16

baptize. App-115 .

One = the One: i.e. He that is mightier.

latohet = thong, or lace.

shoes = sandals. A well-known proverb. Figure of speech Paroem ia. App-6 .

not. Greek ou. App-105 .

worthy = fit.

with the Holy Ghost = with holy spirit. Greek pneuma hagion : i.e. power from on high, or with spiritual gifts. See App-101 .

with fire. Because this was foretold as being among the things which were about to be fulfilled, had the nation repented. "This (Acts 2:16 ) is that (Joel 2:30 ). "It symbolizes the judgments included in that day.


Verse 17

fan = winnowing = fan.

floor = threshing = floor.

burn = burn up. Greek katakaio = to consume entirely. Compare Matthew 3:12 .Hebrews 13:11 .


Verse 18

other = different. See App-124 .

things = things therefore.

preached = announced the glad tidings. Greek. euangelizo. See App-121 . Not the same word as in Luke 3:3


Verse 19

Herod. See Matthew 14:3 . App-109 .

by. Greek. hupo. App-104 .

for = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104 . Not the same word as in verses: Luke 3:3 , Luke 3:3 .

evils. Greek. ponera (plural) App-128 .


Verse 20

Added. Greek. prostithemi. A medical word in the sense of apply or administer, used by Luke thirteen times; in the rest of the N.T. five times.

yet this = this also.

above = to. Greek. epi. App-104 .

prison. The fortress of Machaerus, on the borders of Arabia north of the Dead Sea (Josephus, Antiquities bk. xviii. ch. v 2).


Verse 21

it came to pass . As in Luke 3:1 . The 1611 edition of the Authorized Version reads "and it came to pass".

praying . Note the occasions of the Lord's praying: here; Luke 6:16 ; Luke 6:12 ; Luke 9:18 , Luke 9:28 ; Luke 11:1 ; Luke 22:41-44 .

the heaven. Singular. See notes on Matthew 6:9 , Matthew 6:10 .


Verse 22

the Holy Ghost = the Spirit the Holy [Spirit]. See App-101 .

in a bodily shape. Peculiar to Luke.

upon. Greek. epi. App-104 .

from = out of: Greek. ek. App-104 .

My beloved Son = My Son, the beloved [Son].

I am well pleased = I have found delight.


Verse 23

began = when He began [His ministry? ] He was about thirty years of age.

as was supposed = as reckoned by law. Greek. nomizo = to lay down a thing as law; to hold by custom, or usage; to reckon correctly, take for granted. See Matthew 20:10 . Mat 2:44 .Acts 7:25 ; Acts 14:19 ; Acts 16:13 , Acts 16:27 .

Joseph was begotten by Jacob , and was his natural son (Matthew 1:16 ). He could be the legal son of Heli, therefore, only by marriage with Hell's daughter (Mary), and be reckoned so according to law (Greek. nomizo). It does not say "begat" in the case of Hell.

which = who. So throughout verses: Luke 3:24-38 .

the son of Heli. The genealogy of the ideal man begins from his father, and goes backward as far as may be. That of a king begins at the source of his dynasty and ends with himself. Compare that of Matthew with Luke, and see App-99 .


Verse 31

Nathan. This is the natural line through Nathan. In Matthew 1:6 , the regal line is shown through Solomon. Thus both lines became united in Joseph; and thus the Lord being raised from the dead is the one and only heir to the throne of David. For the two lines see App-99 .


Verse 32

Booz = O.T. Boaz.

Naasson = O.T. Nahshon.


Verse 33

Aminadab = O.T. Amminadab.

Aram = O.T. Ram.

Esrom = O.T. Hezron.

Pharos = O.T. Pharez.

Juda = O.T. Judah.


Verse 34

Thara = O.T. Torah.

Nachor = O.T. Nahor.


Verse 35

Saruch = O.T. Serug.

Ragau = O.T. Reu.

Phalec = O.T. Peleg.

Heber = O.T. Eber.

Bala = O.T. Salah.


Verse 36

Cainan . See App-99 , note.

Sem = O.T. Shem.

Noe = O.T. Noah.


Verse 37

Mathusala = O.T. Methuselah. d

Maleleel = O.T. Mahalaleel. D


Verse 38

the son of God . Because created by God; the angels are so called, for the same reason. See App-28 .


Chapter 4

Verse 1

Jesus. App-98 .

full. Used of pneuma hagion only when without the Art. See App-101 ., and Acts 6:3 ; Acts 7:55 ; Acts 11:24 .

the Holy Ghost . No Art. Greek. pneuma hagion, or "power from on high". See above.

from = away from. Greek apo. App-104 .

by. Greek en. App-104 . Not the same word as in Luke 4:4 .

the Spirit . With Art. = the Holy Spirit Himself.

into . Greek. eis. App-104 . All the texts read en. The Spirit not only led Him "into" the wilderness but guided Him when there.

the wilderness . Supply the Ellipsis ( App-6 ) thus: "the wilderness, [and was there in the wilderness, ] being tempted", &a


Verse 2

forty. See App-10 . Compare Exodus 34:28 . Numbers 14:34 . 1 Kings 19:8 . Read, as in Revised Version, "forty days, being", &c.

tempted = troubled and tried.

of = by. Greek. hupo. App-104 . Not the same word as in verses: Luke 4:14 , Luke 4:26 .

the devil. Here named because these three temptations came before the three recorded in Matthew 4:0 . There it is ho peirazon = "he who was tempting Him". See App-116 . in. Greek. en, App-104 .

nothing = not (Greek. ou. App-105 ) anything.


Verse 3

unto = to.

If Thou be , &c. Greek. ei, with Ind. App-118 . Assuming the fact. Same word as in Luke 4:9 ; not the same word as in Luke 4:7 .

the Son of God . Referring to Luke 3:22 . App-98 . this stone; "these stones "in Matthew 4:3 . Repeated under different circumstances. App-116 .


Verse 4

him = to (Greek. pros. App-104 .) him.

It is written = It standeth written. In Deuteronomy 8:3 . See App-107 . See note on Matthew 4:4 .

man Greek anthropos App-123

not. Greek ou. App-105 .

by = upon. Greek. epi. App-104 .

word = saying. Compare Matthew 4:4 , and see App-116 .

God. Greek Theos. App-98 .


Verse 5

taking. Greek. anago = leading. Not paralambano = taking

with . As in Matthew 4:5 . See App-116 .

the world . Greek. oikoumene. See App-129 . Not kosmos, as on a subsequent occasion (Matthew 4:8 ). See App-116 .

in a moment of time . Occurs only here.


Verse 6

power = authority. App-172 . In Matthew "these things". See App-116 . for that, &c. This was not repeated on the subsequent occasion (Matthew 4:9 ).

I will . Greek thelo. See App-102 .


Verse 7

If thou therefore , &c App-118 . The condition hypothetical.

worship me = worship before me. See App-137 . See note on "before", Luke 1:6 .


Verse 8

Get thee , &c. But the devil did not do so yet. He left of his own accord (Luke 4:12 ) See App-116 . Most of the texts omit this.

it is written , &c. In Deuteronomy 6:13 ; Deuteronomy 10:20 , App-107 . the

LORD = Jehovah. App-4 and App-98 .


Verse 9

brought = led. Greek. ago, not paralambano, as in Matthew 4:5 (on a subsequent occasion). See App-116 .

to = unto. Greek eis. App-104 .

on . Greek. epi App-104 .

pinnacle. See note on Matthew 4:5 .

temple . Greek. hieron. See note on Matthew 23:16

from hence = hence. In the subsequent temptation (Matthew 4:6 ) = " down".


Verse 10

it is written. In Psalms 91:11 , Psalms 91:12 . See App-107 .

over = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104 .

to keep. Greek. diaphulasso = thoroughly protect. Occurs only here in N.T.


Verse 11

in = on. Greek. epi. App-104 .

against. Greek. pros. App-104 .


Verse 12

is said = hath been said, &c. Deuteronomy 6:16 .


Verse 13

all = every.

departed. Of his own accord. See note on Matthew 4:10 , and App-116 .

for a season = until a convenient time. See Matthew 4:11 . Returning again and repeating the three temptations in a different order and under different circumstances. See App-116 .


Verse 14

power . Greek. dunamis. App-172 .

there went out a fame, &c. In Luke (as in the other Gospels) only those events are selected which tend to illustrate the special presentation of the Lord and His ministry. Compare the commencing events of each: Matthew 4:13 .Mark 1:14 .Mark 4:14-30 , and John 1:19-43 . For this fourfold ministry, see App-119 . Thus this first period commences and its subject, as stated more precisely in verses: Luke 4:43 , Luke 4:44 .

fame = report. Greek. pheme. Not the same word as in Luke 4:37 .

of = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104 .

through . Greek. kata. App-104 .


Verse 15

he = He Himself.

synagogues . App-120 of = by. Greek. hupo. App-104 .


Verse 16

Nazareth = the (or, that) Nazareth thus defined. Aramaean. See App-94 .:36. See App-169 .

as His custom was = according to (Greek. kata. App-104 .) custom.

on. Greek. en. App-104 .

stood up. Being summoned by the superintendent (Luke 4:17 ). This incident (Luke 4:16-31 ) is peculiar to Luke.

to read . Greek anaginosko. Later usage = to read aloud (as here, 2 Corinthians 3:15 .Colossians 4:16 . 1 Thessalonians 5:27 ). But in the Papyri generally = to read. (See Milligan, Selections, pp 39, 112.) The Lord preached in other synagogues, but read only here in Nazareth, which shows that He owned, and was owned, to be a member of this.


Verse 17

there was delivered, &c. = there was further delivered: i.e. the prophets (the Haphtorah), the second lesson after another had read the Law (the Parashah or first lesson). This delivery was made by the chazan = overseer, or Sheliach tzibbor, angel of the congregation. See Revelation 2:1 , Revelation 2:8 , Revelation 2:12 , Revelation 2:18 ; Revelation 3:1 , Revelation 3:7 , Revelation 3:14 .

Esaias = Isaiah. For the occurance of his name in the N.T. see App-79 .

opened = unrolled. This word and "closed" (Luke 4:20 ) Occurs only here in the N.T. Compare Nehemiah 8:5 .

found the place . Isaiah 61:1 , Isaiah 61:2 . Doubtless the Haphtorahtorah or second lesson for the day,

it was written = it stood written. See App-107 .


Verse 18

The Spirit . The Article is understood, in English. See Luke 4:1 .

upon . Greek. epi. App-104 .

because = on account of which.

anointed Me . Hence His name "Christ". Compare Acts 10:38 .

preach the gospel = announce the glad tidings (see verses: Luk 43:44 ). See App-121 . Note the sevenfold

Prophecy ( App-10 ). poor. App-127 .

sent. App-174 .

to heal the broken-hearted. All the texts omit this clause.

to preach = to proclaim. See App-121 . deliverance. Greek aphesis. Compare Luke 3:3 .

to set at liberty . . . bruised = to send away in discharge (en aphesei) the oppressed, or broken. Occurs only here. This is added from Isaiah 58:6 , making the quotation "compound". See App-107 . This form of reading was allowed and provided for.


Verse 19

the acceptable year = the welcome year. Either the Jubilee year (Leviticus 26:8-17 ), or on account of the Lord's ministry commencing then.


Verse 20

closed = rolled up. Compare Luke 4:17 . Because it was not yet manifest whether the King and the Kingdom would be received or rejected. See App-72 .

the minister = the servant (or "verger "), who put it away. Not the President, who first received it from the servant (Hebrew. chazan) and "delivered "it to the reader.

sat down :i.e. to teach.

were fastened = continued fixed. Almost peculiar to Luke. See Luke 22:56 , and ten times in Acts. Elsewhere only in 2Co 3:7 , 2 Corinthians 3:13 .


Verse 21

to say unto them , &c. = to say to them that (Greek. hoti) This day, &c. Note the force of "that", and see note on Luke 19:9 . Mark 14:30 (where hoti is used), and contrast Luke 22:34 , and Matthew 21:28 (where hoti is absent).

unto . Greek. pros. App-104 .

this scripture . Not the next clause of Isaiah 61:2 , which He did not read. That was then doubtful, and is now postponed.


Verse 22

at. Greek. epi. App-104 .

the gracious words = the words of grace. See note on Luke 1:30 . Genitive of character, App-17 .

out of . Greek. ek. App-104 .

Joseph's Son . See note on Luke 3:23 .


Verse 23

surely = doubtless.

proverb = parable. Figure of speech

Paroemia. App-6 .

Physician, &c. Peculiar to Luke. See Colossians 4:14

done = being done.

Capernaum . See App-169 . First occurance in Luke. Silence there is no proof of ignorance.

also here = here also.


Verse 24

Verily. See note on Matthew 5:18 .

No = That no. Greek. hoti oudeis. See note on "say", Luke 4:21 .

accepted ; or, welcome. As in Luke 4:19 .

country . Compare Matthew 13:57 (later).


Verse 25

of a truth = in (as in Luke 4:11 ) truth.

Elias = Elijah. See 1 Kings 17:1 , 1 Kings 17:8 , 1Ki 17:9 ; 1 Kings 18:1 .James 5:17 .

the heaven. Singular with Art. See note on Matthew 6:9 , Matthew 6:10 . Revelation 11:12 , Revelation 11:13 ; Revelation 13:6 .

three years and six months. An ominous period. Compare Daniel 12:7 . Revelation 11:2 , Revelation 11:3 ; Revelation 13:5 ; and App-89 .

and six months . Not "a Jewish tradition", but a well-known fact. See notes on 1 Kings 17:1 and Luke 18:1 .

when , &c. = and there arose.

throughout = over. Greek. epi. App-104 .


Verse 26

But = And.

save = but. Used, not in the sense of limitation, but of exclusion, as in Galatians 1:2 , Galatians 1:16 . Supply the Ellipsis ( App-6 ) = "[but he was sent] to Sarepta".

unto . Greek. eis. App-104 .

Sarepta. Hebrew. Zarephath (1 Kings Luke 17:9 ), now Surafend, in ruins.


Verse 27

in the time of . Greek. epi. App-104 .

Eliseus = Elisha.

Naaman . See 2Ki 5:


Verse 29

thrust = cast.

out = without, outside.

the brow = an overhanging brow. Greek. ophrus. Occurs only here in N.T. A medical word (compare Colossians 4:14 ), used of the eyebrows because of their hanging over. At Nazareth it is not beneath, but hangs over the town about forty feet. All the texts omit "the".

that they might, &c. See App-23 .

cast Him down headlong. Greek katakremnizo. Occurs only here in N.T., and in the Septuagint only in 2 Chronicles 25:12 .


Verse 30

passing through. Doubtless the eyes of the people were holden. See Luke 24:16 . Compare John 8:59 ; John 10:39 , John 10:40 (compare Psalms 18:29 Psalms 37:33 ).

through. Greek. dia. App-104 .Luke 4:1 .

went His way = went away. Probably never to return.


Verse 31

And, &c. Figure of speech Polysyndeton ( App-6 ) in verses: Luke 4:31-37 . Compare Mark 1:21-28 .

Capernaum. The second place of His ministry. See the Structure (E2, p. 1442). See App-169 .

Galilee. See App-169 .

taught = was teaching (i.e. continuously).


Verse 32

astonished. Compare Matthew 7:28 .

doctrine = teaching. with. Greek. en. App-104 .

power = authority, as in Luke 4:6 .


Verse 33

man. Greek anthropos. App-123 .

spirit = Greek. pneuma. App-101 .

of . Genitive of Apposition. App-17 .

unclean. Occurs thirty times, of which twenty-four apply to demons.

devil = demon.


Verse 34

Let us alone = Ah!

what have , &c. See note on 2 Samuel 18:10 .

Jesus. Demons and Gadarenes, and His enemies could thus irreverently use this name, but His disciples with true reverence called Him" Master", or "Lord "(John 13:13 ). to destroy us. Compare James 2:19 .

I know , &c. Greek oida. App-132 . Note the Singular.

the Holy One of God. Compare Luke 1:35 .

Psalms 16:10 .


Verse 35

Hold thy peace = Be muzzled, as in 1 Corinthians 9:9 . Compare Matthew 22:12 , Matthew 22:34 .Mark 1:25 .

had thrown, &c. Greek rhipto, the medical word for convulsions. Occurs only here, Luke 17:2 .Matthew 9:36 ; Matthew 15:30 ; Matthew 27:5 ; and Acts 22:23 ; Acts 27:19 , Acts 27:29 .

in = into. Greek. eis. App-104 .

out of = away from. Greek. apo. App-104 .

hurt. Greek. blapto. A medical word, opposed to opheleo = to benefit. Occurs only here and Mark 16:18 .

not = in no possible manner. Greek. meden. Compound of me. App-106 .


Verse 36

And they were all amazed = Astonishment came upon (Greek. epi. App-104 .) all.

amazed . Greek thambos = astonishment. Peculiar to Luke.

among = to (Greek. pros. App-104 .)one another.

What a word is this! What is this word, that? with. Greek. en. App-104 .

authority. Same word as power in Luke 4:6 .


Verse 37

fame = noise, or ringing in the ears. Greek echos. Not the same word as in Luke 4:14 . Occurs only here, Acts 2:2 and Hebrews 12:19 . The verb echo occurs in Luke 21:25 and 1 Corinthians 13:1 . A medical word (see Colossians 4:14 ).


Verse 38

And He arose , &c. Compare Matthew 8:14-17 . Mark 1:29-34 .

arose out of = arose [and went] out of:

taken = pressed, or oppressed. Compare Acts 28:8 . Almostpeculiar to Luke, who uses the word nine times; only three times elsewhere, Matthew 24:4 . 2 Corinthians 5:14 .Philippians 1:1 , Philippians 1:23 (being in a strait).

great. Peculiar to Luke, in this connection.

besought . Aorist Tense; implying a single act. Not the Imperfect, as generally used.

for = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104 .


Verse 39

stood over her . A medical reference. Peculiar to Luke.

rebuked. Peculiar to Luke.

immediately . Greek. parachrema. See Luke 1:64 .


Verse 40

when the sun, &c. They waited for the end of the Sabbath. laid His hands, &c. Peculiar to Luke.


Verse 41

crying out = screaming (inarticulately).

saying, Thou = saying that Thou. See note on Luke 4:34 .

Christ. All the texts omit this.

Christ = the Messiah. App-98 .


Verse 42

And when , &c. Figure of speech Polysyndeton in verses: Luke 4:42-44 . Compare Mark 1:35-39 .

sought Him . All the texts read "were" seeking after Him "

unto = up to. Greek. heos.

stayed Him = held Him fast. Greek. katecho. See note on 2 Thessalonians 2:6 .

not. Greek. me. App-105 .


Verse 43

said . . . I, &c. said. . that I must. See note on verses: Luke 21:24 .

the kingdom of God. See App-114 .

other = different. See App-124 .

for = because. This is the subject of the First Period of His ministry. See Luke 4:14 , and App-119 .

therefore = for (Greek. eis. App-104 .) this.


Verse 44

preached = was proclaiming, as in verses: Luke 4:18 , Luke 4:19 . Not the same word as in Luke 4:43 .

Galilee . See App-169 . A Trm WH Rm. read Judaea.