Christian Churches of God

No. F040iv





Commentary on Matthew

Part 4

(Edition 2.0 20220506-20220607)

Commentary on Chapters 15-19.



Christian Churches of God

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Commentary on Matthew Part 4


Matthew Chapters 15-19 (RSV)


Chapter 15

1Then Pharisees and scribes came to Jesus from Jerusalem and said, 2"Why do your disciples transgress the tradition of the elders? For they do not wash their hands when they eat." 3He answered them, "And why do you transgress the commandment of God for the sake of your tradition? 4For God commanded, 'Honor your father and your mother,' and, 'He who speaks evil of father or mother, let him surely die.' 5But you say, 'If any one tells his father or his mother, What you would have gained from me is given to God, he need not honor his father.' 6So, for the sake of your tradition, you have made void the word of God. 7You hypocrites! Well did Isaiah prophesy of you, when he said: 8'This people honors me with their lips, but their heart is far from me; 9in vain do they worship me, teaching as doctrines the precepts of men.'" 10And he called the people to him and said to them, "Hear and understand: 11not what goes into the mouth defiles a man, but what comes out of the mouth, this defiles a man." 12Then the disciples came and said to him, "Do you know that the Pharisees were offended when they heard this saying?" 13He answered, "Every plant which my heavenly Father has not planted will be rooted up. 14Let them alone; they are blind guides. And if a blind man leads a blind man, both will fall into a pit." 15But Peter said to him, "Explain the parable to us." 16And he said, "Are you also still without understanding? 17Do you not see that whatever goes into the mouth passes into the stomach, and so passes on? 18But what comes out of the mouth proceeds from the heart, and this defiles a man. 19For out of the heart come evil thoughts, murder, adultery, fornication, theft, false witness, slander. 20These are what defile a man; but to eat with unwashed hands does not defile a man." 21And Jesus went away from there and withdrew to the district of Tyre and Sidon. 22And behold, a Canaanite woman from that region came out and cried, "Have mercy on me, O Lord, Son of David; my daughter is severely possessed by a demon." 23But he did not answer her a word. And his disciples came and begged him, saying, "Send her away, for she is crying after us." 24He answered, "I was sent only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel." 25But she came and knelt before him, saying, "Lord, help me." 26And he answered, "It is not fair to take the children's bread and throw it to the dogs." 27She said, "Yes, Lord, yet even the dogs eat the crumbs that fall from their masters' table." 28Then Jesus answered her, "O woman, great is your faith! Be it done for you as you desire." And her daughter was healed instantly. 29And Jesus went on from there and passed along the Sea of Galilee. And he went up on the mountain, and sat down there. 30And great crowds came to him, bringing with them the lame, the maimed, the blind, the dumb, and many others, and they put them at his feet, and he healed them, 31so that the throng wondered, when they saw the dumb speaking, the maimed whole, the lame walking, and the blind seeing; and they glorified the God of Israel. 32Then Jesus called his disciples to him and said, "I have compassion on the crowd, because they have been with me now three days, and have nothing to eat; and I am unwilling to send them away hungry, lest they faint on the way." 33And the disciples said to him, "Where are we to get bread enough in the desert to feed so great a crowd?" 34And Jesus said to them, "How many loaves have you?" They said, "Seven, and a few small fish." 35And commanding the crowd to sit down on the ground, 36he took the seven loaves and the fish, and having given thanks he broke them and gave them to the disciples, and the disciples gave them to the crowds. 37And they all ate and were satisfied; and they took up seven baskets full of the broken pieces left over. 38Those who ate were four thousand men, besides women and children. 39And sending away the crowds, he got into the boat and went to the region of Mag'adan.


Intent of Chapter 15

Verses 1-9 Traditions and Commandments.

vv. 1-20 see also Mark 7:1-23. The Pharisees and Scribes came to attack Christ and the apostles for not keeping the Oral Traditions and reduced the question to the tradition of the ritualised washing of hands. Much more was involved as we see from Christ’s attack on their transgression of the Commandments of God following (cf. F040iii and the Antinomians papers there (No. 096D; No.  164C; No. 164D; No. 164E)). The Antinomians and the later Trinitarians tried to do away with the Law entirely from these commandments by misrepresenting the texts.

v. 4 (see Ex. 20:12; 21:17; Deut. 5:16; Lev. 20:9); 

vv. 7,8,9 (see Isa. 29:13; Mk. 7:6-7).


Verses 10-20 What defiles a person.

Many antinomians use this text to do away with or attack The Food Laws (No. 015), which is a false teaching. Christ was not attacking the food laws at all, and they still stand. He was saying that a man is defiled by what he utters contrary to the Laws of God (L1). Also some physical conditions can and do render the individual unfit (i.e. defiles) for communal worship (cf. also Gentiles Acts 10:14-15; 1Tim. 4:3). These Pharisees corrupted the Law by their traditions and the rabbis still do. Those who fail to keep the Sabbaths and the New Moons and the Feasts correctly in accordance with God’s Calendar (No. 156), as extant in the Temple period, will die (Isa. 66:23-24; Zech. 14:16-19). They will not be permitted entry to the kingdom of God under Christ.

v. 13 (Isa. 60:21); v. 14 Lk. 6:39; Mat. 23:16, 24); vv. 19-20 Violations of the rights and interest of another hinders worship (5:23-24).


Verses 21-28 Faith of the Canaanite woman.

(See also Mark 7:24-30). This example was given to show that Christ’s ministry was originally to the lost sheep of the House of Israel but the faith of the Canaanite woman of the region of Tyre and Sidon was also to show that salvation was to be extended to the Gentiles. v. 24 10:6,23 The distinction was made between his mission and his willingness to respond to faith wherever it was revealed to him among the Gentiles (Gen. 48:15-16).


Verses 29-31 Healings

(Mk. 7:31-37).


Verses 32-39 Feeding the Four Thousand.

See also Mark 8:1-10 n. This miracle followed that of chapter 14, feeding the five thousand (covered in Part III (cf. No. 100). In the Song of Songs (No. 145) we see:

“The aspects of the elements of the nephesh being involved in five aspects are relevant to the twelve elements of the complete righteous being. The concept of righteousness and the Holy Spirit relate to concepts of five and twelve. The whole calendar centres on it and the parables of five loaves and two fishes, feeding of the five thousand, how the loaves were taken up. The papers leading into the Passover, were geared around understanding the text in Matthew, whether the five loaves and two fishes were used to feed the five thousand; the manning of the baskets; how they were taken up; how the loaves were developed and how they were then divided; and what the understanding of each of the baskets was. It related to the Holy Spirit and it relates to the elements of seven and five which make up the twelve elements. Also the holy year, that of the sacred calendar, is all divided in the same way. The human being when converted appears to be composed of twelve elements in two aspects of seven and five. They appear to be inter-related with, and form the basis for, the parables of the feeding of the multitudes by Christ. The symbolism is in essence derived from the Song of Songs. The first element however is the overall relationship of Christ and the Church, which is comprised of five songs of the Song of Songs, even though there are seven Churches related in Revelation.” See Revelation chapters 2 and 3 (F066i).  The five divisions also relate to the true righteous church as was to extend to enter the kingdom.


It is important that the text in Mark chapter 8 is also studied to see the primary symbolism of the 12 and the Seven as they relate to the Tribes of Israel and the Churches of God in Rev. Chs. 2 and 3.


It is assumed from this text that Magadan was on the west side of the Sea of Galilee.


Chapter 16

1And the Pharisees and Sad'ducees came, and to test him they asked him to show them a sign from heaven. 2He answered them, "When it is evening, you say, 'It will be fair weather; for the sky is red.' 3And in the morning, 'It will be stormy today, for the sky is red and threatening.' You know how to interpret the appearance of the sky, but you cannot interpret the signs of the times. 4An evil and adulterous generation seeks for a sign, but no sign shall be given to it except the sign of Jonah." So he left them and departed. 5When the disciples reached the other side, they had forgotten to bring any bread. 6Jesus said to them, "Take heed and beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and Sad'ducees." 7And they discussed it among themselves, saying, "We brought no bread." 8But Jesus, aware of this, said, "O men of little faith, why do you discuss among yourselves the fact that you have no bread? 9Do you not yet perceive? Do you not remember the five loaves of the five thousand, and how many baskets you gathered? 10Or the seven loaves of the four thousand, and how many baskets you gathered? 11How is it that you fail to perceive that I did not speak about bread? Beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and Sad'ducees." 12Then they understood that he did not tell them to beware of the leaven of bread, but of the teaching of the Pharisees and Sad'ducees. 13Now when Jesus came into the district of Caesare'a Philip'pi, he asked his disciples, "Who do men say that the Son of man is?" 14And they said, "Some say John the Baptist, others say Eli'jah, and others Jeremiah or one of the prophets." 15He said to them, "But who do you say that I am?" 16Simon Peter replied, "You are the Christ, the Son of the living God." 17And Jesus answered him, "Blessed are you, Simon Bar-Jona! For flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but my Father who is in heaven. 18And I tell you, you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the powers of death shall not prevail against it. 19I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven." 20Then he strictly charged the disciples to tell no one that he was the Christ. 21From that time Jesus began to show his disciples that he must go to Jerusalem and suffer many things from the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and on the third day be raised. 22And Peter took him and began to rebuke him, saying, "God forbid, Lord! This shall never happen to you." 23But he turned and said to Peter, "Get behind me, Satan! You are a hindrance to me; for you are not on the side of God, but of men." 24Then Jesus told his disciples, "If any man would come after me, let him deny himself and take up his cross and follow me. 25For whoever would save his life will lose it, and whoever loses his life for my sake will find it. 26For what will it profit a man, if he gains the whole world and forfeits his life? Or what shall a man give in return for his life? 27For the Son of man is to come with his angels in the glory of his Father, and then he will repay every man for what he has done. 28Truly, I say to you, there are some standing here who will not taste death before they see the Son of man coming in his kingdom."


Intent of Chapter 16

Verses 1-4 Demand for signs from the Pharisees and Sadducees.  Again we had demands of Christ for a Sign even though he gave them the signs of feeding the Four and Five thousand in the previous chapters. The Sign of Jonah is covered in the papers:

The Sign of Jonah and the History of the Reconstruction of the Temple (No. 013);

Completion of the Sign of Jonah (No. 013b).

It is from this comment that the Sign was meant also for Judah and Israel as well as all those called to the Churches of God from the Gentiles which is all mankind in the end (Mk. 8:11-13; Lk. 11:16, 29; 12:54-56). v. 3 The Signs of the times may refer to 15:29-31. Compare 11:2-6; v. 4 See 12:39 n. 40 n. Jon. 3:4-5.


Verses 5-12 The leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees.

vv. 1-12 see also Mark 8:11-21; Lk. 12:1; v. 5 The Other side - Eastern shore of the Sea of Galilee;  v.  6 Leaven (see Mk. 8:15 n) v. 9 14:17-21; v. 10 (15: 34-38).


Verses 13-23 Peter confesses Jesus as the Christ. (Mk. 8:27-33; Lk. 9:18-22); v. 13 (see Mk. 8:27 n.); v. 18 hell = Sheol or Hades. Verses 13-16 see also Mark 8:27-29 and Luke 9:18-20. (Son of man here is equivalent to “I”); v. 16 Peter here asserts that Jesus is the Messiah rather than merely one of the prophets (v. 14). He identifies Jesus with the figure of Mal. 3:1-4 (comp. Mk. 1:2; Mat. 1:16; Jn. 1:49; 11:27); v. 17 Simon was Peter’s personal name and bar Jona is son of John.  Flesh and blood = Human beings (1Cor. 15:50; Gal. 1:16; Eph. 6:12). Revealed Understanding spiritual realities involves, or requires, God’s disclosure (11:25 n; Lk. 24:16; 1Cor. 1:18-25; 2:6-16). v. 18 The Greek text requires a play on two words Petros (“Peter”) and petra (rock). The Palestinian Aramaic, used by Jesus, used the same word for both proper name and common noun. Christ said you are Peter and on this rock I will build of me the church (Kai epi   taute te petra oikodomesoo mou ten ekklesian).

(See also 1Cor. 15:5; Gal. 2:9.)


The Aramaic has been rendered here in the Greek from the Hebrew in which it was originally written.  Christ is in effect saying that it is on this Rock (i.e. himself) that he will build of himself the Church and he uses those words; and he will give to its people the keys of the kingdom of heaven. It is from the misreading of this text that the Romans developed the primacy of Peter argument. The power is given to any two baptised members meeting together and what they bind there will be bound in heaven also (Mat. 18:18-20). He then agreed that he was the Messiah but charged them to secrecy. For the view that all the apostles also form the foundation of the Church; see Eph. 2:20; Rev. 21:14; Church (see Gal. 1:13 n.). v. 19 It is from this text re the keys of the Kingdom that the Primacy of Peter argument was developed from Rome. Peter was never Bishop of Rome as we see from the text of the Establishment of the Church under the Seventy (No. 122D). For this reason they had to claim that Hippolytus, bishop of Ostia Attica, was a bishop of Rome and declare him an antipope to later discredit his work. Ostia Attica was the port city outside of Rome; v. 20 (Mk 8:30 n.); v. 21 (Lk. 9:22 n).


Verses 21-23 Jesus foretells his death and resurrection. v. 23 hindrance = stumbling block in the Greek. vv. 21-28 see Mark 8:31 to 9:1 and Luke 9:22-27. vv. 22-23 8:32 n; 33 n.


Verses 24-28 On Discipleship Take up your stauros (stake) (cf. The Cross: Its Origin and Significance (No. 039)) and follow Christ (see 10:38 n). v. 25 (Mk. 8:35 n.); v. 26 Here life is not merely physical existence but the inner spiritual life of man (cf. Lk. 9:25 12:15); v. 27 (Ps. 62:12; Mat. 10:33; Lk. 12:8-9; Rom. 2:6; 1Jn. 2:28; Rev. 22:12); v. 28 Mk. 9:1 n; 1Cor. 16:22; 1Thes. 4:15-18; Jas. 5:7; Rev. 1:7.


Chapter 17

1And after six days Jesus took with him Peter and James and John his brother, and led them up a high mountain apart. 2And he was transfigured before them, and his face shone like the sun, and his garments became white as light. 3And behold, there appeared to them Moses and Eli'jah, talking with him. 4And Peter said to Jesus, "Lord, it is well that we are here; if you wish, I will make three booths here, one for you and one for Moses and one for Eli'jah." 5He was still speaking, when lo, a bright cloud overshadowed them, and a voice from the cloud said, "This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased; listen to him." 6When the disciples heard this, they fell on their faces, and were filled with awe. 7But Jesus came and touched them, saying, "Rise, and have no fear." 8And when they lifted up their eyes, they saw no one but Jesus only. 9And as they were coming down the mountain, Jesus commanded them, "Tell no one the vision, until the Son of man is raised from the dead." 10And the disciples asked him, "Then why do the scribes say that first Eli'jah must come?" 11He replied, "Eli'jah does come, and he is to restore all things; 12but I tell you that Eli'jah has already come, and they did not know him, but did to him whatever they pleased. So also the Son of man will suffer at their hands." 13Then the disciples understood that he was speaking to them of John the Baptist. 14And when they came to the crowd, a man came up to him and kneeling before him said, 15"Lord, have mercy on my son, for he is an epileptic and he suffers terribly; for often he falls into the fire, and often into the water. 16And I brought him to your disciples, and they could not heal him." 17And Jesus answered, "O faithless and perverse generation, how long am I to be with you? How long am I to bear with you? Bring him here to me." 18And Jesus rebuked him, and the demon came out of him, and the boy was cured instantly. 19Then the disciples came to Jesus privately and said, "Why could we not cast it out?" 20He said to them, "Because of your little faith. For truly, I say to you, if you have faith as a grain of mustard seed, you will say to this mountain, 'Move from here to there,' and it will move; and nothing will be impossible to you." 21* [No text x22As they were gathering in Galilee, Jesus said to them, "The Son of man is to be delivered into the hands of men, 23and they will kill him, and he will be raised on the third day." And they were greatly distressed. 24When they came to Caper'na-um, the collectors of the half-shekel tax went up to Peter and said, "Does not your teacher pay the tax?" 25He said, "Yes." And when he came home, Jesus spoke to him first, saying, "What do you think, Simon? From whom do kings of the earth take toll or tribute? From their sons or from others?" 26And when he said, "From others," Jesus said to him, "Then the sons are free. 27However, not to give offense to them, go to the sea and cast a hook, and take the first fish that comes up, and when you open its mouth you will find a shekel; take that and give it to them for me and for yourself."

[Footnote: x Other ancient authorities insert verse 21, “But this kind never comes out except by prayer and fasting.”]


Intent of Chapter 17

Verses 1-13 The Transfiguration (No. 096E) and the Restoration of all things.

This aspect is a very important element of the rulership of the kingdom.

vv. 1-8 see Mk. 9:2-8; and Luke 9:28-36.

vv. 9-13 Prophecies about Elijah (see Mark 9:9-13). v. 9 (see Mk. 8:30 n.); v. 10 (see 11:14 n.);  v. 12 Elijah has already come in the Spirit of John the Baptist but this is not the coming referred to in Scripture at Malachi 4:5 at the Last Days before the Great and Terrible Day of the Lord. (cf. The Witnesses (No. 135) and Wars of the End Part II: 1260 Days of the Witnesses (No. 141D)).  He was thus informing them of the two incarnations he was to have first as the Priest Messiah and then as the King Messiah which was understood at the time from the Atonement services, even by the Qumran Community, as we see in the Damascus Rule VII and the fragment from Cave 4 (cf. G. Vermes, Dead Sea Scrolls in English).


Verses 14-21 Jesus heals a boy with a demon.

vv. 14-19 (see Mark 9:14-29 and Luke 9:37-42).

v. 15 Epilepsy was also attributed to the influences of the moon (Ps. 121:6). v. 20   Little faith is distinguished from unbelief (13:58). Faith is concerned with God’s will as opposed to moving mountains (cf. 21:21-22; Mk. 11:22-23; Lk. 17:6; 1Cor. 13:2; Jas. 1:6).

Other ancient texts add the text to v. 21 But this kind never comes out except by prayer and fasting.


Verses 22-23 Jesus again foretells his death and resurrection a second time. (See also Mark 9:30-32 and Luke 9:43-45.) Compare 16:21; 20:17-19. 


Verses 24-27 The Temple Tax. This tax was paid by all Jewish males to support the Temple. It was paid at Atonement (No. 138). This tax was paid by Christ for us all, as the Temple of God, as part of  the Tithing (No. 161) system.


Chapter 18

1At that time the disciples came to Jesus, saying, "Who is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven?" 2And calling to him a child, he put him in the midst of them, 3and said, "Truly, I say to you, unless you turn and become like children, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven. 4Whoever humbles himself like this child, he is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven. 5"Whoever receives one such child in my name receives me; 6but whoever causes one of these little ones who believe in me to sin, it would be better for him to have a great millstone fastened round his neck and to be drowned in the depth of the sea. 7"Woe to the world for temptations to sin! For it is necessary that temptations come, but woe to the man by whom the temptation comes! 8And if your hand or your foot causes you to sin, cut it off and throw it away; it is better for you to enter life maimed or lame than with two hands or two feet to be thrown into the eternal fire. 9And if your eye causes you to sin, pluck it out and throw it away; it is better for you to enter life with one eye than with two eyes to be thrown into the hell of fire. 10"See that you do not despise one of these little ones; for I tell you that in heaven their angels always behold the face of my Father who is in heaven. 11* [No text c12What do you think? If a man has a hundred sheep, and one of them has gone astray, does he not leave the ninety-nine on the mountains and go in search of the one that went astray? 13And if he finds it, truly, I say to you, he rejoices over it more than over the ninety-nine that never went astray. 14So it is not the will of my Father who is in heaven that one of these little ones should perish. 15"If your brother sins against you, go and tell him his fault, between you and him alone. If he listens to you, you have gained your brother. 16But if he does not listen, take one or two others along with you, that every word may be confirmed by the evidence of two or three witnesses. 17If he refuses to listen to them, tell it to the church; and if he refuses to listen even to the church, let him be to you as a Gentile and a tax collector. 18Truly, I say to you, whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. 19Again I say to you, if two of you agree on earth about anything they ask, it will be done for them by my Father in heaven. 20For where two or three are gathered in my name, there am I in the midst of them." 21Then Peter came up and said to him, "Lord, how often shall my brother sin against me, and I forgive him? As many as seven times?" 22Jesus said to him, "I do not say to you seven times, but seventy times seven. 23"Therefore the kingdom of heaven may be compared to a king who wished to settle accounts with his servants. 24When he began the reckoning, one was brought to him who owed him ten thousand talents; 25and as he could not pay, his lord ordered him to be sold, with his wife and children and all that he had, and payment to be made. 26So the servant fell on his knees, imploring him, 'Lord, have patience with me, and I will pay you everything.' 27And out of pity for him the lord of that servant released him and forgave him the debt. 28But that same servant, as he went out, came upon one of his fellow servants who owed him a hundred denarii; and seizing him by the throat he said, 'Pay what you owe.' 29So his fellow servant fell down and besought him, 'Have patience with me, and I will pay you.' 30He refused and went and put him in prison till he should pay the debt. 31When his fellow servants saw what had taken place, they were greatly distressed, and they went and reported to their lord all that had taken place. 32Then his lord summoned him and said to him, 'You wicked servant! I forgave you all that debt because you besought me; 33and should not you have had mercy on your fellow servant, as I had mercy on you?' 34And in anger his lord delivered him to the jailers, till he should pay all his debt. 35So also my heavenly Father will do to every one of you, if you do not forgive your brother from your heart."

[Footnote: c Other ancient authorities add verse 11, “For the son of man came to save the lost”]


Intent of Chapter 18

Verses 1-35 Sayings on humility and forgiveness


Verses 1-6 Discussion regarding who is the greatest.

vv. 1-5 True Greatness (see Mark 9:33-37 and Luke 9:46-48). v. 3 Turn and become like children relating to God as a father in true humility. Childlike relating to parents and family not childish in behaviour (Mk. 10:15; Lk. 18:17; 1Pet. 2:2); v. 6 Little Ones disciples of Christ he calls children (Mk. 10:24; compare Mat. 11:25).


Verses 7-9 Avoid the temptations to sin (Mk. 9:42-44; Lk. 17:1-2);

vv. 8-9  Rather vivid language (5:29-30) .


Verses 10-14 Parable of the Lost Sheep (Lk. 15:3-7). Little ones see v. 6 above.  Angels – Elohim or Theoi as God’s messengers (cf. Acts 12:15 n. see Angel of YHVH (No. 024)), How God Became a Family (No. 187), The Shema (No. 002B)).


Verses 15-20 Discipline among followers - If your brother sins against you (Lk. 17:3) (1Cor. 6:1-6; Gal. 6:1; Jas. 5:19-20; Lev. 19:17); v. 16 (Dt. 19:15); v. 17 The guilty person excludes himself from the elect of the Church by their acts; v. 18 (see 16:19 n; Jn. 20:21-23 n).


Verses 21-35 The Parable of the Unforgiving Servant - Forgiveness 21-22. (Lk. 17:4). Forgiveness is beyond calculating; v. 23 (25:19);

v. 25 (Lk. 7:42); v. 26 (8:2; 17:14); 32-33 (Lk. 7:41-43). (see Forgiveness (No. 112).


Chapter 19

1Now when Jesus had finished these sayings, he went away from Galilee and entered the region of Judea beyond the Jordan; 2and large crowds followed him, and he healed them there. 3And Pharisees came up to him and tested him by asking, "Is it lawful to divorce one's wife for any cause?" 4He answered, "Have you not read that he who made them from the beginning made them male and female, 5and said, 'For this reason a man shall leave his father and mother and be joined to his wife, and the two shall become one flesh'? 6So they are no longer two but one flesh. What therefore God has joined together, let not man put asunder." 7They said to him, "Why then did Moses command one to give a certificate of divorce, and to put her away?" 8He said to them, "For your hardness of heart Moses allowed you to divorce your wives, but from the beginning it was not so. 9And I say to you: whoever divorces his wife, except for unchastity, and marries another, commits adultery." 10The disciples said to him, "If such is the case of a man with his wife, it is not expedient to marry." 11But he said to them, "Not all men can receive this saying, but only those to whom it is given. 12For there are eunuchs who have been so from birth, and there are eunuchs who have been made eunuchs by men, and there are eunuchs who have made themselves eunuchs for the sake of the kingdom of heaven. He who is able to receive this, let him receive it." 13Then children were brought to him that he might lay his hands on them and pray. The disciples rebuked the people; 14but Jesus said, "Let the children come to me, and do not hinder them; for to such belongs the kingdom of heaven." 15And he laid his hands on them and went away. 16And behold, one came up to him, saying, "Teacher, what good deed must I do, to have eternal life?" 17And he said to him, "Why do you ask me about what is good? One there is who is good. If you would enter life, keep the commandments." 18He said to him, "Which?" And Jesus said, "You shall not kill, You shall not commit adultery, You shall not steal, You shall not bear false witness, 19Honor your father and mother, and, You shall love your neighbor as yourself." 20The young man said to him, "All these I have observed; what do I still lack?" 21Jesus said to him, "If you would be perfect, go, sell what you possess and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven; and come, follow me." 22When the young man heard this he went away sorrowful; for he had great possessions. 23And Jesus said to his disciples, "Truly, I say to you, it will be hard for a rich man to enter the kingdom of heaven. 24Again I tell you, it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God." 25When the disciples heard this they were greatly astonished, saying, "Who then can be saved?" 26But Jesus looked at them and said to them, "With men this is impossible, but with God all things are possible." 27Then Peter said in reply, "Lo, we have left everything and followed you. What then shall we have?" 28Jesus said to them, "Truly, I say to you, in the new world, when the Son of man shall sit on his glorious throne, you who have followed me will also sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. 29And every one who has left houses or brothers or sisters or father or mother or children or lands, for my name's sake, will receive a hundredfold, and inherit eternal life. 30But many that are first will be last, and the last first.


Intent of Chapter 19


From Galilee to Jerusalem (Mk. 10:1-52; Lk. 18:15-19:27).

Verses 1-12 Divorce.

vv. 1-9 see Mark 10:1-12.  v. 1 Finished See 7:28 n. v. 3 The Law of God (L1) was variously interpreted by the Levitical Sects according to what traditions they followed (cf. also Marriage (289)). The law did indeed allow divorce but as Christ said it was allowed because of the hardness of their hearts (v. 8). He elevated the Love among the brethren to a higher law. (see also Polygamy (No. 293)

vv. 4,5, 6 (see Genesis 1:27; 2:24; Deut. 24:1-4);

v. 8 (Mk. 10:5 n.)

v. 9 (see 5:32 n; Lk 16:18; 1Cor. 7:10-13).

vv. 11-12 The practice of castrating men was common in the First Century and some became voluntarily celibate over a period of time for the faith. Christ himself was voluntarily celibate because he was married to Israel and the Church of God. The later Roman Church uses this text to enforce celibacy on the church where it was never so until the Monastics introduced the practice  from the pagan cult in the 5th century and then enforced it in the 12th century when they took over the church and banned married clergy and female deaconesses. By the 13th century marriage and female deaconesses had disappeared completely from the Roman church.


Most of the apostles were married. It was understood by Clement, and also by Eusebius, that Paul was married and this is attributed to 1Corinthians 9:5 by the NPNF which holds that 1Corinthians 7:8 seems to imply the opposite. The answer might be in the structure of the texts. Certainly, from 1Corinthians 9:5, we know that Peter and the brothers of the Lord were all married and Paul demands the right that they be able to be accompanied by their wives as these and the other apostles also do. It is thus thought for several centuries that all of the apostles including Paul were married. Also, Judas the brother of Christ was married and had sons.


Christ’s brothers are Yudas, Yakobos (rendered James), Yoseph and Simon (Mat. 13:55 Marshall’s Interlinear; there is also no J in Hebrew). Christ’s uncle Clophas was also married to Maria (sister of the virgin Mariam), mother of James the Less and Joses. He was also held to be father of Symeon, Third bishop of Jerusalem.  (Clophas was second bishop after James but died that same year.) It is this similarity of names (and the mother goddess cult) which gives rise to the Catholic claim that Christ’s brothers were really his cousins. However, the brother of Christ was distinguished as Yakob (James the Just), not Little Yakobos (James the Lesser is the translation) as his cousin was called (cf. The Virgin Mariam and the Family of Jesus Christ (No. 232). (cf.  Marriage (No. 289) (cf. Surah 65 (Q065). (see also Polygamy (No. 293)).


Verses 19:13-15 Blessing the Children (Mk. 10:13-16; Lk. 18:15-17); v. 14 (Mk. 10:15n. cf. Mat.18:2-4; 1Cor. 14:20).


Verses 19:16-30 The rich young man (Mk. 10:17-31; Lk. 18:18-30); v. 16 Lk. 10:25; Lev. 18:5. The question concerns the way of life that Christ will guarantee as satisfying God (see Lk. 18:26 n.).

v. 17 Jesus replies that the good way of life is obedience to God’s will (15:2-3,6); v. 18 (cf. Ex. 20:12-16; Deut. 5:16-20; Rom. 13:9; Jas. 2:11);   v. 19 (cf. Lev. 19:18; Mat. 22:39; Rom. 13:8; Jas. 2:8-9); v. 21  Christ told the young man that if he wished to be perfect then go sell all he had and give it to the poor and he would have treasure in heaven, and then follow him. The text shows that Christ knew his problems and his ability to complete the acts and the work of God in the faith, through the Holy Spirit and from the predestination of God which is covered in No. 296. He could have helped the church greatly but was not able to complete the second of the requirements of The Shema (No. 002B) (cf. 5:23-24, 43-48; 6:33). Eternal life will be found through utter dependence on God and not through ritual and things that wealth makes possible (Lk. 12:33 n.; Acts 2:44-45; 4:34,35); see also that knowing the One True God and Jesus Christ whom He sent is the key to Eternal Life (Jn. 17:3 cf. Eternal Life (No. 133)). v. 24 (Mk. 10:25n.)


Verse 28 The New World refers to the rulership of Christ at the end of the Age and the Completion of the Sign of Jonah (No. 013B) (cf. also No. 013). He will then return and subjugate the Age and end it and then bring in the Millennial Age of the Messiah ruling from Jerusalem with the 144,000 and the Great Multitude (Rev. Ch 7; F066ii) after the Second Exodus (Isa. ch. 65:9-25; 66:18-24; Zech, 14:16 -19 (F038); Revelation Ch. 20 (F066v)).


Verse 29 To Inherit Eternal Life means to enter the Kingdom of God (vv. 23-24) and be given Spiritual life at the (First Resurrection No.143A) at the Return of Messiah (cf. 210A and 210B) and subsequently at the Second Resurrection (No. 143B) at the end of the Millennium, as the Great White Throne Judgment dictates up to the destruction of  the Lake of Fire (Rev. 20:14-15; (F066v).

v. 30 (20:16; Mk. 10:31; Lk. 13:30)




Bullinger’s Notes on Matthew Chapters 15-19 (for KJV)


Chapter 15

Verse 1

came = come.

scribes, &c. = the scribes. Note the four parties addressed in this chapter: (1) scribes, &c. from Jerusalem, verses: ; (2) the multitudes, verses: Matthew 15:10Matthew 15:11; (3) the disciples, verses: Matthew 15:12-14; (4) Peter, verses: Matthew 15:15-20.

Pharisees. See App-120. of = away from. Greek. apo.

Jerusalem. The seat of authority in these matters.


Verse 2

transgress. Greek. parabaino. App-128.

the elders. Greek. presbuteroi. Always used in the Papyri officially, not of age (old men), but of communal officers and heathen priests.

wash not. To wash before eating is still a rigorous custom in Palestine. See App-136.

bread. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Species), App-6, for all kinds of food.


Verse 3

ye. Emphatic. Note the Figure of speech Anteisagoge.

also. Connect "also" with "ye", not with "transgress".

by = on account of. Greek. dia.


Verse 4

commanded. Quoted from Exodus 20:12Exodus 20:21Exodus 20:17. App-117.

let him die the death = he shall surely die. Figure of speech Polyptoton. See Exodus 21:17Leviticus 20:9Deuteronomy 5:16Deuteronomy 27:16Proverbs 30:17.


Verse 5

It is. Supply ("Be that"] instead of "It is".

a gift = dedicated to God.

thou: i.e. the parent.

profited = helped.

by = of. Greek. ek.

me: i.e. the son.


Verse 6

And = And [in consequence of this evasion]. not = you certainly do not. Greek. ou me = by no means, in no wise.

he shall be free. There is no Ellipsis here if it be supplied as in Matthew 15:8.


Verse 7

Esaias = Isaiah. See App-79.

of = concerning. Greek. peri.


Verse 8

This people. Quoted from Isaiah 29:13. See App-107 and App-117.

is far = keepeth far distant.

from = away from. Greek. apo. App-104.


Verse 9

teaching for doctrines. Greek teaching teachings. Figure of speech Polyptoton.


Verse 10

called = called to [Him].

the multitude. See note on "scribes"Matthew 15:1.


Verse 11

into. Greek. eis. App-104.

a = the.

out of. Greek. ek.


Verse 12

His disciples. See note on "scribes"Matthew 15:1.

offended = stumbled.

saying. Greek. logos. See note on Mark 9:32.


Verse 13

Every plant. Implying the scribes, &c, by the Figure of speech Hypocatastaais. See note on "dogs"Matthew 15:26, and on "leaven" (Matthew 16:6).

plant. Greek. phuteia. Occurs only here.

heavenly. Greek. ouranios. See note on Matthew 6:14.


Verse 14

they be, &c. Figure of speech Paroemia. App-6.

if, &c.: i.e. experience will show it. App-118.


Verse 15

Peter. See note on "scribes", &c, Matthew 15:1.

Declare = Expound. See note on Matthew 13:36.


Verse 16

yet = still. Greek. akmen. Occurs only here.


Verse 17

in at = into. Greek. eis. App-104.

draught = sewer, or sink. Greek. aphedron, a Macedonian word.


Verse 18

But those, &c. Figure of speech Epimone, verses: 18-20.

from = out of. Greek. ek, as in preceding clause,


Verse 19

evil. Greek. poneros. App-128.

thoughts = reasonings.

false witness. Greek. pseudomarturia. Occurs only in Matthew (here, and Matthew 26:59).


Verse 22

out of = from. Greek. apo.

the same = those.

coasts = borders.

Have mercy = Pity

Son Of David. The fourth of nine occurrences of this title (App-98). The woman (a "dog" of the Gentiles) had no claim on the "Son of David". Hence the silence of the Lord.

grievously = miserably.

vexed with a devil = possessed by a demon; Greek. daimonizomai.


Verse 23

But, &c. Because a Gentile had no claim on the Son of David. Figure of speech Accismus. App-6.


Verse 25

worshipped Him = threw herself at His feet [and remained there]. Imperfect tense. Compare John 9:38. See App-137.

Lord, help me. This was a better plea, but there was no definition of the "me", as with the publican: "me, a sinner" (Luke 18:13).


Verse 26

meet = fair.

the children"s bread = the bread of the children, with emphasis on children. Figure of speech Enallage. App-6.

children"s. See App-108.

dogs = puppies, or little household dogs; this is true only of such. Dogs are not cared for (in the East) when grown. The Lord used the Figure of speech Hypocatastasis (App-6), implying that she was only a Gentile, and thus had still no claim even on that ground. Gentiles were known as "dogs" by the Jews, and despised as such (Matthew 7:61 Samuel 17:432 Samuel 3:82 Samuel 9:82 Kings 8:13Philippians 1:3Philippians 1:2).


Verse 27

Truth = Yea.

yet = for even: assenting to the Lord"s words, while using them as an additional ground of her plea.

crumbs = scraps.


Verse 28

answered and said = exclaimed and said. A Hebraism. See note on Deuteronomy 1:41.

O woman. Figure of speech Ecphonesis.

great is thy faith. Contrast the disciples (Matthew 16:8), where the same Figure of speech Hypocatastasis (App-6), is used, and ought to have been understood.


Verse 29

nigh unto = beside. Greek. para. App-104.

a = the, as in Matthew 14:23.

sat down = was sitting down.


Verse 30

others = differently affected. Greek. heteros. App-124.

at = beside. Greek. para.


Verse 31

to speak = speaking.

to be whole = sound.

to walk = walking.

to see = seeing.

the God of Israel. See Isaiah 29:23.


Verse 32

called = called to [Him].

on = upon. Greek. epi.

now = already.

three days = the third day. Observe, not "and nights". See note on Matthew 12:40, and App-144and App-156.

nothing = not anything.

I will not = I am not willing. See App-102.


Verse 33

we. Emphatic, as are the words which follow.

the wilderness = a desert place. These are emphatic also, in addition to "we".

fill = satisfy.


Verse 34

I am, &c. = I was.

but = except.

unto = to. Greek. eis. App-104.

lost. Because being without a shepherd. But see note on 1 Kings 12:17.

the house of Israel. Therefore it was still represented by those in the Land. See note on and compare Acts 2:14Acts 2:22Acts 2:36.


Verse 35

sit down = recline.


Verse 36

brake. See note on Matthew 14:19.

to = [gave] to. Supplying the Ellipsis from the preceding clause.


Verse 37

broken meat = fragments, or crumbs.

baskets = large baskets. Greek. spuris. Compare Matthew 14:20Acts 9:25. Our modern clothes-basket.


Verse 39

took ship = entered into Greek. eis. the ship (mentioned above, in Matthew 14:22, &c).

Magdala. See App-169.


Chapter 16

Verse 1

Pharisees . . . Sadducees. See App-120.

came = having come to [Him].

a sign. Compare Matthew 12:38.

from = out of. Greek. ek.

heaven = the heaven, or sky (singular), same as in verses: Matthew 2:3.


Verse 2

He = And He.

It will be. Omit.

fair weather. Greek. eudia. Occurs only here, and in Matthew 16:3.

the sky = the heaven (sing), as in Matthew 16:1 (see note on Matthew 6:9Matthew 6:10). This is the point of the question.

red. Greek. purrazo. Occurs only here, and in Matthew 16:3.


Verse 3

foul weather = a storm.

can = get to know by experience. App-132.

discern. Greek. diakrino. App-122.


Verse 4

wicked = evil. See note on Matthew 11:16.

adulterous: spiritually. See Matthew 12:39Jeremiah 3:9Ezekiel 23:37, &c.

seeketh = is (constantly) seeking.

Jonas = Jonah. See Matthew 12:39.


Verse 5

to = unto. Greek. eis.

take = bring.

bread = loaves.


Verse 6

Take heed = Look well. Greek. horao. App-133.

beware of the leaven. Figure of speech Hypocatastasis. leaven put by implication for "doctrine" (Matthew 16:12), because of its evil effects. Compare notes on Matthew 15:26, and Matthew 13:33.

beware = pay attention to, so as to be careful of.

of = from. Here, away from: i.e. beware [and keep] away from, or keep clear of, as in Matthew 7:15. Greek. apo. App-104.

leaven. See note on Matthew 13:33.


Verse 8

O ye of little faith. See note on Matthew 6:30; and Compare Matthew 8:26Matthew 14:31, and Luke 12:28.


Verse 9

baskets. Greek. kophinos. Used in connection with the five thousand and the twelve full baskets left in Matthew 14:20.


Verse 10

baskets. Greek. spuris. A larger plaited basket or hamper. Used in connection with the seven baskets left in Matthew 15:37.


Verse 11

concerning. Greek. peri. App-104.


Verse 12

doctrine = teaching. This was the word which the Lord had been implying in Matthew 16:6, using the Figure of speech Hypocatastasis. App-6. The woman of Canaan saw what was implied in the word "dog"; and her faith was called "great" (Matthew 15:28); the disciples did not understand what the Lord implied by the word "leaven", and their faith was "little".


Verse 13

into. Greek. eis. App-104.

coasts = parts.

Whom = Who. The pronoun being governed by the verb "am", not by the verb "say", it must be "who" as in Acts 13:25 also.

men. Greek plural of anthropos. App-123.

the Son of man. See App-98.


Verse 14

John. Risen from the dead.

some = others. Greek. allos. App-124.

Elias = Elijah.

others = different ones. Greek. heteros.


Verse 16

the Christ = the Messiah. The 1611 edition of the Authorized Version reads "Thou art Christ".


Verse 17

Blessed = Happy. See note on Matthew 5:3.

Simon Bar-jona = Simon, son of Jonah. The Lord uses his human name and parentage in contrast with the divine origin of the revelation made to him.

Bar-jona. Aramaic. See App-94.:28. Occurs only here.

flesh and blood. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the Part), App-6, for a mortal human being in contrast with God the Father in the heavens. See 1 Corinthians 15:50Galatians 1:1Galatians 1:16Ephesians 6:12Hebrews 2:14.

heaven = the heavens (plural) See note on Matthew 6:9Matthew 6:10.


Verse 18

I say also = I also say (as well as the Father), looking back to a preceding Agent with Whom the Lord associates Himself.

thou art Peter. See App-147.

Peter. Greek. petros. A stone (loose and movable), as in John 1:42.

this. Very emphatic, as though pointing to Himself. See notes on John 2:19John 6:58. One of three important passages where "this" stands for the speaker. See notes on John 2:19, and John 6:58.

this rock = Greek. petra. Petra is Feminine, and therefore could not refer to Peter; but, if it refers to Peter"s confession, then it would agree with homologia (which is feminine), and is rendered confession in 1 Timothy 6:13, and profession in 1 Timothy 6:12Hebrews 3:1Hebrews 4:14Hebrews 10:23. Compare 2 Corinthians 9:13. Whether we are to understand it (with Augustine and Jerome) as implying "thou hast said [it]" (see App-147), or "thou art Peter", most Protestants as well as these ancient "Fathers" agree that Peter"s confession is the foundation to which Christ referred, and not Peter himself. He was neither the foundation nor the builder (a poor builder, Matthew 16:23) but Christ alone, Whom he had confessed (1 Corinthians 3:11). Thus ends the great subject of this second portion of the Lord"s ministry. See App-119.

rock. Greek. petra. A rock (in situ) immovable: the Messiah, as being "the Son of the living God", Who is the foretold "foundation-stone" (Isaiah 28:16); and the rejected stone (Psalms 118:22).

will = shall. Therefore then future, as in Hosea 1:10Hosea 2:23.

church = assembly. Defined as "Israel", and the "Remnant" (Romans 9:2Romans 9:1-27). Not the ecclesia of the mystery (or secret) revealed in Ephesians; but that referred to in Psalms 22:22Psalms 22:25, &c.

the gates. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6, for power.

the gates of hell = the gates of Hades (= THE grave), denoting the power of the grave to retain, as in Isaiah 38:10Job 38:17 (Septuagint) Psalms 9:13Psalms 107:18.

hell = THE grave. Greek. Hades. See App-131.

prevail. Greek. katischuo. Occurs only here and Luke 23:23 = have full strength, to another"s detriment: i.e. THE grave shall not have power to retain its captives, because Christ holdeth the keys of those gates, and they shall not be strong enough to triumph (Revelation 1:18. Compare Psalms 68:20). Resurrection is the great truth asserted here. Compare Ezekiel 37:11-14Acts 2:29-311 Corinthians 15:55Hosea 13:14.


Verse 19

the keys. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), App-6, for the power to open. Christ has the keys of Hades; Peter had the keys of the kingdom. See next note.

the kingdom of heaven = the kingdom of the heavens. See App-112, and App-114. This power Peter exercised in Acts 2 in Israel, and Acts 10 among the Gentiles. Not the "Church" of the mystery (Eph 3).

thou shalt bind, &c. This power was given to the others (Matthew 18:18John 20:23), and exercised in Acts 5:1-11Acts 5:12-16. Whatever authority is implied, no power was given to communicate it to others, or to them in perpetuity. Binding and loosing is a Hebrew idiom for exercising authority. To bind = to declare what shall be binding (e.g. laws and precepts) and what shall be not binding.

on. Greek. epi. App-104.


Verse 20

Jesus. All the texts omit this, here, with Syriac.

the Christ = the Messiah. See App-98.


Verse 21

From that time, &c. This commences the third period of the Lord"s ministry, the subject of which is the rejection of Messiah. See App-119.

began, &c. This is stated four times (here, Matthew 17:22Matthew 20:17Matthew 20:28). See the Structure above; each time with an additional feature.

must. Note the necessity (Luke 24:26).

be raised again. Omit "again". Not the same word as in Matthew 17:9, but the same as in Matthew 17:23.

the third day. The first occurrence of this expression (canonically). See App-148.


Verse 22

took Him = took Him aside.

Be it far from Thee = "[God] be merciful to Thee". A pure Hebraism. See 1 Chronicles 11:19. not = by no means.


Verse 23

Get thee . . . Satan. The Lord saw in this a direct assault of Satan himself through Peter.

Satan. See note on Matthew 4:10.

an offence = a snare: i.e. an occasion of stumbling.

savourest = regardest.

be of = belong to.


Verse 24

If, &c. Assuming such a case.

will = is willing (Indic), or desireth. Greek. thelo. All hinges on the will. Compare John 5:40.

come = to come.

take up. The "cross "was always borne by the one condemned.

cross. Greek. stauros. See App-162. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6, for the suffering associated with the burden.


Verse 25

will save = be willing (Subj.) to save, as above.

his life. Greek. psuche his soul. Should be "soul" here, if "soul" in Matthew 16:26; or, "life" in Matthew 16:26, if "life" here.


Verse 26

if he shall, &c. = if he should. Expressing an impossible condition.

world. Greek. kosmos. See App-129.

his own soul = his life, as in Matthew 16:25.

soul. Greek. psuche. App-110.


Verse 27

the glory. The sufferings are never mentioned apart from the glory (Matthew 16:21). See App-71, and Compare Matthew 17:1-9.

reward = render to.

according to. Greek. kata.

works = doing.


Verse 28

Verily. See note on Matthew 5:18.

be = are.

some = some of those.

till. The particle an, with the Subjunctive Mood, gives this a hypothetical force. Compare the four "tills" (Matthew 10:23Matthew 16:28Matthew 23:39Matthew 24:34Matthew 26:29).

see = may have seen. App-133. See notes on "an" above and below. Greek. eidon. App-133.

coming, &c. The promise of this coming was definitely repeated later, in , and was conditional on the repentance of the nation. Hence the particle "an", which (though untranslatable) expresses the condition or hypothesis implied. Their continuing to live until Acts 28:25Acts 28:26 was certain; but the fulfillment of the condition was uncertain. No "an"after "until" in Matthew 17:9.


Chapter 17

Verse 1

After six days. The Transfiguration (see App-149) is date in all three Gospels (Mark 9:2Luke 9:28). It was thus connected with the first mention of His sufferings and death (Matthew 16:21Matthew 17:9Matthew 17:12), and would counteract any doubts that the disclosure might give rise to. By it the glory is connected with the sufferings, as it always is (Compare Matthew 16:21 with Matthew 17:27 and Luke 24:26, and see App-71. 1 Peter 1:111 Peter 4:131 Peter 5:1); and it gives a glimpse of His coming (2 Peter 1:16-18).

after. Greek. meta. App-104.

Jesus. App-98.

taketh = taketh [Him aside].

Peter, &c. These three were with Him at the raising of Jairus"s daughter (Mark 6:37), and in Gethsemane (Matthew 26:37).

James = and James.

an high mountain. Not the traditional "Tabor", for it was then inhabited, with a fortress on the top, according to Josephus. More probably Hermon.


Verse 2

transfigured. Greek. metamorphoomai = to change the form. Occurs only here, Mark 9:2, and in Romans 12:22 Corinthians 3:18. Marking the change TO a new condition, while metaschematizo = change FROM a former condition. See note on Philippians 1:3Philippians 1:21.

was = became.

light. App-130.


Verse 3

behold. Figure of speech Asterismos (App-6), for emphasis.

appeared. App-106.

Moses. Representing the Law, and those to be raised from the dead. See note on Matthew 8:4.

Elias = Elijah. Representing those "caught up" without dying. Both mentioned in Malachi 4:4Malachi 4:5.

talking = talking together. In Luke 9:31 "they spake of His decease".


Verse 4

if, &c. See the condition in App-118. Not the same as in Matthew 17:20.

wilt. App-102.

tabernacles = booths.


Verse 5

spake = was speaking.

a bright cloud. Was this the Shekhinah, the symbol of Jehovah"s glory?

out of. Greek. ek.

This is My beloved Son. The Divine formula of consecration of Messiah as priest; in Matthew 3:17 as prophet. In Psalms 2:7Acts 13:33, and Hebrews 1:5Hebrews 5:5, as king.

am well pleased = have found delight.

hear ye Him. Compare Deuteronomy 18:18Deuteronomy 18:19.


Verse 6

on. Greek. epi.

sore = exceedingly.


Verse 7

not. Greek. me. App-105.

saw. App-133.


Verse 8

no man = no one.

save = except, used for alla (= but). See note on "but"Matthew 20:23.

only = alone.


Verse 9

from = away from. Greek. apo. App-104.

the Son of man. See App-98.

be risen again = have risen. Here, "again" is part of the verb. Not so in Matthew 17:23, and Matthew 16:21.

from = from among. Greek. ek. App-104. The first occurance of ek in this connection. Always associated with Christ and His People (not with the wicked dead). See all the other occurrences: Mark 6:14Mark 9:9Mark 9:10Mark 12:25Luke 9:7Luke 16:31Luke 20:35Luke 24:46John 2:22John 12:1John 12:9John 12:17John 20:9John 21:14Acts 3:15Acts 4:2Acts 4:10Acts 10:41Acts 13:30Acts 13:34Acts 17:3Acts 17:31Romans 4:24Romans 6:4Romans 6:9Romans 6:13Romans 7:4Romans 8:11Romans 8:11Romans 10:7Romans 10:9Romans 11:151 Corinthians 15:121 Corinthians 15:20Galatians 1:1Galatians 1:1Ephesians 5:14Philippians 1:3Philippians 1:11 (see note). Colossians 1:18Colossians 2:121 Thessalonians 1:102 Timothy 2:8Hebrews 13:201 Peter 1:31 Peter 1:21. On the other hand, with apo See Matthew 14:2Matthew 27:64Matthew 28:7. Compare Luke 16:30Luke 16:31. In all other cases it is used simply of a resurrection of dead bodies, or of dead people.

the dead = dead people (no Art.) See App-139.


Verse 11

shall first come = cometh first.

restored will restore. Not the same, but better. The noun occurs only in Acts 3:21. The verb occurs eight times: Matthew 12:13Matthew 17:11Mark 3:5Mark 8:25Mark 9:12Luke 6:10Acts 1:6Hebrews 13:19.


Verse 12

knew = recognized. Greek. epiginosko. App-132.

not. Greek. ou.

have done = did.

unto him = in his case. Greek. en. App-104.

listed = pleased, or willed. Greek. thelo. App-102.

shall . . . suffer = is about . . . to suffer. So in Matthew 17:22 and Matthew 20:22.

also the Son of man. = the Son of man also.

of = through or by. Greek. hupo. App-104.


Verse 13

of = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104.


Verse 14

came = came down, &c. Compare Mark 9:14Luke 9:37.

a certain man = a man. Greek. anthropos. App-123.


Verse 15

mercy = pity.

he is lunatick = moonstruck: i.e. epileptic, because epilepsy was supposed to be caused by the moon. Greek. seleniazomai. Occurs only in Matthew, here, and Matthew 4:24.

sore vexed = suffers miserably.


Verse 16

could not cure him = were not able to cure him.


Verse 17

faithless = unbelieving.

perverse = perverted.

generation. See note on Matthew 11:16.

how long . . . ? = until when . . . ? Figures of speech Erotesis and Ecphonesis. App-6.

suffer = put up with.


Verse 18

the devil = it, or him.

he = it: i.e. the demon.

out of = away from. Greek. apo. App-104. Not the same as Matthew 17:5.

child = boy. Greek. pais. App-108.


Verse 19

Why could not we cast him out? = Why were not we able to east it out? See notes on Matthew 21:21, and Luke 17:5.


Verse 20

Because = On account of. Greek. dia. See note on Luke 17:6.

unbelief. All the texts read "little faith", or "littleness of faith". See note on Matthew 6:38.

verily. See note on Matthew 5:18.

If, &c. Denoting a contingent condition. App-118.

say. The Rabbins were termed rooters up of mountains, because they were dexterous in removing difficulties. See note on Luke 17:6.

to yonder place = thither (as though pointing). See note on Luke 17:6.


Verse 21

this kind. Implying different kinds. See Matthew 12:45Acts 16:171 John 4:1. T Tr. [A] WH R omit this verse; but not the Syriac.

but = except.

prayer. Greek. proseuche. See App-134.


Verse 22

Galilee. App-169.

shall be = is about to be. This is the second of the four announcements. See the Structure, and note on Matthew 16:21.

betrayed = delivered up. This is added in this the second announcement of His sufferings. Compare Matthew 16:21.


Verse 23

shall = will.

the third day. See note on Matthew 16:21; and App-148.

be raised again = be raised up. Not the same word as in Matthew 17:9, but the same as in Matthew 16:21.


Verse 24

tribute = money = the didrachma = the half-shekels (). Occurs only here. See App-51.:8. Not the same word as in Matthew 17:25Matthew 22:19.


Verse 25

Yes. Showing that the Lord did pay. Compare Matthew 17:27.

prevented = anticipated: i.e. spoke first, or forestalled. Greek. prophthano. Occurs only here.

of = from. Greek. apo, as in Matthew 17:9, not in verses: Matthew 17:17Matthew 17:12Matthew 17:13.

earth. Greek. ge App-129.

custom = toll, or duty.

tribute = tax. Greek. kensos, from Latin. census, which = registration, which involved taxation.

children = sons. App-108. Not the same as Matthew 17:18.

strangers = those of other families: i.e. not their own sons. Not foreigners. Greek. allotrios. App-124.


Verse 26

Then = It followeth, then, that.


Verse 27

lest we should offend, &c. But, not (Greek. me. App-105.) to give them an occasion of offence (either by neglecting their duty or by traducing the Lord). See Matthew 18:6.

an hook. A weighted line with several hooks, rapidly drawn through the water, is employed to-day at Tiberias. Greek. agkistron. Occurs only here.

a piece of money. Greek. stater: i.e. a shekel. Occurs only here.


Chapter 18

Verse 1

At =

In. Greek. en. App-104.

time = hour.

Who = Who, then.

greatest = greater. Put by Figure of speech Heterosis (of Degree) for greatest. See App-6.

the kingdom of heaven. See App-114.

heaven = the heavens (plural) See note on Matthew 6:9Matthew 6:10.


Verse 2

little child. Greek. paidion. App-108.

him = it.


Verse 3

Verily. See note on Matthew 5:18.

Except = Unless. Literally "If ye be not". Assuming the possibility.

be converted = be turned: i.e. to God, in repentance.

not = by no means. Greek. ou me.


Verse 4

as this. Not as this little child humbles himself, for no one but the Lord humbles Himself. Compare Philippians 1:2Philippians 1:7Philippians 1:8.


Verse 6

offend = cause to offend, as in w. 8, 9, and Matthew 16:27,

little ones. Not the same as in Matthew 18:2.

believe in. See App-150.

a millstone = an ass-millstone. Onikos. Occurs only here and Luke 17:2; but frequently in the Papyri (see Deissmann, New Light, &c, p. 76). Here denoting a great millstone requiring an ass to turn it.

about. Greek. epi = upon. App-104. But all the texts read "peri " = around. App-104.

drowned. See note on Matthew 14:30.

the depth = the deep sea (i.e. the sea as to its depth).

the sea = the sea (as to its surface). So in Revelation 18:17.


Verse 7

world. Greek. kosmos. App-129.

because of. Greek. apo.

but = yet, or only.

by = by means of. Greek. dia.


Verse 8

if thy hand, &c. Assuming the condition. See App-118.

offend = keepeth on causing thee to offend.

better = good. Figure of speech Heterosis (of Degree). App-6.

life = the life: i.e. resurrection life, or life eternal. Greek. zoe. App-170. See note on Matthew 9:18 and Leviticus 18:5. Compare Matthew 7:14.

hell fire = Gehenna of fire. See note on Matthew 5:22. Occurs elsewhere only in Mark 9:47. App-131.


Verse 10

not Greek. me App-105.

their angels. Their servants (Hebrews 1:14), The tradition of so-called "guardian" angels has no foundation in this.

that which was lost. Compare Matthew 15:24Matthew 15:12

How = What. This parable was repeated later, in another connection. See Luke 15:4, &c.

if a man, &c. The condition is not the same as in Matthew 18:8, but is purely hypothetical = if there should be to any man.

doth he not, &c. ? Or, will he not leave the ninety-nine on the mountain and seek, &c.


Verse 13

verily. See note on Matthew 5:18.

of = over. Greek. epi. App-104.

that sheep = it.


Verse 14

will = desire. Greek. thelema, from thelo. App-102.

your. L Tr. WH and Rm read "My".

Verse 15

trespass. Greek. hamartano. App-128.

against. Greek. eis.

tell him his fault = reprove him.


Verse 16

with. Greek. meta.

in = upon. Greek. epi. App-104.

two or three. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 19:15). Compare John 8:17. See App-117.

word. Greek. rhema = statement. See note on Mark 9:32.


Verse 17

neglect = fail. Greek. parakouo. Occurs only here.

church = assembly. In this case the synagogue, or local court, as in Acts 19:39. See App-120.

the church = the assembly also.

an heathen = the Gentile. Greek. ethnikos. Occurs only here, and Matthew 6:7.

a publican = the tax-gatherer.


Verse 18

Whatsoever, &c. See Matthew 16:19

on = upon. Greek. epi.

earth = the earth. Greek. ge. App-129.

heaven = the heaven. See notes on Matthew 6:9Matthew 6:10.


Verse 19

as touching = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104.

thing = matter.

ask. Greek. aiteo. App-134.

of = from. Greek. para.


Verse 20

two or three. It was believed that "where two are assembled to study the Law, the Shechinah was with them".


Verse 21

sin. Greek. hamartano. App-128.


Verse 22

seventy times. Greek. hebdomekontakis. Occurs only here.


Verse 23

Therefore = On account of this. Greek. dia (App-104. Matthew 18:1), touto.

a certain king = a man (App-123.) a king (Hebraism).

would = wished. Greek. thelo. App-102.

take account = to compare accounts. Greek. sunairo. Occurs only in Matthew (here, Matthew 18:24, and Matthew 25:19). Said not to be classical Greek: but the colloquial Greek is found in the Papyri in Cent. II. in two letters, one from Oxyrhynchus, and the other from Dakkeh in Nubia, dated March 6, 214 A.D. See Deissmann"s Light, &c., pp 118, 119.

of = with. Greek. meta.


Verse 24

to reckon = to compare accounts, as in Matthew 18:23. See note above.

one . . . -which owed = one debtor. Found in Sophocles and Plato as well as the Papyri, though said to be only Biblical.

talents. See App-51. Greek. talanton. Occurs only in Matthew.


Verse 25

to be sold. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 22:3Leviticus 25:39Leviticus 25:47).

and. Figure of speech Polysyndeton (App-6), for emphasis.

children. App-108.


Verse 26

worshipped = did homage. See App-134and App-.

with. Greek. epi. App-104. (Tr. reads 3).


Verse 27

loosed = released.

debt = loan. Greek. daneion. Occurs only here.


Verse 28

found = sought and found.

owed = was owing.

pence. Greek. denaria. See App-51.

laid hands on = seized.

took him by the throat = began throttling him.

that = what.


Verse 29

at. Greek. eis.

besought = kept beseeching (imperfect). App-134.


Verse 30

cast him into prison. The Papyri show that this was a widespread Graeco-Roman-Egyptian custom.


Verse 31

was done = had taken place.

very = exceedingly.

told = narrated (gave an exact account). Greek. diasapheo. Occ only here.


Verse 32

wicked. Greek. poneros. App-128.

desiredst = besoughtedst. Same word as in Matthew 18:29.


Verse 33

Shouldest, &c. = Was it not binding on thee?

had compassion = pitied, as in the next clause. Same word.

even as I = as I also.


Verse 34

tormentors: or jailors. Greek. basanistes. Occurs only here. Imprisonment was called in Roman law-books cruciatus corporis.


Verse 35

heavenly. Greek. epouranios. Elsewhere Greek. ouranios. See Matthew 6:14Matthew 6:26Matthew 6:32Matthew 15:13Luke 2:13Acts 26:19.

trespasses. See App-128.


Chapter 19

Verse 1

And it came to pass. A Hebraism.

sayings = words. Greek. logos. See note on "saying"Mark 9:32.

departed = withdrew (by sea).

from. Greek. apo.

into. Greek. eis.

coasts = borders.

beyond Jordan. Perea, east side of Jordan, from the Sea of Galilee to the Dead Sea.


Verse 3

Pharisees. See App-120.

tempting Him = trying Him. See note on Luke 16:18.

for = on account of. App-104.


Verse 4

Have ye not read . . . ? See App-143.

at = from. Greek. apo.

the beginning. See note on John 8:44.

male and female = a male and a female. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 1:27). This settles the theory of evolution.

male. Greek. arsen. App-123.


Verse 5

and they twain. This is added by the Lord to Genesis 2:24. See App-107 and App-117.

they twain = the two.

flesh. Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the Part), put for the whole person. App-6.


Verse 6

What = The unity, not "those" (the persons).

God. App-98.

hath joined together, &c. = joined together, &c. The converse is true also. See note on Philippians 1:1Philippians 1:10.


Verse 7

Why? Why then? Moses. See note on Matthew 8:4.

command, &c. Not till the close of the forty years.

writing. A bill. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 24:1). See App-117.


Verse 8

because of = in view of, or having regard to. Greek. pros. App-104.

suffered = allowed.

was not so: i.e. from the first constitution down to Moses.


Verse 9

And = But.

for. Greek. epi.


Verse 10

If the case, &c. The condition is hypothetical. See App-118.

case = cause, as in Matthew 19:3.

the man. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche" (of Genus), App-6, for a husband.

good = profitable.


Verse 11

All men cannot = not (as in Matthew 19:4) all men can.

is = has been.


Verse 12

born. See note on "begat"Matthew 1:2.

made eunuchs. The verb occurs only here.

of = by. Greek. hupo.

for . . . sake. Greek. dia. App-104. Matthew 19:2.

the kingdom of heaven"s. See App-114.

heaven"s = the heavens". Plural as in Matthew 19:14. Not Singular as in Matthew 19:21.

to receive . . . let him receive. Figure of speech Polyptoton. App-6.


Verse 13

little children = young children. Greek plural of paidion. App-108. Compare . Luke 18:16Luke 18:17.

should put = should lay, as in Matthew 19:15.

and pray = and should pray. Greek. proseuchomai. App-134.

rebuked = reprimanded.


Verse 14

forbid = hinder.

of such is: or, to such belongeth (in Eng. idiom): so Tyndale.


Verse 16

behold. Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6.

Good. All the texts omit. The accounts here(verses: , Mark 10:17-28, and Luke 18:18-28) are partly identical and partly complementary.

Master = Teacher. Greek. Didaskalos. See App-98. Matthew 19:1.

eternal life = life age-abiding. Greek. zue aionios. App-170. This was to be gained by "doing" in that Dispensation and since the Fall. Compare Leviticus 18:6. Now all is "done", and "eternal life is the gift of God" (Romans 6:231 John 5:111 John 5:12).


Verse 17

Why . . . ? Note the several questions. See the Structure above.

wilt enter = desirest (App-102.) to enter.

life. Greek. zoe. App-170.

commandments. All of them (Matthew 5:19James 2:10James 2:11Deuteronomy 27:26 (Septuagint) Galatians 1:3Galatians 1:10).


Verse 18

Which? The Lord, in reply, recites five (the sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, and fifth), but omits the tenth in order to convict him out of his own mouth when he says he has kept "all these". See App-117.

Jesus = And Jesus.

Thou shalt do, &c. Quoted from .


Verse 19

Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. Quoted from Leviticus 19:18.


Verse 20

All these. Yes, but not the tenth. Hence the Lord"s answer "go and sell", which brought conviction.


Verse 21

wilt be = art willing to be. App-102.

that thou hast = thy property or possession. Same word (but not the same form) as "is" in Philippians 1:3Philippians 1:20 = exists as a possession.

poor. App-127.

heaven. Sing; not plural, as in verses: Matthew 19:12Matthew 19:14, i.e. not on earth. See notes on Matthew 6:9Matthew 6:10.


Verse 22

sorrowful = grieving

great = many.


Verse 23

Verily. See note on Matthew 5:18.

hardly = with difficulty.


Verse 24

camel. With its burden. Not a cable, as some suggest.

go = pass,

through. Greek. dia. App-104. Matthew 19:1.

the eye. Greek. trupema. Occurs only here.

the eye of a needle. A small door fixed in a gate and opened after dark. To pass through, the camel must be unloaded. Hence the difficulty of the rich man. He must be unloaded, and hence the proverb, common in the East. In Palestine the "camel"; in the Babylonian Talmud it is the elephant.

the kingdom of God. The third of five occurrences in Matthew. See note on Matthew 6:33, and App-114.


Verse 25

then = it followeth.


Verse 26

beheld. Greek. emblepo. App-133. Not the same as verses: in, 27.

all things are possible. For eternal life is now "the gift of God" (compare Romans 6:23). See also Genesis 18:14Job 42:2 (marg). Zechariah 8:6 (Septuagint) Luke 1:37.


Verse 28

ye. The answer to Peter"s "we"Matthew 19:27.

the regeneration = the making of all things new. The restoration of Acts 3:21 = the "when" of the next clause. In Mark 10:30 we have the synonymous expression "the coming age": thus referring to the future time of reward, and not to the then present time of their following; the word palingenesia occurs only here, and in Titus 3:5. The Syriac reads "in the new world" (i.e. age).

the Son of man. See App-98. XVI

shall sit = shall have taken His seat.

in = upon. App-104.

the throne of His glory = His glorious throne.

upon. Greek. epi. App-104.

the twelve tribes of Israel. This can have nothing to do with the Church of the Mystery as revealed in the prison epistles.


Verse 29

or. Note the Figure of speech Paradiastole. App-6.

everlasting. Greek. aionios. See App-151.

life. Greek. zoe. App-170.


Verse 30

many. Connected with "last" as well as "first". Omit the italics "that are", and connect this verse with Matthew 20:1 as evidenced by the word "For" (Matthew 20:1) and "So"in Matthew 19:16.