Christian Churches of God

No. F040v






Commentary on Matthew

Part 5

(Edition 2.0 20220512-20220607)

Commentary on Chapters 20-24.



Christian Churches of God

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Commentary on Matthew Part 5


Consolidation of the Gospel to this point

Chapter 20 explains the Kingdom of Heaven, also called the Kingdom of God, and uses the parable of the labourers in the vineyard. The Wages are the same and each person taken in gets treated in the same way. The reality is that the wages of the Kingdom of Heaven is Salvation through the Call and Predestination (No. 296) of God. The Kingdom of Heaven is used to show that it is God in Heaven that has determined the plan and imposed it on the Earth, and that God is acting here through Jesus Christ to implement this phase.


The Plan of God

As we saw from the Psalms, God’s Plan was to create mankind and expose him to existence and progressively call those chosen through God’s Omniscience and Predestination. Their purpose was to become Elohim (No. 001) or gods, as Sons of God (Ps. 82:6), as Christ told us also in John 10:34-36 and Scripture cannot be broken (see also The Purpose of the Creation and the Sacrifice of Jesus Christ (No. 160)). Paul explains the sequence in Romans 8:28-30 (F045ii). The outline is contained in the text the Plan of Salvation (No. 001A). The entire sequence was outlined in the Bible texts. He allowed the Problem of Evil (No. 118) to test mankind against the Bible Texts which stand for all time, along with the Law of God (L1) which stems from His Nature and is thus Immutable. The sequence is detailed in the following texts.

Rule of the Kings: Part I: Saul (No. 282A)

Rule of the Kings Part II: David (No. 282B)

Rule of the Kings Part III: Solomon and the Key of David (No. 282C)

Rule of the Kings Part IIIB: Man as the Temple of God (No. 282D)


God entered into Covenant with mankind from the Patriarchs and that was centred on the agreement that they would serve Him and keep His Law (Law of God (L1)) and He would be their God and protect and bless them (Covenant of God (No. 152) and First and Second Statements of the Covenant (No. 096B)). Christ did not do away with the Law of God but rather fulfilled it and the Law still stands until heaven and earth pass away; and see also Distinction in the Law (No. 096).


Antinomians are not Christians and will face retraining in the Second Resurrection (143B) with the Pagans and the Mystery and Sun Cults.


Previous system

Up until the third phase as explained in Rule of the Kings Part III: Solomon and the Key of David (No. 282C) the Holy Spirit (No. 117) was only available by express direction through the Patriarchs and Prophets. Humans only had, and have, a Nephesh, which is a form of Soul (No. 092) that is not immortal and goes back to God on the death of the human, as we know from Ecclesiastes 12:7. The dead lie in the grave and know nothing. They go nowhere. The purpose of the Nephesh is to give humans life and allow the Holy Spirit to bind to it, so that God can be all in all (Eph. 3:1-21) If a human sins the Holy Spirit is estranged and slowly leaves the Human in sin. This is what is stated as the Unpardonable Sin (Mat. 12:31-32; Lk. 12:10) as the Holy Spirit cannot be retained when the individual is sinning against the Spirit. The elect cannot retain the Holy Spirit in Sin. For that reason the Second Sacrament of the Church, the Lord’s Supper was given to expiate for the sins that occur each year and forgiven at Passover each year on the night beginning when Christ was betrayed and executed on 14 Abib  (The Lord’s Supper No. 103, 103A, B, C) and The Sacraments of the Church (No. 150)). This sacrament has nothing to do with what is termed “Communion” on the Day of the Sun in the Sun and Mystery Cults. The Human is thus only able to attain Eternal Life (No. 133) by direct reliance on the Omniscience and Omnipotence of God (cf. B5 2.1.1) by Resurrection (see No. 143, 143A and 143B). This will be further addressed later in the texts on the Lord’s Supper.


The Kingdom of Heaven announced by Christ at this phase was to allow people to request inclusion in the kingdom and become part of the elect and potential sons of God. Christ refers to the parable of the Mustard Seed (Mat. 13:31-32; 17:20; Mk.4:30-32; Lk. 3:18-19; 17:6). The symbolism represents the Holy Spirit (No. 117) being given to the individual and working with them until their baptism and then being placed in them at baptism and the Laying on of Hands for the Holy Spirit (which is the second element of Baptism). The Spirit then binds with the Nephesh and grows with the person so that the Holy Spirit becomes a powerful force in the individual as an enabling power. This allows the person to become Born Again (No. 172). Christ uses other examples of the Kingdom such as the Ten Virgins and the parable of the Talents and the Sheep and the Goats in Chapter 25.


It is through the Holy Spirit (117) in the individual that allows them to be Consubstantial with the Father (No. 081) and thus achieve elohim status as all of the Sons of God and Elohim (How God Became a Family (No. 187)).


The Demons objected to the Creation of man to become elohim which resulted in the Fall of a Third of the Host. They thus tried to destroy God’s Plan and prove Mankind unworthy. The Demons under Satan lied to the Adamic Creation and gave them the lie that they shall not surely die (cf. Doctrine of Original Sin Part I: The Garden of Eden (No. 246); see also Doctrine of Original Sin Part II: The Generations of Adam (No. 248)). The demons invented the false doctrine and blatant lie, that mankind had an Immortal Soul and thus was not dependant on God for eternal life. They then invented the lie that spirit cannot die and hence the demons are immortal (cf. Judgment of the Demons (No. 080)). Hence Christ’s comment that Satan was a liar from the beginning (Jn. 8:44). This lie was told to the ancients and developed among the Egyptians and the Assyrians and among the Baal worshippers of the Triune God in the Middle East, and at Rome and among the Greeks, and in Asia (The Socratic Doctrine of the Soul (B6) and also as explained in Mysticism (B7)). This doctrine did not enter Christianity until the Romans adopted it from the doctrines of the Baal worshippers of the god Attis at Rome (see also Development of the Neo Platonist Model (No. 017)). By the Fourth Century the Priests of Attis there were complaining the Christians had stolen all their doctrines and that is the same to this day but the cult has been absorbed into Christianity, following its doctrines (cf. also The Origins of Christmas and Easter (No. 235); The Cross: Its Origin and Significance (No. 039)).   


To frustrate the adoption of the humans to the God family the demons also invented the doctrines of Infant Baptism (cf. Repentance and Baptism (No. 052)) through a false religious system and so the Holy Spirit was never able to be granted to the individual through that process. Infant Baptism with the sin of the False Calendar and the breach of the Law of God (L1) denied Salvation through the First Resurrection (No. 143A) to untold billions and forced them into the Second Resurrection (No. 143B) at the end of the Millennium. God allowed all this within His Omnipotence, Omniscience and His Predestination (No. 296).


Matthew Chapters 20-24 (RSV)

Chapter 20

1"For the kingdom of heaven is like a householder who went out early in the morning to hire laborers for his vineyard. 2After agreeing with the laborers for a denarius a day, he sent them into his vineyard. 3And going out about the third hour he saw others standing idle in the market place; 4and to them he said, 'You go into the vineyard too, and whatever is right I will give you.' So they went. 5Going out again about the sixth hour and the ninth hour, he did the same. 6And about the eleventh hour he went out and found others standing; and he said to them, 'Why do you stand here idle all day?' 7They said to him, 'Because no one has hired us.' He said to them, 'You go into the vineyard too.' 8And when evening came, the owner of the vineyard said to his steward, 'Call the laborers and pay them their wages, beginning with the last, up to the first.' 9And when those hired about the eleventh hour came, each of them received a denarius. 10Now when the first came, they thought they would receive more; but each of them also received a denarius. 11And on receiving it they grumbled at the householder, 12saying, 'These last worked only one hour, and you have made them equal to us who have borne the burden of the day and the scorching heat.' 13But he replied to one of them, 'Friend, I am doing you no wrong; did you not agree with me for a denarius? 14Take what belongs to you, and go; I choose to give to this last as I give to you. 15Am I not allowed to do what I choose with what belongs to me? Or do you begrudge my generosity?' 16So the last will be first, and the first last." 17And as Jesus was going up to Jerusalem, he took the twelve disciples aside, and on the way he said to them, 18"Behold, we are going up to Jerusalem; and the Son of man will be delivered to the chief priests and scribes, and they will condemn him to death, 19and deliver him to the Gentiles to be mocked and scourged and crucified, and he will be raised on the third day." 20Then the mother of the sons of Zeb'edee came up to him, with her sons, and kneeling before him she asked him for something. 21And he said to her, "What do you want?" She said to him, "Command that these two sons of mine may sit, one at your right hand and one at your left, in your kingdom." 22But Jesus answered, "You do not know what you are asking. Are you able to drink the cup that I am to drink?" They said to him, "We are able." 23He said to them, "You will drink my cup, but to sit at my right hand and at my left is not mine to grant, but it is for those for whom it has been prepared by my Father." 24And when the ten heard it, they were indignant at the two brothers. 25But Jesus called them to him and said, "You know that the rulers of the Gentiles lord it over them, and their great men exercise authority over them. 26It shall not be so among you; but whoever would be great among you must be your servant, 27and whoever would be first among you must be your slave; 28even as the Son of man came not to be served but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many." 29And as they went out of Jericho, a great crowd followed him. 30And behold, two blind men sitting by the roadside, when they heard that Jesus was passing by, cried out, "Have mercy on us, Son of David!" 31The crowd rebuked them, telling them to be silent; but they cried out the more, "Lord, have mercy on us, Son of David!" 32And Jesus stopped and called them, saying, "What do you want me to do for you?" 33They said to him, "Lord, let our eyes be opened." 34And Jesus in pity touched their eyes, and immediately they received their sight and followed him.


Intent of Chapter 20

Labourers in the Vineyard

Timings: Early= after the Last Watch: approx. 6 AM, v. 3. third hour =  9AM. v. 5 6th Hour = 12.00, 9th hour = 3 PM. v. 6 11th hour = 5PM.

v. 8 (Lev. 19:13; Dt. 24:14-15)

v. 9 Denarius – Smaller coins existed and so payment could have been made on an hourly basis. The purpose was to expose the fact that the payment was the same, no matter when the work was started, as the reward was the same, which is salvation in the kingdom of God.

v. 15 The owner claims to treat people under different contracts. However, many fail to realise that the payment is not in money but in Salvation in the kingdom of God.

v. 16 The Greek says: Is your eye evil because I am good.


Jesus foretells his death the third time.

vv. 17-19  refer also to Mark 10:32-34; Luke 18:31-34. Compare 16:21; 17:22

vv. 20-28 James and John seek honour through their mother:  Mk. 10:35-45; Lk. 22:24-27. v. 22 Cup see Lk. 22:42n. v. 23 Acts 12:2; Rev. 1:9; Mt. 13:11; v. 26 see Mk. 9:35; v. 28 26:39; 1Tim. 2:5-6; Jn. 13:15-16; Tit. 2:14; 1Pet. 1:18). The thought seems to be based on Isa. 53.

The prophecies all indicated the Messiah must suffer and die for the sins of Israel, and even the High Priest Caiaphas understood that fact, and publicly stated it (Jn. 11:49-51).


Jesus heals two blind men.

vv. 29-34 refer also to Mark 10:46-52; Luke 18:35-43. Jesus responds not to the Messianic title Son of David (v. 30) but to the cry of need (v. 34) comp. 15:22-28.


Chapter 21

1And when they drew near to Jerusalem and came to Beth'phage, to the Mount of Olives, then Jesus sent two disciples, 2saying to them, "Go into the village opposite you, and immediately you will find an ass tied, and a colt with her; untie them and bring them to me. 3If any one says anything to you, you shall say, 'The Lord has need of them,' and he will send them immediately." 4This took place to fulfil what was spoken by the prophet, saying, 5"Tell the daughter of Zion, Behold, your king is coming to you, humble, and mounted on an ass, and on a colt, the foal of an ass." 6The disciples went and did as Jesus had directed them; 7they brought the ass and the colt, and put their garments on them, and he sat thereon. 8Most of the crowd spread their garments on the road, and others cut branches from the trees and spread them on the road. 9And the crowds that went before him and that followed him shouted, "Hosanna to the Son of David! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord! Hosanna in the highest!" 10And when he entered Jerusalem, all the city was stirred, saying, "Who is this?" 11And the crowds said, "This is the prophet Jesus from Nazareth of Galilee." 12And Jesus entered the temple of God and drove out all who sold and bought in the temple, and he overturned the tables of the money-changers and the seats of those who sold pigeons. 13He said to them, "It is written, 'My house shall be called a house of prayer'; but you make it a den of robbers." 14And the blind and the lame came to him in the temple, and he healed them. 15But when the chief priests and the scribes saw the wonderful things that he did, and the children crying out in the temple, "Hosanna to the Son of David!" they were indignant; 16and they said to him, "Do you hear what these are saying?" And Jesus said to them, "Yes; have you never read, 'Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings thou hast brought perfect praise'?" 17And leaving them, he went out of the city to Bethany and lodged there. 18In the morning, as he was returning to the city, he was hungry. 19And seeing a fig tree by the wayside he went to it, and found nothing on it but leaves only. And he said to it, "May no fruit ever come from you again!" And the fig tree withered at once. 20When the disciples saw it they marveled, saying, "How did the fig tree wither at once?" 21And Jesus answered them, "Truly, I say to you, if you have faith and never doubt, you will not only do what has been done to the fig tree, but even if you say to this mountain, 'Be taken up and cast into the sea,' it will be done. 22And whatever you ask in prayer, you will receive, if you have faith." 23And when he entered the temple, the chief priests and the elders of the people came up to him as he was teaching, and said, "By what authority are you doing these things, and who gave you this authority?" 24Jesus answered them, "I also will ask you a question; and if you tell me the answer, then I also will tell you by what authority I do these things. 25The baptism of John, whence was it? From heaven or from men?" And they argued with one another, "If we say, 'From heaven,' he will say to us, 'Why then did you not believe him?' 26But if we say, 'From men,' we are afraid of the multitude; for all hold that John was a prophet." 27So they answered Jesus, "We do not know." And he said to them, "Neither will I tell you by what authority I do these things. 28"What do you think? A man had two sons; and he went to the first and said, 'Son, go and work in the vineyard today.' 29And he answered, 'I will not'; but afterward he repented and went. 30And he went to the second and said the same; and he answered, 'I go, sir,' but did not go. 31Which of the two did the will of his father?" They said, "The first." Jesus said to them, "Truly, I say to you, the tax collectors and the harlots go into the kingdom of God before you. 32For John came to you in the way of righteousness, and you did not believe him, but the tax collectors and the harlots believed him; and even when you saw it, you did not afterward repent and believe him. 33"Hear another parable. There was a householder who planted a vineyard, and set a hedge around it, and dug a wine press in it, and built a tower, and let it out to tenants, and went into another country. 34When the season of fruit drew near, he sent his servants to the tenants, to get his fruit; 35and the tenants took his servants and beat one, killed another, and stoned another. 36Again he sent other servants, more than the first; and they did the same to them. 37Afterward he sent his son to them, saying, 'They will respect my son.' 38But when the tenants saw the son, they said to themselves, 'This is the heir; come, let us kill him and have his inheritance.' 39And they took him and cast him out of the vineyard, and killed him. 40When therefore the owner of the vineyard comes, what will he do to those tenants?" 41They said to him, "He will put those wretches to a miserable death, and let out the vineyard to other tenants who will give him the fruits in their seasons." 42Jesus said to them, "Have you never read in the scriptures: 'The very stone which the builders rejected has become the head of the corner; this was the Lord's doing, and it is marvelous in our eyes'? 43Therefore I tell you, the kingdom of God will be taken away from you and given to a nation producing the fruits of it." 44 *[No text q45When the chief priests and the Pharisees heard his parables, they perceived that he was speaking about them. 46But when they tried to arrest him, they feared the multitudes, because they held him to be a prophet.

[Footnote: q Other ancient authorities add verse 44,And he who falls on this stone will be broken to pieces; but when it falls on any one, it will crush him.”]


Intent of Chapter 21

21:1- 27:66 The Last Week (Mk. 11:1-15:47)

The Triumphal Entry: Required by prophecy

vv. 21:1-9  refer also to Mark 11:1-10; Luke 19:28-38; John 12:12-18.

v. 1 see Mk. 11:1 n.

v. 5 Isa. 62:11; Zech. 9:9

The Hebrew text of verse 7 refers not to two animals but to one seemingly from a misunderstanding of the Hebrew poetic text in Zech. 9:9, from which the Greek is a translation.

v. 8  Tokens of honour (2Kgs. 9:13) v. 9 Ps. 118:26 – Hosanna – Initially it was an Hebrew invocation to God meaning O save; later it became a cry of joyous acclamation.

v. 11 The identification reflects an unchanged attitude towards Jesus. His parable (see Mk. 11:1n.) is seen/heard and not understood (Jn. 6:14; 7:40; Acts 3:22; Mk. 6:15; Lk. 13:33).


Jesus Cleanses the Temple:

Verses 12-17 see also Mark 11:11, 15-19; Luke 19:45-48; Jn. 2:13-17

v. 12 The animals for sale were acceptable for sacrifice; the money changers exchanged gentile coins into Jewish money that could properly be presented to the Temple (cf. Ex. 30:13; Lev. 1:14);

v. 13 Isa. 56:7; Jer. 7:11; v. 15 Lk. 19:39; Mt. 21:9; hosanna see v. 9 n. v. 16 Ps. 8:2 (Gk)

Note the Importance re Cleansing the Temple as part of the Sanctification process from the New Moon of the New Year in Abib (Sanctification of the Temple of God (No. 241)) up to the Fast of 7 Abib for the Sanctification of the Simple and Erroneous (No. 291) (NB the Annex, for the practice among Christ and the Apostles, and the Early Church). See also Cleansing the Temple (No. 241B).


Jesus Curses the Fig Tree

vv. 18-22 Mark 11:12-14, 20-24.

Cursing the Fig Tree (No. 090)

The parable reflects the lack of acceptance of all aspects of the Kingdom of God to produce good fruit. Those that do not are destroyed and this reflects the end result of the creation at the end of the Second Resurrection before mankind goes on to Eternal Life (No. 133). No one is permitted to remain unproductive and apart from the Body of Christ.


The Authority of Jesus Challenged

vv. 23-27 see also Mark 11:27-33; Luke 20:1-8; Jn. 2:18-22. v. 26 11:9; 14:5; Lk. 1:76;

v. 27 Christ declined to answer because his listeners declined to heed.

vv. 28-32  20:1; 21:33; Lk. 15:11-32

v. 32 Lk. 7:29-30. The Way of Righteousness led to reconciliation with God by faith.


The Parable of the Tenants in the vineyard

vv. 23-46 Mark12:1-12; Luke 20:9-18;

v. 33 compare Isa. 1-7 which forms the background to the parable.

v. 34 22:3

v. 41 8:11; Acts 13:46; 18:6; 28:28

v. 42 Christ agrees with the answer in v. 41 and quotes Psa. 118:22-23 to support his teaching (Acts 4:11; 1Pet. 2:7).


Chapter 22

1And again Jesus spoke to them in parables, saying, 2"The kingdom of heaven may be compared to a king who gave a marriage feast for his son, 3and sent his servants to call those who were invited to the marriage feast; but they would not come. 4Again he sent other servants, saying, 'Tell those who are invited, Behold, I have made ready my dinner, my oxen and my fat calves are killed, and everything is ready; come to the marriage feast.' 5But they made light of it and went off, one to his farm, another to his business, 6while the rest seized his servants, treated them shamefully, and killed them. 7The king was angry, and he sent his troops and destroyed those murderers and burned their city. 8Then he said to his servants, 'The wedding is ready, but those invited were not worthy. 9Go therefore to the thoroughfares, and invite to the marriage feast as many as you find.' 10And those servants went out into the streets and gathered all whom they found, both bad and good; so the wedding hall was filled with guests. 11"But when the king came in to look at the guests, he saw there a man who had no wedding garment; 12and he said to him, 'Friend, how did you get in here without a wedding garment?' And he was speechless. 13Then the king said to the attendants, 'Bind him hand and foot, and cast him into the outer darkness; there men will weep and gnash their teeth.' 14For many are called, but few are chosen." 15Then the Pharisees went and took counsel how to entangle him in his talk. 16And they sent their disciples to him, along with the Hero'di-ans, saying, "Teacher, we know that you are true, and teach the way of God truthfully, and care for no man; for you do not regard the position of men. 17Tell us, then, what you think. Is it lawful to pay taxes to Caesar, or not?" 18But Jesus, aware of their malice, said, "Why put me to the test, you hypocrites? 19Show me the money for the tax." And they brought him a coin. 20 And Jesus said to them, "Whose likeness and inscription is this?" 21They said, "Caesar's." Then he said to them, "Render therefore to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's." 22When they heard it, they marveled; and they left him and went away. 23The same day Sad'ducees came to him, who say that there is no resurrection; and they asked him a question, 24saying, "Teacher, Moses said, 'If a man dies, having no children, his brother must marry the widow, and raise up children for his brother.' 25Now there were seven brothers among us; the first married, and died, and having no children left his wife to his brother. 26So too the second and third, down to the seventh. 27After them all, the woman died. 28In the resurrection, therefore, to which of the seven will she be wife? For they all had her." 29But Jesus answered them, "You are wrong, because you know neither the scriptures nor the power of God. 30For in the resurrection they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in heaven. 31And as for the resurrection of the dead, have you not read what was said to you by God, 32'I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob'? He is not God of the dead, but of the living." 33And when the crowd heard it, they were astonished at his teaching. 34But when the Pharisees heard that he had silenced the Sad'ducees, they came together. 35 And one of them, a lawyer, asked him a question, to test him. 36"Teacher, which is the great commandment in the law?" 37And he said to him, "You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind38This is the great and first commandment. 39And a second is like it, You shall love your neighbor as yourself. 40On these two commandments depend all the law and the prophets." 41Now while the Pharisees were gathered together, Jesus asked them a question, 42saying, "What do you think of the Christ? Whose son is he?" They said to him, "The son of David." 43He said to them, "How is it then that David, inspired by the Spirit, calls him Lord, saying, 44'The Lord said to my Lord, Sit at my right hand, till I put thy enemies under thy feet'? 45If David thus calls him Lord, how is he his son?" 46And no one was able to answer him a word, nor from that day did any one dare to ask him any more questions.


Intent of Chapter 22

The Parable of the Wedding Feast: vv. 1-14.

This is a different parable from that of the Great Supper, in Luke 14:16-24, etc., and is recorded by Matthew alone. (JFB)

v. 3 21:34; v. 10 13:47; v. 13 8:12


Paying Taxes to Caesar

vv. 15-22 Mark 12:13-27; Luke 20:20-26.

v. 15 Mk. 3:6; 8:15

v. 16 Herodians (Mk. 3:6 n.) In asking Jesus for a pronouncement affecting all Jews they sought to involve him in a sectarian dispute.

v. 17 If Christ approved paying taxes he would offend the nationalist parties and if he disapproved he could be reported as disloyal to the empire.

v. 21 Rom. 13:7; 1Pet. 2:17.


Sadducees Ask About the Resurrection vv. 23-33. (Mk. 12:18-27; Lk. 20:27-40)

v. 23 Belief in the Resurrection was held by the Pharisees but rejected by the Sadducees (Acts 4:1-2; 23:6-10). The Sadducees held power until the Temple was destroyed (except for a brief nine day period under Queen Alexandra) and the Jews were dispersed in 70 and 71 CE (cf. War with Rome and the Fall of the Temple (No. 298)). While the Sadducees held sway in the Temple, the Temple Calendar (No. 156) remained intact.  When the Temple fell, the aristocracy, (and hence the Sadducees) was dispersed, and the Pharisees destroyed the Temple calendar, and created the Rabbinical system (Distortion of God’s Calendar in Judah (No. 195B)). This was foretold by Christ, in chapter 24:1-3 below.

v. 24 (Deut. 25:5).

v. 29 The Sadducees here fail to see God’s purpose and do not trust His power.

vv. 31-32 Ex. 3:6 Resurrection is the divine act whereby mankind will attain newness of life intended in the Creation and lost by sin and death (cf. Lk. 20:34-36n.) as we see at the Consolidation text above.


The Great Commandment

vv.  34-40 Mark 12:28-33; Lk. 10:25-28;

The text is drawn from the Shema at Deut 6:5 following on from Deut. 6:4 (cf. The Shema (No. 002B)). It forms the basis for the First and Second Great Commandments and from which all of the Law of God (L1) is subtended.

The First Great Commandment (No. 252)

The Second Great Commandment (No. 257)

v. 37 Deut. 6:5

v. 39 Lev. 19:18; compare Mat. 19:19; Rom. 13:9; Gal. 5:14; Jas. 2:8.

v. 40 The law contains many ways of applying the principle of love.


Whose Son is the Christ – David’s Son

vv. 41-45 see also Mark 12:35-37; Luke 20:41-44. This text at v. 43 and v. 44 refers to Psalm 45 (No. 177) and Hebrews 1:8-9 (F058). Here Christ was seen as the subordinate elohim of Israel appointed Elohim of Israel by Eloah, who is his Elohim or God, the Most High (see Deut. 32:8).  The MT here was forged to read sons of Israel, from Sons of God to deny the Christ, and that Israel was to be his inheritance, and that salvation was to be of the Gentiles, who had been originally allocated to the Sons of God as their responsibility.

v. 44 Ps. 110:1 (cf. No. 178) (see also  Melchisedek (No. 128)).


Chapter 23

1Then said Jesus to the crowds and to his disciples, 2"The scribes and the Pharisees sit on Moses' seat; 3so practice and observe whatever they tell you, but not what they do; for they preach, but do not practice. 4They bind heavy burdens, hard to bear, and lay them on men's shoulders; but they themselves will not move them with their finger 5They do all their deeds to be seen by men; for they make their phylacteries broad and their fringes long, 6and they love the place of honor at feasts and the best seats in the synagogues, 7and salutations in the market places, and being called rabbi by men. 8But you are not to be called rabbi, for you have one teacher, and you are all brethren. 9And call no man your father on earth, for you have one Father, who is in heaven. 10Neither be called masters, for you have one master, the Christ. 11He who is greatest among you shall be your servant; 12whoever exalts himself will be humbled, and whoever humbles himself will be exalted. 13"But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! because you shut the kingdom of heaven against men; for you neither enter yourselves, nor allow those who would enter to go in. 14*[No text v15Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for you traverse sea and land to make a single proselyte, and when he becomes a proselyte, you make him twice as much a child of hell as yourselves. 16"Woe to you, blind guides, who say, 'If any one swears by the temple, it is nothing; but if any one swears by the gold of the temple, he is bound by his oath.' 17You blind fools! For which is greater, the gold or the temple that has made the gold sacred? 18And you say, 'If any one swears by the altar, it is nothing; but if any one swears by the gift that is on the altar, he is bound by his oath.' 19You blind men! For which is greater, the gift or the altar that makes the gift sacred 20So he who swears by the altar, swears by it and by everything on it; 21and he who swears by the temple, swears by it and by him who dwells in it 22and he who swears by heaven, swears by the throne of God and by him who sits upon it. 23"Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for you tithe mint and dill and cummin, and have neglected the weightier matters of the law, justice and mercy and faith; these you ought to have done, without neglecting the others. 24You blind guides, straining out a gnat and swallowing a camel! 25"Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for you cleanse the outside of the cup and of the plate, but inside they are full of extortion and rapacity. 26You blind Pharisee! first cleanse the inside of the cup and of the plate, that the outside also may be clean. 27"Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for you are like whitewashed tombs, which outwardly appear beautiful, but within they are full of dead men's bones and all uncleanness. 28So you also outwardly appear righteous to men, but within you are full of hypocrisy and iniquity. 29"Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for you build the tombs of the prophets and adorn the monuments of the righteous, 30saying, 'If we had lived in the days of our fathers, we would not have taken part with them in shedding the blood of the prophets.' 31Thus you witness against yourselves, that you are sons of those who murdered the prophets. 32Fill up, then, the measure of your fathers. 33You serpents, you brood of vipers, how are you to escape being sentenced to hell? 34Therefore I send you prophets and wise men and scribes, some of whom you will kill and crucify, and some you will scourge in your synagogues and persecute from town to town, 35that upon you may come all the righteous blood shed on earth, from the blood of innocent Abel to the blood of Zechari'ah the son of Barachi'ah, whom you murdered between the sanctuary and the altar. 36Truly, I say to you, all this will come upon this generation 37"O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, killing the prophets and stoning those who are sent to you! How often would I have gathered your children together as a hen gathers her brood under her wings, and you would not! 38Behold, your house is forsaken and desolate 39For I tell you, you will not see me again, until you say, 'Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord.'"

[Footnote: v Other authorities add here (or after verse 12) verse 14, Woe to you, Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you devour widows’ houses and for a pretence you make long prayers; therefore you will receive the greater condemnation.]


Intent of Chapter 23

Seven Woes to the Scribes and Pharisees: vv. 1-36

vv. 1, 2, 5-7 see also Mark 12:38-40; Luke 20:45-46. v. 4 (Lk. 11:46; Mt. 11:28-30; Acts 15:10)

v. 5 (6:1; 5:16; Ex. 13:9; Deut. 6:8)

vv. 6-7  (Mk. 12:38-39; Lk. 11:43; 14:7-11; 20:46). v. 8 Jas 3:1   v. 12 Lk. 14:11; 18:14; Mt. 18:4; 1Pet. 5:6.  v. 13 Lk. 11:52.  v. 15 Acts 2:10; 6:5; 13:43. v. 16 5:33-37; 15:14. v. 17 Ex. 30:2.

v. 21 1Kgs. 8:13; Ps. 26:8

vv. 23-24 Lk. 11:42; Lev. 27:30; Mic. 6:8

vv. 25-26 Lk. 11:39-41; Mk. 7:4

vv. 27-28 Lk. 11:44; Acts 23:3; Ps. 5:9. v. 28 Lk. 20:20 n. vv. 29-32 Lk. 11:47-48; Acts 7:51-53.

v. 31 Sons of has two meanings: descendants, or those of similar character. The Scribes and Pharisees would admit to being descendants of those who murdered the prophets. Jesus insists that their attitudes are also similar (v. 28)

See Fate of the Twelve Apostles (No. 122B) and Death of the Prophets and Saints (No. 122C). 

v. 33 3:7; Lk. 3:7

vv. 34-36 Lk. 11:49-51;

v. 34 see Lk. 11:49 n.; Mt. 10:17, 23; 2Chron. 36:15-16; Prophets, wise men, and scribes are Jewish terms applied here to Christian Missionaries sent out from the churches whom Christ prophesies the Jews will kill, which they did, and so then did the mainstream Sun and Mystery cults, after them; and they became drunk on the blood of the saints (Rev. 6:9 (F066ii) and in the Inquisitions (No. 170) and also from the Baal worshipping tribes. See Surah18 The Cave (Q018) and Surah 19 Maryam (Q019).    

v. 35 Gen. 4:8; Heb. 11:4; 2Chron. 24:20-22; Zech. 1:1. The identifying words son of Barachiah (not in Lk. 11:51) were considered probably added later in Matthew from confusion in the text as to which Zechariah was involved (cf. also Death of the Prophets and Saints (No. 122C)). The comment by Christ was to indicate the sweep of time from the murder of the early prophets to the death of the last of the Saints and the end of the persecutions of the elect by the False Religions and the Babylonian Beasts in the entire sequence given under the Prophet Daniel (F027ii; xi, xii, xiii).


In verse 36 Christ utters the prophecy of the destruction of this Generation in which he was. It was a generation of forty years under the Sign of Jonah (No. 013) between that year (30 CE) when he was to be killed on the Stauros or stake and the year Jerusalem was destroyed and Judea was to be dispersed (War with Rome and the Fall of the Temple (No. 298)). Christ made it very clear that the persecution of the Elect of the Churches of God, as the Body of Christ, will see revenge heaped out on the persecutors over this age. This will happen soon now on the Sun and Mystery cults over the wars of the end (see Completion of the Sign of Jonah (No.  013B); Last Pope (No. 288); The Whore and the Beast (No. 299B); Commentary on Revelation F066iv and F066v).


Lament over Jerusalem

vv. 37-39 see also Luke 13:34-35

v. 37 This text indicates the persistence and disappointment of Christ, as the subordinate Elohim of Israel, as it was subjected to the wars and tribulations and yet still refused to turn and be saved. It was to be destroyed under the Sign of Jonah ... (No. 013) as he had previously stated (see also The Pre-existence of Jesus Christ (No. 243): Acts 7:30-53 (F044ii); 1Cor. 10:1-4) (F046ii). The meaning is largely ignored by mainstream academics.

v. 38 1Kgs. 9:7; Jer. 12:7, 22:25.

v. 39 refer 21:9; Ps.118:26. Christ here states that they would not see him again until they say Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord.  This has a dual meaning as they were to see his entry to Jerusalem on the coming 10 Abib for the setting aside of the Lamb before the Passover (No. 098), as the Lamb of God (Death of the Lamb (No. 242)) and the priest Messiah of the Order of Melchisedek. The real meaning is concerning the last days when he is to come as the King Messiah to save Israel (cf. Atonement (No. 138) and Azazel and Atonement (No. 214)).


Chapter 24

1Jesus left the temple and was going away, when his disciples came to point out to him the buildings of the temple. 2But he answered them, "You see all these, do you not? Truly, I say to you, there will not be left here one stone upon another, that will not be thrown down." 3As he sat on the Mount of Olives, the disciples came to him privately, saying, "Tell us, when will this be, and what will be the sign of your coming and of the close of the age?" 4And Jesus answered them, "Take heed that no one leads you astray. 5For many will come in my name, saying, 'I am the Christ,' and they will lead many astray. 6And you will hear of wars and rumors of wars; see that you are not alarmed; for this must take place, but the end is not yet. 7For nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom, and there will be famines and earthquakes in various places: 8all this is but the beginning of the birth-pangs. 9"Then they will deliver you up to tribulation, and put you to death; and you will be hated by all nations for my name's sake. 10And then many will fall away, and betray one another, and hate one another. 11And many false prophets will arise and lead many astray. 12And because wickedness is multiplied, most men's love will grow cold. 13But he who endures to the end will be saved. 14And this gospel of the kingdom will be preached throughout the whole world, as a testimony to all nations; and then the end will come. 15"So when you see the desolating sacrilege spoken of by the prophet Daniel, standing in the holy place (let the reader understand), 16then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains; 17let him who is on the housetop not go down to take what is in his house; 18and let him who is in the field not turn back to take his mantle. 19And alas for those who are with child and for those who give suck in those days! 20Pray that your flight may not be in winter or on a sabbath. 21For then there will be great tribulation, such as has not been from the beginning of the world until now, no, and never will be. 22And if those days had not been shortened, no human being would be saved; but for the sake of the elect those days will be shortened. 23Then if any one says to you, 'Lo, here is the Christ!' or 'There he is!' do not believe it. 24For false Christs and false prophets will arise and show great signs and wonders, so as to lead astray, if possible, even the elect. 25Lo, I have told you beforehand. 26So, if they say to you, 'Lo, he is in the wilderness,' do not go out; if they say, 'Lo, he is in the inner rooms,' do not believe it. 27For as the lightning comes from the east and shines as far as the west, so will be the coming of the Son of man. 28Wherever the body is, there the eagles will be gathered together. 29"Immediately after the tribulation of those days the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light, and the stars will fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens will be shaken; 30then will appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven, and then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see the Son of man coming on the clouds of heaven with power and great glory; 31and he will send out his angels with a loud trumpet call, and they will gather his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other. 32"From the fig tree learn its lesson: as soon as its branch becomes tender and puts forth its leaves, you know that summer is near. 33So also, when you see all these things, you know that he is near, at the very gates. 34Truly, I say to you, this generation will not pass away till all these things take place. 35Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will not pass away. 36"But of that day and hour no one knows, not even the angels of heaven, nor the Son, but the Father only. 37As were the days of Noah, so will be the coming of the Son of man. 38For as in those days before the flood they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day when Noah entered the ark, 39and they did not know until the flood came and swept them all away, so will be the coming of the Son of man. 40Then two men will be in the field; one is taken and one is left. 41Two women will be grinding at the mill; one is taken and one is left. 42Watch therefore, for you do not know on what day your Lord is coming. 43But know this, that if the householder had known in what part of the night the thief was coming, he would have watched and would not have let his house be broken into. 44Therefore you also must be ready; for the Son of man is coming at an hour you do not expect. 45"Who then is the faithful and wise servant, whom his master has set over his household, to give them their food at the proper time? 46Blessed is that servant whom his master when he comes will find so doing. 47Truly, I say to you, he will set him over all his possessions. 48But if that wicked servant says to himself, 'My master is delayed,' 49and begins to beat his fellow servants, and eats and drinks with the drunken, 50the master of that servant will come on a day when he does not expect him and at an hour he does not know, 51and will punish him, and put him with the hypocrites; there men will weep and gnash their teeth.


Intent of Chapter 24

Jesus Foretells the Destruction of the Temple

vv. 1-51 see also Mark 13:1-37; Luke 21:5-36.

Jesus was showing from his comments in chapter 23 above that he expected Jerusalem was to be destroyed under the Sign of Jonah and this was a matter for which the Scribes and Pharisees wished him killed.  In verses 1 and 2 he tells them of the destruction and that not one stone would be left upon another and that indeed did happen. All else that exists there is a later reconstruction as we see from the archaeology. It is assumed by many academics, from Matthew’s recording of this text, that the text was written much later than when the fundamental prophecy was spoken in 30 CE. They assume that it was not recorded by Matthew soon afterwards and well before 70 CE. Academics as a rule assume that the texts are written after the event and not before as prophecy, even when uttered by the prophets and here by the Messiah himself. They make gross errors because of this mindset. It is improbable that Matthew or any gospel was written as late as 70 CE after the fall of the Temple.  If it were, it is highly unlikely that Matthew would have written it in Hebrew.      


Signs of the Close of the Age: vv. 3-14

Lk. 17:20-21; Mt. 13:39, 40, 49; 16:27;

In this text the apostles (and probably the Seventy (Lk. 10:1,17) and others (cf. Establishment of the Church under the Seventy (No. 122D)), realise that he is speaking to sometime in the future and which refers to his second advent. They also realised that with his Second Advent (210A and 210B) it would be the close of this age and of the new Age of the Millennial Sabbath of Christ’s rule.


Verses 4-5 Speak of the rise of false religions that will lead the people and even the Churches of God astray. v. 5 1Jn. 2:18.

v. 6 (Rev. 6:3-8, 12-17) Christ then speaks of wars far into the future all under the Sign of Jonah and as a continuation of the phase of the Forty Years to 70 CE, but far beyond. Famines will also follow and then increasing earthquakes but he says that this is but the beginning of birth pangs (v. 8). In other words, it is the beginning of the New Age. The problems will increase over time. This period was to go over forty Jubilees (cf.  Completion of the Sign of Jonah (No. 013B)), and far into the future. Verse 9 then speaks of the coming persecution of the Saints.

(10:17-18, 22; Jn. 15:18; 16:2).

The Persecutions are detailed in the texts General Distribution of the Sabbath-keeping Churches (No. 122); Fate of the Apostles (No. 122B); Death of the Prophets and Saints (No 122C); Role of the Fourth Commandment in the Sabbath-keeping Churches of God (No. 170); Surah 018 The Cave (Q018); Surah 19 Maryam (Q019). All these persecuted Saints will qualify for the Resurrection of the Saints (No. 143A). See also Rev. 6:9; 12:17; 14:12 in Commentary on Revelation Part II (F066ii, and Part III (F066iii).

v. 10 At this point the Christ then speaks of the falling away that builds on the great apostasy over the ages. Under the persecutions the brethren will betray one another. The persecutions occurred under the Romans and then under the Inquisitions of the Fifth Empire of the Beast (590-1850 CE) and then all will face the final trials, and the Time of Jacob’s Trouble from 1916 to 1996 and end of the Time of the Gentiles under God’s prophecy in Ezekiel of Pharaoh’s Broken Arms: The Fall of Egypt (No. 036) and the Fall of Egypt Part II: Wars of the Last Days (No. 036_2) and the Holocaust (1941-1945) of the Last or Sixth Empire of the Beast of the Empire of the Ten Toes spoken of by the prophet Daniel (F027ii, xii). Like the Holocaust of 1941-1945, this Holocaust will also last over the 42 months or 1260 days. It will follow the format of the Two Arms of two forty year periods and go from 1941-1945 to 2021-2025 with the wars of the Fifth and Sixth Trumpets to establish the NWO of the beast of 42 months (see also Wars of the End Part I: Wars of Amalek (No. 141C) and Wars of the End Part II: 1260 days of the Witnesses (No. 141D)).  At this time Michael will rise to defend us (Daniel (F027xii) and the Messiah will come to save those who eagerly await him (Heb. 9:28). (cf. The Timeline of The Churches of God Acts Part VII (F044vii)).


Verses 12-14 show that in the last days wickedness will abound, which is an apt description of this age, and the love of many will grow cold; but he who endures to the end will be saved. v. 13 10:22; Rev. 2:7.


The Abomination of Desolation: vv. 14-28

This gospel of the kingdom will be preached throughout the world as a testimony to all nations and then the end will come.  

Christ then goes on (v. 15) to say that when the people see the desolating sacrilege (Abomination of Desolation) (cf. F027ix) standing in the Holy Place, then those in Judea flee to the Mountains. There is a sense of urgency here in the relocation.


The Holy Place here is a clear area with the Dome of the Rock and the Al Aksa Mosque. Many conjectures have been made as to what this abomination might be such as Idols etc. The far more likely object is a warhead or missiles, or weapons of mass destruction of some sort, in this final war of the Sixth Trumpet (141C) we are now watching unfold. What then follows is the Great Tribulation of the War of the Sixth Trumpet (WWIII) and then the NWO of the Empire of the Beast (cf. No. 299A).  If these days were not shortened there would be no flesh saved alive but for the sake of the elect those days will be shortened. God will intervene and send the Two Witnesses for 1260 Days (No. 141D) (F066ii,iii) and then four days later Messiah and the Host will appear (No. 141E) and the final war will occur against Messiah (No. 141E_2).  Over this time also the false prophet will arise and the new religious order will superimpose itself on the system (vv. 23-28).

v. 14 28:19; Rom. 10:18 v. 15 Dan. 9:27; 11:31; 12:11; see Mk. 13:14 n. v. 17-18 Lk. 17:31;

v. 21 Dan. 12:1; Jl. 2:2;

v. 28 Lk. 17:37 n.; Job 39:30.


The Coming of the Son of Man: vv. 29-31

The language here is derived from texts in Isaiah, Ezekiel and also as used in Revelation. God’s Victory over sin is established by the Son of Man whom He sends (see. Isa. 13:10; 34:4; Ezek. 32:7; Jl. 2:10-11; Zeph. 1:15; Rev. 8:12).

Immediately after the Tribulation of those days the sun will be darkened and the Moon will not give light, and the stars will fall from heaven and the powers of the heavens will be shaken. The then coming sign of the Son of Man in the heavens is not explained but the Tribulation obviously sets off these problems and indicates an extensive thermonuclear war. The signs in the heavens cannot relate to the actual star systems which are too far spread but the Satellites and asteroids must be involved. It is at this time that the elect of the First Resurrection (No. 143A) are gathered to Christ at Jerusalem (vv. 29-31).


v. 30 16:27; Dan. 7:13 (F027vii); Rev. 1:7

v. 31 1Cor. 15:52; 1Thes. 4:16; Isa. 27:13; Zech. 2:10; 9:14


The Lesson of the Fig Tree:  vv. 32-35

Christ says here that this generation will not pass away until all these things take place. The Generation is of forty years. The final Generation commenced from the Announcement of the Measuring of the Temple (No. 137) in 1987 over the forty years to the 120th Jubilee in 2027.

v. 34 10:23; 16:28. Some academics think this generation is general and refers to a period of 20-30 years rather than that allowed of 40 years for repentance which is the probable meaning of Christ and the traditional period of national repentance under the Sign of Jonah for Judah (No. 013).

v. 35 5:18; Lk. 16:17.


No One Knows that Day or Hour: vv. 36-51

The only way that mankind will know the Day of the Messiah is when the Two Witnesses arrive and exactly 1264 days later Messiah and the Loyal Host will arrive on the morning of the Fourth Day after the death of the Witnesses (Rev. Chapter 11: (No. 135) (No. 141D).

v. 36 Acts 1:6-7.

The days of Noah saw the attempt at destroying the Generations of Adam including the production of The Nephilim (No. 154) and the alteration of the DNA of man to destroy the plan of God.  So also will the last days see the attacks on the DNA of man and God will intervene.


vv. 37-39 Lk. 17:26-27; Gen. 6:5-8; 7:6-24

vv. 40-41 Lk. 17:34-35

v. 42 Mk. 13:35; Lk. 12:40; 21:34-36; (also Mat. 25:13).

vv. 43-51 Lk. 12:39-46

v. 43 1Thes. 5:2; Rev. 3:3

Diligence is expected of the elect saints right up until the last day (vv. 45-51).



Bullinger’s Notes on Matthew Chapters 20-24 (for KJV)


Chapter 20

Verse 1

the kingdom of heaven. See App-114. This parable occurs only in Matthew, and is called forth by Peter"s question in Matthew 19:27.

heaven = the heavens. See note on Matthew 6:9Matthew 6:10.

a man that is an householder = a man a house holder. A Hebraism = master of a house.

early in the morning = together with the dawn.

to hire. Greek. misthoomai. Occurs only here, and Matthew 20:7.

into = for. Greek. eis. App-104.

vineyard. See . Psalms 80:8Psalms 80:9. Israel was in question, not the Church. See Matthew 19:28.


Verse 2

with. Greek. meta.

the labourers: i.e. the twelve Apostles (the first called).

for. Greek. ek. App-104; ek = out of, or from [the bargain] a penny a day.

penny. Greek. denarion (App-51.) = a day"s wage at that time (Luke 10:35 = two days"). Came to be used for any coin, as in English we "turn an honest penny". The initial of denarius came to be our "d" for pence.


Verse 3

the third hour = 9am. The hour named in connection with Pentecost (Acts 2:15).

others. Not there at the first hour. Other labourers were then engaged (Acts 4:36Acts 6:1Acts 6:5Acts 8:4Acts 8:12Acts 9:10Acts 9:25Acts 9:27Acts 9:30).


Verse 4

right = just.

give = pay.


Verse 5

the sixth . . . hour. The hour of the vision when Peter was sent to the Gentiles at Caesarea (Acts 10:9). ninth hour. The hour when the angel appeared to Cornelius (Acts 10:3), and others became labourers (Acts 21:16).


Verse 6

the eleventh hour. The Art. is emphatic, as with the "third". See note on "even" (Matthew 20:8). It was immediately before the end.


Verse 7

no man = no one.

us. These were the heralds of the gospel of the kingdom, immediately before the close of the dispensation of the Acts. See Acts 17:34Acts 18:2Acts 18:8Acts 18:10Acts 18:18Acts 18:24Acts 19:6-8Acts 19:20Acts 20:1Acts 20:4Acts 20:17Acts 21:8Acts 21:16. But, as the Nation refused the call to repent (Acts 28:25Acts 28:26), "the eleventh hour" is still future, awaiting the proclamation foretold in Matthew 24:14.


Verse 8

even. Even Bengel held that this refers to "the last judgment". And it is clearly the time of reckoning and of the reward spoken of in Matthew 19:29, when all will be justly rewarded.


Verse 9

every man = each.


Verse 10

supposed = reckoned according to law. See note on Luke 3:23.


Verse 11

against. Greek. kata. App-104.

Goodman = the master of the house.


Verse 12

These = That these. Greek. hoti, putting their words between quotation marks. See note on Luke 23:43.

have wrought but one hour = made one hour. A Hebraism. Compare Ruth 2:19"Where wroughtest thou to-day? "(Hebrew. "anah "asitha). So, in the sense of making or spending time (Acts 15:33Acts 18:232 Corinthians 11:25); used for continuing, as suggested in Authorized Version margin. But it is the same word rendered "made" in the next clause.

made them = done to them.

heat = scorching heat.


Verse 13

one. Representing the whole body, as Peter was the "one" in Matthew 19:27.

Friend. Greek. Hetairos = Comrade, more distant than philos (= beloved). Occurs only in Matthew (here; Matthew 11:16Matthew 22:12Matthew 26:50).

wrong = injustice.


Verse 14

Take = Take up.

that thine is = thine own.

I will give = for I will (App-102.) to give.

will = wish, or desire. App-102.

even as unto thee = as to thee also.


Verse 15

with = in. Greek. en. App-104.

mine own. Plural = mine own [affairs].

thine eye evil. A Hebraism. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 15:9). App-117.

evil = grudging. Greek. poneria. App-128.:3. Emphatic

good = generous.


Verse 16

So, &c. See note on Matthew 19:30, which precedes the parable, as this concludes it.


Verse 17

Jesus. App-98.


Verse 18

Behold. Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6.

the Son of man. See App-98.

betrayed, &c. = delivered up, as in Matthew 20:19. These are the additional features of this third announcement (see note on Matthew 16:21); the second and fourth being Matthew 17:22 and Matthew 20:28.

condemn. Greek. katakrino. App-122.


Verse 19

deliver Him = deliver Him up, as in Matthew 20:18.

the third day. See App-148.


Verse 20

came. With her sons. Mark 10:35 "came [with their mother]".

the mother. Salome. Compare Matthew 27:56 with Mark 15:40.

Zebedee"s. See note on Matthew 4:21.

children = sons. App-108. The two sons (James and John) acted with their mother (prompting her). Compare "Ye" (Matthew 20:22, and Mark 10:35). Mark"s account is supplementary.

sons. Implies what Mark says. All three came together. worshipping = prostrating herself. Greek. proskuneo. App-137.

desiring = asking.

of = from. Greek. para. App-104.


Verse 21

Grant = Bid, as in Matthew 4:3; or Matthew 23:3 ("bid").

the left = [Thy] left.


Verse 22

Ye. Ye two. know not = have no idea. Greek. oida. App-132.

ask = ask for. App-134.

the cup. Which would be at His right hand. A symbol of participation. Jeremiah 25:15Jeremiah 49:12Ezekiel 23:33.

shall drink of = am about to drink of.

baptized. App-115.

baptism. App-115.


Verse 23

shall = shall indeed. James (Acts 12:2), and John martyred, according to tradition.

but it shall be given to them for whom, &c. Omit all these italics, and read "but [to those] for whom". Compare Mark 10:40.

prepared: or, destined. of = by. Greek. hupo.

Father. App-98.


Verse 24

moved with indignation = took great umbrage.

against = about, or with respect to. Greek. peri.


Verse 25

exercise dominion = lord it over.

they that are great = the great ones.

exercise authority upon. The Prep, kata (= down. App-104.) in the verb implies a bad sense and = oppress them. Compare Luke 22:25; where the verb is not the same. See note there.


Verse 26

But = However.

among. Greek. en.

minister = servant (in relation to activity).


Verse 27

chief = first.

servant = bond-servant (in relation to servitude).


Verse 28

The fourth announcement of His sufferings. See note on Matthew 16:21.

to be ministered unto = to be served.

to minister = to serve.

life = soul.

ransom = redemption price. Reference to Pentateuch (Numbers 35:31). App-117.1.

for = in the stead of. Greek. anti. App-104.


Verse 29

departed = not approaching, as in Luke 18:35; or arriving and leaving, as in Mark 10:46.

great multitude. The population was about 100,000, doubtless with many blind about the gates.


Verse 30

two blind men. There are no "discrepancies" between this account and those of Mark 10:46 and Luke 18:35. They describe three miracles on four blind men: one on approaching Jericho; one on leaving; two after He had left. See App-152.

Sitting. Not "begging", as in Luke 18:35.

by = beside. Greek. para. App-104. The others were at each gate.

passed by = is passing by.

mercy = pity.

Lord. App-98.

Son of David. Therefore Israelites, having a claim on Him as such. The fifth of nine occurrences of this title in Matthew. See note on Matthew 1:1, and App-98.


Verse 31

rebuked . . . peace = charged them to be silent.

cried = kept crying.

the more. Greek. meizon. (Adverb) Occurs only here.

Son of David. The sixth of nine occurrences in Matthew. See note on Matthew 1:1.


Verse 32

called them. In the other cases He commanded them to be "called" (Mark 10:49), and "led" (Luke 18:40). App-152.

shall = should.

unto = for.


Verse 34

received = regained.

they followed. As in Mark 10:52, and Luke 18:43.


Chapter 21

Verse 1

when they drew nigh. There were two entries: the first in Matthew 21 : the second on "the first day" of the following week (. Luke 19:28-31John 12:12-15). See App-153and App-156.

were come = had arrived.

Bethphage = House of Figures of speech kef et Tor According to the Talmud, Bethphage consisted of some buildings and the space of ground extending from the wall of Jerusalem about a mile (or half-way) toward the town of Bethany (now el "Azariyeh).

unto = toward. Greek. pros. App-104. All the texts read "eis" as in the preceding clause.

disciples. Not Apostles.


Verse 2

Go = go forward.

over against = or just off the high road. Greek. apenanti = facing you. In Mark and Luke katenanti = opposite and below, preferred, here, by all the texts. But the text may have been altered to make Matt, agree with Mark and Luke.

straightway = immediately.

ass . . . colt. Here the two are sent for, because Zechariah 9:9 was to be fulfilled. In Mark, and Luke, only one (only one being necessary to fulfill the part of Zechariah quoted by John 12:14John 12:15).

with. Greek. meta. The Lord. App-98.


Verse 4

was done = came to pass, fulfilled. Compare Luke 21:24Luke 21:32.

spoken. As well as written.

by = through. Greek. dia. App-104. Matthew 21:1.


Verse 5

Tell ye, &c. Quoted from Zechariah 9:9. See App-107. Compare Isaiah 62:11. App-117.

Behold. Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6.

upon. Greek. epi.

an ass = a beast of burden. Not the same word as in the preceding clause.


Verse 7

brought = led.

put on . . . clothes. Compare 2 Kings 9:13 (a mark of respect).

clothes = outer garments.

they set Him. "He took His seat", Greek. epikathizo. Occurs only here.

thereon = upon them: i.e. the garments.


Verse 8

a very great multitude = the greater part of the crowd: referring to the proportionate part, not to the actual size.

in. Greek. en.

from. Greek. apo. App-104.

strawed = were strewing. Same word as "spread" in preceding clause. Eng. "straw" = to scatter straw. Here used of branches of trees.


Verse 9

Hosanna = Save now. Aramaic Hoshi"an-na" = Help now. See App-94. Quoted from Psalms 118:25Psalms 118:26. At the later entry (Luke 19:38) the cry was different in words, but similar in intent. For the order of events of these last six days, see App-156.

the Son of David. App-98. The seventh of nine occurances of this title in Matthew. See note on Matthew 1:1.

the LORD = Jehovah. App-98.


Verse 10

moved = agitated. Same word as "quake" (Matthew 27:51) and "shake" (Matthew 28:4Hebrews 12:26Revelation 6:13).

Who is This? The city was evidently taken by surprise at this first entry; but the second entry (. Luke 19:29-44) was known, and the people "met Him" (John 12:18), hence, there was no surprise.


Verse 11

of = from. Greek. apo.

Nazareth. See note on Matthew 2:23. App-169.


Verse 12

the temple. Greek. hieron, the temple courts. Not the naos. See note on Matthew 23:16.

the moneychangers. The half-shekel had to be paid on the 15th of the month Adar, by every Israelite (even the poorest). In every city collectors sat to receive it. On the 25th day (18 or 19 days before the Passover) they began to sit in the temple; and then they distrained if not paid. Change was given at a profit for the moneychangers. (So Maimonides, quoted by Lightfoot, vol. iii, p. 45, Pitman"s edn.)

doves. Required for the Temple offerings.


Verse 13

It is written = It standeth written.

My house, &c. A composite quotation from Isaiah 56:7, and Jeremiah 7:11. See App-107 and App-117.

thieves = robbers. Same word as in Matthew 27:38Matthew 27:44.


Verse 15

wonderful things = the wonders. Occurs only here. These were the Lord"s final miracles, wrought at this crisis, and must have been very special in character.

did = wrought.

children. Greek. pais. See App-108.

the Son of David. The eighth of nine occurances in Matthew. See note on Matthew 1:1.


Verse 16

say = are saying.

have ye never read . . . ? See App-143.

Out of the mouth, &c. Quoted from Psalms 8:2. perfected = prepared. Greek. katartizo = to perfect by preparing See App-126.


Verse 17

out of = without, outside. Not the same word as in Matthew 21:16.

lodged = passed the night (in the open air). Occurs only here, and in Luke 21:37.


Verse 18

in the morning = early in the morning. See App-97.


Verse 19

a = one (single).

in = on. Greek. epi. App-104.

to = up to. Greek. epi.

found nothing. See notes on Mark 11:13.

for ever = for the age (see App-151. a.), i.e. to the end of that Dispensation. The fig tree represents the national privilege of Israel (see notes on Judges 9:10), and that is to be restored (Romans 11:2Romans 11:26).

presently = at once, on the spot; Greek. parachrema, rendered "soon" in Matthew 21:20. See note on "immediately", Luke 1:64.


Verse 20

How soon, &c. Figure of speech Erotesis (in wonder). App-6.


Verse 21

Verily. See note on Matthew 5:18.

If ye have faith, &c. This is the third occasion that this was repeated. The first was in Matthew 17:20Mark 11:23; and the second in Luke 17:6. The condition is quite hypothetical. See App-118.

doubt. App-122.

Be thou removed, &c. It was a common proverb to say of a great teacher, who removed difficulties, that he was "a rooter up of mountains". See note on Luke 17:6.


Verse 22

ask. Greek. aiteo. App-134.

receive. Supply the Ellipsis: "[it, if it he His will]", from . James 5:14James 5:151 John 5:141 John 5:15. This is the one abiding condition of all prayer; and this Ellipsis must always be supplied.


Verse 23

temple = the Temple courts. Greek. hieron. See note on Matthew 23:16.

what = what kind of.

authority. Greek. exousia. App-172.


Verse 24

thing = question. Greek. logos = word, or matter.

if. The condition being quite dependent on a contingency. App-118.

I in like wise = I also. Note the Figure of speech Anteisagoge. App-6.


Verse 25

baptism. App-115.

heaven. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Subject), App-6, for "God", singular.

of = from. Same word as "from" in preceding clause.


Verse 26

people = crowd.

all. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Genus), for the greater part.


Verse 27

cannot tell = do not (App-105.) know.

tell = know. Greek. oida. App-132.


Verse 28

A certain man, &c. Here follow three parables spoken in the Temple.

sons = children. Greek. teknon.

Go work to day = Go to-day, work.


Verse 29

I will not = I do not choose [to go].

repented. Greek. metamelomai.

Verse 30

the second. Tischendorf reads "the other" (Greek. heteros, App-124.)


Verse 31

Whether of them twain = Which of the two.

the will = the desire. Greek. thelema (the Noun of App-102).

publicans = tax-gatherers.

go into . . . before = go before you into.

the kingdom of God. See App-114. The fourth of five occurrences in Matthew. See note on Matthew 6:33.


Verse 33

another. Greek. alios. App-124.: i.e. a similar. The second parable spoken in the Temple.

householder = master of a house.

hedged it round about = placed about it a fence.

winepress. Septuagint for Hebrew. gath, the press, not the vat. Isaiah 5:2.

tower. For the watchmen. See Isaiah 1:8Isaiah 5:2Isaiah 24:20Job 27:18.

let it out. There were three kinds of leases: (1) where the labourers received a proportion of the produce for their payment; (2) where full rent was paid; (3) where a definite part of the produce was to be given by the lessees, whatever the harvest was. Such leases were given by the year, or for life, or were even hereditary. From Matthew 21:34 and Mark 12:2 the word "of" shows that the latter kind of lease is referred to in this parable.

went into a far country = went abroad, or journeyed. As in Matthew 25:14Matthew 25:15Mark 12:1Mark 13:34Luke 15:13Luke 20:9.


Verse 34

time = season.

to. Greek. pros.


Verse 35

beat one, &c. = one they beat, and one they killed, and one they stoned.

and. Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton, App-6.

another = one.


Verse 37

last of all = at last.

his son = his own son. Here is the real answer to Matthew 21:23.

reverence = stand in awe of.


Verse 38

among. Greek. en. App-104.

seize on = hold on to, or hold fast. See note on 2 Thessalonians 2:6"withholdeth": which should be rendered as here.


Verse 39

out = without, outside (as in Hebrews 13:12).


Verse 40

Cometh = shall have come.


Verse 41

miserably . . . wicked. Note the Figure of speech Paronomasia (App-6). Greek. kakous kakos. In Eng. "miserably destroy those miserable [men]" (Revised Version); or, "those wretches he will put to a wretched death".

which = of such character that they.


Verse 42

Did ye never read, &c. ? See App-117and App-.

The Stone, &c. Quoted from Psalms 118:22. Compare Acts 4:10-12. See App-107.

the LORD"S = Jehovah"s. App-98. Literally "from Jehovah".


Verse 43

given to a nation. The new Israel, as prophesied in .


Verse 44

on = upon. Greek. epi. App-104.

grind him to powder. Supposed to mean winnow or scatter as dust. But in a Papyrus (Fayyum, second or third cent, A.D.) it is used for ruining a thing in some way. This supplies the contrast here. Occurs else where only in Luke 20:18; Septuagint (Theodotion) for utter destruction, in Daniel 2:44. Compare Job 27:21.


Verse 45

perceived = got to know. Greek. ginosko. App-132.


Verse 46

multitude = crowds.

took Him, &c. = were holding Him as a prophet.

for. Greek = as; but all the texts read "eis" = for.


Chapter 22

Verse 1

Jesus. See App-98.

by = in. Greek. en. App-104.

parables. This was the third of the three spoken in the Temple. Compare Matthew 21:28Matthew 21:33.


Verse 2

The kingdom of heaven. See App-114. heaven = the heavens. See notes on Matthew 6:9Matthew 6:10.

marriage = marriage or wedding feast. See App-140.


Verse 3

sent forth, &c. John, the Lord, and the Twelve.

were bidden = those who had been bidden. This bidding had been done by the prophets. For the custom of such a later "sending" compare Esther 5:8 with Esther 6:14.

to. Greek. eis. App-104.

wedding = wedding feast, as "marriage" in Matthew 22:1.

would not come = wished not to come. App-102.


Verse 4

other servants. Peter and "them that heard Him" (Hebrews 2:3), as recorded in the Acts.

are bidden = had been bidden, as in Matthew 22:3.

Behold. Figure of speech Asterismos (App-6).

dinner = breakfast, or luncheon. Not deipnon, which is supper.

fatlings = fatted beasts. Gr. sitistos. Occurs only here.

unto. Greek. eis.


Verse 5

made light of it = gave no heed [to it].

went their ways = went away.

his = his own; "our own" being emphatic for contrast. Compare 1 Chronicles 29:16.

merchandise = commerce. Greek. emporia. Occurs only in Matthew.


Verse 6

entreated, &c. As in ; Acts 5:40Acts 5:41Acts 11:19. slew them. Acts 7:64-60Acts 8:1Acts 12:2-5.

Verse 7

thereof. See the varied supply of the Ellipsis after "heard" in verses: Matthew 22:7Matthew 22:22Matthew 22:33.

his armies. The Roman armies.

burned up their city. Greek. empretho. Occurs only here. This refers to the destruction of Jerusalem, which took place shortly after the close of the Acts Dispensation.


Verse 8

Then, &c. This, as to time, leaps over the present Dispensation, and takes up the yet future preaching of Matthew 24:14, for it has to do with the same people.


Verse 9

Go ye therefore, &c. After the present Dispensation.

into = upon. Greek. epi. App-104.

the highways = the public roads, or crossroads. Greek. diexodos. Occurs only here.


Verse 10

went out = having gone out.

bad. Greek. poneros. App-128.

was furnished = became filled.


Verse 11

to see = to gaze upon, view as a spectacle, or inspect. App-133.

he saw = he beheld. App-133.

a wedding garment. As prescribed by Eastern etiquette.


Verse 12

Friend. Greek. hetairos. Occurs only in Matthew (here; Matthew 11:16Matthew 20:13Matthew 26:50).

not. Greek. me. Not the same word as in Matthew 22:11, because this refers to the man"s subjective consciousness of the omission when he entered, not to the mere forgetfulness of the fact.

speechless. There was no excuse for the insult implied in the negative me, above.


Verse 13

outer = the outer. Greek. exoteros. Occurs only in Matthew 8:12Matthew 22:13, and Matthew 25:30.

weeping, &c. The weeping and the grinding. See note on Matthew 8:12.


Verse 15

went = came: as in Matthew 22:23. A threefold temptation. See above.

the Pharisees. See App-120.

entangle = entrap. Greek. pagideuo. Occurs only here.


Verse 16

their = their own.

Herodians. It is uncertain whether this refers to Herod"s servants, officers, household, or to a political party. Probably = courtiers.

Masters = Teacher. App-98. Matthew 22:1.

we know. Greek. oida. See App-132.

God. App-98.

neither carest = there is no (Greek. ou. App-105.) care with Thee.

for = about. Greek. peri = concerning.

regardest not = lookest not on. Greek. eis.


Verse 17

tribute. This was the poll-tax paid in Roman money by each person who was enrolled in the census. See note on Matthew 17:25. Occurs only there, here, and Mark 12:14.


Verse 18

perceived. Greek. ginosko. App-132.

wickedness. Greek. poneria. App-128.


Verse 19

money = coin. Greek. nomisma. Occurs only here.

penny = a denarius. See note on Matthew 20:2 and App-51.:4.


Verse 20

image. Therefore not a Jewish or Herodian coin, but a Roman.

superscription = inscription.


Verse 22

these words. See note on "thereof"Matthew 22:7.


Verse 23

The same day = On (Greek. en. App-104.) that same day.

the Sadducees. No Article. See App-120.

is no resurrection = is not a resurrection.

no. Greek. me. Denying subjectively not the fact, but asserting their disbelief of the fact.


Verse 24

Moses. See note on Matthew 8:4.

If a man die. &c. An hypothetical case. See App-118. Quoted from Deuteronomy 25:5. See App-107.

die = should die.

children. Greek. teknon, here put for son. So Deuteronomy 25:5.

marry. Greek. epigambreuo. Occurs only in Matthew. Used here because it specially refers to a marriage between relatives.

seed = issue, as in Matthew 22:25.


Verse 25

issue. Same as "seed" in Matthew 22:24.


Verse 27

last of all = at last, as in Matthew 21:37.

the woman died also = the woman also died.


Verse 29

Jesus = But Jesus (App-98. X).

not knowing. Note the negative, implying their unwillingness to know, not stating the mere fact. See App-105. All are sure to err who do not know the Scriptures.


Verse 30

heaven. Singular. See note on Matthew 6:9Matthew 6:10.


Verse 31

touching = concerning. Greek. peri.

of the dead = of dead bodies, with Art. See App-139.

have ye not read . . . = Did ye never read . . . See App-143.

by. Greek. hupo.

saying. See App-107.


Verse 32

I am, &c. Quoted from Exodus 3:6. See App-117.

and. Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton (App-6).

the dead = dead people. See App-139. (without the Article).

the living = living people. The only conclusion being that they must rise and live again in resurrection in order that He may be their God. This is what the Lord set out to prove (in Matthew 22:31"concerning the resurrection". Greek. zao. See note on Matthew 9:18.


Verse 33

this. See note on "thereof" (Matthew 22:7).

at. Greek. epi. App-104.

doctrine = teaching.


Verse 36

which, &c. = what kind of commandment?

is the great = is great. The Scribes divided them all up: 248 affirmative ones (the number of the members of the body): 365 negative (the number of days in the year): 248 + 365 = 613 = the number of letters in the Decalogue. Some were great and some were small (or heavy and light). The question was as to great and small (as in Matthew 22:38); not the greatest and least.


Verse 37

Thou shalt love, &c. Quoted from Deuteronomy 6:5Deuteronomy 10:12Deuteronomy 30:6.

the LORD = Jehovah. App-98.

soul. Greek. psuche. App-110.


Verse 39

the second, &c. Quoted from Leviticus 19:18.


Verse 40

On = In. Greek. en. App-104.

all = the whole.


Verse 41

Pharisees. See App-120.


Verse 42

What think ye of Christ? See App-154.

of = concerning. Greek. peri, as in Matthew 22:16 ("for").

Christ = the Messiah (with Art.)

The Son of David. Literally David"s Son. The last of nine occurances of this title in Matthew. See note on Matthew 1:1, and App-98.


Verse 43

in = by, as in Matthew 22:1.

spirit. Greek. pneuma. App-101.


Verse 44

The LORD said, &c. = Jehovah said unto Adonai. Quoted from Psalms 110:1. See App-4; App-98. For the principle underlying the form of quotation, see App-107 and App-117.

till, &c. = until I shall have (Greek. an) set Thine enemies as a footstool for Thy feet. The first of seven references to Psalms 110:1 in the N.T. (here; Mark 12:36Luke 20:42Acts 2:341 Corinthians 15:25Hebrews 1:13Hebrews 10:13). All refer to Messiah"s session on the Father"s throne until His enemies shall be placed "as a footstool for His feet", except 1 Corinthians 15:25, where they are at length put in subjection to the Son (Adonai) "under His feet." In all the six, the enemies are placed as a footstool by Jehovah, but in 1 Corinthians 15:25 they are placed "under" by Adonai Himself. This was subject to Israel"s repentance. See notes on Matthew 10:23Matthew 16:28Matthew 23:39Matthew 24:34Acts 8:19-26Acts 28:25-26.


Verse 46

no man = no one. Greek. ou deis. See App-105.

a word. Greek. logos. See note on Mark 9:32.

from. Greek. apo. App-104.


Chapter 23

Verse 1

multitude = crowds. Note the Structure (p. 1857).


Verse 2

Pharisees. See App-120. The Sadducees had their own "leaven" (Matthew 16:6) but not this.

sit = have taken [their] seat.

in = upon. Greek. epi.

Moses". See note on Matthew 8:4.

Verse 3

All = All things. This shows that the words following are not a command, for the whole chapter is taken up with a denunciation of the very things that they thus bade. Later () they "bade" the People to ask Barabbas and destroy Jesus.

that. Omit this word as not being in the Greek, or required by the Figure of speech Ellipsis.

Observe and do = ye observe and do. The second person plural is exactly the same in the Indicative and Imperative, and nothing can determine which is the Mood but the context: and the Structure determines its meaning.

observe. Inwardly.

do. Outwardly.

but. Marking the contrast between "ye do"and"do ye not". after = according to. Greek. kata. App-104.

they say = they say [ought to be done], but they do not do the works themselves.


Verse 4

For they bind, &c. By what they "bid you observe". A further proof that "observe and do" is not the Lord"s command to carry these many burdens "grievous to be borne".

on. = upon. Greek. epi.

men"s. Greek. anthropos. App-123.

will not move = do not choose to touch.

will. See App-102.

move. Much less bear.

their = their own.


Verse 5

for to be seen = to be gazed upon as a spectacle. Same word as "see" in Matthew 22:11.

for = for the purpose. Greek. pros. App-104.

phylacteries. Greek. phulakterion. Occ only here. See notes, &c, on Exodus 13:9Deuteronomy 6:8. Reference to Pentateuch App-92and App-117.

the borders = the fringes. Reference to Pentateuch (. Deuteronomy 22:12). Originally a mark of separation between Israel and the surrounding nations. Compare Luke 8:44.


Verse 6

love = are fond of. Greek. phileo. App-135.

uppermost rooms = the first place, as in next clause.

at = in. Greek. en. App-104.

chief seats = first seats, as in preceding clause.


Verse 7

greetings = the formal salutations.

of = by. Greek. hupo.

Rabbi = my Master. Compare Matthew 23:8. Note the Figure of speech Epizeuxis for Emph. (App-6).


Verse 8

Master = Leader, Guide, or Director. Greek. kathgetes, Occurs only here and in Matthew 23:10. All the texts read didlaskalos, Teacher.

even Christ. All the texts omit, with Syriac; but, Scrivener thinks, on insufficient authority.

Christ. See App-98.


Verse 9

father. This is against those who loved to he so called.

upon. Greek. epi. App-104.

Father. See App-98.

heaven = the heavens. See note on Matthew 6:9Matthew 6:10.


Verse 11

he that is greatest among you = the greater of you.


Verse 12

abased = humbled, as in next clause.


Verse 13

woe. The first of eight woes in (verses: ). Compare Matthew 5:3; and see App-126. All the texts (with Syriac) transpose Matthew 23:13 and Matthew 23:14.

shut up. Compare Matthew 5:3.

the kingdom of heaven. See App-114.

heaven = the heavens. See note on Matthew 6:9Matthew 6:10.

against = before: i.e. in men"s faces.

neither = not, as in Matthew 23:4.


Verse 14

Woe, &c. Compare Matthew 5:4; and see App-126.

make long prayer = praying at great length.

therefore = on this account. Greek. dia (App-104. Matthew 23:2).

greater = more abundant.

damnation = judgment or condemnation.


Verse 15

woe, &c. Compare Matthew 5:5, and see App-126.

land = dry [land].

proselyte. The Greek is transliterated, and means a comer over to. Used of a Gentile who came over to the Jews" religion. Occurs only here; and Acts 2:10Acts 6:5Acts 13:43.

is made = becomes [one].

the child of hell = a son of Gehenna. A Hebraism = Gehenna"s people. See App-131. I and note on Matthew 5:22.


Verse 16

the Temple = the Sanctuary: i.e. the Naos, or actual Temple building, consisting of the Holy Place and the Holy of Holies. Spelled in The Companion Bible with a capital "T", to distinguish it from hieron, the whole of the Temple courts, but translated temple also; this is spelled with a small "t" in The Companion Bible.

debtor = is bound [to fulfill the oath]. In Matthew 23:18 rendered "guilty"; whereby there is (in Eng.) the Figure of speech Parechesis = guilty [and must pay the geld, i.e. the penalty]. See App-6.


Verse 22

heaven. Singular. See notes on Matthew 6:9Matthew 6:10.


Verse 23

Woe, &c. Compare Matthew 5:7, and see App-126.

pay tithe = tithe, or take tithes. Eng. tithe = tenth; hence, a district containing ten families was called a tithing

anise = dill. Occurs only here.

cummin. Hebrew. kumin. Greek. kuminon. (Occurs only here.) Germ, kummel.

faith. Or, faithfulness, as in Romans 8:3Galatians 1:5Galatians 1:22.


Verse 24

which, &c. Figure of speech Paroemia. App-6.

strain = habitually filter out. Greek. diulizo. Occ- only here.

at. A mistake perpetuated in all editions of the Authorized Version. All "the former translations" had "out".

a = the: which makes it read like a proverb.

gnat. Greek. konops. Occurs only here.

swallow = gulp down: Eng. drink up.

camel. An unclean animal. See Leviticus 11:4.


Verse 25

Woe, &c. Compare Matthew 5:8, and see App-126.

make clean = cleanse ceremonially.

platter = dish: i.e. a side dish. Greek. paropsis. Occurs only in these verses.

extortion = plunder.

excess = incontinence.


Verse 26

that which is within = the inside of.

be = become.

clean also. The "also" must be connected with outside: "that the outside also may become clean".


Verse 27

Woe, &c. Compare Matthew 5:9, and see App-126.

are like unto. Greek. paromoiazo. Occurs only here.

whited. Sepulchres were whitened a month before the Passover, to warn off persons from contracting uncleanness (Numbers 19:16).

dead men"s bones = bones of dead people. See App-139.


Verse 28

iniquity = lawlessness. App-128.

Verse 29


Woe, &c. Compare Matthew 5:9, and see App-126.

tombs. Greek. taphoi. There are four at the base of Olivet: those of Zechariah, Absalom, Jehoshaphat, and St. James; but there is no authority for these names.

garnish = adorn or decorate. Perhaps being whitened just then, before the Passover.

sepulchers = mnemia = monuments.


Verse 30

If, &c. The condition being assumed as an actual fact.


Verse 31

Wherefore = so that.

children = sons. App-108.


Verse 32

Fill ye up = And ye, fill ye up.


Verse 33

generation = offspring, or brood. Plural as in Matthew 3:7Matthew 12:34; and Luke 3:7.

escape = escape from (Greek. apo). App-104.


Verse 34

Wherefore = Because of this. Greek. dia (App-104. Matthew 23:2) touto.

behold. Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6.

from = away from. Greek. apo. App-104.


Verse 35

That = So that.

upon. Greek. epi.

blood. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of the Subject) for blood-guiltiness (App-6).

righteous Abel = Abel the righteous [one]. Genesis 4:4. Compare Hebrews 11:4.

Zacharias son of Barachias. Not the son of Jehoiada (2 Chronicles 24:202 Chronicles 24:21) but Zechariah the prophet (Zechariah 1:1Zechariah 1:7), who, we here learn (by Figure of speech Hysteresis, App-6) was killed in the same way. And why not? Are there not many examples of historical coincidences? Why should the Lord single out "Zacharias the son of Jehoiada" then Neh 800 years before, instead of the later Zacharias (the prophet) some 400 years before? And why may it not he prophetic of another "Zechariah, the son of Baruch" who was thus martyred some thirty-six years after? See Josephus (Wars, iv. 5. 4.)

ye slew. This may be taken as the Figure of speech Prolepsis (Ampliatio), App-6, speaking of future things as present. See Matthew 26:2Psalms 93:1Psalms 97:1Psalms 99:1Isaiah 37:22Isaiah 48:5-7Luke 3:19Luke 3:20. Compare Matthew 11:2, &c.


Verse 36

Verily. See note on Matthew 5:18.

this generation. See note on Matthew 11:16Matthew 24:34. Metonymy (of Adjunct), for the inhabitants.

children. Plural of teknon. App-108.


Verse 37

chickens = brood. Greek. nossia. Occurs only here.

would not = were not willing. App-102.

not. Greek. ou (App-105), denying as a matter of fact.


Verse 38

your . . . you. Very emphatic. At the beginning of the Lord"s ministry it was "My Father"s house" (John 2:16); but at the end, after His rejection, it was "your house".

house: i.e. the Temple, where He was speaking.

is left = is being left. See Matthew 24:1.

desolate. Every "house" and every place is "desolate" where Christ is not.


Verse 39

not = by no means, in no wise. Greek. ou me, App-105.

see = behold. App-133.

till. With an, implying uncertainty. The not seeing was certain: their saying it at that time was uncertain. Compare the four "untils" with ou me: Matthew 10:23Matthew 16:28Matthew 23:39Matthew 24:34.

Blessed, &c. Quoted from Psalms 118:26; compare Matthew 21:9. See App-117.


Chapter 24

Verse 1

went out, &c. Thus marking this (see Mark 13:1) as the second of the two prophecies: the former (Luk 21) being spoken "in the Temple". See App-155.

from = away from. Greek. apo. App-104.

the temple = the Temple courts, the sacred enclosure. See note on Matthew 23:35.

the buildings, &c. These consisted of the courts, halls, colonnades, towers, and "wings". In Luk 21"some" spake of its adornment with goodly stones and gifts.


Verse 2

See = Behold, look on. App-133. Not the same word as in verses: Matthew 24:6Matthew 24:15Matthew 24:30Matthew 6:33.

verily. See note on Matthew 5:18.

shall not = shall by no means. Very emphatic, because certain. Greek. ou me. App-105.

upon. Greek. epi. App-104.

shall not. All the texts omit the "me", and read simply "ou" as in the first clause.


Verse 3

privately = apart. Luk 21 was spoken publicly.

coming = presence. Greek. parousia. This is the first of twenty-four occurrences of this important word (Matthew 24:3Matthew 24:27Matthew 24:37Matthew 24:391 Corinthians 15:231 Corinthians 16:172 Corinthians 7:62 Corinthians 7:72 Corinthians 10:10Philippians 1:1Philippians 1:26Philippians 2:121 Thessalonians 2:191 Thessalonians 3:131 Thessalonians 4:151 Thessalonians 5:232 Thessalonians 2:12 Thessalonians 2:82 Thessalonians 2:9James 5:7James 5:82 Peter 1:162 Peter 3:42 Peter 3:121 John 2:28). The Papyri show that "from the Ptolemaic period down to the second century A.D. the word is traced in the East as a technical expression for the arrival or the visit of the king or the emperor", also of other persons in authority, or of troops. (See Deissmann"s Light, &c, pp. 372-8, 441-5). It is not therefore a N. T word, as some have supposed.

the end of the world. See App-129.

the end = the sunteleia. Sunteleia = meeting together of all that marks the consummation of the age; not telos = the actual end, verses: Matthew 24:6Matthew 24:13Matthew 24:14.

world. See App-129.


Verse 4

Take heed. Greek. blepo. App-133.

no man = not (me. App-105.) any one.

deceive = lead astray.


Verse 5

in = upon: trading upon. Greek. epi.

Christ = the Messiah. App-98.


Verse 6

shall hear = will be about to hear.

see. Greek. horao. App-133. Not the same word as in verses: Matthew 24:2Matthew 24:15Matthew 24:30.

must = it is necessary [for them to].

come to pass = arise (as in Matthew 24:34).

the end. Greek. telos. Not the same as in Matthew 24:3. This marks the beginning, not the end. The "many Christs" would be the very first sign. See note on 1 John 2:18.


Verse 7

For nation, &c. See App-117. Quoted from Isaiah 19:2.

famines, and pestilences. Figure of speech Paronomasia. Greek. limoi kai loimoi. Eng. dearths and deaths, in divers = Greek. kata = in [different] places.


Verse 8

the = a.

sorrows = birth-pangs.


Verse 9

to be afflicted = unto tribulation.

to = unto. Greek. eis.

of = by.

for = on account of. Greek. dia.


Verse 10

be offended = stumble. See App-117. Quoted from Isaiah 8:15.

shall betray = will deliver up, as in Matthew 24:9.


Verse 12

because = on account of. Greek. dia, as in Matthew 24:9.

iniquity = lawlessness.

abound = be multiplied. Compare Acts 6:1Acts 6:7Acts 7:17Acts 9:31.

many = the many.

wax = grow. Anglo-Saxon weaxen, to grow.

wax cold. Greek. psuchomai.


Verse 13

shall endure = shall have endured.

the end. Greek. telos, the actual end. Not the sunteleia (Matthew 24:3), but the same as in Matthew 24:6 and Matthew 24:14.

saved = delivered (1 Thessalonians 1:10).


Verse 14

gospel of the kingdom. See App-140.

of = concerning. Genitive of Relation. App-17.

preached = proclaimed. App-121.

world = the (then) habitable world. Greek. oikoumene. See App-129. The civilized as distinct from barbarian. Not the same word as in either Matthew 24:3 and Matthew 24:21.

for = to, or with a view to. Greek. eis. App-104.

nations = the nations.


Verse 15

the abomination, &c. Reference to Daniel 12:11. See App-117., and notes on Daniel 9:27Daniel 9:11Daniel 9:31Daniel 12:11. Used as the equivalent for a special idol. Deuteronomy 7:261 Kings 11:72 Kings 23:13. Compare 2 Thessalonians 2:4.

of. Genitive of Cause, that which brings on God"s desolating judgments.

by = by means of, or through. Greek. dia.

the holy place. See note on "pinnacle"Matthew 4:5.

understands = observe attentively.


Verse 16

into = upon. Greek. epi. LTr. WH read "eis". App-104.


Verse 17

anything. All the texts read "the things".


Verse 20

be = happen.

on. Greek. en. App-103.


Verse 21

shall be, &c. See App-117. Quoted from Daniel 12:1.

was not = has not arisen, or happened; same as "fulfilled"Matthew 24:34.

since = from, as in Matthew 24:1.

the beginning. See note on John 8:44.

world. Greek. kosmos App-129.

nor ever = ou me. App-105; i.e. shall by no means happen.


Verse 22

shortened = curtailed. See App-90.


Verse 23

if . . . &c. The condition is hypothetical. App-118.

Christ = the Messiah. App-98.


Verse 24

shew = give.

insomuch that = so as to, &c.

if it were possible. The condition involves no doubt as to its being impossible. See App-118.


Verse 26

secret chambers. See note on Matthew 6:6. Greek. tameion. Occurs only there, here, and Luke 12:3Luke 12:24.


Verse 27

as = just as.

out of = frorn. Greek. apo.

also. All the texts omit "also".

the coming = the parousia, or presence. See note on Matthew 24:3.

the Son of man. See App-98.


Verse 28

carcase. Greek. ptoma.

eagles = vultures.

gathered together. See Job 39:30, which shows the true interpretation.


Verse 29

Immediately after. No room therefore for a Millennium before His coming. It must follow it.

after. Greek. meta. App-104.

shall the sun, &c. App-117. Quoted from Isaiah 13:10Isaiah 34:4.

heaven = the heaven (Singular.) See note on Matthew 6:9Matthew 6:10.

the powers, &c. See Isaiah 13:10Isaiah 13:11Isaiah 34:4. Probably referring to the evil "principalities and powers" of Ephesians 1:21Ephesians 6:12Colossians 1:16Colossians 2:10Colossians 2:15.

the heavens. Plural See note on Matthew 6:9Matthew 6:10.


Verse 30

appear = shine forth. Greek. phaino. App-106.

the sign. As asked in Matthew 24:3.

then shall, &c. Quoted from Zechariah 12:12.

earth = land. Greek. ge. App-129.

they shall see. Greek. opsomai. App-133.

in = [seated] upon. Greek. epi.

with. Greek. meta. Quoted from Daniel 7:13.

with power and great glory = with power, yea, with great and glorious power. Figure of speech Hendiadys. App-6.


Verse 31

a great sound of a trumpet. Greek "a trumpet and a great sound" = a trumpet, yea, a great sounding trumpet. Figure of speech Hendiadys (App-6); not two things, but one.

they shall gather, &c. Quoted from Deuteronomy 30:4. See 1 Thessalonians 4:161 Thessalonians 4:17.

His elect. Who "received the Word"Acts 2:411 Thessalonians 2:13.

from = out of. Greek. ek. App-104.

heaven = heavens. Plural See note on Matthew 6:9Matthew 6:10.

know = get to know. Greek. ginosko. App-132. The same word as in verses: Matthew 24:33Matthew 24:39Matthew 24:43 ("know").


Verse 33

likewise ye = ye also.

it is near = He is near


Verse 34

This generation. See note on Matthew 11:16.

not = by no means. Greek. ou me. App-105.

till. Here with Greek "an", and the Subjunctive Mood, marking the uncertainty, which was conditional on the repentance of the nation. Note the four "tills" (Matthew 10:23Matthew 16:28Matthew 23:39Matthew 24:34), and compare what is certain with what is uncertain.

be fulfilled = may have begun to arise, or take place: referring specially to the first "sign" in Matthew 24:4, in response to the first question in Matthew 24:3; not the same word as in Luke 21:24, but the same as in Matthew 24:32.


Verse 35

words. Plural of logos. See note on Mark 9:32.


Verse 36

of = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104. knoweth = has any intuitive knowledge. Greek. oida. The same word as in verses: Matthew 24:42Matthew 24:43 ("known"); not the same as in verses: Matthew 24:32Matthew 24:33Matthew 24:39Matthew 24:43 ("known").

Father. App-98.

only = alone. Not the Lord as "the Son of man", though surely as "the Son of God".


Verse 37

shall = will.

also the coming = the parousia (or presence) also.

the coming = the parousia. See note on Matthew 24:3.


Verse 38

Noe = Noah.

into. Greek. eis. App-104.


Verse 39

until. Reference to Pentateuch (Gen 7-11).


Verse 40

the one shall be taken, &c.1 Thessalonians 4:151 Thessalonians 4:16 refers to this, for it is the same parousia.

shall = is. So in Matthew 24:41.

taken = taken to one"s side, in peace and for blessing, as in Matthew 1:20Matthew 1:24Matthew 17:1Luke 9:10Luke 18:31John 14:3 ("receive").

left. For judgment; as in Matthew 13:30 ("let"); Matthew 15:14 ("let alone"); Matthew 19:27Matthew 19:29 ("forsaken"); Matthew 23:38Matthew 26:56, &c.


Verse 41

women. Grinding was and is woman"s work in the East, and is done in the morning.

at = in. Greek. en. App-104.

the mill. Greek. mulon. Occurs only here.


Verse 42

Watch. As in 1 Thessalonians 5:6 and 1 Thessalonians 5:10 ("wake").

Verse 43

goodman of the house = master of the house.

would come = is coming.


Verse 44

Therefore = on this account. Greek. dia touto. App-104. Matthew 24:2.

be = become.


Verse 45

over = at the head of Greek. epi.

meat = their food. "Meat" being put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct) for all kinds of food (App-6).


Verse 46

Blessed = Happy. As in Matthew 5:3.


Verse 47

over = in charge of. Greek. epi.

goods = substance, or property.


Verse 48

But and if = But if. As in Matthew 24:23.

evil. Greek. kakos. App-128.

his coming = to come.


Verse 50

aware of = knoweth, as in Matthew 24:32Matthew 24:33Matthew 24:39.


Verse 51

weeping and gnashing. See note on Matthew 8:12.