Christian Churches of God

No. F038





Commentary on Zechariah: Introduction and Part 1

 (Edition 4.0 20060820-20120114-20140905-20230729)



Chapters 1-10



Christian Churches of God

PO Box 369,  WODEN  ACT 2606,  AUSTRALIA





 (Copyright © 2006, 2012, 2014, 2023 Wade Cox)


This paper may be freely copied and distributed provided it is copied in total with no alterations or deletions. The publisher’s name and address and the copyright notice must be included.  No charge may be levied on recipients of distributed copies.  Brief quotations may be embodied in critical articles and reviews without breaching copyright.


This paper is available from the World Wide Web page: and



Commentary on Zechariah: Introduction and Part 1



The Book of Zechariah is of great significance to the Restoration of Israel under the Messiah in the Last Days. See also Part II for the future of Israel and Judah in the Last Days from Zechariah and the NT texts.


The prophet Zechariah (Remembered of Yahovah) was son of Berechiah (Blessed of Yahovah) and grandson of Iddo.


He prophesied in the reign of Darius the Persian or Darius II of Persia at the building of the Temple. His prophecies were to cover the period from the building of the Second Temple to its furbishing and over its life and destruction. The prophecy then goes on to the Messiah and the construction of the Church of God, which is the Spiritual Temple, up until the return of the Messiah. It then deals with the construction of the final administration in Jerusalem over the millennial system of Messiah. The work is highly significant to the Last Days and the nations that attack Judah.


The structure of the book runs in sections:

Section 1          A. 1:1-6 Prophecy from Year 2 of Darius

B. 1:7-6:15 Prophecy with Symbols (Eight Visions)   

C. 7:1-8:23 Prophecy from Year 4 of Darius

Section 2          A. 9:1-10:12 The First Burden revealed

B. 11:1-17 Prophecy with Symbols

C. 12:1-14:21 The Second Burden revealed


Timing of Darius and the Prophets

Darius II assumed the throne in late 424 or early 423 BCE. The decree was issued to commence construction in 422 BCE (Ezra 6:1 and 4:24) (i.e. his second year). The 70 weeks of years commences from this date. From Ezra 5 it appears that Haggai and Zechariah prophesy in 423 BCE and 422 BCE. 70 weeks of years commences from 423/22 BCE (i.e. first year of the new Jubilee period). Construction was completed in the sixth year of Darius the Persian (Ezra 6:15) in 3 Adar i.e. March 418 BCE. Darius dies in the period from the end 405 to the spring 404 (see the paper The Sign of Jonah and the History of the Reconstruction of the Temple (No. 013): Bullinger’s chronology is wrong in this regard as are the relevant appendices).


This prophecy is thus tied to the reconstruction of the Temple and forms part of the Key of David system of prophecy and administration leading to the Last Days and the final reconstruction of the Temple (see Rule of the Kings: Part III: Solomon and the Key of David (No. 282C)).


Section one occurs at the commencement of construction and ends in year 2 of the construction at the halfway point. The second section is then given over the last half of the construction. Each section thus covers two of the four years of the construction and is tied in prophecy to the restoration of Israel and Judah under Messiah, and the Church that is mentioned here in the text as ruling with Messiah at Jerusalem.


Haggai also is involved in prophecy over the period as we have noted.


Ezra and Nehemiah have not yet returned, which they do in the reign of Artaxerxes II at the end of the seven weeks of years. Artaxerxes II issues the provisioning decree for the Temple and Nehemiah builds the walls of Jerusalem and fortifies it. Ezra died in 323 BCE in the same year as Alexander the Great. The canon was compiled by 321 and subsequently declared closed.


Zechariah Chs. 1-10 (RSV)


Chapter 1

In the eighth month, in the second year of Darius, the word of the LORD came to Zechari'ah the son of Berechi'ah, son of Iddo, the prophet, saying, 2"The LORD was very angry with your fathers. 3Therefore say to them, Thus says the LORD of hosts: Return to me, says the LORD of hosts, and I will return to you, says the LORD of hosts. 4Be not like your fathers, to whom the former prophets cried out, `Thus says the LORD of hosts, Return from your evil ways and from your evil deeds.' But they did not hear or heed me, says the LORD. 5Your fathers, where are they? And the prophets, do they live for ever? 6But my words and my statutes, which I commanded my servants the prophets, did they not overtake your fathers? So they repented and said, As the LORD of hosts purposed to deal with us for our ways and deeds, so has he dealt with us." 7On the twenty-fourth day of the eleventh month which is the month of Shebat, in the second year of Darius, the word of the LORD came to Zechari'ah the son of Berechi'ah, son of Iddo, the prophet; and Zechari'ah said, 8"I saw in the night, and behold, a man riding upon a red horse! He was standing among the myrtle trees in the glen; and behind him were red, sorrel, and white horses. 9Then I said, `What are these, my lord?' The angel who talked with me said to me, `I will show you what they are.' 10So the man who was standing among the myrtle trees answered, `These are they whom the LORD has sent to patrol the earth.' 11And they answered the angel of the LORD who was standing among the myrtle trees, `We have patrolled the earth, and behold, all the earth remains at rest.' 12Then the angel of the LORD said, `O LORD of hosts, how long wilt thou have no mercy on Jerusalem and the cities of Judah, against which thou hast had indignation these seventy years?' 13And the LORD answered gracious and comforting words to the angel who talked with me. 14So the angel who talked with me said to me, Cry out, Thus says the LORD of hosts: I am exceedingly jealous for Jerusalem and for Zion. 15And I am very angry with the nations that are at ease; for while I was angry but a little they furthered the disaster. 16Therefore, thus says the LORD, I have returned to Jerusalem with compassion; my house shall be built in it, says the LORD of hosts, and the measuring line shall be stretched out over Jerusalem. 17Cry again, Thus says the LORD of hosts: My cities shall again overflow with prosperity, and the LORD will again comfort Zion and again choose Jerusalem.'" 18And I lifted my eyes and saw, and behold, four horns! 19And I said to the angel who talked with me, "What are these?" And he answered me, "These are the horns which have scattered Judah, Israel, and Jerusalem." 20Then the LORD showed me four smiths. 21And I said, "What are these coming to do?" He answered, "These are the horns which scattered Judah, so that no man raised his head; and these have come to terrify them, to cast down the horns of the nations who lifted up their horns against the land of Judah to scatter it."


Intent of Chapter 1

Chapter 1 deals with the establishment of the prophecy and the time-frame over which the city was to be restored but did not have peace, and the Temple could not be built. God was displeased with Judah because they had not taught the statutes and the Laws of God correctly, nor had they followed them. The earth was at rest but the House of Judah did not have rest for seventy years. God was displeased with the heathen nations that felt secure. As we see from the text, He was a little displeased but they added to the punishment and affliction, which God did not ask them to do. Then the four horns that conspired to scatter Judah, Israel and Jerusalem were to be dealt with, and the four carpenters who are the servants of God have come to disperse the four horns that conspired to scatter Judah.


The term Lord of Hosts or Yahovah Sabaioth is mentioned fifty-three times in this book: forty-four times in chapters 1-8 and nine times in chapters 9-14. On twenty-nine occasions it is associated with the oracle of Yahovah Sabaioth where “Saith the Lord of Hosts” = (is) the oracle of Yahovah Sabaioth. Saith the Lord = (is) Yahovah’s Oracle.


The structure of the eight visions until Zechariah 6:15 runs as follows:

1st Vision (Zech. 1:7-17) Invisible Forces, Horses.

2nd Vision (Zech. 1:18-21) External Enemies or Horns.

3rd Vision (Zech. 2:1-13) Yahovah’s purpose with man is shown.

4th Vision (Zech. 3:1-10) Joshua the Branch is revealed.

5th Vision (Zech. 4:1-14) Yahovah’s purpose in the Lampstand is revealed.

6th and 7th Visions (Zech. 5:1-4, 11) External Enemies, the Flying Roll and Ephah.

8th Vision (Zech. 6:1-6) Invisible Forces, Horses.

Conclusion (Zech. 6:9-15): Ends with reference to Joshua the Branch.


The setting is with Israel in dispersion. The Gentiles are in possession of Israel at the time of the end. Yahovah is declaring his intention to intervene for Jerusalem (vv. 16,17; Isa. 40:1-5). The man in chapter 1 is Adonai of verse 9 and the Angel of Yahovah in verses 11,12 and we see the prophet told in his answer. The riders of verse 8 all report to this being who is the Adonai of Israel of Deuteronomy 32:8 (RSV). The term “among” has relevance to chapter 6:1.


vv. 7-12 Three months later the first section was completed.

The text shows the period of the trouble. It has reference also to chapter 7:9; Psalm 102:13; Isaiah 14:1; 49:13. This reference is not to the Church, which is the mother of us all, but to the city of Jerusalem itself.


vv. 13-15 Thus God was to deal with Judah, but the nations that added injury on injury when they had no business doing so angered God and He will deal with them.


This section was to look towards yet another dispersion. Here He is speaking of His house being built upon it, which is now taking place. However, we will see that this prophecy is to span some two and a half millennia and span two advents of the Messiah and his death.


Jerusalem will be measured with the purpose of reorganising it for building. This follows the Measuring of the Temple, which is the Church that we saw in Revelation 11:2ff.


vv. 16-21 God shows here that He will deal with the horns or powers that have hurt Judah and Israel and Jerusalem. This is not a reference to the Church (cf. Bullinger, Companion Bible note to v. 16). These four powers are raised against the nations to deal with them; literally to terrify them.


Chapter 2

And I lifted my eyes and saw, and behold, a man with a measuring line in his hand! 2Then I said, "Where are you going?" And he said to me, "To measure Jerusalem, to see what is its breadth and what is its length." 3And behold, the angel who talked with me came forward, and another angel came forward to meet him, 4and said to him, "Run, say to that young man, `Jerusalem shall be inhabited as villages without walls, because of the multitude of men and cattle in it. 5For I will be to her a wall of fire round about, says the LORD, and I will be the glory within her.'" 6Ho! ho! Flee from the land of the north, says the LORD; for I have spread you abroad as the four winds of the heavens, says the LORD. 7Ho! Escape to Zion, you who dwell with the daughter of Babylon. 8For thus said the LORD of hosts, after his glory sent me to the nations who plundered you, for he who touches you touches the apple of his eye: 9"Behold, I will shake my hand over them, and they shall become plunder for those who served them. Then you will know that the LORD of hosts has sent me. 10Sing and rejoice, O daughter of Zion; for lo, I come and I will dwell in the midst of you, says the LORD. 11And many nations shall join themselves to the LORD in that day, and shall be my people; and I will dwell in the midst of you, and you shall know that the LORD of hosts has sent me to you. 12And the LORD will inherit Judah as his portion in the holy land, and will again choose Jerusalem." 13Be silent, all flesh, before the LORD; for he has roused himself from his holy dwelling. 


Intent of Chapter 2

Chapter 2 shows that Judah is to be populated and God will be a wall of fire around about her and the glory in the midst of her. The text shows that God, Yahovah of Hosts, sent Yahovah of Israel to Jerusalem to protect her (Zech. 2:8). Many nations shall be joined to the Lord in that day and shall be God’s people and Yahovah will dwell in the midst of them. The Lord will inherit Judah, which is his portion in the Holy Land and shall again choose Jerusalem (cf. Deut. 32:8 RSV).


vv. 1-10 Notice here that Yahovah of Hosts sent this Yahovah who will dwell in Jerusalem. He says that then we will know that the Lord of Hosts has sent him. In other words this Yahovah is not Yahovah of Hosts but the Yahovah of Psalm 45:6-7 and Hebrews 1:8-9 sent to Israel by God. This is the Yahovah that was given Israel as his inheritance in Deuteronomy 32:8 (see RSV for correct translation). The words “apple of My eye” were changed to “His eye” by the Sopherim allegedly for reasons of anthropomorphism. Yahovah of Hosts sent this Yahovah for “His own Glory”.


The warning is given to those who dwell with the daughter of Babylon to escape from the North. Zechariah is speaking far into the future. Babylon has fallen already at this time and is subject to the Medes and Persians and has been for a century.  He is speaking of the Last Days and the daughter of Babylon referred to in the other prophecies and by the Church.


vv. 11-13 We know this to be the case because the prophecy then declares the union of many nations to Judah, which has not happened even from the first advent. He declares he will dwell in the midst of them and they will know that the Lord of Hosts has sent him to them. This being can only be Jesus Christ from his second advent.


Note the description of inheriting Judah as His portion. Israel is his inheritance but Judah was the tribe of Messiah. This being, Yahovah of Israel, can only be Jesus the Christ, the Messiah.


Chapter 3

Then he showed me Joshua the high priest standing before the angel of the LORD, and Satan standing at his right hand to accuse him. 2And the LORD said to Satan, "The LORD rebuke you, O Satan! The LORD who has chosen Jerusalem rebuke you! Is not this a brand plucked from the fire?" 3Now Joshua was standing before the angel, clothed with filthy garments. 4And the angel said to those who were standing before him, "Remove the filthy garments from him." And to him he said, "Behold, I have taken your iniquity away from you, and I will clothe you with rich apparel." 5And I said, "Let them put a clean turban on his head." So they put a clean turban on his head and clothed him with garments; and the angel of the LORD was standing by. [cf. Ps. 103:21] 6And the angel of the LORD enjoined Joshua, 7"Thus says the LORD of hosts: If you will walk in my ways and keep my charge, then you shall rule my house and have charge of my courts, and I will give you the right of access among those who are standing here. 8Hear now, O Joshua the high priest, you and your friends who sit before you, for they are men of good omen: behold, I will bring my servant the Branch. 9For behold, upon the stone which I have set before Joshua, upon a single stone with seven facets, I will engrave its inscription, says the LORD of hosts, and I will remove the guilt of this land in a single day. 10In that day, says the LORD of hosts, every one of you will invite his neighbor under his vine and under his fig tree."


Intent of Chapter 3

In Zechariah chapter 3, The Lord God shows how the sequence of the establishment of the end days occurs in that the High Priest carries the name of Joshua, as did the Messiah who was the Branch. Satan is placed at his right hand to resist him and not to support him. Joshua is given clean garments and his old garments are taken away. The followers of the High Priest that sit before him are men to be wondered at. The Lord God states that He will bring forward the Branch who is Messiah. The Lord God says that the stone laid before Joshua has seven eyes on the one stone, meaning there are seven eyes on every stone, and we know from Scripture that they are the seven spirits of God that also represent the seven angels of the seven churches. Thus, the seven spirits of God are present in every stone in the Temple, and in the seven churches of God, and there are elements of each church in all seven churches. (vv. 1-9)


It is God that engraves the stones with the seven eyes, which are the seven spirits. God removes the iniquity of the land in one day. He did that through the Messiah and enshrined the seven spirits in the seven churches.


Verse 10 says: “In that day said the Lord of Hosts you will call every man his neighbour under the vine and under the fig tree.”


This sequence reflects the establishment of the churches over time and brings us to the Day of the Lord, which is the day referred to in verse 10 as: “In that day”.


Specifically the High Priest of Israel must comply with the Laws of God. This charge is given by God to Joshua, High Priest of Israel. If he does not follow the Laws of God he is disqualified from being High Priest.


Chapter 4

And the angel who talked with me came again, and waked me, like a man that is wakened out of his sleep. 2And he said to me, "What do you see?" I said, "I see, and behold, a lampstand all of gold, with a bowl on the top of it, and seven lamps on it, with seven lips on each of the lamps which are on the top of it. 3And there are two olive trees by it, one on the right of the bowl and the other on its left." 4And I said to the angel who talked with me, "What are these, my lord?" 5Then the angel who talked with me answered me, "Do you not know what these are?" I said, "No, my lord." 6Then he said to me, "This is the word of the LORD to Zerub'babel: Not by might, nor by power, but by my Spirit, says the LORD of hosts. 7What are you, O great mountain? Before Zerub'babel you shall become a plain; and he shall bring forward the top stone amid shouts of `Grace, grace to it!'" 8Moreover the word of the LORD came to me, saying, 9"The hands of Zerub'babel have laid the foundation of this house; his hands shall also complete it. Then you will know that the LORD of hosts has sent me to you. 10For whoever has despised the day of small things shall rejoice, and shall see the plummet in the hand of Zerub'babel. "These seven are the eyes of the LORD, which range through the whole earth." 11Then I said to him, "What are these two olive trees on the right and the left of the lampstand?" 12And a second time I said to him, "What are these two branches of the olive trees, which are beside the two golden pipes from which the oil is poured out?" 13He said to me, "Do you not know what these are?" I said, "No, my lord." 14Then he said, "These are the two anointed who stand by the Lord of the whole earth."


Intent of Chapter 4

Chapter 4 goes on to deal with the Witnesses who stand on either side of the seven lamps on the great lampstand. Through Zechariah, God declares that: “It is not by might, nor by power but by my spirit says the Lord of Hosts”. These are the Two Witnesses that stand beside the Lord of the earth and the seven eyes are the seven spirits of God that run to and fro throughout the earth. This is not Satan “the god of this world” (2Cor. 4:4) but Messiah who is to replace him. This is the section dealing with the Day of the Lord and the triumph of the Witnesses in the Last Days. (vv. 1-14)


The Two Witnesses are to come at the end of the sequence and do not refer to anyone from then until now.


Chapter 5

Again I lifted my eyes and saw, and behold, a flying scroll! 2And he said to me, "What do you see?" I answered, "I see a flying scroll; its length is twenty cubits, and its breadth ten cubits." 3Then he said to me, "This is the curse that goes out over the face of the whole land; for every one who steals shall be cut off henceforth according to it, and every one who swears falsely shall be cut off henceforth according to it. 4I will send it forth, says the LORD of hosts, and it shall enter the house of the thief, and the house of him who swears falsely by my name; and it shall abide in his house and consume it, both timber and stones." 5Then the angel who talked with me came forward and said to me, "Lift your eyes, and see what this is that goes forth." 6And I said, "What is it?" He said, "This is the ephah that goes forth." And he said, "This is their iniquity in all the land." 7And behold, the leaden cover was lifted, and there was a woman sitting in the ephah! 8And he said, "This is Wickedness." And he thrust her back into the ephah, and thrust down the leaden weight upon its mouth. 9Then I lifted my eyes and saw, and behold, two women coming forward! The wind was in their wings; they had wings like the wings of a stork, and they lifted up the ephah between earth and heaven. 10Then I said to the angel who talked with me, "Where are they taking the ephah?" 11He said to me, "To the land of Shinar, to build a house for it; and when this is prepared, they will set the ephah down there on its base."


Intent of Chapter 5

The scroll of the Lord, which is the Law of God, will go forth into the houses of the thieves and liars and will bear witness against them and separate them and cut them off and destroy their houses to the stones and the bricks.


The nexus of the Law is to be restored by the Witnesses in the Last Days. Chapter 5 follows directly on to the section dealing with them in Chapter 4 and does not regress. It is not restored at present.


The witness of the Lord was corrupted and made as an ephah of lead and placed in the mouth of the woman who works iniquity, and the ephah was taken to the land of Shinar, which is Babylon.


Thus, the false religious system was given lead for speech and prophecy, and taken to the system of Babylon and dealt with in the Last Days. These are the antinomians who teach that the Law of God is done away.


Chapter 6

And again I lifted my eyes and saw, and behold, four chariots came out from between two mountains; and the mountains were mountains of bronze. 2The first chariot had red horses, the second black horses, 3the third white horses, and the fourth chariot dappled gray horses. 4Then I said to the angel who talked with me, "What are these, my lord?" 5 And the angel answered me, "These are going forth to the four winds of heaven, after presenting themselves before the LORD of all the earth. 6The chariot with the black horses goes toward the north country, the white ones go toward the west country, and the dappled ones go toward the south country." 7When the steeds came out, they were impatient to get off and patrol the earth. And he said, "Go, patrol the earth." So they patrolled the earth. 8Then he cried to me, "Behold, those who go toward the north country have set my Spirit at rest in the north country." 9And the word of the LORD came to me: 10"Take from the exiles Heldai, Tobi'jah, and Jedai'ah, who have arrived from Babylon; and go the same day to the house of Josi'ah, the son of Zephani'ah. 11Take from them silver and gold, and make a crown, and set it upon the head of Joshua, the son of Jehoz'adak, the high priest; 12and say to him, `Thus says the LORD of hosts, "Behold, the man whose name is the Branch: for he shall grow up in his place, and he shall build the temple of the LORD. 13It is he who shall build the temple of the LORD, and shall bear royal honor, and shall sit and rule upon his throne. And there shall be a priest by his throne, and peaceful understanding shall be between them both."' 14And the crown shall be in the temple of the LORD as a reminder to Heldai, Tobi'jah, Jedai'ah, and Josi'ah the son of Zephani'ah. 15"And those who are far off shall come and help to build the temple of the LORD; and you shall know that the LORD of hosts has sent me to you. And this shall come to pass, if you will diligently obey the voice of the LORD your God." (RSV)


Intent of Chapter 6

6:1-8 is the period of the four angels referred to in Revelation 7:1-3. The four sets of horses are Red, Black and White horses and the fourth chariot is made up of Bay and Greys (grisled from Fr. gris or iron-grey).


The blacks go forth to the north-country, the whites go forth to the west, and the grisled or greys go forth to the south country, and the bay walks to and fro on the earth.


The term quieted my spirit in the north- country means: “to cause [my anger] to rest upon my spirit (cf. Bullinger, Companion Bible). God is thus to deal with the North Country. The Temple of the Lord is to be built and will be built by people who come from afar (cf. Isa. 60:10) and it is the Branch, named Joshua, the High Priest that builds the Temple. Thus we had to have the Messiah named Joshua, meaning salvation. It shall come to pass if we diligently obey God.


The Branch is given royal honour in Israel and a priest shall stand by his throne. There shall be peace between them. The prophecy is for a time in the future where the Branch will build his Temple bearing royal honour and ruling the priesthood, and this being can only be the Messiah. The crown shall be in the Temple of the Lord. The elect are to rule as God and the crown is theirs to rule. This is the promise to the Church of the Philadelphians of Revelation chapter 3.


The term sprout forth is Yemach ... yizmach which is literally a branch shall branch forth. Bullinger notes this fact and also that some codices omit the term.


Chapter 7

In the fourth year of King Darius, the word of the LORD came to Zechari'ah in the fourth day of the ninth month, which is Chislev. 2Now the people of Bethel had sent Share'zer and Reg'em-mel'ech and their men, to entreat the favor of the LORD, 3and to ask the priests of the house of the LORD of hosts and the prophets, "Should I mourn and fast in the fifth month, as I have done for so many years?" 4Then the word of the LORD of hosts came to me; 5"Say to all the people of the land and the priests, When you fasted and mourned in the fifth month and in the seventh, for these seventy years, was it for me that you fasted? 6And when you eat and when you drink, do you not eat for yourselves and drink for yourselves? 7When Jerusalem was inhabited and in prosperity, with her cities round about her, and the South and the lowland were inhabited, were not these the words which the LORD proclaimed by the former prophets?" 8And the word of the LORD came to Zechari'ah, saying, 9 "Thus says the LORD of hosts, Render true judgments, show kindness and mercy each to his brother, 10do not oppress the widow, the fatherless, the sojourner, or the poor; and let none of you devise evil against his brother in your heart." 11But they refused to hearken, and turned a stubborn shoulder, and stopped their ears that they might not hear. 12They made their hearts like adamant lest they should hear the law and the words which the LORD of hosts had sent by his Spirit through the former prophets. Therefore great wrath came from the LORD of hosts. 13"As I called, and they would not hear, so they called, and I would not hear," says the LORD of hosts, 14"and I scattered them with a whirlwind among all the nations which they had not known. Thus the land they left was desolate, so that no one went to and fro, and the pleasant land was made desolate."


Intent of Chapter 7

In the Last Days God will deal with the remnant of Israel. This prophecy was the second or last of the visions of the first section. It looked forward to the next dispersion and the desolation of Judea and the fall of the Temple they were in the process of building. The lesson was simple. Keep the Laws of God and the Covenant or they would be dispersed again. The Temple would only consist of those keeping the Covenant as the Laws of God.


In those seventy years Israel did not fast and mourn for the Laws of God. In the fasts of the Fifth and Seventh months they did not fast to obey God (vv. 3-7). Note that the fast of 10 Ab to mourn the destruction of the Temple had been instituted in Judah by this time (cf. Jer. 52:12,13). The word of the Lord is to execute true judgment and to show mercy and compassion every man to his neighbour, to not oppress the widow and the fatherless, nor the stranger or the poor, and let none of you imagine evil against his brother in his heart (vv. 9-10). But they would not listen and pulled away the shoulder and stopped their ears so that they would not hear. They made their hearts as adamant as stone, like flint, so that they could not hear the Law of God and the words that the Lord of Hosts had sent by the former prophets. Because of that, a great wrath came from the Lord of Hosts (vv. 11-12).


God says that it will come to pass that, as they closed their ears and would not hear the Law of God and the former prophets that God closed His ears and would not hear, and God scattered them abroad throughout all the nations so that the land was desolate. In the same way, God will deal with those who refuse to hear the Word of the Lord and the Laws of God in the Last Days (vv. 13-14).


Chapter 8

And the word of the LORD of hosts came to me, saying, 2"Thus says the LORD of hosts: I am jealous for Zion with great jealousy, and I am jealous for her with great wrath. 3Thus says the LORD: I will return to Zion, and will dwell in the midst of Jerusalem, and Jerusalem shall be called the faithful city, and the mountain of the LORD of hosts, the holy mountain. 4Thus says the LORD of hosts: Old men and old women shall again sit in the streets of Jerusalem, each with staff in hand for very age. 5And the streets of the city shall be full of boys and girls playing in its streets. 6Thus says the LORD of hosts: If it is marvelous in the sight of the remnant of this people in these days, should it also be marvelous in my sight, says the LORD of hosts? 7Thus says the LORD of hosts: Behold, I will save my people from the east country and from the west country; 8and I will bring them to dwell in the midst of Jerusalem; and they shall be my people and I will be their God, in faithfulness and in righteousness." 9Thus says the LORD of hosts: "Let your hands be strong, you who in these days have been hearing these words from the mouth of the prophets, since the day that the foundation of the house of the LORD of hosts was laid, that the temple might be built. 10 For before those days there was no wage for man or any wage for beast, neither was there any safety from the foe for him who went out or came in; for I set every man against his fellow. 11But now I will not deal with the remnant of this people as in the former days, says the LORD of hosts. 12For there shall be a sowing of peace; the vine shall yield its fruit, and the ground shall give its increase, and the heavens shall give their dew; and I will cause the remnant of this people to possess all these things. 13And as you have been a byword of cursing among the nations, O house of Judah and house of Israel, so will I save you and you shall be a blessing. Fear not, but let your hands be strong." 14For thus says the LORD of hosts: "As I purposed to do evil to you, when your fathers provoked me to wrath, and I did not relent, says the LORD of hosts, 15so again have I purposed in these days to do good to Jerusalem and to the house of Judah; fear not. 16These are the things that you shall do: Speak the truth to one another, render in your gates judgments that are true and make for peace, 17do not devise evil in your hearts against one another, and love no false oath, for all these things I hate, says the LORD." 18And the word of the LORD of hosts came to me, saying, 19"Thus says the LORD of hosts: The fast of the fourth month, and the fast of the fifth, and the fast of the seventh, and the fast of the tenth, shall be to the house of Judah seasons of joy and gladness, and cheerful feasts; therefore love truth and peace. 20"Thus says the LORD of hosts: Peoples shall yet come, even the inhabitants of many cities; 21the inhabitants of one city shall go to another, saying, `Let us go at once to entreat the favor of the LORD, and to seek the LORD of hosts; I am going.' 22Many peoples and strong nations shall come to seek the LORD of hosts in Jerusalem, and to entreat the favor of the LORD. 23Thus says the LORD of hosts: In those days ten men from the nations of every tongue shall take hold of the robe of a Jew, saying, `Let us go with you, for we have heard that God is with you.'" (RSV)


Intent of Chapter 8

Chapter 8 shows that God forces the return to Zion and gathers His people from the east country and the west-country. They will dwell in Jerusalem in truth and righteousness (vv. 2-3) Before the final restoration there was no peace and God set every man against his neighbour. But in the Last Days He will make the earth give its fruit and God will do well to Jerusalem and to Judah. God will also restore Israel with Judah so that they are no longer a curse among the nations (vv. 10-15). 


This is what we are to do. We are to speak the truth to our neighbours and to execute judgment in truth and peace in our gates. We are to love our neighbours and to make no false oath (vv. 16-17). Judah will execute the fasts of the Fourth month (on the 9th when the city was broken up); Fifth month (10 Ab, when the Temple and the Houses were burnt); Seventh month (3 Tishri when Gedaliah was slain by Ishmael son of Nethaniah (Jer. 40:8; 41:1-3, 15-18) and Tenth month (10 Tebeth) when the king of Babylon set his face against Jerusalem (Ezek. 24:1-2)) (vv. 18-19). These are man-made fasts and not the fasts of the Lord.


vv. 20-23 In those days, at the end of this age, men shall take hold of the robes of Judah out of all the languages on the earth and go to Jerusalem to pray to the Lord of Hosts (cf. Gen. 26:28; Isa. 2:3; Mic. 4:2). God’s people (Israel) will be restored.


Chapter 9

An Oracle The word of the LORD is against the land of Hadrach and will rest upon Damascus. For to the LORD belong the cities of Aram, even as all the tribes of Israel; 2Hamath also, which borders thereon, Tyre and Sidon, though they are very wise. 3Tyre has built herself a rampart, and heaped up silver like dust, and gold like the dirt of the streets. 4But lo, the Lord will strip her of her possessions and hurl her wealth into the sea, and she shall be devoured by fire. 5Ash'kelon shall see it, and be afraid; Gaza too, and shall writhe in anguish; Ekron also, because its hopes are confounded. The king shall perish from Gaza; Ash'kelon shall be uninhabited; 6a mongrel people shall dwell in Ashdod; and I will make an end of the pride of Philistia. 7I will take away its blood from its mouth, and its abominations from between its teeth; it too shall be a remnant for our God; it shall be like a clan in Judah, and Ekron shall be like the Jeb'usites. 8Then I will encamp at my house as a guard, so that none shall march to and fro; no oppressor shall again overrun them, for now I see with my own eyes. 9Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion! Shout aloud, O daughter of Jerusalem! Lo, your king comes to you; triumphant and victorious is he, humble and riding on an ass, on a colt the foal of an ass. 10I will cut off the chariot from E'phraim and the war horse from Jerusalem; and the battle bow shall be cut off, and he shall command peace to the nations; his dominion shall be from sea to sea, and from the River to the ends of the earth. 11As for you also, because of the blood of my covenant with you, I will set your captives free from the waterless pit. 12Return to your stronghold, O prisoners of hope; today I declare that I will restore to you double. 13For I have bent Judah as my bow; I have made E'phraim its arrow. I will brandish your sons, O Zion, over your sons, O Greece, and wield you like a warrior's sword. 14Then the LORD will appear over them, and his arrow go forth like lightning; the Lord GOD will sound the trumpet, and march forth in the whirlwinds of the south. 15The LORD of hosts will protect them, and they shall devour and tread down the slingers; and they shall drink their blood like wine, and be full like a bowl, drenched like the corners of the altar. 16On that day the LORD their God will save them for they are the flock of his people; for like the jewels of a crown they shall shine on his land. 17Yea, how good and how fair it shall be! Grain shall make the young men flourish, and new wine the maidens.  (RSV)


Intent of Chapter 9

We now begin the First Burden of the Second section. This is now far into the future.


Chapters 9 to 11, the fate of Tyre and Sidon and Gaza, Ekron, Ashkelon and Ashdod, and Damascus and the lands adjoining it in Syria, and the whole country of Lebanon, are mentioned and dealt with in explicit terms. 


They will worship God in Jerusalem with Judah, and will be as governors in Israel. They will face destruction and conversion and rehabilitation. God will encamp about Jerusalem against the army that is brought against it (vv.1-8).


At this time it is written: Rejoice greatly o daughter of Zion; shout o daughter of Jerusalem: behold thy king cometh unto thee: he is just and having salvation; lowly and riding upon an ass, and upon a colt the foal of an ass (Zech. 9:9). The events in bold were quotes in the NT and are prophesied in Micah 5:2 and examined in Matthew 2:1 and 21:5. These are dual aspects. Verse 10 goes on to establish the prophecy of the Second Advent where Messiah, in justice and salvation, cuts off the chariot from Ephraim and the horse from Jerusalem and the battle bow. Messiah shall speak peace to the heathens and his dominion shall be from sea to sea and from the river even to the ends of the earth. God states that He will take Zion and establish the blood of His covenant and take their prisoners out of the pit wherein there is no water (Zech. 9:11-12). This is the conversion of Judah and Ephraim. The text shows they will be sent against the sons of Javan, which is rendered as Greece in the LXX but the Hebrew says yavan, which was understood to be the ancient Ionian Greeks, not the modern Greeks. They are not simply the residents of modern Greece who are not sons of Javan in any quantity (cf. Gen. 10:2,4; Isa. 66:19; Ezek. 27:13; Dan. 8:21; 11:2; Joel 3:6; see also the Genetic Origin of the Nations (No. 265) and War of Hamon-Gog (No. 294)).


They will all be strengthened and the Lord will make them strong and they will subdue their enemies in the Holy Spirit of their conversion.


Lebanon and the pride of Jordan are brought down. The Lord says to feed the flock of the slaughter. In chapter 11 God shows how it is He that intervenes and feeds the flock. In that chapter God warns of the idol shepherd and the punishment for leaving the flock and the destruction of the unity of the people. This is reversion to the First Advent when the staves of Beauty and Bands were broken and the shepherds that grew out of the apostate Church rendered the poor to the hooves (cf. Ezek. 34:1-22).


vv. 1-7 The fall of Tyre and Sidon was in part accomplished by the Babylonians. However, that was long past when this was written. The prophecy looked to the future to the Greeks and the Romans and then later again to the Arabs and the Crusades and now to the Last Days. The comments made here were carried out in part, but not all, and in the Last Days we are seeing this unfold now before our very eyes.


The promises here are that these nations will become part of Israel and they will be as provinces of Israel and their glory will be in the glory of the Lord in Israel. The Jebusites were those that inhabited Jerusalem and the threshing floor of Araunah became the site of the Temple of God. The might of the Philistines was to be removed and rulership was to be removed from Gaza and the other Philistine centres were to be removed or made a mixed people as in Ashdod. This is Scripture and Scripture cannot be broken.


God tells us then that Messiah will come to Jerusalem as he did come in triumph over sin. The text does not stop there but continues on to deal with Ephraim and Judah together, which is in the Last Days. Israel had gone into captivity in 722 BCE and did not return.


vv. 8-17 This text looks forward to the Last Days when Messiah returns in triumph and subjugates the nations. He uses the might of Judah and of Ephraim to subjugate the nations, and that is exactly what happened from the period of 1916 onwards (see the paper The Fall of Egypt: The Prophecy of Pharaohs Broken Arms (No. 036)). However they will be forced into peace.


Chapter 10

Ask rain from the LORD in the season of the spring rain, from the LORD who makes the storm clouds, who gives men showers of rain, to every one the vegetation in the field. 2For the teraphim utter nonsense, and the diviners see lies; the dreamers tell false dreams, and give empty consolation. Therefore the people wander like sheep; they are afflicted for want of a shepherd. 3"My anger is hot against the shepherds, and I will punish the leaders; for the LORD of hosts cares for his flock, the house of Judah, and will make them like his proud steed in battle. 4Out of them shall come the cornerstone, out of them the tent peg, out of them the battle bow, out of them every ruler. 5Together they shall be like mighty men in battle, trampling the foe in the mud of the streets; they shall fight because the LORD is with them, and they shall confound the riders on horses. 6"I will strengthen the house of Judah, and I will save the house of Joseph. I will bring them back because I have compassion on them, and they shall be as though I had not rejected them; for I am the LORD their God and I will answer them. 7Then E'phraim shall become like a mighty warrior, and their hearts shall be glad as with wine. Their children shall see it and rejoice, their hearts shall exult in the LORD. 8"I will signal for them and gather them in, for I have redeemed them, and they shall be as many as of old. 9Though I scattered them among the nations, yet in far countries they shall remember me, and with their children they shall live and return. 10I will bring them home from the land of Egypt, and gather them from Assyria; and I will bring them to the land of Gilead and to Lebanon, till there is no room for them. 11They shall pass through the sea of Egypt, and the waves of the sea shall be smitten, and all the depths of the Nile dried up. The pride of Assyria shall be laid low, and the sceptre of Egypt shall depart. 12I will make them strong in the LORD and they shall glory in his name," says the LORD. (RSV)


Intent of Chapter 10

The First Burden continues until 10:12. However, the next two chapters deal with the problem of false religion. God is demanding that they ask blessings of Him and not of the teraphim, which are the household idols that we see even today in the guise of the mother goddess depicted as the “Virgin Mary”, or Buddha and who knows what else.


The diviners see lies and the dreamers interpret false dreams. The people are misled by false religion and this period goes on to the days of the end. The shepherds are punished because of what they have done to Judah and Israel and to the chosen of God. Judah is set aside to show that they will be restored and false religion will be removed. Judah will be restored and Joseph will be strengthened. However, we need to understand who they are first before we can see what it is that God is to accomplish. Judah and the house of Joseph are in the United States and British Commonwealth, without for one minute considering the identities of the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel, which are ten times as many people as those identified as Jews today in those nations. There are more Jews in the US alone than in Israel and more in the US and British Commonwealth than everywhere else in the world combined. They are the true nation of Israel today, notwithstanding their own ancient genealogical claims to the ancestry of Israel.


Note here that the lands of Gilead and Lebanon are reserved for Ephraim and as part of greater Israel. God is preparing for this moment even now. Lebanon will be incorporated as a state of Israel and they will live at peace.


Bullinger’s Notes on Chs. 1-10 (for KJV)


Chapter 1

Verse 1

In the eighth month, &c. Zechariah"s first prophecy is dated (Zechariah 1:1"in the eighth month in the second year of Darius" (Hystaspis) (410 b. c.) ; sixteen years after the Decree of Cyrus. It thus comes midway between Haggai"s second and third messages. See notes on Haggai 1:1-1:10.

Modern critics first assume that the day ought to be named, and then further assume that it has "fallen out accidentally"!

Darius. Darius (Hystaspis). See App-57.

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4,

Zechariah = Remembered of Jehovah.

Berechiah = Blessed of Jehovah. Compare Matthew 23:35. This prophet would be the one referred to by the Lord, unless the father of the Zechariah of 2 Chronicles 24:202 Chronicles 24:21 had more than one name, which was sometimes the ease. See Esau"s wives (Genesis 26:34Genesis 28:9Genesis 36:2Genesis 36:3). The latter would be the last (and Abel the first in the O.T.), according to the place of Chronicles in the Hebrew Canon (see App-1).

son. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Species), App-6, for descendant.

Iddo. See Ezra 5:1Ezra 6:14Nehemiah 12:4Nehemiah 12:16.


Verse 2

sore displeased. Hebrew displeased with a displeasure. Figure of speech Polyptoton. App-6. See note on Genesis 26:28.

your fathers. Compare verses: Zechariah 1:4Zechariah 1:6,


Verse 3

saith = hath said.

the LORD of hosts. Hebrew. Jehovah.Zebbaioth. App-4. This title occurs fifty-three times in this book, forty-four times in chs. 1-8, and nine times in chs. 9-14. It is characteristic of this book twenty-nine times it is with the verbs saith or speaketh. All are referred to in the notes.

Turn = Return. Note the Figure of speech Epimone (App-6), in verses: Zechariah 1:3-6, in which the fact is emphasised by dwelling upon it as the cause of all Jehovah"s displeasure.

saith the LORD of hosts = [is] the oracle of Jehovah Sabaioth.


Verse 4

the former prophets : i.e. Joshua to 2 Kings. See App-1and App-78.

evil = wicked. Hebrew. raa`. App-44.

saith = hath said.

saith the LORD = [is] Jehovah"s oracle.


Verse 5

where are they? This in contrast with the words of Jehovah, which endure forever (Zechariah 1:6). Figure of speech Erotesis. App-6.


Verse 6

take hold of = overtake. Compare Deuteronomy 28:15Deuteronomy 28:45.

said. See Lamentations 1:18.


Verse 7

Upon, &c. See note on p. 1280.

eleventh month. Three months after Zechariah 1:1.


Verse 8

I saw, &c. In this first of the eight visions (Zechariah 1:8 - Zechariah 6:15) Israel is in dispersion; the Gentiles are in possession at the time of the end. Jehovah is about to interfere on behalf of Jerusalem (verses: Zechariah 1:16Zechariah 1:17Isaiah 40:1-5).

man. Hebrew. "ish. App-14. This man is the "Adonai "of Zechariah 1:9, and "the angel of Jehovah" of verses: Zechariah 1:11Zechariah 1:12, as the prophet discovers from the "man"s" answer. The riders of Zechariah 1:8 report to the angel (Zechariah 1:11).

among = between.

bottom = the shade i.e. between the two mountains of Zechariah 6:1.

horses. Representing all earthly dynasties.

speckled = bay.


Verse 9

my lord. Hebrew. Adonai. App-4.

angel. See verses: Zechariah 1:11Zechariah 1:12Zechariah 1:13Zechariah 1:14Zechariah 1:19Zechariah 2:3Zechariah 4:1Zechariah 4:5Zechariah 5:10Zechariah 6:4Zechariah 6:5.

be = are.


Verse 11

behold. Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6.


Verse 12

mercy = compassion, or pity. Compare Zechariah 7:9Psalms 102:13Isaiah 14:1Isaiah 49:13.

Jerusalem. Not the "Church".

threescore and ten. See Daniel 9:2, and notes on 2 Chronicles 36:21.


Verse 13

answered. See note on Deuteronomy 1:41. Jehovah Himself now speaks.


Verse 15

heathen = nations.

at ease = indifferent (Isaiah 32:9Isaiah 32:11Amos 6:1).

affliction = calamity. Hebrew. raa". App-44. Compare Isaiah 47:11Jeremiah 44:11.


Verse 16

shall be built in it. The Temple therefore had not yet been commenced.

a line shall be stretched, &c. f. e. a measuring-line. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6, for the whole work of building. Compare Zechariah 2:1Zechariah 2:2.


Verse 17

comfort = pity, or have compassion on; as mercy" in Zechariah 1:12.


Verse 18

four horns"horns" being put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6, for the Gentile (Zechariah 1:21) powers signified by thorn.


Verse 19

Judah, Israel, and Jerusalem. With "eth pre- fixed to the first two (not Jerusalem) for emphasis, so that we may not confuse them with the Church or with Gentile peoples. There is no "gloss", as alleged.


Verse 20

shewed me. This is part of the second vision,

carpenters = (iron)smiths.


Verse 21

he: i.e. the angel,

these: i.e. these four smiths (or it may denote the supernatural princes over the kingdoms). They repre sent the Divine agencies raised up, by which Jehovah will overthrow them.

fray. Short for affray-to terrify; hence English, afraid and affright. So the Hebrew harad = terrify. put in consternation (Hebrew. Hiphil, causative). Compare Zephaniah 3:13.

them : i.e. the kingdoms represented by the horns.

Gentiles = nations.


Chapter  2

Verse 1

behold Figure of speech Asterismos App-6.

man Hebrew. "ish App-14. Either the same or another angel.

a measuring line. See note on Zechariah 1:16 and Compare Zechariah 2:2


Verse 2

Jerusalem. With"eth. See note on Zechariah 1:19.


Verse 3

angel. See note on Zechariah 1:9.

went forth: or, came forward.


Verse 4

this young man: i.e. the man of Zechariah 2:1.

saying. Supply the logical Ellipsis (App-8), "saying [Stop! ]", for the reason given implies that measuring will be useless, owing to the overflow of inhabitants.

without walls. Compare Isaiah 33:20Isaiah 54:2Ezekiel 38:11.

men. Hebrew. "adam. App-14.


Verse 5

saith the LORD = [is] Jehovah"s oracle. App-4.

wall of fire. Like the watch-fires seen round Bedaween camps, which have no walls. Compare Isaiah 26:1Isaiah 33:21Isaiah 60:18.

in the midst. Compare verses: Zechariah 2:10Zechariah 2:11 ("J")


Verse 6

Ho, ho. Figure of speech Epixeuxis (App-6), for emphasis. come forth: or, supply the Ellipsis "[escape]".

I have spread. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 4:27Deuteronomy 28:64

spread = scattered.

as. Some codices, with five early printed editions, and Syriac, read "by", or "throughout". Vulgate reads "into".

winds. Hebrew. ruach. App-9.


Verse 7

Deliver. Hebrew Ho!

Rescue, &c., as in Zechariah 2:6


Verse 8

the LORD of hosts. See note on Zechariah 1:3.

After the glory = For His own glory.

he that, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 32:10). App-92.

His eye. The primitive text read "Mine eye"; but the Sopherim say (App-33) that they altered this to "His", regarding it as derogatory to Jehovah to rend aloud such pronounced anthropomorphic expressions.


Verse 9

their servants = their own slaves.


Verse 10

lo. Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6.

I will dwell, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Ex. Zechariah 29:45Zechariah 29:46Leviticus 26:11Leviticus 26:12). App-92.


Verse 11

many nations, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 12:49Numbers 9:14). App-92.


Verse 12

shall inherit . . . His portion. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 32:9). App-92.

holy. See note on Exodus 3:5.

again = yet; as in Zechariah 1:17. Not make a new choice, but demonstrate again His old choice in actual experience.


Verse 13

Be silent, &c. Compare Habakkuk 2:20Zephaniah 1:7.

is raised up = hath roused Himself up. Compare Psalms 78:65.

His holy habitation. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 26:15)


Chapter 3

Verse 1

shewed one. This is the fourth of the eight visions. See the Structure, p. 1281.

Joshua. See note on Haggai 1:1.

standing. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6, for ministering.

the angel. See note on Zechariah 1:9.

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

Satan . . . to resist him. Note the Figure of speech Paronomasia (App-6). Hebrew. hassatan . . . lesitno = the Adversary . . . to be an adversary; or, the Accuser . . . to accuse him, &c.

Satan Accuser, or Opposer. See Numbers 22:22Numbers 22:321 Chronicles 21:1Job 1:6Job 1:7Job 1:8Job 1:12, &c.

at his right hand. Compare Psalms 109:6Job 30:12.

to resist him = to be his adversary. Compare Numbers 22:321 Samuel 29:41 Samuel 29:41 Samuel 19:221 Kings 5:41 Kings 11:141 Kings 11:231 Kings 11:25.


Verse 2

rebuke thee. Compare Jude 1:9.

hath chosen = bath now and heretofore chosen.

is not this . . . ? i.e. have I not plucked, &c. Figure of speech Erotesis. App-6.

a brand, &c. Compare Amos 4:11.


Verse 3

was = had come to be. Compare Genesis 1:2.

filthy. A symbol of the defiling nature of sin. Compare Proverbs 30:12Isaiah 4:4, &c.


Verse 4

those that stood, &c. : i.e. the ministering spirits who waited on Him. Compare Deuteronomy 1:381 Samuel 16:211 Kings 10:8.

Behold. Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6.

iniquity. Hebrew. aven. App-44.

from thee = from upon thee, or from off thee. Compare 2 Samuel 12:132 Samuel 24:10Job 7:21.

I will clothe = I have caused thee to be clothed.

change of raiment = rich or costly garments: i.e. robes of state, or of righteousness.


Verse 5

And I said = Then said I(i.e. the prophet); but some codices, with Syriac and Vulgate, read "then said He".

Let them set. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 29:6). App-92.

fair = clean, or pure.

mitre = turban. See Exodus 28:37.

stood by: i.e. while this was being done.


Verse 6

protested = solemnly affirmed, or testified. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 43:3Deuteronomy 8:19. Compare Jeremiah 11:7.


Verse 7

the Lord of hosts. See note on Zechariah 1:3 and on 1 Samuel 1:3.

if thou wilt keep, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 8:35). App-92.

judge My house, &c. = govern My house. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 17:9). App-92.

places to walk = free access, or right of way.

these that stand by: i.e. the attendant angels of Psalms 103:21. Compare 1 Kings 22:191 Timothy 5:21.

by: i.e. in My presence.


Verse 8

fellows = colleagues.

men wondered at = men of sign: i.e. men to serve as signs [of One greater].

men. Hebrew, plural of "enosh. App-14.

My Servant the BRANCH: i.e. Messiah,

the BRANCH. Compare Isaiah 4:2Jeremiah 23:5Jeremiah 23:6Jeremiah 33:15Jeremiah 6:12. Hebrew zemiah. Not the same word as in Isaiah 11:1, or Psalms 80:15Psalms 80:17. See notes on p, 1304.

BRANCH. See App-48.


Verse 9

upon = fixed upon; as in Deuteronomy 11:12. Compare 1 Kings 9:3Ezra 5:5.

one stone: or, every stone.

seven eyes = seven pairs of eyes. Watching and caring for. Compare Zechariah 4:10.

saith the LORD of hosts = [is] tho oracle of Jehovah Sabaioth.

in one day. Compare Isaiah 66:5-9


Verse 10

that day: i.e. the day of Messiah.

call = call in . . . under: i.e. invite to sit down and feast.

every man. Hebrew Ish. App-14.

the = his own; as in Micah 4:4.


Chapter 4

Verse 1

angel. See note on Zechariah 1:9.

man. Heb, "ish. App-14.


Verse 2

What seest thou? The fifth vision.

I said. Heb, text reads "he". Some codices, with four early printed editions, are without the Hebrew margin, "I"

behold. Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6.

candlestick = a single seven-branched lampstand, as in the Tabernacle and in the second Temple (1 Macc. 1.214.49; as seen in the Arch of Titus, in Rome). The reference is to the Pentateuch (Exodus 25:31); not to Solomon"s Temple, in which there were ten separate lampstands (1 Kings 7:49). Compare Jeremiah 52:19. App-92.

and his seven lamps. Reference to Pentateuch (Ex, Zechariah 25:37).

seven pipes. This looks forward to the future, as described in Revelation 11:3-12.


Verse 4

my lord. Hebrew "adon. See App-4.


Verse 6

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

might = might [of man].

nor = and not.

power = power [of flesh].

but by, &c. i.e. as in the lampstand the oil flowed silently, without help from man,

Spirit. Hebrew. ruach App-9.

the LORD of hosts. See note on Zechariah 1:3.


Verse 7

O great mountain? Add, by supplying the Ellip sis (App-6), "[that standest in the way of Zerubbebel? ]"


Verse 9

The hands, &c. Here is the explanation of the vision.

thou shalt know. Some codices, with Aramaean, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "ye shall know".


Verse 10

plummet. Hebrew stone of tin = tin weight used as a plummet,

with those seven = these seven [lamps which thou seest these [are] the eyes", &c.; as in Zechariah 3:9.


Verse 12

empty the golden oil out of themselves = empty out of themselves [and fill] the golden [bowls],


Verse 14

the two anointed ones. Heb, the two sons of oil; looking forward again to the future, to "the two witnesses" of Revelation 11:3-13.

the Lord of the whole earth. The Hebrew adon App-4., is here specially associated with Messiah"s dominion in the earth. Compare Zechariah 6:5Zechariah 14:9Joshua 3:11-13Psalms 8:1Psalms 8:6Psalms 8:9Psalms 97:5Micah 4:13.


Chapter 5

Verse 1

looked = This is the sixth vision. See the Structure on p. 1281.

roll = scroll. Hence our word "volume". Compare Ezekiel 2:9 - Zechariah 3:11.


Verse 2

cubits. See App-51.


Verse 3

the curse. Reference to Pentateuch (Lev 26 and Deu 28).

goeth forth. Compare Zechariah 5:5-6. Hebrew. yaza = to go forth on business, or on an errand. Same word as in Zechariah 14:2Zechariah 14:3Zechariah 14:8, &c. (not Zechariah 14:16Zechariah 14:18).

earth: or, land.

stealeth. sweareth, &c. Ref to Pentateuch (Leviticus 19:12). App-92.

shall be cut off = hath been let off, or declared innocent; as in Numbers 5:31Psalms 19:12Psalms 19:13Jeremiah 2:35, or goeth unpunished; as in Jeremiah 49:12. This is always the sense of Heb, nakah. Render the passage: "for " every one that stealeth hath been let off [is written] on the one side, according to it (the curse or scroll); and "every one that sweareth (falsely) hath been let off [is written] on the other side, according to it. Therefore have I brought it (the curse or scroll) forth".


Verse 4

I will bring = I have brought.

saith the LORD of hosts = [is] the oracle of Jehovah of hosts. See note on 1 Samuel 1:3.

enter into = lodge, or abide in.

My name. Emphatic for "Me Myself". See note on Psalms 20:1.

remain = lodge, or roost.

shall consume it = shall destroy it, or bring it to an end. Hebrew. kadah. Not the same word as in Zechariah 5:14Zechariah 5:12. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 13:45). App-92.

timber = timbers (plural)


Verse 5

angel, See note on Zechariah 1:9.

see. This is the seventh vision. See the Structure on p. 1281.


Verse 6

This. Hebrew. zoth. Feminine. Singular.

ephah. See App-51.,

resemblance = aspect. Heb eye. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6, for their Look: i.e. appearance, or colour, as in Leviticus 13:55Numbers 11:7Ezekiel 10:9. Compare Ez ek Zechariah 1:4Zechariah 1:7Zechariah 1:16Zechariah 1:27Daniel 10:6, &c. Septuagint and Syriac read "iniquity" (App-44.) i.e. (Vau = v) instead of (Yod = y).


Verse 7

behold = lo. Figure of speech Asterismos . App-6.

talent. See App-51. Hebrew. kikkar, a round disk, evidently fitting the ephah like a lid.


Verse 8

wickedness = the lawless [one]. Hebrew. rasha", App-44. Adjective, feminine, singular = the embodiment of the principle of lawlessness. The religions aspect of 2 Thessalonians 2:8-12. Rev 17.

it: i.e. the talent, which had been "lifted up "for the prophet to see, and then cast back "into" the ephah.

weight = stone; i.e. weight. This was "upon" the ephah, and is to be distinguished from the "talent", which was within.


Verse 9

two women. Perhaps denoting two nations.

wind. Hebrew. ruach. App-9.

like the wings of a stork. Evidently a symbol of velocity rather than of character.

stork. An unclean bird, fond of its young, and a bird of passage.


Verse 11

it = for her. Hebrew Feminine. Singular.

the land of Shinar = Babylonia. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 10:10Genesis 11:2Genesis 14:1Genesis 14:9). App-92. Outside the Pentateuch only in Joshua 7:21Isaiah 11:11Daniel 1:2.

it shall be established = it (i.e. the house, Hebrew, masculine singular) shall be ready (or prepared). Revised Version = when it is prepared.

set there = fixed, or settled. Septuagint, and Syriac, rend "they (i.e. the two women) shall settle her there".

base = fixed resting-place. The interpretation must refer to what is yet future. It cannot refer to the going into captivity; for the People had just returned, and Zechariah had been raised up for their comfort and encouragement. When the time comes, it will be marked by commerce (ephah), false religion (the woman), speedy accomplishment (the wings of a stork), and a spirit in their wings. This will be preparatory to the final judgment of Rev 18.


Chapter 6

Verse 1

and looked. Thus is the eighth vision

two mountains. Compare Zechariah 1:8 and Zechariah 4:7.

brass = copper or bronze. Compare Deuteronomy 8:9


Verse 2

red. The colours are not explained by the angel as having any significance. They are not explained in Zechariah 6:5, probably because then already gone forth.


Verse 3

grisled = speckled, or dappled: i.e. like hail. Compare Genesis 31:10Genesis 31:12. Grisled (now spelled grizzled) is from the French gris = iron-grey.

bay = strong. Hebrew "amuzzim. Occurs only here, and Zechariah 6:7. The feminine noun "strength" only in Zechariah 12:5.


Verse 4

angel. See note of Zechariah 1:9.

my lord. Hebrew. "adon. App-4.


Verse 5

These are, &c. This is the angel"s interpretation, and needs no further explanation. It is for our faith; not for our reason,

the four spirits: or, the four angels. Compare Revelation 7:1-3Revelation 9:14Revelation 9:15. They thus have to do with the time of the end. Their ministry is earthward, and has to do with judgment.

spirits. Hebrew. ruach. App-9. The world rulers Referred to in Daniel 10:13Daniel 10:20Daniel 10:21, &c.

from standing, &c. Some codices, with Septuagint and Vulgate, read "[each] to take their stand before", &c.,

the Lord of all the earth. See note on Zechariah 4:14.


Verse 6

after then: or, to the west of thorn.


Verse 7

he. A. special various reading called Sevir (App-34), reads "they".


Verse 8

cried. upon. Are almost obsolete idiom. To "cry upon" meant to call to, or appeal to, and is still used in this sense in Scotland. It comes to us through the Genevan Bible (1560), from the Great Bible (1539), and Coverdale (1534). It is the sense of the Hebrew z " ak here. See Judges 4:10Judges 4:13Jonah 3:7, &c.

quieted = caused [mine anger] to rest upon. This is the force of the Hebrew Hiphil.

spirit. Hebrew. ruach App-9. Put by Fig, Metonymy (of Cause), App-6, for the manifestation of it in feeling: here, anger, wrath, Compare Judges 8:3,


Verse  9

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.


Verse 10

captivity: or exile, being a deputation. Hebrew. golah. The special word for the Jews captive in Babylonia (2 Kings 24:152 Kings 24:16Ezra 1:11Ezra 2:1, &c. Nehemiah 7:6Esther 2:6Jeremiah 28:6Ezekiel 1:1, &c.) Put here by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6, for the returned exiles themselves.

go. Supply the Ellipsis (App-6), thus: "come [with them)".


Verse 11

Then take, &c. This is another verse, noted in the Massorah (App-30) as being one of twenty-six verses each of which contains all the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. Compare Zephaniah 3:8,

crowns. Hebrew pl, referring to the several circlets forming one composite crown. Compare Zechariah 6:14 where it is used with a verb in the singular.

Joshua. Josedech. See note on Haggai 1:1.


Verse 12

saying. Some codices, with the Septuagint and Syriac, omit this verb but in that case the Ellipsis (App-6), must be supplied in italics. See note on Psalms 109:5.

the Lord of hosts. See note on Zechariah 1:3.

Man . . . BRANCH. Hebrew. ish. App-14. See the Structure and note on the four Gospels as a whole, p. 1304.

grow up = sprout forth. Note the Figure of speech Paronomasia (App-6). Hebrew. zemach. . . zemach = a branch shall branch forth.


Verse 13

Even = Yea. Omitted in some codices; in which case, note the Figure of speech Anadiplosis (App-6). Note the emphatic pronouns (= He, even He, and none other), pointing to the Messiah, and typical character of the whole proceeding, viz. exiles bringing their gifts to restore Jehovah"s house. Their crowns were to be kept as a token of this future hope. Compare Zechariah 6:14.

shall build. Compare verses: Zechariah 6:12Zechariah 6:13 ("T") with Zechariah 6:15 ("T"), above.

shall bear, &c.: i.e. the glory and majesty of royalty. Compare Matthew 16:27Matthew 24:30Matthew 25:31.

be = become.

both: i.e. two offices, priest and king, will be combined in one person, Messiah.


Verse 14

for a memorial. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 12:14, the same word). App-92.


Verse 15

they. shall come: i.e. those future builders, of whom these were a type. Compare Isaiah 60:10.

And this, &c. = And it shall come to pass: i.e. the promise and prophecy in the former part of this verse.

if ye will, &c. This condition was not fulfilled; for the command to "repent" (the one condition of national restoration), given by John the Baptist (Matthew 3:1Matthew 3:2); Messiah (Matthew 4:17); and Peter (Acts 2:38Acts 3:19), was not obeyed: and this promise therefore remains for an obedience that is yet future. The verse therefore is not "left unfinished" as alleged.

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.


Chapter 7

Verse 1

the fourth year. Two years later than the first literal prophecy in Zechariah 1:1.

king Darius. Darius (Hystaspis). See App-57,

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

Chisleu. Corresponding with our December. See App-51.


Verse 2

they had sent unto the house of GOD, &c.: or, when Sherezer had sent (and Regem-melech and his men) to Bethel", &c. Beth-el had already been occupied by exiles returned from Babylon. See Ezra 2:28Nehemiah 7:32Nehemiah 11:31.

GOD. Hebrew. El. App-4.

Sherezer. Probably born in exile, as he bears an Assyrian name.

men. Hebrew, plural of "enosh. App-14.

pray before the LORD = entreat Jehovah"s favour by prayer (Exodus 32:111 Kings 13:6Jeremiah 26:19); or by sacrifice (1 Samuel 13:12).


Verse 3

speak unto the priests, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 17:9Deuteronomy 33:10). App-92.

the LORD of hosts. See note on Zechariah 1:3.

in the fifth month. See note on Zechariah 7:5.

as = according as.

these so many years = now so many years. Some codices read "seventy years", as in Zechariah 7:5


Verse 5

in the fifth. month. The month Ab (our August, App-51. V). The fast had already then been instituted to commemorate the destruction of Jerusalem on the tenth of Ab (Jeremiah 52:12Jeremiah 52:13).

seventh month. The month Tisri (our October). The fast had already then been instituted, on the third of Tisri, to commemorate the murder of Gedaliah by Ishmael, the son of Nethaniah. See Jeremiah 40:8Jeremiah 41:1-3Jeremiah 41:15-18. See further notes on Zechariah 8:19.

even. Some codices omit this word.


Verse 6

when ye did eat, &c. Or, was it not ye that were the eaters, and ye the drinkers?

for yourselves. Not "before the Lord: or for His glory. See Deuteronomy 12:7Deuteronomy 14:261 Chronicles 29:22; and compare 1 Corinthians 10:31Colossians 3:17.


Verse 7

Should ye not hear. ? Supply the Ellipsis (App-6) better by "[Should ye not have obeyed? ]" or, ["Are not these] the very words? "

by = by the hand of: "hand" being put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), App-6, for the agency.

the former prophets. See note on Zechariah 4:1.

the south = the Negeb. Compare Genesis 13:1Deuteronomy 1:7, and see note on Psalms 126:4.

the plain = the lowland. Hebrew. shephelah. Compare Deuteronomy 1:7Judges 1:9, &c.


Verse 9

Execute. judgment. Note the Figure of speech Polyptoton (App-6). Hebrew. mishpat. shephotu = true judgment judge ye. Compare Isaiah 58:6Isaiah 58:7.

mercy = lovingkindness.

every man. Hebrew. ish. App-14.


Verse 10

oppress not the widow. stranger. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 22:21Exodus 22:22Deuteronomy 24:17). App-92.

nor = and.

evil. raa. App-44.


Verse 11

But they. Some codices, with four early printed editions, read "and ye", showing the Figure of speech Polysyndetion (App-6).

refused, &c. Compare Zechariah 1:4Jeremiah 6:10Jeremiah 6:17Jeremiah 6:19, &c.

and. Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton (App-6) for emphasis.

pulled away, &c. Turning aside from the one who speaks.


Verse 12

the law. Reference to Pentateuch (Exo 20, &c.), App-92.

in = by. Hebrew. ruach. App-9.


Verse 14

I scattered them with a whirlwind. Not the usual verb, to scatter; but sa"ar = to drive with a tempest. Occurs only seven times (2 Kings 6:11 ("sore troubled"). Isaiah 54:11Hosea 13:3Jonah 1:11Jonah 1:13Habakkuk 3:14).

the land was desolate. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 26:22).

after them: i.e. when they had left it.

pleasant = desirable. Daniel 8:9.


Chapter  8

Verse 1

the LORD of hosts. See note on Zechariah 1:3.

to me. Some codices, with three early printed editions, Aramaean, and Syriac, read these words in the text.


Verse 2

Thus saith, &c. There is a decalogue of prophecies concerning Jerusalem and its inhabitants in this mem ber ("V", see p. 1287). See verses: Zechariah 8:2Zechariah 8:3Zechariah 8:4Zechariah 2:6Zechariah 2:7Zechariah 2:9Zechariah 2:14Zechariah 2:19Zechariah 2:20Zechariah 2:23. All refer to the future, and await their fulfilment in millennial days.

saith = hath said.

was = I was and still am.


Verse 3

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

will dwell in the midst, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 29:45). App-92.

a city of truth = a city of fidelity.

truth = the truth. Compare Isaiah 1:21Isaiah 1:26.

the holy mountain. Compare Isaiah 2:2Jeremiah 31:23Ezekiel 40:2Micah 4:1.

holy. See note on Exodus 3:5.


Verse 4

yet. In the days of the future fulfilment.

dwell = sit.

streets = broad or open places.

every man. Hebrew. "ish. App-14.

for very age = for multitude of days.


Verse 6

the remnant. The exiles who had then returned. Compare Haggai 1:12Haggai 1:14.

should it also be marvellous, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 18:14, where the verb is the same). App-92.

Mine eyes. Add by Figure of speech Ellipsis (App-6), from preceding clause: "[in those future days]" of which He was speaking.

saith the LORD of hosts = [is] the oracle of Jehovah of hosts.


Verse 7

Behold, I will, &c. = Behold Me saving, &c. from the east country, &a Compare Isaiah 43:5. Note the Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the Part), App-6, for the whole earth, See Psalms 50:1Psalms 113:3Isaiah 59:19Malachi 1:11, &c.


Verse 8

they shall be, &c. Ref to Pentateuch (Exodus 6:7). App-92.

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.


Verse 9

the prophets. See Haggai 1:6-11Haggai 2:15-19.

in the day that: i.e. two years before (Haggai 1:14Haggai 1:15Haggai 2:18. Compare Ezra 5:1). App-18.

that the temple = even the temple, that is.


Verse 10

these = those.

hire = wages.

man. Hebrew. "adam. App-14.

men. Hebrew. "adam:. App-14.

every one. Hebrew. "ish. App-14.

set = sent.


Verse 11

now. In contrast with the former days.


Verse 12

the seed shall be, &c. Ref to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 28:3-12). App-92.

and. Note the Figure of speech Polysyndefon (App-6). combined with Figure of speech Anabasis (App-6),

ground = earth.

shall give, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 26:4Leviticus 26:20Deuteronomy 11:17. App-92. Compare Psalms 67:6Psalms 78:46Psalms 85:12Ezekiel 34:27.


Verse 13

as = according as.

heathen = nations.

house of Israel. Looking on to the future fulfilment, which rests on the condition of Zechariah 8:8.

ye shall be a blessing. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 12:2). App-92.


Verse 14

punish = bring calamity upon. Hebrew. ra"a. App-44.


Verse 16

Speak, &c. Compare Zechariah 8:19Zechariah 7:9.

every man. Hebrew "ish. App-14.

execute, &c. See note on Zechariah 7:9.


Verse 17

evil. Hebrew. ra a ". App-44

love no false oath. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 6:3Leviticus 19:12). all these are things that I hate. Some codices, with Septuagint and Syriac, read "all these things do I hate".


Verse 19

saith = hath said.

the fourth month. The ninth of Tammuz (Jeremiah 52:6Jeremiah 52:7), when the city was broken up; hence called "the fourth fast".

the fifth. On the tenth of Ab, when the Temple and the houses were burnt (Jeremiah 52:12Jeremiah 52:13).

the seventh. The third of Tisri, when Gedaliah was slain by Ishmael, the son of Nethaniah (Jeremiah 40:8Jeremiah 41:1-3Jeremiah 41:15-18).

the tenth. On the tenth of Tebeth, when the king of Babylon set his face against Jerusalem (Ezekiel 24:1Ezekiel 24:2). So The Talmud, Rosh Hashanah, vol. 18 B.

feasts = appointed seasons. These fasts were appointed by man. The feasts were "feasts of Jehovah" because appointed by Him. Ref: to Pentateuch (Leviticus 23:2-44), App-92. Compare Zephaniah 3:17.


Verse 20

people = peoples. Some codices, with Septuagint, read "many peoples".


Verse 21

Let us go speedily. Figure of speech Polyptolon. App-6. Hebrew a going, let us go = Let us by all means go: or, speedily, as in Authorized Version. See note on Genesis 26:28. Compare Isaiah 2:3Micah 4:2.

to pray, &c. See note on Zechariah 7:2. the LORD, &c. Hebrew (with "eth) = Jehovah of hosts Himself.


Verse 23

those days. The fulfilment of this still future.

men. Hebrew, plural of enosh. App-14.

you : i.e. with God"s People Israel.

that. Some codices, with Aramaean, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "that" in the text. Supply the Ellipsis (will be the time] that. "


Chapter 9

Verse 1

The use of a varied vocabulary is no proof of a different authorship. It is necessitated by the changes of subject.

burden = Divine declaration. Hebrew. massa". Compare Isaiah 13:1Nahum 1:1.

of = that is to say. Genitive of Apposition. See App-17.

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

in: or, on: i.e. resting on.

Hadrach. A country in the neighborhood of Damascus and Hamath (Zechariah 9:2) &c., mentioned in the Assyrian Inscriptions, with the "arka of Genesis 10:17.

the rest thereof = its resting place: i.e. the burden will rest upon it.


Verse 2

Hamath. Now Hama,

shall border thereby = [which] bordereth thereon: i.e. on the land of Hadrach.

though = because.


Verse 3

Tyrus. strong hold. Note the Figure of speech Paronomasia. Hebrew. zor mazor, which cannot be reproduced in English.

as = like.


Verse 4

Behold. Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6.

the Lord*. One of 134 places where the Sopherim say they altered "Jehovah" to "Adonai". App-32and compare App-4.

cast her out = dispossess her.


Verse 5

Ashkelon. Now "Askalan.

see. fear. Note the Figure of speech Paronomasia (App-6). Hebrew. tera. vetira. May be Englished by "shall gaze. and be amazed (or be dazed)": or "shall peer and fear".


Verse 6

bastard = half-breed, or mongrel.

dwell = sit [as king].

Ashdod. Now Esdud.


Verse 7

blood. Hebrew bloods. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6, for the sacrifices (which were, of course, eaten).

abominations: i.e. the idolatrous sacrifices.

he that remaineth: i.e. the remnant of them.

even be = he also.

shall be for. Supply the Ellipsis thus: "[shall be subject unto]. "

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

governor = chieftain, or duke.

Ekron. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the Part), App-6, for Philistines.

Jebusite. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of the Adjunct), App-6, for bondservant. (1 Kings 9:201 Kings 9:21Isaiah 11:14.)


Verse 8

because of = against.

passeth by. returneth: i.e. marcheth to and fro. and: or, so that.

oppressor. Hebrew. nagas = to press hard, as a task-master (Exodus 5:6), or as a foreign oppressor (Isaiah 9:4Isaiah 14:2Isaiah 14:4), or as an exactor (2 Kings 23:35).

seen. Supply the Ellipsis: "seen [the affliction of My People] with Mine eyes".


Verse 9

Rejoice, &c. Figure of speech Paeenismos. App-6. This verse foretells the first coming of Messiah, recorded in the Gospels.

cometh unto = will come unto. See note on Micah 5:2, where we have the going forth from Bethlehem (Matthew 2:1). Here we have the coming unto Jerusalem (Matthew 21:5). Between these lay all the events which we call "the first advent". So will it be at "the second advent" with its many events, before e. to is fulfilled. See notes on Matthew 21:1-10, and Luke 19:25-44; App-107and App-156.

He is, &c. Note the four features of Messiah"s character and condition at His first advent.

(1) just = righteous, as being justified or vindicated. Compare Isaiah 45:21Isaiah 53:11Jeremiah 23:5Jeremiah 23:6.

(2) having salvation. Hebrew. nosha is the Niphal participle, which, though it may be reflexive, is never active. He was heard and delivered (Psalms 22:20Psalms 22:21Hebrews 5:7), referring to His own sufferings and death out of (Greek. ek, App-104.), which He was delivered (Psalms 16:10Acts 2:24), and by which He becomes the Saviour of others (Isaiah 53:8Isaiah 53:10Isaiah 53:11).

(3) lowly = afflicted, or oppressed. Same word (" ant; see note on "poverty"Proverbs 6:11) as in Psalms 22:24Isaiah 53:4Isaiah 53:7.

(4) riding upon an ass, &c. Fulfilled (1) in Matthew 21:1-11, and from two days afterward (2) in Mark 11:8-11Luke 19:36-46John 12:12-19. See App-156. A mark of His lowliness. Note the above four characteristics.


Verse 10

I will cut off. Septuagint reads "and He will cut off". This refers to the yet future second coming; the present dispensation (App-71and App-72) lying between Zechariah 9:9-10.

He shall speak peace, Sc. Compare Psalms 46:9Psalms 47:3Isaiah 2:4Isaiah 9:6Isaiah 9:7Micah 5:5.

heathen = nations.

from sea . . . to sea. Compare Psalms 72:8.

the river: i.e. the Euphrates.


Verse 11

thee = thee [O Zion] (feminine; agreeing with Zion), which is also feminine in verses: Zechariah 9:9Zechariah 9:13.

the blood of thy covenant: or, thy covenant of blood. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 24:5-8) Compare Hebrews 13:20.

have sent forth = i.e. sent forth [from their captivity].

out of the pit, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 37:24).


Verse 12

Turn = Return.

strong hold. Hebrew. bizzaron (from bazaar, to cut off) = a safe because of inaccessible place. Occurs only here.

hope = the hope: i.e. which God had given, and on which He had caused them to hope (Psalms 119:49).

double: i.e. a prosperity and blessing double what was possessed before.

The firstborn"s share. Compare Isaiah 61:7.


Verse 13

filled = grasped.

thy sons, O Greece. Septuagint reads "the sons of Greece.

Greece. Hebrew. Yavan. Compare Genesis 10:2Genesis 10:4Isaiah 66:19Ezekiel 27:13Daniel 8:21Daniel 11:2Joel 3:6.


Verse 14

His arrow. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. App-6.

the Lord. Hebrew. Adonai App-4.

God. Hebrew. Jehovah.


Verse 15

The Lord of hosts. See note on Zechariah 1:3.

defend. See note on Isaiah 31:5.

devour = devour [their enemies].

subdue with sling stones: or, trample on their weapons.

and. Some codices, with three early printed editions, read this "and" in the text.

make noise = shout.

wine. Hebrew. yayin. App-27.

filled: i.e. filled [with wine] like.

as, &c. = as the sacrificial bowls [are filled with blood, which are tossed against] the corners (or horns) of the altar.


Verse 16

stones = gems.

crown = diadem.

lifted up = conspicuous, or sparkling.

land = soil.


Verse 17

cheerful = flourish.

new wine. Hebrew. tirosh. App-27.


Chapter 10

Verse 1

the Lord. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

rain, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 11:14) = rain of rain = copious rains. App-92.

so, &c. Render: "of Jehovah Who maketh. and giveth".

shall make = Who maketh.

and give = and giveth.

them. Some codices, with Syriac, read "you".


Verse 2

idols. Hebrew. teraphim, or household gods. These cannot give rain (Jeremiah 14:22). vanity trash.

a flock = he-goats: i.e. bell-wethers. Compare Isaiah 14:9Jeremiah 51:40.


Verse 3

punished = shall visit upon.

the LORD of hosts. See note on Zechariah 1:3.

goodly horse = majestic war-horse.


Verse 4

him: i.e. Judah (Zechariah 10:3), Compare Jeremiah 30:21.

came forth = went forth.

the corner = the corner-stone (Matthew 21:42) = Messiah.

nail = tent-pin, or peg. Compare Isaiah 22:23.

the battle bow. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the Part), App-6, for all kinds of weapons.

oppressor = governor, or ruler.


Verse 5

streets = lanes, or out-places.


Verse 6

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

hear = answer.


Verse 7

they. A special various reading called Sevir (App-34), reads "he".

they of Ephraim, &c. - they (or he) shall be as a mighty one (or warrior) of Ephraim.

as through wine = as wine [snaketh the heart to rejoice]. Psalms 104:15.

wine. Hebrew. yayin, App-7

children = sons.


Verse 8

hiss: or, signal. The figure is borrowed from bee -keepers (Isaiah 5:26Isaiah 7:18).

have increased = did increase [before]. Compare Ex, Zechariah 1:7.


Verse 9

sow. Compare Hosea 2:23.

people = peoples. they shall remember Me. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 30:1).

live with, &c. = live, and return with.

turn = return.


Verse 10

I will bring them again, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 30:3Deuteronomy 30:5). See App-92.

place. Supply: "[the necessary room]".


Verse 11

And = Though.

he. Septuagint reads "they".

with = of. Gen, of Apposition. See App-17.

the river: i.e. the Nile.


Verse 12

walkup and down, &c. = walk (habitually). Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 5:24Genesis 6:9Genesis 17:1). App-92. Compare Micah 4:5Micah 6:8.

saith the LORD = [is] Jehovah"s oracle.