Christian Churches of God

No. F041iv





Commentary on Mark

Part 4

(Edition 1.0 20220602-20220602)


Commentary on Chapters 13-16.



Christian Churches of God

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Commentary on Mark Part 4

Mark Chapters 13-16 (RSV)


Chapter 13

1And as he came out of the temple, one of his disciples said to him, "Look, Teacher, what wonderful stones and what wonderful buildings!" 2And Jesus said to him, "Do you see these great buildings? There will not be left here one stone upon another, that will not be thrown down." 3And as he sat on the Mount of Olives opposite the temple, Peter and James and John and Andrew asked him privately, 4"Tell us, when will this be, and what will be the sign when these things are all to be accomplished?" 5And Jesus began to say to them, "Take heed that no one leads you astray. 6Many will come in my name, saying, 'I am he!' and they will lead many astray. 7And when you hear of wars and rumors of wars, do not be alarmed; this must take place, but the end is not yet. 8For nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom; there will be earthquakes in various places, there will be famines; this is but the beginning of the birth-pangs. 9"But take heed to yourselves; for they will deliver you up to councils; and you will be beaten in synagogues; and you will stand before governors and kings for my sake, to bear testimony before them. 10And the gospel must first be preached to all nations. 11And when they bring you to trial and deliver you up, do not be anxious beforehand what you are to say; but say whatever is given you in that hour, for it is not you who speak, but the Holy Spirit. 12And brother will deliver up brother to death, and the father his child, and children will rise against parents and have them put to death; 13and you will be hated by all for my name's sake. But he who endures to the end will be saved. 14"But when you see the desolating sacrilege set up where it ought not to be (let the reader understand), then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains; 15let him who is on the housetop not go down, nor enter his house, to take anything away; 16and let him who is in the field not turn back to take his mantle. 17And alas for those who are with child and for those who give suck in those days! 18Pray that it may not happen in winter. 19For in those days there will be such tribulation as has not been from the beginning of the creation which God created until now, and never will be. 20And if the Lord had not shortened the days, no human being would be saved; but for the sake of the elect, whom he chose, he shortened the days. 21And then if any one says to you, 'Look, here is the Christ!' or' Look, there he is!' do not believe it. 22False Christs and false prophets will arise and show signs and wonders, to lead astray, if possible, the elect. 23But take heed; I have told you all things beforehand. 24"But in those days, after that tribulation, the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light, 25and the stars will be falling from heaven, and the powers in the heavens will be shaken. 26And then they will see the Son of man coming in clouds with great power and glory. 27And then he will send out the angels, and gather his elect from the four winds, from the ends of the earth to the ends of heaven. 28"From the fig tree learn its lesson: as soon as its branch becomes tender and puts forth its leaves, you know that summer is near. 29So also, when you see these things taking place, you know that he is near, at the very gates. 30Truly, I say to you, this generation will not pass away before all these things take place. 31Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will not pass away. 32"But of that day or that hour no one knows, not even the angels in heaven, nor the Son, but only the Father. 33Take heed, watch; for you do not know when the time will come. 34It is like a man going on a journey, when he leaves home and puts his servants in charge, each with his work, and commands the doorkeeper to be on the watch. 35Watch therefore--for you do not know when the master of the house will come, in the evening, or at midnight, or at cockcrow, or in the morning-- 36lest he come suddenly and find you asleep. 37And what I say to you I say to all: Watch."


Intent of Chapter 13

Destruction of Jerusalem Foretold

13:1-2 Mat. 24:1-3; Lk. 21:5-7; See Mat. 24:1 n.

v. 1 At that time, the last phase of construction begun by Herod Great was still under way. v. 2.  Lk. 19:43-44; Mk. 14:58; 15:29; Jn. 2:19; Acts 6:14. The complete destruction was in 70 CE.  The Temple at Heliopolis Egypt was closed in 71 CE before Abib by order of Vespasian. In accordance with the Sign of Jonah, Christ foretold the destruction of Jerusalem in that not one stone of the Temple system would be left upon another. This was foretold in the prophecies concerning the Sign of Jonah and the History of the Reconstruction of the Temple (No. 013). Because the church understood this prophecy and they did not have the later forged texts of Daniel 9:25 (see KJV) they were alerted at the death of the Second Anointed One, James, brother of Christ in 63/4 CE and they then fled to Pella in anticipation of the destruction of 70 CE at the end of the Seventy Weeks of Years foretold in Daniel Chapter 9 (F027ix). The only sign given to the Church, and the world, was the Sign of Jonah (cf. also Completion of the Sign of Jonah (No. 013B)).


vv. 3-37 Warning about the end of the age (Mat. 24:4-36; Lk. 21:8-36).

v. 4 Lk. 17:20; v. 6 Jn. 8:24; 1Jn. 2:18;

v. 8 Birth pangs see Mat. 24:8 n;  

vv. 9-13 Mat. 10:17-22, v. 11 Jn. 14:26; 16:7-11; Lk. 12:11-12; v. 13 Jn. 15:18-21.

v. 14 Dan. 9:27 (F027ix); 11:31; 12:11. The desolating sacrilege – thought initially to be the intrusion of Gentile practices on the Temple Mount (see comments on F027ix, F040ii and F040iii). It is likely that it may be a weapon of mass destruction (perhaps nuclear) placed to deter the Loyal Host under Messiah prior to the advent.  The text in brackets [Let him who reads understand] is a later Hebrew idiom re commenting in the assembly (cf. Bullinger’s notes) (see also 1Tim. 4:13).

v. 17 Lk. 23:29;

vv. 21-31 Jesus tells about his return (Mat. 24:23-35; Lk. 21:25-33);

v. 22 Mat. 7:15; Jn. 4:48,

v. 26 8:38; Mat. 10:23; Dan 7:13 (F027vii); 1Thes. 4:13-18; v. 30 See Mat. 24:34 n; Mk. 9:1; 

v. 31 Mat. 5:18; Lk. 16:17;


vv. 32-37 Watch: Master’s return unknown (Mat. 24:36-51; Lk. 21:34-38). Also

Advent of the Messiah: Part1 (No.210A) and

Advent of the Messiah: Part II (No. 210B).

v. 32 Acts 1:7. v. 33 Eph. 6:18; Col. 4:2.

v. 34 Mat. 25:14.

v. 35 Lk. 12:35-40. The night was divided into four watches.


The Passover of the Death of Christ


Chapter 14

1It was now two days before the Passover and the feast of Unleavened Bread. And the chief priests and the scribes were seeking how to arrest him by stealth, and kill him; 2for they said, "Not during the feast, lest there be a tumult of the people." 3And while he was at Bethany in the house of Simon the leper, as he sat at table, a woman came with an alabaster flask of ointment of pure nard, very costly, and she broke the flask and poured it over his head. 4But there were some who said to themselves indignantly, "Why was the ointment thus wasted? 5For this ointment might have been sold for more than three hundred denarii, and given to the poor." And they reproached her. 6But Jesus said, "Let her alone; why do you trouble her? She has done a beautiful thing to me. 7For you always have the poor with you, and whenever you will, you can do good to them; but you will not always have me. 8She has done what she could; she has anointed my body beforehand for burying. 9And truly, I say to you, wherever the gospel is preached in the whole world, what she has done will be told in memory of her." 10Then Judas Iscariot, who was one of the twelve, went to the chief priests in order to betray him to them. 11And when they heard it they were glad, and promised to give him money. And he sought an opportunity to betray him. 12And on the first day of Unleavened Bread, when they sacrificed the passover lamb, his disciples said to him, "Where will you have us go and prepare for you to eat the passover?" 13And he sent two of his disciples, and said to them, "Go into the city, and a man carrying a jar of water will meet you; follow him, 14and wherever he enters, say to the householder, 'The Teacher says, Where is my guest room, where I am to eat the passover with my disciples?' 15And he will show you a large upper room furnished and ready; there prepare for us." 16And the disciples set out and went to the city, and found it as he had told them; and they prepared the passover. 17And when it was evening he came with the twelve. 18And as they were at table eating, Jesus said, "Truly, I say to you, one of you will betray me, one who is eating with me." 19They began to be sorrowful, and to say to him one after another, "Is it I?" 20He said to them, "It is one of the twelve, one who is dipping bread into the dish with me. 21For the Son of man goes as it is written of him, but woe to that man by whom the Son of man is betrayed! It would have been better for that man if he had not been born." 22And as they were eating, he took bread, and blessed, and broke it, and gave it to them, and said, "Take; this is my body." 23And he took a cup, and when he had given thanks he gave it to them, and they all drank of it. 24And he said to them, "This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many. 25Truly, I say to you, I shall not drink again of the fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it new in the kingdom of God." 26And when they had sung a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives. 27And Jesus said to them, "You will all fall away; for it is written, 'I will strike the shepherd, and the sheep will be scattered.' 28But after I am raised up, I will go before you to Galilee." 29Peter said to him, "Even though they all fall away, I will not." 30And Jesus said to him, "Truly, I say to you, this very night, before the cock crows twice, you will deny me three times." 31But he said vehemently, "If I must die with you, I will not deny you." And they all said the same. 32And they went to a place which was called Gethsem'ane; and he said to his disciples, "Sit here, while I pray." 33And he took with him Peter and James and John, and began to be greatly distressed and troubled. 34And he said to them, "My soul is very sorrowful, even to death; remain here, and watch." 35And going a little farther, he fell on the ground and prayed that, if it were possible, the hour might pass from him. 36And he said, "Abba, Father, all things are possible to thee; remove this cup from me; yet not what I will, but what thou wilt." 37And he came and found them sleeping, and he said to Peter, "Simon, are you asleep? Could you not watch one hour? 38Watch and pray that you may not enter into temptation; the spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak." 39And again he went away and prayed, saying the same words. 40And again he came and found them sleeping, for their eyes were very heavy; and they did not know what to answer him. 41And he came the third time, and said to them, "Are you still sleeping and taking your rest? It is enough; the hour has come; the Son of man is betrayed into the hands of sinners. 42Rise, let us be going; see, my betrayer is at hand." 43And immediately, while he was still speaking, Judas came, one of the twelve, and with him a crowd with swords and clubs, from the chief priests and the scribes and the elders. 44Now the betrayer had given them a sign, saying, "The one I shall kiss is the man; seize him and lead him away under guard." 45And when he came, he went up to him at once, and said, "Master!" And he kissed him. 46And they laid hands on him and seized him. 47But one of those who stood by drew his sword, and struck the slave of the high priest and cut off his ear. 48And Jesus said to them, "Have you come out as against a robber, with swords and clubs to capture me? 49Day after day I was with you in the temple teaching, and you did not seize me. But let the scriptures be fulfilled." 50And they all forsook him, and fled. 51And a young man followed him, with nothing but a linen cloth about his body; and they seized him, 52but he left the linen cloth and ran away naked. 53And they led Jesus to the high priest; and all the chief priests and the elders and the scribes were assembled. 54And Peter had followed him at a distance, right into the courtyard of the high priest; and he was sitting with the guards, and warming himself at the fire. 55Now the chief priests and the whole council sought testimony against Jesus to put him to death; but they found none. 56For many bore false witness against him, and their witness did not agree. 57And some stood up and bore false witness against him, saying, 58"We heard him say, 'I will destroy this temple that is made with hands, and in three days I will build another, not made with hands.'" 59Yet not even so did their testimony agree. 60And the high priest stood up in the midst, and asked Jesus, "Have you no answer to make? What is it that these men testify against you?" 61But he was silent and made no answer. Again the high priest asked him, "Are you the Christ, the Son of the Blessed?" 62And Jesus said, "I am; and you will see the Son of man seated at the right hand of Power, and coming with the clouds of heaven." 63And the high priest tore his garments, and said, "Why do we still need witnesses? 64You have heard his blasphemy. What is your decision?" And they all condemned him as deserving death. 65And some began to spit on him, and to cover his face, and to strike him, saying to him, "Prophesy!" And the guards received him with blows. 66And as Peter was below in the courtyard, one of the maids of the high priest came; 67and seeing Peter warming himself, she looked at him, and said, "You also were with the Nazarene, Jesus." 68But he denied it, saying, "I neither know nor understand what you mean." And he went out into the gateway. 69And the maid saw him, and began again to say to the bystanders, "This man is one of them." 70But again he denied it. And after a little while again the bystanders said to Peter, "Certainly you are one of them; for you are a Galilean." 71But he began to invoke a curse on himself and to swear, "I do not know this man of whom you speak." 72And immediately the cock crowed a second time. And Peter remembered how Jesus had said to him, "Before the cock crows twice, you will deny me three times." And he broke down and wept.

[See Bullinger’s note to vv. 51-52: That this might be Lazarus, is probable ....]


Intent of Chapter 14

Passover of 30 CE and the Death of the Christ.

See the paper Timing of the Crucifixion and the Resurrection (No. 159) for the timings of the Passover in the years he could possibly have been killed. There is only one possibility.

vv. 1-12 Leaders conspire to kill Jesus (Mat. 26:1-5; Lk. 22:1-2).

v. 1 (Ex. 12:1-20) The Passover was an eight day feast consisting of the Preparation day of 14 Abib of The Lord’s Supper and his death at 3 PM Wed. 5 April 30 CE. The Lord’s Supper after dark on 14 Abib was from this time onwards in the church celebrated with unleavened bread, not because it was part of the Feast of Unleavened bread, which it was not, but because the law does not permit the bread of the sacrifice to be leavened. This was the Second Sacrament of the Church (see Sacraments of the Church (No. 150)). The Night of the Passover began 15 Abib at Dark 5 April to EENT Thursday 6 April 30 CE (see No. 159 ibid). The Seven days of Unleavened Bread went from the beginning the First Holy Day on 15 Abib to the end of the Second or Last Holy Day on 21 Abib. Israel, and particularly from Galilee, went into temporary accommodation for the full eight days of the Feast (Deut. 16:5-8). They could not eat it in any of their gates. The Passover night of 15 Abib was spent in watching or observation. In Egypt it was kept in the houses. In the Promised Land it was to be kept out of the accommodation in observation. Return to the Temporary accommodation was only permitted on the morning of 15 Abib. The Last Supper was kept at the correct time. This chegigoh meal was taken with a sop and was not the Passover meal which must be roasted (Ex. 12:9).


vv. 3-9  Woman anoints Jesus (Mat. 26:6-13; Jn. 12:1-11). v. 3 Nard was imported from India and was very costly. v. 5 A denarius was a day’s wages for a labourer. 300 Denarii was approx 10 months wages; v. 6 Mat. 26:10 n. v. 7 Deut. 15:11.

v. 8 The woman had shown her personal regard for Jesus at high cost within her ability and means and at the right time (Jn. 19:40).

vv. 10-11 Judas agrees to betray Jesus (Mat. 26:14-16; Lk. 22:3-6). v. 10 The words do not identify Judas but magnify the horror of the betrayal (see vv. 1-2 re change in plans).


The Last Supper vv. 12-25

vv. 12-16 Preparation for Passover (Mat. 26:17-19; Lk. 22:7-13, see 22:10 n).

v. 14 See Lk. 22:12 n.                                                                   

vv. 17-25 Last Supper (Mat. 26:20-29; Lk. 22:14-30; Jn. 13:21-30); vv. 17-21 Mat. 26:20-25; Lk. 22:14, 21-23; Jn. 13:21-30.

v. 18 Ps. 41:9.

v. 19 The question was worded to imply that the answer would be negative.

vv. 22-25 Mat. 26:26-29; Lk. 22:15-20; 1Cor. 11:23-26; v. 23 1Cor. 10:16; v. 24 Mat. 26:28 n.  Jesus speaks of his blood as being the mediating reality between God and men (10:45 n.) (see F058). v. 25 Lk. 13:29 (see 22:16 n).


Gethsemane 14:26-52

vv. 26-31 Jesus again predicts Peter’s denial (Mat. 26:30-35; Lk. 22:31-34). v. 26 Jn. 18:1-2. v. 27 Zech. 13:7; Jn. 16:32. v. 28 16:7.

v. 30 14:66-72; Jn 13:36-38; 18:17-18, 25-27.


vv. 32-42 Jesus agonizes in the garden (Mat. 26:36-46; Lk. 22:39-46) v. 32 Jn. 18:1; Heb. 5:7-8. v. 34 Jn. 12:27. vv. 35-36  Jesus would accept nothing that may have been possibly against the will of God  (see 11:23-24 n).       

vv. 43-52 Jesus betrayed and arrested (Mat. 26:47-56; Lk. 22:47-53; Jn. 18:1-11) Abba (father) in Aramaic (see Rom. 8:15 n, Gal. 4:6).

v. 36 Cup (see Lk. 22:42 n.  v. 38 Mat. 6:13; Lk. 11:4, vv. 43-52 Mat. 26:47-56; Lk. 22:47-53; Jn. 18:2-11; v. 43 Mat. 26:50 n. v. 49 Lk. 19:47; Jn. 18:19-21. v. 51 The young man’s identity is not disclosed. The Oxf. Ann. RSV suggests it may have been John Mark if the house was that of his mother Mary (Acts 12:12). Other traditions say it was one of the disciples. 


vv. 53-72 Jesus Before Caiaphas

vv. 53-65 Caiaphas questions Jesus (Mat. 26:57-68). v. 55 At least two witnesses who agreed were required under Num. 35:30; Deut. 19:15 (comp. Mat. 18:16). v. 58 13:2; 15:29; Acts 6:14; Jn. 2:19. vv. 61-62 Jewish ways of referring to God; and Messiah was identifying himself as the Son of God of prophecy. v. 62 Dan 7:13 (F027vii) combined with image of Ps. 110:1 (No. 178).

v. 63 Acts 14:14; Jl. 2:12-13; v. 64 Lev. 24:16.

vv. 66-72 Peter’s denials (Mat. 26:69-75; Lk. 22:54-65; Jn. 18:25-27).

v. 66 14:30. v. 70 Mat. 26:73. n; v. 72 Before dawn (comp. 13:35) Broke down and wept. Greek text has and thinking thereon he wept.


Chapter 15

1And as soon as it was morning the chief priests, with the elders and scribes, and the whole council held a consultation; and they bound Jesus and led him away and delivered him to Pilate. 2And Pilate asked him, "Are you the King of the Jews?" And he answered him, "You have said so." 3And the chief priests accused him of many things. 4And Pilate again asked him, "Have you no answer to make? See how many charges they bring against you." 5But Jesus made no further answer, so that Pilate wondered. 6Now at the feast he used to release for them one prisoner for whom they asked. 7And among the rebels in prison, who had committed murder in the insurrection, there was a man called Barab'bas. 8And the crowd came up and began to ask Pilate to do as he was wont to do for them. 9And he answered them, "Do you want me to release for you the King of the Jews?" 10For he perceived that it was out of envy that the chief priests had delivered him up. 11But the chief priests stirred up the crowd to have him release for them Barab'bas instead. 12And Pilate again said to them, "Then what shall I do with the man whom you call the King of the Jews?" 13And they cried out again, "Crucify him." 14And Pilate said to them, "Why, what evil has he done?" But they shouted all the more, "Crucify him." 15So Pilate, wishing to satisfy the crowd, released for them Barab'bas; and having scourged Jesus, he delivered him to be crucified. 16And the soldiers led him away inside the palace (that is, the praetorium); and they called together the whole battalion. 17And they clothed him in a purple cloak, and plaiting a crown of thorns they put it on him. 18And they began to salute him, "Hail, King of the Jews!" 19And they struck his head with a reed, and spat upon him, and they knelt down in homage to him. 20And when they had mocked him, they stripped him of the purple cloak, and put his own clothes on him. And they led him out to crucify him. 21And they compelled a passer-by, Simon of Cyre'ne, who was coming in from the country, the father of Alexander and Rufus, to carry his cross. 22And they brought him to the place called Gol'gotha (which means the place of a skull). 23And they offered him wine mingled with myrrh; but he did not take it. 24And they crucified him, and divided his garments among them, casting lots for them, to decide what each should take. 25And it was the third hour, when they crucified him. 26And the inscription of the charge against him read, "The King of the Jews." 27And with him they crucified two robbers, one on his right and one on his left. 28*[No text g29And those who passed by derided him, wagging their heads, and saying, "Aha! You who would destroy the temple and build it in three days, 30save yourself, and come down from the cross!" 31So also the chief priests mocked him to one another with the scribes, saying, "He saved others; he cannot save himself. 32Let the Christ, the King of Israel, come down now from the cross, that we may see and believe." Those who were crucified with him also reviled him. 33And when the sixth hour had come, there was darkness over the whole land until the ninth hour. 34And at the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, "E'lo-i, E'lo-i, la'ma sabach-tha'ni?" which means, "My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?" 35And some of the bystanders hearing it said, "Behold, he is calling Eli'jah." 36And one ran and, filling a sponge full of vinegar, put it on a reed and gave it to him to drink, saying, "Wait, let us see whether Eli'jah will come to take him down." 37And Jesus uttered a loud cry, and breathed his last. 38And the curtain of the temple was torn in two, from top to bottom. 39And when the centurion, who stood facing him, saw that he thus breathed his last, he said, "Truly this man was the Son of God!" 40There were also women looking on from afar, among whom were Mary Mag'dalene, and Mary the mother of James the younger and of Joses, and Salo'me, 41who, when he was in Galilee, followed him, and ministered to him; and also many other women who came up with him to Jerusalem. 42And when evening had come, since it was the day of Preparation, that is, the day before the sabbath, 43Joseph of Arimathe'a, a respected member of the council, who was also himself looking for the kingdom of God, took courage and went to Pilate, and asked for the body of Jesus. 44And Pilate wondered if he were already dead; and summoning the centurion, he asked him whether he was already dead. 45And when he learned from the centurion that he was dead, he granted the body to Joseph. 46And he bought a linen shroud, and taking him down, wrapped him in the linen shroud, and laid him in a tomb which had been hewn out of the rock; and he rolled a stone against the door of the tomb. 47Mary Mag'dalene and Mary the mother of Joses saw where he was laid.

[Footnote: g Other ancient authorities insert verse 28, And the scripture was fulilled which says, “He was reckoned with the transgressors]


Intent of Chapter 15

v. 1 Council of religious leaders condemns Jesus (Mat. 27:1-2 n; Lk. 23:1; Jn 18:28-32);

vv. 2-5 Jesus stands trial before Pilate (Mat. 27:11-14; Lk. 23:2-5; Jn. 18:29-38) (See also F040vi). It is important that the notes and references in Commentary on Matthew Part VI are compared and studied within the texts of Mark, as they apply equally in each and every gospel.

vv. 6-15 Pilate hands Jesus over to be crucified (Mat. 27:15-26; Lk. 23:13-25; Jn. 18:38-40; 19:4-16) (F040vi).

vv. 16-20 Roman soldiers mock Jesus (Mat. 27:27-31; Lk. 23:11; Jn. 19:1-3). v. 16 see Mat. 27:27 n. (F040vi).

vv. 21-32 Mat. 27:32-44 (F040vi).

vv. 21-24 Crucifixion of Jesus (Mat. 27:32-34; Lk. 23:26:31; Jn. 19:17) (F040vi). v. 21 The men named may have been known to the church of the time. A connection between Rufus here and that of Rom. 16:13 is possible but has not been established.  v. 24 Ps. 22:18. v. 25 about 9 am.

vv. 25-32 Jesus placed on stake (Mat. 27:35-44; Lk. 23:32-43; Jn. 19:18-27); v. 29 13:2; 14:58; Jn. 2:19; v. 31 Ps. 22:7-8.


Christ was killed on a Stauros and not a cross. The Bible Greek texts clearly identify the instrument as a stauros and not a cross or its equivalent, in all texts. The stauros is a Phoenician instrument sharpened at one or both ends and has no cross bar. The Romans added that aspect many years after the death of Christ. See The Cross: Its origin and Significance (No. 039). The equilateral sun cross was used for the cult of the god Attis and it is from that religious cult and that of the goddess Easter that the Friday Sunday Crucifixion and Resurrection and the use of the “Cross” came into Christianity in the Second Century ca 154 in Rome under Anicetus,  and was enforced in 192 CE under bishop Victor (see Origins of Christmas and Easter (No. 235) and the Quartodeciman Disputes (No. 277)).


vv. 33-41 Jesus breaths his last and dies (Mat. 27:45-56; Lk. 23:44-49; Jn. 19:28-37).

v. 33 Mat. 27:45 n. v. 34 Mat 27:46 n.

v. 36 Ps. 69:71 see Mat. 27:48 n.

v. 38 The Veil closed off the Holy of Holies  (Heb. 9:3). That was the inner sanctuary which represented God’s presence with his people (compare 2Kgs. 19:14-15; 2Chr.6:1-2, 18-21). The damage to the veil, no matter the cause, symbolised the unhindered access for the people to God achieved by Christ’s death (Heb. 10:19-20).

v. 41 Lk. 8:1-3.                                                                                                                                               

vv. 42-47 Jesus laid in the tomb by Joseph of Aramathea (Mat. 27:57-61; Lk. 23:50-56; Jn. 19:38-42)  v. 46 Acts 13:29.

v. 42   The day was the preparation day for the Passover and the time on 14 Abib when they slaughtered the Passover lambs and in 30 CE fell on Wednesday 5 April 30 CE. He had to be placed in the tomb before dark so they could take the Passover ritually clean. Christ then lay in the tomb for three days and three nights in accordance with the Sign of Jonah... (No. 013). Friday would not have completed the Sign of Jonah as it would have only been one day. The Friday-Sunday festival of Easter comes from the Mystery and Sun Cults and entered Christianity in the mid Second Century. It has nothing to do with Christianity and is a function of Baal Worship; Easter, Ishtar or Ashtaroth being the consort of Baal (see (235) above). Those who maintain the festival and the other aspects, such as Sunday worship, Christmas and Easter and the doctrines of heaven and hell are not true Christians (Justin Martyr, Dial, LXXX) cf. also Heaven, Hell or the First Resurrection of the Dead (No. 143A ). By the Fourth Century the priests of Attis at Rome were complaining that the Christians at Rome had stolen all their doctrines; and they had done so.


See also the notes and papers on Commentary on Matthew Part V (F040v) and  Part VI (F040vi).

Note also the Timing of the Crucifixion and the Resurrection (No. 159).


Chapter 16

1And when the sabbath was past, Mary Mag'dalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salo'me, bought spices, so that they might go and anoint him. 2And very early on the first day of the week they went to the tomb when the sun had risen. 3And they were saying to one another, "Who will roll away the stone for us from the door of the tomb?" 4And looking up, they saw that the stone was rolled back; --it was very large. 5And entering the tomb, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, dressed in a white robe; and they were amazed. 6And he said to them, "Do not be amazed; you seek Jesus of Nazareth, who was crucified. He has risen, he is not here; see the place where they laid him. 7But go, tell his disciples and Peter that he is going before you to Galilee; there you will see him, as he told you." 8And they went out and fled from the tomb; for trembling and astonishment had come upon them; and they said nothing to any one, for they were afraid.k 9Now when he rose early on the first day of the week, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, from whom he had cast out seven demons. 10She went and told those who had been with him, as they mourned and wept. 11But when they heard that he was alive and had been seen by her, they would not believe it. 12After this he appeared in another form to two of them, as they were walking into the country. 13And they went back and told the rest, but they did not believe them. 14Afterward he appeared to the eleven themselves as they sat at table; and he upbraided them for their unbelief and hardness of heart, because they had not believed those who saw him after he had risen. 15And he said to them, "Go into all the world and preach the gospel to the whole creation. 16He who believes and is baptized will be saved; but he who does not believe will be condemned. 17And these signs will accompany those who believe: in my name they will cast out demons; they will speak in new tongues; 18they will pick up serpents, and if they drink any deadly thing, it will not hurt them; they will lay their hands on the sick, and they will recover." 19So then the Lord Jesus, after he had spoken to them, was taken up into heaven, and sat down at the right hand of God. 20And they went forth and preached everywhere, while the Lord worked with them and confirmed the message by the signs that attended it. Amen.

[Footnote: k Other ancient authorities add after verse 8 the following: But they reported briefly to Peter and those with him all that they had been told. And after this, Jesus himself sent out by means of them, from east to west, the sacred and imperishable proclamation of eternal salvation.]

16:7: Mk. 14:28; Jn. 21:1-23; Mt. 28:7.


Intent of Chapter 16

vv. 1-8 Resurrection of Jesus (Mat. 28:1-8; Lk. 24:1-11; Jn. 20:1-10).

Christ was resurrected at the end of the Sabbath as it was nearing EENT before the beginning of the First Day of the Week, now called Sunday at night fall at end Sabbath Day. See Start of the Month and the Day (No. 203); See also Matthew  28:1 and notes (F040vi).

See also Timing of the Crucifixion and the Resurrection (No. 159).

v. 1 Lk. 23:56; Jn. 19:39; The women came to complete the rites of burial for Jesus.

vv. 3-4  The disc shaped stone  rolled edgeways in a  gutter to close the opening of the tomb was rolled away. v. 5 The tomb had never been used. Normally the tomb would have had niches or shelves to receive the bodies of the family. Christ was the great nephew of Joseph of Aramathea, brother of Heli, son of Matthat (Lk. 3:24). (See Ashley M., Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens; Carroll and Graf Publishers 1998, see notes re: Bran the Blessed, king of the Britons, and Joseph.) (cf. Origin of the Christian Church in Britain (No. 266); (Hittites in the House of David (No. 067C)).  


The young man’s clothes indicate he was a heavenly messenger.

Christ waited from his resurrection in late Sabbath afternoon over night at the tomb until 9 AM when he ascended to Heaven and the Throne of God as the Wave Sheaf Offering (No. 106B) (see  Revelation chs. 4 and 5). He was the First Fruits of the Barley Harvest as the Green Ears of the Wave Sheaf. The Saints of the First Resurrection are the Wheat Harvest of Pentecost and the Second Resurrection were the General Harvest of mankind.


v. 7 14:28; Jn. 21:1-23; Mat. 28:7.

v. 8 For they were afraid The Greek expression unusual in style and abrupt in effect especially if, as is possible, it originally ended the gospel (see Ann. Oxford RSV comments in the note). Contrast with Mat. 28:8-10 re: fear and joy (v. 8) controlled by worship (v. 9) and acceptance of the mission (v 10). On the silence of the women compare Mat. 28:8 n; Lk. 24:9-11, 22-24 and vv. 9-10ff;

vv. 9-11 Jesus appears to Mary Magdalene (Jn. 20:10-18). See also Forty Days following Christ’s Resurrection (No. 159A) .


Re: The traditional close of the gospel of Mark. Nothing is certain about how this gospel originally ended or about the origin of vv. 9-20 which cannot have been part of the original text of Mark.

Certain important witnesses including some ancient ones end the gospel at v. 8. Though it is possible that the writer intended this abrupt end, it is considered there are indications he wished to go on to describe other post resurrection activities of Messiah (see Ann, Oxf. RSV comments). For example, Mk. 14:28 looks forward to at least one account of the disciples with Christ in Galilee, post Resurrection.  The friendly reference to Peter (16:7) may anticipate the recounting of the otherwise unrecorded reconciliation between Peter and his Lord (compare Lk. 24:34; 1Cor. 15:5).  If there were other elements present then it is considered that they were lost very soon after the gospel was written and the addition of vv. 9-20 is listed by many witnesses and some ancient resulting in the acceptance of 9-20 as generally part of the canonical gospel of Mark. Additionally other witnesses give the addition referenced at note K (RSV) But they reported briefly to Peter and those with him all that they had been told. And after this, Jesus himself sent out by means of them, from east to west, the sacred and imperishable proclamation of eternal salvation.

Other authorities include the paragraph and then include vv. 9-20. Most authorities continue 9-20 immediately after v 8. A few insert some additional material after v 14 (cf. RSV notes).


Most academics view the texts as having been compiled by authorities in the Second Century from eye witness accounts up until then (see Lk. 1:1-2; Jn. 20:30; 21:25; Acts 20:35 n; 1Cor. 15:3); also compare Mat. 28:20; Jn. 16:12-33; Rev. 1:12-16 n; 2:18. It is beyond doubt for example that Irenaeus bishop of Lyon grew up at the feet of the apostle John and was trained by Polycarp from the fragment at the Appendix A to the Sanctification of the Simple and Erroneus (No. 291). So also Hippolytus bishop of Ostia Attica Port city near Rome, was Smyrna trained under Polycrates (see also Establishment of the Church under the Seventy (No. 122D)).


16:9-18 Post Resurrection appearances of Jesus

See No. 159A above

vv. 9-10 Mary is associated with other women in 1, 7-8  and parallels. She is apparently alone in Jn. 20:1-2, 11-19. These aspects are covered in (159A) above.

Seven Demons Lk. 8:2

v. 11 Lk. 24:11, 22-25; Jn. 20:19-29; 1Cor. 15:5. The disciples are convinced of Jesus Resurrection by their own immediate experiences of him, although all other generations must rely on the witness of others (Jn. 20:29).


vv. 12-13 Jesus appears to Two travelling on the Road (Lk. 24:12-35). v. 13 comp. Lk. 24:34;

vv. 14-18 Jesus appears to the Eleven including Thomas (Mat. 28:19; Lk. 24:47; Jn. 20:24-31).

v. 14 At the close of this verse a few ancient authorities as old as the Fourth Century add the verse “And they excused themselves saying, ’this age of lawlessness and unbelief is under Satan, who does not allow the truth and power of God to prevail over the unclean things of the spirits. Therefore reveal your righteousness now’ – Thus they spoke to Christ and Christ replied to them the term of years for Satan’s power has been fulfilled; But other terrible things draw near. And for those who have sinned I was delivered over to death, that they may return to the truth and sin no more, that they may inherit the spiritual and incorruptible glory of righteousness which is in heaven.’”

v. 16 Acts 2:37-42; 10:47-48; Rom. 10:9.

vv. 17-18 Those who believe and are baptised will cast out demons and pick up serpents and will not be hurt by any deadly thing and they will heal the sick (1Cor. 12:8-11,28; 14:2-5; Heb. 2:3-4); exorcism (Acts 8:6-7; 16:18; 19:11-20; new tongues (Acts 2:4-11 n; 10:46; 19:6; 1Cor. 12:10,28 n; 14:2-33; healing Acts 28:8; 1Cor. 12:9; Jas. 5:13-16; Picking up snakes and ingesting poisons lack other parallels but the instance of Paul in Acts 28:3-6 and other instances appears in Christian literature from the Second Century onwards. 

vv. 19-20 Ascension to the Throne of God (Lk. 24:50-53). v. 19 Christ is then taken to the throne of God at the end of the Forty Days Following Christ’s Resurrection (No. 159A). (See also Phil. 2:9-11; Heb. 1:3); for was taken up see Acts 1:2, 11, 22; 1Tim. 3:16 (perhaps also a Hymn). For the image of the Right Hand of God see Ps. 110:1 n.  (No. 178); Acts 7:55; Heb, 1:3; v. 20 verses 17-18; Heb. 2:3-4.


The Passover (No. 098)

The Lord’s Supper (No. 103)

Timing of the Crucifixion and the Resurrection (No. 159)

The Forty Days Following Christ’s Resurrection (No. 159A)

The Purpose of the Creation and the Sacrifice of Christ (No. 160)

Wave Sheaf Offering (No. 106B)


[NB The earliest manuscripts and some other ancient witnesses do not have verses 9–20.]


Bullinger’s notes on Mark Chs. 13-16 (For KJV)


Chapter 13

Verse 1

out of the temple . As in Matthew 24:1 , marking this as the latter of two prophecies; the former (Luke 21:1 , Luke 21:37 ) being spoken "in the temple".

out of. Greek. ek . App-104 .

temple. Greek hieron. See notes on Matthew 4:5 ; Matthew 23:16 .

Master = Teacher. App-98 . Mark 13:1 .

see. Greek. ide. App-133 . Not the same as in verses: Mark 13:2 , Mark 13:26 .

stones. There are some measuring 20 to 40 feet long, and weighing over 100 tons.


Verse 2

Jesus. See App-98 .

Seest. Greek. blepo. App-133 .

not = by no means. Greek. ou me ( App-106 ), denoting absolute certainty. The same word as in verses: Mark 13:30 , Mark 13:31 ; not the same as in verses: Mark 13:7 , Mark 13:11 , Mark 13:14 , Mark 7:15 , Mark 7:16 , Mark 7:19 , Mark 7:21 , Mark 7:24 , Mark 7:33 , Mark 7:35 .

upon . Greek. epi, App-104 .


Verse 3

upon . Greek. eis. Compare App-104 .

the mount of Olives . The former prophecy being in the Temple. See App-155 .


Verse 4

when. Note the first question (M1).

what . . . sign . The second question (M 2).


Verse 5

began . See note on Mark 1:1 .Mark 5:7 , Mark 5:11 , parallel with Matthew 24:4-6 . Luke 21:8 , Luke 21:9 . App-155 .


Verse 6

For = Because.

in = upon (= trading upon, as the basis of their claims). Greek. epi . App-104 . Not the some word as in verses: Mark 13:8 , Mark 13:9 , Mark 13:11 , Mark 8:14 , Mark 8:16 , Mark 8:24 , Mark 8:25 , Mark 8:26 , Mark 8:32 .

I = that I am [He].


Verse 7

not . Greek. me. App-105 . Not the same word as in verses: Mark 13:2 , Mark 13:11 , Mark 13:14 , Mark 2:19 , Mark 2:24 , Mar 2:30 , Mar 2:31 , Mar 2:33 , Mar 2:35 .

be = come to pass.


Verse 8

For nation, &c. Quoted from Isaiah 19:2 .

against = upon. Greek. epi. App-104 .

and. Figure of speech Polysyndeton, App-6 .

in . Greek. kata. App-104 .

the beginnings = a beginning. See App-155 .

sorrows = birth-pangs.


Verse 9

to = onto. Greek. eis . App-104 . vi; not the some word as in verses: Mark 13:27 , Mark 13:34 .

in = unto. Greek. eis, as above.

the synagogues = synagogues.

before . Greek. epi. App-104 .

for = with a view to. Greek. eis. App-104 .

against = to


Verse 10

gospel = glad tidings [of the kingdom], as in Matthew 24:14 . See App-112 , App-114 .

published = proclaimed, Greek. kerusso. See App-121 .

among = unto. Greek. eis. App-104 .

nations = the nations.


Verse 11

when = whenever.

lead = may be leading.

take no thought = be not full of care beforehand. See note on Matthew 6:25 .

no . Greek. me. App-105 .

in. Greek. en . App-104 . Not the same word as in verses: Mark 13:6 , Mark 13:9 , Mark 13:16 .

not . Greek ou. App-105 . Not the same word as in verses: Mark 13:2 , Mark 13:7 , Mark 13:15 , Mark 2:16 , Mark 2:21 , Mar 2:30 , Mar 2:31 .

the Holy Ghost . See App-101 .:3.


Verse 12

son = child. Greek. teknon. App-108 .

children . Plural of teknom , above. Quoted from Micah 7:6 .

cause them , &c. = put them, &c.


Verse 13

of = by. Greek. hupo. App-104 . Not the same word as in to. 28, 32.

for . . . sake = on account of. Greek. dia, App-104 .Mark 13:2 . Not the same word as in Mark 13:9 ,

unto. Greek eis App-104 .

the end . See App-125 .


Verse 14

see . Greek. eidon . App-133 ., as in Mark 13:29 ; not the same word as in verses: Mark 13:1 , Mark 13:2 , Mark 13:26 .

the abomination of desolation. See Matthew 24:22 . Quoted from Daniel 9:27 ; Compare Mark 12:11 ; and App-89 , App-90 , App-91 . Spoken of by Daniel the prophet. Om. by [L] TTr, A WH R, but not the Syriac.

by. Greek. hupo App-104 .

let him, &c. Hebrew idiom (later usage) = let him who reads and comments on these words in the assembly, &c, Compare 1 Timothy 4:13 .


Verse 15

on = upon. Greek. epi. App-104 .

the housetop . Compare Matthew 24:17 .

into. Greek eis. App-104 .


Verse 18

pray ye. Greek. proseuchomai. App-134 .


Verse 19

affliction = tribulation. As in Mark 13:24 . Quoted from Daniel 12:1 .

was not = has not been the like. from the beginning of the creation which God created. Note the emphasis of this peculiar amplifica tion, giving the Divine condemnation of "Evolution". Compare in Mark 13:20 , "the chosen whom He chose". See note on John 8:44 .

God. App-98 .

neither = nor by any means. Greek. ou me. App-105 .

be = come to pass.


Verse 20

the LORD . App-98 .

shortened . See on Matthew 24:22 .

no flesh . Not as in Mark 13:11 ) any flesh.

should be = should have been.

elect's sake . See note on Mark 13:19 , above. He hath shortened. See note on Matthew 24:22 , and App-90 .


Verse 21

if any man , &c. The condition of probable contingency. App-118 . Not the same word as in Mark 13:22 .

Lo. Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6 .

Christ = the Messiah. App-98 .


Verse 22

prophets , &c. Quoted from Deuteronomy 13:1 .

Shew = give. But T and A read 'work", not Syriac.

to. Greek. pros. App-104 .

if, &c, Quite a hypothetical condition; so much so that no verb is expressed. App-118 . Not the same word as in Mark 13:21 .


Verse 24

But , &c. Quoted from Isaiah 13:10 .

after . Greek. meta. App-104 .

light. See App-130 .


Verse 25

of heaven = of the heaven. Singular with Art. As in -verses: Mark 13:31 , Mark 13:32 ; not as in Mark 13:25 . See note on Matthew 6:9 , Matthew 6:10

shall fall = shall be falling out; implying continuousness,

and the powers, &c. Quoted from Isaiah 34:4 .

heaven = the heavens. Plural with Art. Not the same as in verses: Mark 13:13 , Mark 13:25 -, Mark 13:31 , Mark 13:32 . See note on Matthew 6:9 , Matthew 6:10 .


Verse 26

shall they see. Greek opsomai. App-133 .

the Son of man . See App-98 . Quoted from Daniel 7:13 . Compare Joel 2:31 .

with. Greek. meta. App-104 .

great = much.

power . See App-172 .1.


Verse 27

His elect. Referring to IsraeL See verses: Mark 13:20 , Mark 13:22 .Isaiah 10:20-22 ; Isaiah 10:11 , Isaiah 10:11-16 ; Isaiah 27:6 ; Isaiah 65:9 , Isaiah 65:15 , Isaiah 65:22 ; Jeremiah 31:36-40 ; Jeremiah 33:17-26 . Ezekiel 36:8-15 ; Ezekiel 36:24 ; Mar 37:21-28 ; Mar 39:25-29 . Amos 9:11-15 .Obadiah 1:17 , Obadiah 1:21 .Zephaniah 3:20 .

from = out of Greek. ek . App-104 .


Verse 28

a parable = the parable. See Matthew 24:32 .

of = from. Greek. apo. App-104 . Not the same word as in verses: Mark 13:13 , Mark 13:13 , Mark 13:32 .

branch . Greek klados. See note on Mark 11:8 .

is yet = shall have already become; as in Matthew 24:32

leaves = its leaves.

know = get to know. Greek. ginosko. App-132 .


Verse 29

y e in like manner = ye also.

come = taking place.

at . Greek. epi. App-104 .


Verse 30

Verily. See note on Matthew 5:18 .

this generation . See note on Matthew 11:16 .

be done = may have taken place. See note on Matthew 24:34 ; where the Greek particle, an , with the Subjunctive Mood, marks it as being conditional on the repentance of the nation (Acts 3:18-26 ).


Verse 31

Heaven = the heaven. Singular. See note on Matthew 6:9 , Matthew 6:10 .


Verse 32

of = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104 .

knoweth. Greek. oida . App-132 .

no, not = not even. Greek. oude . Compound ou. App-105 .

the Son : i.e. as the Son of man". See Mark 13:26 .

Father . App-98 .


Verse 33

Take ye heed. Greek. blepo. App-133 .

watch = lie sleepless. Not the same word as in verses: Mark 13:34 , Mark 13:35 , Mark 13:37 .

time = season, or crisis.


Verse 34

a man . Greek. anthropos. App-123 .

taking a far journey. See note on Matthew 21:33 .

who left = leaving.

servants = bond-servants.

and commanded the porter = commanded the porter withal.

to watch = to keep awake. Not the same word as in Mark 13:33 . Note the Figure of speech Epanadiplosis ( App-6 ), Mark 13:34 and Mark 13:37 .


Verse 35

master = lord. Greek. kurios . App-98 .


Verse 36

sleeping = composing yourselves for sleep (voluntarily). Greek. katheudo. See notes on 1 Thessalonians 4:14 , and 1 Thessalonians 5:6 . Not koimaomai = to fall asleep involuntarily (as in death). See App-171 .


Chapter 14

Verse 1

After two days. See App-156 . Compare Matthew 26:2 .

After = Greek. Now after. Compare Mark 14:12 . Greek. meta . App-104 . As in verses: Mark 14:28 , Mark 14:70 .

passover. Aramaic. App-94 . See note on Matthew 26:2

sought = were seeking.

take Him = get hold of Him

by. Greek. en. App-104 . Not the same word as in verses: Mark 14:19 , Mark 14:21 .


Verse 2

Not . Greek. me. App-105 . Not the same word as in verses: Mark 14:7 , Mark 14:29 , Mark 14:36 , Mark 7:37 , Mar 7:49 , Mar 7:58 , Mar 7:68 , Mar 7:71 .

On = in; i.e. during. Greek en. App-104 . Not the same word as in verses: Mark 14:3 , Mark 14:6 , Mark 14:35 , Mar 3:46 , Mar 3:62 .

uproar = tumult.


Verse 3

And being . Parallel with Matthew 26:6-13 .

in. Greek. en . App-104 . Not the same word as inw Mar 20:60 , Mar 20:62 .

the house, &c. Not therefore the first supper (John 12:1 , &c.), as that was in the house of Lazarus, six days before the Passover. See App-156 and App-159 .

the leper . Note the Figure of speech Ampliatio ( App-6 ), by which Simon still retained the name describing what he had once been.

a woman. Not Mary; the second occasion being quite different. See App-158 .

box = flask.

spikenard = pure nard. Liquid, because it was poured.

very precious = of great price.

brake . Alabaster being brittle it was easily done. A Divine supplement, here.

poured. Greek. katacheo. Occurs only here and in Matthew 26:7 ; not in John 12:3 .

on . Greek. kata App-104 . Not the same word asin Mark 14:2 , Mark 14:35 , Mar 13:46 .


Verse 4

some . At the first anointing it was only one, Judas (John 12:4 ). .

within. Greek. pros. App-104 . Not the same word as in Mark 14:58 .

was . . . made = is come to. pass.


Verse 5

For Greek. gar, giving the reason.

pence . See App-51 .

murmured = deeply moved. Occurs only in Mark 1:43 , Matthew 9:30 , and John 11:33 , John 11:38 .


Verse 6

Jesus . App-98 .

wrought . The object had been accomplished. In John 12:7 (on the former occasion) it was to be reserved for the burial.

good = happy, excellent, appropriate. Not the same word as in Mark 14:7 .

on. Greek. eis. App-104 . Not the same word as in verses: Mark 14:2 , Mark 14:3 , Mark 14:35 , Mark 14:48 .


Verse 7

with = in company with. Greek. meta. App-104 . Not the same word as in Mark 14:49 .

whensoever ye will . A Divine supplement, here.

ye will = ye wish. Greek. thelo . App-102 .,

may = can.

good . Not the same word as in Mark 14:6 .

Me ye have not always . Transubstantiation is incompatible with this.

not. Greek. ou. App-105 . Not the same word as in Mark 14:2 .


Verse 8

She hath done what she could = What she had [to do] she did, A Divine supplement, here.

to anoint = to anoint [beforehand], Occurs only here.

to = for, or unto. Greek eis. App-104 .

burying = embalming. See note on Matthew 26:12 .


Verse 9

Verily. See note on Matthew 5:18 .

Wheresoever . With an , with the Subjunctive, marking the phrase as being hypothetical. See note on Matthew 10:23 gospel = glad tidings.

preached = proclaimed. Greek. kerusso . App-121 .

throughout. Greek. eis. App-104 .

world. Greek. kosmos. App-129 .

for . Greek. eis. App-104 . Not the same word as in Mark 14:24 .


Verse 10

went = went off (smarting under the rebukes of verses: Mark 14:6-9 ).

unto . Greek. pros. App-104 . Not the same word Mark 14:34 .

to betray = to the end that he might deliver up.


Verse 11

were glad = rejoiced.

sought = kept seeking; i.e. busied himself continuously. This is the sense of the Imperf. Tense here.

betray = deliver up.


Verse 12

the first day of unleavened bread . This was the 14th of Nisan; the first day of the Feast, the 15th of Nisan, was the "high day": the great sabhnth, See App-156 . Moreover, "the preparation "had not yet been made. See note on Matthew 26:17 .

killed = were wont to kill.

the Passover . Pascha., Aramaic. App-94 . Put by Figure of speech metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6 , for the lamb. It was this that was killed and eaten.


Verse 13

into. Greek. eis. App-104 .

a man. Greek. anthropos. App-123 .

man bearing a pitcher . Most unusual, for women carry pitchers, and more carry skin bottles.


Verse 14

goodman of the house = the Master ofthe house.

The Master = The Teacher. App-98 .


Verse 15

be = be himself.

furnished = spread with couches and other necessaries.


Verse 16

as = just as.


Verse 17

in the evening = the evening having come.


Verse 18

of = from among. Greek. ek. App-104 . Notthe same word as in Mark 14:31 .


Verse 19

began. See note on Mark 1:1 .

by. Greek. kata. App-104 .


Verse 20

in = into. Greek. eis. App-101 . As in Mark 14:60 . Not the same word as in verses: Mark 14:3 , Mark 14:25 , Mark 14:30 , Mar 3:49 , Mar 3:62 .


Verse 21

The Son of man , See App-98 .

is written = it standeth written.

of = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104 . Not the same word as in verses: Mark 14:18 , Mark 14:20 , Mark 14:23 , Mar 18:25 , Mar 18:69 , Mar 18:70 .

that man. Emphatic,

by = by means of. Greek. dia . App-104 .Mark 14:1 . Not the some word as in Mark 14:1 .

if, &c. Assnming the condition as an actual fact. App-118 . a,

never = not. Greek. ou . App-105 .


Verse 22

did eat = were eating. All that happened before and at this third supper is not given in Mark.

eat . All the texts omit this word.

is = represents. Figure of speech Metaphor. See App-6 .


Verse 24

My blood . No covenant could be made without blood. See note on Matthew 26:28 ,

new testament = new covenant. See note on Matthew 26:28 , and App-95 . Compare Jeremiah 31:31 ,

is shed = is being, or is about to be shed. Figure of speech Heterosis (of Tense), App-6 , or Figure of speech Prolepsis, App-6 .

for = concerning. Greek. peri . App-104 . But all the texts read huper . App-104 .


Verse 25

I will = that I will. After the verb "to say" the conj. hoti marks off the words spoken. Compare Matthew 14:26 ; Matthew 16:18 ; Matthew 20:12 ; Matthew 21:3 ; Matthew 26:34 ; Matthew 27:47 . Mat 1:40 ; Matthew 6:14 , Matthew 6:15 , Matthew 6:16 , Matthew 6:18 , Mat 6:35 ; Mark 9:26 ; Mark 14:57 , Mark 14:58 . See note on Luke 23:43 , and App-173 .

no more = not any more, in any wise. Greek ouketi, ou me . App-105 .

that = when.

new = fresh. See note on Matthew 26:29 .

the kingdom of God . See App-114 .


Verse 26

sung an hymn. See Matthew 26:30 .


Verse 27

shall be offended = will stumble.

because of = in, or at. Greek. en . App-104 .

this night = in (Greek. en) this night. But all the texts omit "because . . . night". ([L].)

for = because.

it is written = it standeth written. Quoted from Zechariah 13:7 .


Verse 28

I am risen . = My being raised.

go before. Compare Matthew 26:32 .


Verse 29

Although = Even if all, &c. Throwing no doubt on the hypothesis. App-118 .


Verse 30

That this day . The conj, hoti makes "this day" part of what He said. See note on Luke 23:43 , and Mark 14:25 above. We have the same construction in Luke 4:2 t; Mar 19:9 , but not in Matthew 21:28 ; Luke 22:34 ; Luke 23:43 .

the cock = a cock. See App-160 .

twice . A Divine supplement, only here. See App-160 .

shalt = wilt.


Verse 31

spake = kept saying.

vehemently = of (Greek. ek . App-104 .) excess.

If I should die, &c. = lf it were needful for me to die, &c. The condition being uncertain, and the result remaining to be seen. App-118 . b

not . . . in any wise . Gr, ou me. App-105 .

also said = said they all also: i.e. all as well as Peter.


Verse 32

came = come.

Gethsemane. See note on Mat 28:36 .

pray. Greek. proseuchomai. App-134 .


Verse 33

Him = Himself.

sore amazed. Greek ekthambeo. A Divine supplement, here, Mark 9:15 , and Mark 16:5 , Mark 16:6 .

very heavy = -deeply weighed down, or depressed.


Verse 34

soul . Greek. psuche . See App-110 . IV

unto = even to. Greek. heos.


Verse 35

on = upon. Greek. epi. App-104 .

ground. Greek. ge . App-129 .,

prayed = was praying; as in Mark 14:32 . Here in the Imperf. Tense.

hour . Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct). App-6 , for what is done in that time.

from = away from. Greek. apo . App-104 . As in Mark 14:36 and Mark 14:52 ; not the same as in Mark 14:43 .


Verse 36

Abba . Aramaic for Father. Occurs only here, Romans 8:15 , and Galatians 1:4 , Galatians 1:6 . See App-94 .

(Hebrew. 'ab .) Father. App-98 .

will . . . wilt . Greek. thelo. App-102 . 1,


Verse 37

sleeping . . . steepest . having composed themselves for sleep. Greek. katheudo; not koimaomai . See notes on 1 Thessalonians 4:14 and Mark 5:6 .

Simon . The name a Divine supplement, here.

couldest not thou = wast thou not able.


Verse 38

lest ye enter, etc. = that ye may not (Greek. me , as Mark 14:2 ) enter, &c.

spirit . Greek. pneuma . App-101 .

ready = prompt, or willing. Occurs only here, Matthew 26:41 , and Romans 1:15 .


Verse 39

spake the same words . A Divine supplement, here.


Verse 40

neither wist they = and they knew not (Greek. ou . App-105 ).

wist = knew. Greek. oida. App-132 , "Wist" is the Past Tense of Anglo-Saxon wftan = to know.


Verse 41

now = the remaining time.

it is enough = he is receiving [the money, Mark 14:11 ]. The verb apecho, in the Papyri, is the technical word for giving a receipt. See the notes on Matthew 6:2 , Matthew 6:5 , Matthew 6:16 . C p. Lam 6:24 .Philippians 1:4 , Philippians 1:18 , Phm. Mark 1:15 . The Lord knew that at that moment Judas had received the promised money, and that the moment had come; just as He knew that Judas was near at hand (Mark 14:42 ).

the hour is come. See note on John 7:6 .

is betrayed = is [on the point of being] delivered up.

sinners = the sinners.


Verse 42

lo . Figure of speech Asterismos ( App-6 ); same word asbehold in Mark 14:41 .

is at hand = is drawn near. If the Lord knew this, He knew that Judas had received the money (Mark 14:41 ).


Verse 43

one = being one. See note on Matthew 26:47 .

multitude = crowd.

staves : or clubs. Greek xulon = wood, timber. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), App-6 , for weapons made from timber.

from = from beside. Greek para. App-104 .


Verse 44

that betrayed Him = that was delivering Him up.

token = a concerted sign. Greek. sussemon , a compound of the Greek sun (in conjunction with. App-104 ) and semeion = a sign.

take = seize,

safely = secured assuredly. Occurs only here, Acts 2:36 ; Acts 16:23 .


Verse 45

goeth = cometh up.

Master, Master = Rabbi, Rabbi. Figure of speech Epizeuxis ( App-6 ) = great Rabbi. Notethat Judas never spoke of or to Him as "Lord". Compare 1 Corinthians 12:3

kissed = effusively kissed. See note on Matthew 26:49 .


Verse 46

on . Greek. epi. App-104 .


Verse 47

one of them, &c. This was Peter (not named in Matthew, Mark, or Luke, but only in John 18:10 ).

drew a sword. Compare Luke 22:35-38 .

a servant = the servant. See note on Matthew 26:51 .

ear. Greek. otion; but all the texts read otarion. See note on Matthew 26:51 .


Verse 48

answered and said. See note on Deuteronomy 1:41 ,

against = upon. Greek. epi. App-104 .

thief = robber, as in Mark 15:27 . See note on Matthew 26:55 ,


Verse 49

with . Greek. pros. App-104 .

but = but [this is done] to the end that, &c. Luke 22:37 ; Luke 24:44 . Compare Zechariah 13:7 ; Isaiah 53:7 , &c.


Verse 50

forsook Him, and fled = leaving Him, fled.


Verse 51

And there followed, &c. This is a Divine supplement, peculiar to Mark's Gospel.

followed = was following.

a certain young man = one particular young man. That this might be Lazarus. is probable: (1) because he Lord had returned to Bethany each preceding night of the week; (2) because Lazarus would be looking out; (3) because of the linen robe, betokening his social position; (4) and especially because he was wanted: "The chief priests consulted that they might put Lazarus also to death "(John 12:10 ). None of the apostles was arrested. Peter (though suspected) and another (John 18:15 ) were unmolested; (5) his name is not given here by Divine guidance, because Lazarus was probably still alive, and therefore in danger. linen cloth. Greek sindon = a linen cloak (so called probably from Indos = Indian).

cast about = having clothed [himself]; as in Matthew 6:29 (arrayed), Matthew 6:31 ; Matthew 25:36 , Matthew 25:38 , Matthew 25:43 : Mark 16:5 .Luke 12:27 ; Luke 23:11 . Joh 19:2 .Acts 12:8 .

about = upon. Greek. epi. App-104 .

naked . Without waiting to put on all his robes.

the young men : i.e. the soldiers; as in 2 Samuel 2:14 .Genesis 14:24 .


Verse 52

left, &c. = leaving behind. fled.

the linen cloth = the sindon .


Verse 53

to . Greek. pros. App-104 .

with him = to him: i.e. by his order or edict. and the figure of speech Polyeyndeton ( App-6 ) emphasizes each class.


Verse 54

afar off = from (Greek. apo. App-104 . afar.

even = as far as within.

palace = court. See note on Matthew 26:3 .

he sat = he was sitting, and continued to sit.

servants = officers.

warmed = was warming.

at . Greek. pros. App-104 .

fire. Greek. light; put by Figure of speech Metonyony (of Adjunct), App-6 , for fire, because it was the light that led to his recognition, Mark 14:66 .


Verse 55

all the = the whole.

council = Sanhedrin.

sought for witness against = were seeking, 7c. This was contrary to their rule: "In judgments against the life of any man, they begin first to transact about quitting the party who is tried, and they begin not with those things which make for his condemnation". Sanhedr. cap. 4 (cited by Lightfoot, Pitman's ed., xi. 442) See the new edition of The Babylonian Talmud, vol. viii, p. 100. N. Talmud Pub. Co., N. Y., USA.

against. Greek. kata. App-104 . As in verses: Mark 14:56 , Mark 14:57 .

found none = did not ( App-105 ) find [any].


Verse 56

bare = were bearing.

witness = testimonies.

agreed not = were not alike. A Divine supplement, here.


Verse 57

saying = saying that. See note on Mark 14:25 .


Verse 58

Temple. Greek. naos. See Matthew 23:16 .

made with hands . . . made without hands . A Divine supplement, here.

within . Greek. dia . App-104 .Mark 14:1 . Not the same word as in Mark 14:4 .

another. Greek. allos . See App-124 .


Verse 60

stood up in the midst = stood up [and came down] into the midst. Showing that this was not a formal judicial trial, but only to get sufficient evidence to send the Lord to Pilate (Mark 15:1 ).

asked = further asked.


Verse 61

the Christ = the Messiah. App-98 .

the Blessed . Used by the Jews instead of the name, Jehovah.


Verse 62

am I am [He] See John 4:26 ; John 8:28 , John 8:58 ; each time followed by extraordinary effects. See John 18:6 .

see . Greek. opsomai . App-138 .

the Son of man . The last occurance of this title ( App-98 ) in Mark. The first is Mark 2:10 .

on = at. Greek. ek. App-104 . Not the same word as in verses: Mark 14:2 , Mark 14:3 , Mark 14:6 , Mar 2:35 , Mar 2:46

power . Greek dunamis. App-172 . Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6 , for Jehovah Who exercises it, and that in judgment,

in = amid. Greek. meta. App-104 . Not the same word as in verses: Mark 14:3 , Mark 14:20 , Mark 14:25 , Mark 3:30 , Mar 3:49 , Mar 3:60 , Mar 3:69 .

heaven = the heavens. See note on Matthew 6:9 , Matthew 6:10 .


Verse 63

rent his clothes. This was strictly forbidden. See Leviticus 10:6 ; Leviticus 21:10 .


Verse 64

condemned. Greek katakrino. App-122 .

guilty = liable to.


Verse 65

buffet = cuff. See note on Matthew 26:67 .

did strike = kept striking.

with the palms of their hands . Greek. rapisma with smart blows. Occurs only here and in John 18:22 ; John 19:3 .


Verse 67

looked upon. See App-133 .


Verse 68

he denied. See App-160 .

know. Greek oida. App-132 .

understand. Greek. epistanai. App-132 .

the porch = the vestibule. Greek. proaulion. Occ, only here in N.T.: = the vestibule leading from the outer gate to the court,

the = a. See App-160 .


Verse 69

a maid = the maid. See App-160 .


Verse 71

to curse and to swear = cursing and swearing. The verb anathematizo is not peculiar to Biblical Greek, as alleged; for Deissmann shows, from the Papyri, that it is of pagan origin, first coined by Greek Jews. (See Light from the Ancient East, pp Mar 92:93 .)


Verse 72

word = saying. Greek. rhema . See note on Mark 9:32 .

Before = that ( hoti ) before. See note on Mark 14:25 .

shalt = wilt.


Chapter 15

Verse 1

straightway . See notes on Mark 1:10 , Mark 1:12 .

in . Greek. epi. App-104 . Not the same word as in verses: Mark 15:7 , Mark 15:29 , Mark 15:38 , Mar 7:41 , Mar 7:46 .

in the morning = any time before sunrise, while yet dark, Compare Mark 1:35 ; Mark 16:2 , Mark 16:9 . John 20:1 . The Lord must have been led to Pilate before our midnight, because it was "about the sixth hour" of the night when Pilate said "Behold your king "(John 19:14 ). It was there fore in the night, at which time it was unlawful to try a prisoner. See the Talmud, Sanhedrin, c App-4 . It was also unlawful on the eve of the Sabbath, and this was the eve of the High Sabbath. See App-165 . held a consultation having formed a council. See note on Matthew 12:14 .

with = in association with. Greek. meta. App-104 . Same as in verses: Mark 15:7 , Mark 15:28 , Mark 15:31 . Not the same as in Mark 15:27 .

and. Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton ( App-6 ) to emphasize the fact that it was the act of the whole council.

Jesus. App-98 .

carried Him away . Matthew 27:2 has apegagon = to lead away what is alive (in contrast with pherein, which is generally used of what is inanimate). Luke has egagon = they led (Luke 23:1 ). Mark has apenegkun = carried, as though from faintness.


Verse 2

Pilate asked Him. Matthew and Mark carefully distinguish between this interview with the Lord and the rulers alone, and a subsequent interview with the multitude (Luke 23:4 ). answering said. See note on Deuteronomy 1:41 . ct ea eayest = Thou thyself sayest [it).


Verse 3

accused = kept accusing.

of many things = urgently.

nothing = not (Greek. ou. App-105 .) anything. All the texts omit this clause.


Verse 5

yet . nothing = not anything any longer (Greek. ouden ouketi).


Verse 6

at. Greek. kata App-104 .

that feast = a feast: i.e. any of the three great feasts.

he released = he used, or was wont, to release. Imperf. Tense.


Verse 7

Barabbas. Aramaic. App-94 .

made &c. = been fellow insurgents.

who . Denoting a class of criminals.

in . Greek. en App-104 . As in verses: Mark 15:29 , Mark 15:41 , Mark 15:46 : not the same as in verses: Mark 15:1 , Mark 15:38 .


Verse 8

multitude = crowd.

crying aloud. All the texts read "having gone up".

began. See note on Mark 1:1 . him to do. Note the Ellipsis thus properly supplied.

as = according as.

ever . Om. by T. WH R.


Verse 9

Will ye . ? Are ye willing. ? Greek theIo, See App-102 .


Verse 10

he knew = he was beginning to know. Greek ginosko. App-132 .

delivered Him = delivered Him up.

for = on account of. Greek. dia . App-104 .Mark 15:2 .


Verse 11

moved = vehemently stirred up (as by an earth quake). Greek. anaseio, connected with seismos , an earth quake.

people = crowd. as in Mark 15:8 .


Verse 13

Crucify Him . Stoning was the proper Jewish death for blasphemy. Compare John 18:31 , John 18:32 . Crucifixion was the Roman punishment for treason. Note the addresses of Pilate:

TO THE COUNCIL: Matthew 27:17-20 , Matthew 27:21-23 , Matthew 27:24 , Matthew 27:25

TO THE PEOPLE: Mark 15:8-11 , Mark 15:12-14

TO THE PRIESTS (specially). Luke 23:13-19 , Luke 23:20 , Luke 23:21 , Luke 23:22 , Luke 23:23 .

Then Pilate's final attempt to rescue the Lord. Matthew 27:26 . Matthew 15:15 .Luke 23:24 , Luke 23:25 .


Verse 14

evil. Greek kakos. App-128 .

hath He done = did He do (at any time). Aorist.


Verse 15

willing = determining. Greek. boulomai. See App-102 .2.

to content the people = to satisfy the crowd. This is the motto of the present day, but it always ends in judgment. See and compare Exodus 32:1 with Exodus 26:27 . Acts 12:3 with Acts 12:23 ; 2 Timothy 4:3 with 2 Timothy 4:1 and 2 Timothy 4:8 . So here.


Verse 16

into = within.

the hall = the court. See Matthew 26:3 .

band. Greek. speira = a company bound or assembled round a standard: Latin. manipulus = a handful of hay or straw twisted about a pole as a standard: and, by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6 , put for the men-at -arms gathered round it.


Verse 17

purple . See Matthew 27:28 .


Verse 18

Hail. See note on Matthew 26:49 .


Verse 19

smote = kept smiting.

did spit = kept spitting.

worshipped = did homage to. App-137 .


Verse 20

to = to the end that they might.


Verse 21

compel . See note on Matthew 27:32 .

passed by = was passing by.

out of = away from. Greek. apo. App-104 . Not the same word as in Mark 15:46 .

the country = a field.

Rufus. This may be the Rufus of Romans 16:1 Romans 16:3 .


Verse 22

unto. Greek. epi. App-104 . As in Mark 15:46 . Not the same word as in verses: Mark 15:41 , Mark 15:43 .

Golgotha. See note on Matthew 27:33 .


Verse 23

they gave, &c. = they were offering. See notes on Matthew 27:34 , Matthew 27:48 .

not. Greek. ou . App-105


Verse 24

when they had, &c. The two robbers of Mark 15:27 , and Matthew 27:38 , not yet brought. See App-164 .

parted = divided.

upon. Greek. epi . App-104 .


Verse 25

the third hour . Of the day (John 11:9 ), i.e. 9am. No discrepancy; for the sixth hour of John 19:14 was the sixth hour of the night (from about sunset), viz. "about" midnight (in the midst of the trial), when Pilate said "Behold your King". The context there and here explains and settles the matter. Here, the trial was over; in John 19:14 the trial was going on. See App-156 and App-165 . It was the hour of the morning sacrifice.


Verse 26

superscription, &c. = inscription of His indictment. Not the writing put "over His head "(Matthew 27:37 ). See App-163 .

written over = written down (or inscribed, as in Acts 17:23 .Hebrews 8:10 ; Hebrews 8:10 , Heb 8:16 ). Greek epigrapho. Occ, else-where only in Revelation 21:12 . See App-163 .

THE KING , &c. See App-163 for the "inscriptions on the cross", and App-48 for the difference of types.


Verse 27

with = together with. Greek. sun. App-104 .

they crucify . Present Tense, describing what was done then (after the dividing of the garments), not when they put the Lord on the cross in Mark 15:24 .

thieves = robbers, not malefactors as in Luke 23:32 , who were "led with Him". See App-164 .

one on His right hand, &c.: i.e. outside the two "malefactors" of Luke 23:32 . See App-164 , and note on John 19:18 .

on = at. Greek. ek. App-104 .

the other = one.


Verse 28

the scripture . Isaiah 53:12 . See App-107 .

transgressors = lawless ones. App-128 .

railed on = were blaspheming.


Verse 29

Ah, or Aha.

destroyest . As in Mark 13:2 .

Temple = Naos. See notes on Matthew 4:5 ; Matthew 23:16 .


Verse 30

come down. See note on "descend", Mark 15:32 .

from = off. Greek. apo . App-104 . As in Mark 15:32 .


Verse 31

also the chief priests the chief priests also (as well as the passers by).

said = kept saying.

among themselves to (Greek. pros. App-101 .) each other.

others. Greek allos. App-124 .

cannot = is not (Mark 15:23 ) able to.


Verse 32

Christ = the Messiah. App-98 .

the King of Israel . Referring to the confession in Mark 15:2 .

descend. Same as "come down "in Mark 15:30 . see ( App-133 .)

believe ( App-150 .) Vain promise. For they did not believe, though He came up from the grave.

they that were . . . reviled Him . Both the "robbers", but only one of the "malefactors", reviled (Luke 23:39 ).


Verse 33

the sixth hour of the day. (John 11:9 .) From sunrise: i.e. noon. See note on Mark 15:25 , and App-165 .

was = became.

over. Greek. epi. App-104 .

the ninth hour . The hour of offering the evening sacrifice: i.e. 3pm. So that the darkness was from noon till 3pm. See App-165 .


Verse 34

Eloi, &c. Quoted from Psalms 22:1 . See note on Matthew 27:46 .


Verse 35

Behold. Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6 .

Elias = Elijah.


Verse 36

gave Him = - was giving. See note on Matthew 27:34 .


Verse 37

cried with a loud voice, and = having uttered a loud cry,

He gave up the ghost = expired. Greek. ekpneo = to breathe out, or expire. Occurs only here, Mark 15:39 , and Luke 23:46 .

Verse 38


veil . See note on Matthew 27:51

in = into. Greek. eis. App-104 .

twain = two.

the top = above. Greek. anothen, as in Luke 1:3 . See note there.


Verse 39

which = who.

the Son of God = a Son of God: i.e. a supernatural or Divine being. App-98 . Found frequently in the Fayyum Papyri as a title of the Emperor Augustus, in Latin as well as Greek inscriptions.


Verse 40

also women = women also.

afar off = from (Greek. apo. App-104 .) afar.

among. Greek. en App-104 .

Magdalene . See Matthew 27:56 .

the less = junior. Divinely supplied only in Mark to distinguish him from James the Apostle (compare Matthew 13:55 , and Matthew 27:56 ). See also Acts 12:17 ; Acts 15:13 ; Acts 21:18 , Galatians 1:2 , Galatians 1:12 .

Salome . See Matthew 27:56 .


Verse 41

also, when He was in Galilee = whenHe was in Galilee also.

followed . . . ministered = used to follow and minister.

unto. Greek eis App-104 . Not the same word as in verses: Mar 22:43 , Mar 22:46 .


Verse 42

when the even was come evening already having come. Compare Matthew 27:57 .

the preparation : i.e. the 14th of Nisan, the day before the Passover (on the 15th), which took place on the 14th at even, and ushered in the High Sabbath, which commenced after sunset on the 14th.

the day before the sabbath: i.e. the day before the High Sabbath. See App-156 .


Verse 43

of = he from. Greek. ho apo. App-104 .

honourable = honourable (in rank), as in Acts 13:50 ; Acts 17:12 .

counsellor . A member of the Sanhedrin. See Luke 23:51 .

which also waited = who himself also was waiting. the kingdom of God. See App-114 .

went in boldly . = took courage and went in; i.e. braving all consequences.

unto = to. Greek. pros. App-104 . Not the same word as in Mar 22:41 , Mar 22:46 .

craved the body . Because in the usual course the Lord would have been buried with other criminals. See note on Isaiah 53:9 .


Verse 44

marvelled = wondered. This verse and the next are a Divine supplement, peculiar to Mark.

if He were, &c. Implying a hypothesis which he did not yet expect. App-118 .

any while = long.


Verse 45

knew . = having got to know. Greek. ginsoko. See App-132 .

gave = made a gift of (Greek. doreo). Occurs only here and 2 Peter 1:3 , I.

body. Greek. some = body. But all the texts read ptoma = corpse.


Verse 46

fine linen . Greek. sindon. See note on Mark 14:61 , Mark 14:62 .

sepulchre memorial tomb.

out of . Greek. ek. App-104 . Not the same word as in Mark 15:21 .

rock . Greek. petra , as in Matthew 16:18 .

a stone. See note on Matthew 27:60 .


Verse 47

beheld = were (attentively) looking on so as to see exactly. Greek. thereo, App-133 .


Chapter 16

Verse 1

when the sabbath was past : i.e. the weekly sabbath. This was three nights and three days from the preparation day, when He was buried. See App-156 .

had bought. Before the weekly sabbath (Luke 23:56 ; Luke 24:1 ).

sweet spices = aromatics.


Verse 2

first (day) of the week. Greek. the first of the Sabbath.

came = come.

unto = up to. Greek. epi . App-104 .,

sepulchre . See Mark 15:46 .

at the rising , &a = the sun having risen.


Verse 3

among = to. Greek. pros. App-104 .

Who shall roll , &c. ? That was their only difficulty; therefore they could not have heard about the sealing and the watch. This is a Divine supplement, peculiar to Mark.

shall = will.

roll us away . The ground being on an incline (sideways), therefore the door was more easily closed than opened.


from = cut of (Gk. ek. App-104 .): out of the bottom of the incline. Not the same word as in Mark 16:8 . L and TR read apo ( App-104 .), away from, as in Mark 16:8 .

Verse 4

looked = looked up. Greek. anablepo . App-133 .

saw = see (implying attention, surprise, andpleasure). Greek. theoreo. App-133 .

was = had been.


Verse 5

into = Greek. eis App-104 .

saw. App-133 .

on = in. Greek. en . App-104 . Not the same word as in Mark 16:18 .

long . . . garment . Greek. stole a longouter robe of distinction.

affrighted = amazed.


Verse 6

not . Greek. me . App-105 . Not the same as in the next clause and verses: Mark 16:14 , Mark 16:18 .

Jesus. App-98 .

Which was crucified = Who has been crucified. Note the Figure of speech Asyndeton ( App-6 ), leading up breathlessly to the climax = "there shall ye see Him". Thus the passage is emphasized; and the "sudden reduction of ands' "is not "an internal argument against genuineness"!

not. Greek. ou . App-105 .


behold = look Greek. ide , App-133 .:3.

Verse 7

and Peter. A Divine supplement, here.

see. Greek. opsomai. App-133 . a

as = even as.


Verse 8

from = away from. Greek. apo. App-104 .


Verse 9

Now when Jesus was risen, &c. For the sequence of events after the Resurrection, see App-166 . For the genuineness of these last twelve verses (9-20) of Mark, see App-168 .

early : i.e. any time after sunset on our Saturday, 6pm. See App-165 .

appeared. Greek. phaino. App-106 . Not the same word as in Mark 16:12 .

out of = from. Greek. apo. App-104 .

devils = demons.


Verse 10

with = in company with. Greek -meta. App-104 . Not the same word as in Mark 16:20 .


Verse 11

was alive = is alive [again from the dead]. See note on zao. Matthew 9:18 .

seen. Greek. theaomai. App-133 .

of = by. Greek. hupo. App-104 .

believed not = disbelieved [it].


Verse 12

After. Greek. meta. App-104 .

that = these things.

appeared = was manifested. Greek. phaneroo. App-106 . Not the same word as in Mark 16:9 .

in. Greek en. App-104 .

another = different. Greek. heteros. App-124 .

of = out of. Greek. ek. App-104 .

as they walked, &c. See Luke 24:13-35 .


Verse 14

Afterward, &c. = Later. Greek. husteron . A Divine supplement, here.

upbraided = reproached.


Verse 15

He said. Probably some time after Mark 16:14 , on the eve of the Ascension.

world = kosmos. App-129 .

preach = proclaim. Greek. kerusso. App-121 .

the gospel = the glad tidings.

every creature = all the creation. Put by Figure of speech Snec doche (of Genus), App-6 , for all mankind.

Fulfilled during "that generation" . See Colossians 1:6 , Colossians 1:23 .


Verse 16

believeth. Seo App-150 ., i.

baptized. See App-115 .

believeth not = disbelieveth.

damned = condemned. Greek. katakrino. App-122 .


Verse 17

these signs shall follow = these signs shall attend, or follow close upon. See App-167 and Hebrews 2:3 , Hebrews 2:4 , and the fulfilment in Acts 3:7 , Acts 3:8 ; Acts 5:16 ; Acts 6:8 ; Acts 9:34 , Acts 9:40 , &c. They were limited to the dispensation covered by the Acts of the Apostles. See Hebrews 2:3 , Hebrews 2:4 ; Hebrews 6:1-6 ; and compare 1 Corinthians 13:8-10 .

them that believe . Not merely the Apostles, therefore. See App-168 .

In = Through. Greek. en . App-104 .

In My name. Note the Figure of speech Asyndeton, App-6 .

shall they cast out devils . See Acts 8:7 ; Acts 16:18 ; Acts 19:11-16 .

speak with new tongues. See Acts 2:4-11 (as foretold by Joel 2:28 , Joel 2:29 ); Mark 10:46 ; Mar 19:6 . 1 Corinthians 12:28 ; and Mark 14:0 .

new = different in character. Greek. kainos, not neos. See notes on Matthew 9:17 ; Matthew 26:28 , Matthew 26:29 ,


Verse 18

They shall take up serpents. See Acts 28:5 . Compare Luke 10:19 .

if they drink, &c. The condition to be seen by the result. App-118 .

drink , &c. Eusebius (iii. 39) records this of John and of Barsabas, surnamed Justus.

not = by no means. Greek. ou me. App-105 .

lay hands on (Greek. epi. App-104 .)

the sick . See Acts 3:7 ; Acts 19:11 Acts 19:12 ; Acts 2:8 , Acts 2:9 , Acts 2:10 . c. 1 Corinthians 12:9 , 1 Corinthians 12:28 . James 5:14 .


Verse 19

the Lord. App-98 . C. The contrast is between the Lord of Mark 16:19 , and the disciples of Mark 16:20 .

heaven = the heaven. Singular. See notes on Matthew 6:9 , Matthew 6:10 .

on = at. Greek. ek. App-104 .

God . See App-98 .


Verse 20

every where . See Colossians 1:6 , Colossians 1:23 .

the LORD = Jehovah ( App-89 . A. b). The witness of "God" is distinguished (in Hebrews 2:4 ) from the testimony of His Son (Hebrews 2:3 ), and from the gifts of the Spirit (pneuma hagion, App-101 .) (Hebrews 2:4 ).

confirming, &c. See Hebrews 2:4 .

the word . Greek. Logos. See note on Mark 9:32 .

with = by means of. Greek. dia . App-104 .Mark 16:1.d