Christian Churches of God
Commentary on Daniel
(Edition 1.0 20200930-20200930)
Chapter 11 is the period from the Babylonians down to the Advent of the Messiah and prepares for the Last Days.
Commentary on Daniel Chapter 11
One of the key moves in the Last Days is foretold by prophecy. We are approaching that situation now and we will see it develop over the next short period of time.
Let us examine what was said in the book of Daniel.
Daniel Chapter 11
1And as for me, in the first year of Darius the Mede, I stood up to confirm and strengthen him. 2"And now I will show you the truth. Behold, three more kings shall arise in Persia; and a fourth shall be far richer than all of them; and when he has become strong through his riches, he shall stir up all against the kingdom of Greece. 3Then a mighty king shall arise, who shall rule with great dominion and do according to his will. 4And when he has arisen, his kingdom shall be broken and divided toward the four winds of heaven, but not to his posterity, nor according to the dominion with which he ruled; for his kingdom shall be plucked up and go to others besides these. 5"Then the king of the south shall be strong, but one of his princes shall be stronger than he and his dominion shall be a great dominion. 6After some years they shall make an alliance, and the daughter of the king of the south shall come to the king of the north to make peace; but she shall not retain the strength of her arm, and he and his offspring shall not endure; but she shall be given up, and her attendants, her child, and he who got possession of her. 7"In those times a branch from her roots shall arise in his place; he shall come against the army and enter the fortress of the king of the north, and he shall deal with them and shall prevail. 8He shall also carry off to Egypt their gods with their molten images and with their precious vessels of silver and of gold; and for some years he shall refrain from attacking the king of the north. 9Then the latter shall come into the realm of the king of the south but shall return into his own land. 10"His sons shall wage war and assemble a multitude of great forces, which shall come on and overflow and pass through, and again shall carry the war as far as his fortress. 11Then the king of the south, moved with anger, shall come out and fight with the king of the north; and he shall raise a great multitude, but it shall be given into his hand. 12And when the multitude is taken, his heart shall be exalted, and he shall cast down tens of thousands, but he shall not prevail. 13For the king of the north shall again raise a multitude, greater than the former; and after some years he shall come on with a great army and abundant supplies. 14"In those times many shall rise against the king of the south; and the men of violence among your own people shall lift themselves up in order to fulfil the vision; but they shall fail. 15Then the king of the north shall come and throw up siegeworks, and take a well-fortified city. And the forces of the south shall not stand, or even his picked troops, for there shall be no strength to stand. 16But he who comes against him shall do according to his own will, and none shall stand before him; and he shall stand in the glorious land, and all of it shall be in his power. 17He shall set his face to come with the strength of his whole kingdom, and he shall bring terms of peace and perform them. He shall give him the daughter of women to destroy the kingdom; but it shall not stand or be to his advantage. 18Afterward he shall turn his face to the coastlands, and shall take many of them; but a commander shall put an end to his insolence; indeed he shall turn his insolence back upon him. 19Then he shall turn his face back toward the fortresses of his own land; but he shall stumble and fall, and shall not be found. 20"Then shall arise in his place one who shall send an exactor of tribute through the glory of the kingdom; but within a few days he shall be broken, neither in anger nor in battle. 21In his place shall arise a contemptible person to whom royal majesty has not been given; he shall come in without warning and obtain the kingdom by flatteries. 22Armies shall be utterly swept away before him and broken, and the prince of the covenant also. 23And from the time that an alliance is made with him he shall act deceitfully; and he shall become strong with a small people. 24Without warning he shall come into the richest parts of the province; and he shall do what neither his fathers nor his fathers' fathers have done, scattering among them plunder, spoil, and goods. He shall devise plans against strongholds, but only for a time. 25And he shall stir up his power and his courage against the king of the south with a great army; and the king of the south shall wage war with an exceedingly great and mighty army; but he shall not stand, for plots shall be devised against him. 26Even those who eat his rich food shall be his undoing; his army shall be swept away, and many shall fall down slain. 27And as for the two kings, their minds shall be bent on mischief; they shall speak lies at the same table, but to no avail; for the end is yet to be at the time appointed. 28And he shall return to his land with great substance, but his heart shall be set against the holy covenant. And he shall work his will, and return to his own land. 29"At the time appointed he shall return and come into the south; but it shall not be this time as it was before. 30For ships of Kittim shall come against him, and he shall be afraid and withdraw, and shall turn back and be enraged and take action against the holy covenant. He shall turn back and give heed to those who forsake the holy covenant. 31Forces from him shall appear and profane the temple and fortress, and shall take away the continual burnt offering. And they shall set up the abomination that makes desolate. 32He shall seduce with flattery those who violate the covenant; but the people who know their God shall stand firm and take action. 33And those among the people who are wise shall make many understand, though they shall fall by sword and flame, by captivity and plunder, for some days. 34When they fall, they shall receive a little help. And many shall join themselves to them with flattery; 35and some of those who are wise shall fall, to refine and to cleanse them and to make them white, until the time of the end, for it is yet for the time appointed. 36"And the king shall do according to his will; he shall exalt himself and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak astonishing things against the God of gods. He shall prosper till the indignation is accomplished; for what is determined shall be done. 37He shall give no heed to the gods of his fathers, or to the one beloved by women; he shall not give heed to any other god, for he shall magnify himself above all. 38He shall honor the god of fortresses instead of these; a god whom his fathers did not know he shall honor with gold and silver, with precious stones and costly gifts. 39He shall deal with the strongest fortresses by the help of a foreign god; those who acknowledge him he shall magnify with honor. He shall make them rulers over many and shall divide the land for a price. 40"At the time of the end the king of the south shall attack him; but the king of the north shall rush upon him like a whirlwind, with chariots and horsemen, and with many ships; and he shall come into countries and shall overflow and pass through. 41He shall come into the glorious land. And tens of thousands shall fall, but these shall be delivered out of his hand: Edom and Moab and the main part of the Ammonites. 42He shall stretch out his hand against the countries, and the land of Egypt shall not escape. 43He shall become ruler of the treasures of gold and of silver, and all the precious things of Egypt; and the Libyans and the Ethiopians shall follow in his train. 44But tidings from the east and the north shall alarm him, and he shall go forth with great fury to exterminate and utterly destroy many. 45And he shall pitch his palatial tents between the sea and the glorious holy mountain; yet he shall come to his end, with none to help him. (RSV)
Note that in Chapter 11 the story develops from the Babylonians and the Medo-Persians to the Greeks and then the Romans and continues on up until the Last Days (see the paper Day of the Lord and the Last Days (No. 192)). We have discussed this section below.
The first section takes us from the last of the kings of the Medes and Persians to the transfer to the Greeks under Alexander.
The hostility of the Medes and Persians was turned to friendliness to the Jews by the angels Gabriel and Michael (Soncino. Intr. notes). The course of history is determined by God and at time willed by Him salvation will come to His suffering people (ibid).
The sequence of the Kings is listed in (P013). Of these, Xerxes was listed as the richest among the classical writers (Herodotus VII: 20-99). He is identified as the Ahasuerus of Esther 1:4 (ibid). The invasion of Greece he stirred up, by marshalling his vast resources, ended disastrously for him at Salamis in 480 BCE (ibid).
Greece was a loose aggregation of city states. It was in the days of Phillip of Macedon and his son Alexander that Greece was really unified as a kingdom. They then attacked Persia at the Battle of the Granicus River (344 BCE). They ruled the known world from the Adriatic to Central Asia. The empire broke up after his death (v. 4). His kingdom was broken and divided into four parts (8:8). Not to his posterity means that his two sons were murdered thirteen years after their father’s death. His dominion broke up in the divided kingdom (8:22).
The others were the petty dynasties that emerged over the next 150 years in Cappadocia and Armenia etc.
beside these being the generals who were his immediate successors.
Verse 20 then focuses on the areas to the North and South that influence Judea i.e. Egypt and Syria/Mesopotamia.
Verse 5 refers to Ptolemy I (306-285) as first satrap (321-306) and then king of Egypt as king of the South and Seleucus I was appointed satrap over Babylonia and from then on however was in control of the Babylonian system of chapter 2 was king of the North.
Negeb usually indicated the Southern area of Palestine but here (and in 8:9) it denotes Egypt. Here the king of the South is stronger than the King of the North.
If AJ is retained the term one of his princes refers to Seleucus (Soncino ibid). Seleucus had to flee to Egypt for political reasons where Ptolemy made him his general. Later, with Egyptian aid, he recovered Babylonia in 312 BCE. The Jewish people marked a new era from this date (ibid).
Ptolemy II gave his daughter Berenice in marriage to Antiochus II to mark the end of a long and costly war which had exhausted the two countries. He divorced his wife Laodice. He had a child by Berenice and made her son his heir in place of his other sons. When Ptolemy II died he divorced Berenice and remarried Laodice, who later poisoned him because she had lost all confidence in him. She had her son murder both Berenice and her infant child and thus secured the throne for himself.
The term at the end of years refers to the period from Seleucus I to the incidents referred to in verse 6. The daughter referred to is Berenice. The term “shall come” is used of marriage (cf. Josh. 15:18; Judg. 12:9).
They that brought her refers to the escort forces that brought her to Antioch.
Verses 7-9 refer to Ptolemy III brother of the murdered Berenice and Seleucus II (246-226) who were then at war. Ptolemy III (247-222) invaded Seleucus’ empire and after seizing Seleucus and the fortified area of Antioch overran the greater part of the dominion as far as Babylon and returned to Egypt laden with booty (Soncino ibid).
According to Jerome the molten images brought back by Ptolemy were images taken from Egypt some 280 years earlier by Cambyses in 525 BCE. The Soncino note to verse 8 says that there were over 2,500 precious vessels brought back by Ptolemy with 40,000 talents of silver.
9. In 242, after two years Seleucus re-established his authority and marched against Egypt but was defeated and compelled to return to Antioch with only a small remnant of his army in 242 BCE.
10-19: Seleucus III, Antiochus III, Ptolemy IV and Ptolemy V. According to Polybius the historical background is of the sons of Seleucus II. Seleucus III ascended the throne in 226-223. He was murdered during a Campaign in Asia Minor. His brother Antiochus III (223-187) (called the Great) resumed the war with Egypt, recovering the fortress of Selucia, the province of Coele-Syria, Tyre, Ptolemais and neighbouring towns. Soon a larger Egyptian army marched through Judea and was met between Lebanon and the sea by Antiochus who routed it and took many Judean cities both west and east of the Jordan (218). In the following spring Antiochus at the head of an army of 60,000 and Ptolemy with 70,000 troops met at Raphia some twenty miles south west of Gaza where Antiochus was thoroughly defeated losing 10,000 infantry and 300 cavalry and retied to Antioch. A peace was then signed between the two kings for one year.
Antiochus III (the Great) became conqueror of Asia and suzerain of Egypt. It was Rome that brought about his downfall. It was in this way that the title King of the North began to be transferred to Rome.
He shall return in verse 10 refers to the fact that Antiochus returned in 217 to attack Egypt at the stronghold of Raphia.
The king of the South in verse 11 was Ptolemy IV who was to stand against the 60,000 men of Antiochus and remain the victor.
He shall not prevail in 12 is translated (Bevan) as he shall not show himself strong. The victory did not bring him a permanent triumph. Of an indolent and dissolute character he failed to follow up the advantage and concluded peace with Antiochus.
Verse 13 describes the events 12 years after the battle of Raphia in 205 BCE.
Verse 16 carries on the conflict between Antiochus and Ptolemy. The skill of Antiochus showed him to be the victor.
Verse 17 refers to the fact that in 197 CE Antiochus set out with his fleet to attack the coasts of Cilicia, Lydia and Caria who were under Egyptian suzerainty. Antiochus used all the forces at his disposal. He then made an agreement with Egypt due to the concerns over the rising power of Rome.
The reference to the daughter of women refers to Antiochus’ daughter Cleopatra whom he gave to Ptolemy in 194/3 with the promise of Coele-Syria, Phoenicia and Judea as dowry.
Verse 18 deals with the defeat of Antiochus by the Romans, being at the height of his power. By 196 most of Asia Minor was in his hands.
He had seized a part of Thrace and in 192 he had seized and occupied land in Greece. In 191 he was defeated at Thermopylae by the Romans who decided to oust this enemy from Asia. Later that year he was soundly defeated at Smyrna at the head of an army of 80,000 men. He was forced to renounce all claims in Europe and Asia Minor.
The captain in verse 18 was Lucius Scipio the Roman Commander that initiated this retribution.
The Romans imposed and immense fine on him and he retired east of the Taurus mountain and attacked the Temple at Elymais with the intention to rob it to pay the fine. He was attacked by the locals and slain and thus reached an ignoble end and disappeared from history (v. 19).
Antiochus the Great left two sons Seleucus IV (187-175) and Antiochus Epiphanes both of whom successively came to the throne (cf. v. 20). The term “cause an exactor to pass” (cf. Zech. 9:8) may well refer to the fact that in order to pay the Roman fine of 1,000 talents for nine years he sent an exactor to Judea in order to pay part of the fine. Within few days refers to the fact that he only reigned 12 years.
Verse 21 refers to the succession to Seleucus IV by Antiochus Epiphanes. (175-164). In chapter 7:8 he is referred to as a little horn.
He did not succeed honourably as the rightful heir was his nephew Demetrius son of Seleucus who was at the time serving as a hostage in Rome. His understanding stratagems in 8:23 may indicate that the pro-Demetrius party he was able to disarm by flattery and guile.
The reference to the prince of the Covenant may refer to Onias III the High Priest that was deposed by Antiochus in 175 and assassinated in 171. He was not the anointed one in 9:26 as that would be impossible (cf. Soncino fn).
The reference in verse 23 is historically obscure and may refer on to the Idumean reign over Judea after the battle of Actium where Herod supported Octavian in the league and he was the little nation; however that is later in 31 CE.
Verse 24 is deemed to refer to Antiochus and considers that God had determined his downfall.
Verse 25-28 refers to Antiochus’ first campaign against Egypt in 170 CE. The king of the South here was Ptolemy IV his nephew.
His plans were to conquer Egypt which he desired to rule. Ptolemy Philometor was to be defeated despite his military superiority; perhaps through treachery.
Verse 27 refers to both the kings Antiochus and Philometor speaking lies at one table. The plans are noted in 1Maccabees 1:16.
Verse 28 refers to the fact that Antiochus returned to his own land with great booty. The term his heart shall be against the holy covenant refers to the fact that he looted the Temple at Jerusalem on the way through Judea and killed many citizens on the way back to Syria.
Verse 29 refers to the Second Expedition against Egypt which would not be as successful as was the First.
Verse 30 refers to the ships of Kittim which are the trading ships of the Mediterranean and included the isles such as Cyprus and beyond to the west. This indicates the power of Rome extending even to Tarshish. The reference is probably to the Roman Legate Caius Popilius Laenas who demanded that Antiochus, even though in sight of Alexandria, withdraw his forces from Egypt.
The term he shall be cowed refers to the fact that Laenas drew a circle around him and demanded an answer before he stepped out of the circle, as a result of which he agreed. He then returned to Syria and on the way entered the temple and looted it and then supported the Hellenisers who would abandon the covenant in Judea (1 Macc. 1:11ff).
Verse 31 refers to the military forces sent by Antiochus to take Jerusalem. The stronghold refers to the fortifications around the Temple which the forces of Antiochus destroyed.
They removed the continual burnt offering (8:11) and established a Greek idol in the Temple in December 168 BCE (Soncino fn. to verse.31). It was through this text that the people were divided and judged (v. 32).
Verse 33 refers to the time of the Maccabees and the freedom of Judah from the oppression of the Syrians and the Northern powers. Many assisted them for fear of the pious (v. 34).
The term shall stumble (v. 35) refers to the martyrdom of many.
Verse 36 refers to Antiochus elevating himself above every god as God manifest on a coin of the realm. The strange things were of gross impiety which invoked God to act against him. He honoured foreign deities rather than the gods of his fathers. The desire of women refers to the worship of the Mother goddess cult and as seen in the baking of Cakes for Tammuz that continued on to the present day as Easter buns (cf. Origin of Christmas and Easter (No. 235)).
The god of strongholds is the Roman system of Jupiter Capitolinus (Charles). The empire was about to switch to Rome and then remain there for Millennia. Antiochus erected a statue in Antioch to that system.
Verse 39 does not have the term the help of in the Hebrew (cf. Soncino fn.) The appointment of apostates to High Office was one of Antiochus’ methods of government.
Verse 40-45 is held by the Soncino to refer to Antiochus’ end rather than the times of the end which the system switches to. They allocate the last verses of the text to refer to an invasion of Judea on the way to Egypt and the news from the east and the north caused him to move back into the north sections to combat it. This is not the intent, nor the history.
This Jewish switching of the time frame and the hiding of the later developments has led the Oxford academics to use the Ras Shamra texts to denigrate the intent of the prophecies in Daniel (cf. ch. 1 and Intr.).
The sheer accuracy of the prophecies has led these academics that do not believe in the inspiration of Scripture to reject the texts as written in the Second Century BCE after the Maccabees rather than by Daniel in the Seventh/Sixth Century BCE.
Chapter 11:40 says at the time of the end and the Jewish scholars try to make it refer to the reign of Antiochus. The period of the Messiah and the period on into the 20th and 21st centuries are seen from Isaiah and Ezekiel in the prophecy of Pharaoh’s broken arms and proven directly from history.
Chapter 12 below shows that view is incorrect and deals with the Second Coming of the Messiah and the Resurrection of the Dead.
In the last section (in emphasis) the text shows the occupation of the Middle East by this great military power which brings the end time power of the Roman Beast system into conflict after its occupation of the Middle East with the powers to the East and North of the Holy Land. Many US religious could not understand that the invasion of Russia and the Battle of Stalingrad was to the West and North of Jerusalem and could not have been the area in question. Thus the Nazi invasion of Russia in Operation Barbarossa in WWII did not qualify and could not have qualified for the conflict mentioned in Daniel 11:44-45.
The text of verses 40-45 assumes that Egypt is captured together with Palestine and Trans-Jordan. The king of the North had to enter and capture Egypt and also occupy Palestine. During that time he also hears tidings from the east and north and goes forth to utterly destroy and remove many. Other than the Soncino and the Oxford RSV; this prophecy was not held to have been fulfilled until the Second World War with the Axis invasion of Africa and then Hitler’s invasion of Russia. However, the east and north of Palestine and Jerusalem is in Central Russia and this prophecy does not appear to have been as yet fulfilled. The text about pitching his palatial tents between the sea and the glorious Holy Mountain was held to have been fulfilled by the army in 1917 but they did not enter Russia or engage in wholesale operations beyond establishing Iraq as a pro-western kingdom (cf. P184).
We know that at this time the great tribulation will occur and the full catastrophe of WWIII will come to fruition. At that time the Messiah will come to save those of us that eagerly await him. The Host of Heaven will imprison the Fallen Host in Tartaros for the Millennium.
The start of the crisis will develop with the attack against Europe by the King of the South which in the Last Days is the Islamic union of the Arab States.
Europe will retaliate and push the Muslim forces out of Europe. The Muslim attacks will concentrate on Rome and two other prongs. Rome will be destroyed. Its end shall come with a flood.
After major conflict, the European system will occupy the Middle East and set up the new religious centre at Jerusalem. The Muslims will receive assistance from the Russians but following their defeat the system will be faced with a major crisis in the Central Asian Republics.
It is not all that difficult to understand this last phase.
The area to the North and East of Jerusalem has to be no further west than the Caucasus Mountains and to the east of the Black Sea. It must therefore be east of the Ukraine. The lands south of the Caucasus are Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. The area north of the Caucasus between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea is the Southern Part of Russia moving north to the Volga and the Caspian Depression and the Ural Zayyq or Ural River, which drains into the Caspian Sea. The Don is to the West of the Volga and drains into the Black Sea and not the Caspian. The Don is the Western most delineation of the placement of the forces mentioned in Daniel 11:44-45.
Georgia is the northern most country of the Semitic nations and its border on the Caucasus marks the division of the allocation of Shem and the regions of Japheth that are to the north of that divide.
The East of the Caspian Sea we see the former Republics of the Soviet Union that border Iran, Afghanistan and China with a small section of Tajikistan bordering northern Pakistan and the northern border of the disputed area of Jammu and Kashmir.
These areas are, running from west to east, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan with Kazakhstan spanning the northern borders of all the others and with China in the South-east and the entire Russian Federation in the Northern borders from West to East.
It does not take much imagination to see that the news that alarms the King of the North, that is the Beast power, is mobilisation of the entire Russian Federation to move into and reclaim all the old Soviet Socialist Republics and restore the so-called Russian Empire. This will be encouraged by the Communist Chinese who seek expansion to the West also and will use the Russians to achieve it.
Russia has been working behind the scenes for quite some time now to destabilise Georgia and Armenia, and to stop the eastward move of NATO. However, the EU is faced with a serious problem and Russia will continue to try to swallow the former republics, which include the Baltic Republics. Belarus is forced back into the fold through catastrophe and the Ukraine will be pressured and subject to invasion but will be free after the subjugation of the New Soviet Union under Putin and his bureaucrats.
That war will be a massive Holocaust and will result in the final annihilation of the second expansion of the Russians trying to rebuild the Soviets.
These invasions and pressure tactics by Russia will continue until the emergent Beast Power that is Europe will be forced to take action to consolidate its expanding empire and its energy resources that come in through the Caucasus and the Ukraine. Russia is gambling on the fact that Europe needs the unfettered resources and the Globalists will want them in charge of the Asia Co-prosperity sphere.
The problem is that China wants to control the Asia Co-prosperity sphere and the Globalists in Australia at first assisted them but are now realising the dreadful danger in which they placed Australia. To that end they deliberately destroyed the Australian Defence capacity.
The vision of the Globalists is not shared by the authoritarians of the Russian Federation and the People’s Republic of China. They are merely used as a means to an end for world domination by a very dangerous authoritarian regime.
The aggressive behaviour of the Russians is carefully calculated brinkmanship that will bring the area to total war and the devastation that will occur will be massive.
When this Beast Power of the North wipes out the forces from Central Asia we will see them meet their end with the advent of the Messiah and the Host.
The text in Daniel chapter 7:7 is concerned with the events in Daniel 11:40-45. These are the wars of the last days and how the Empire of the Beast takes over and subjugates the other three empires and controls the Holy Land and the world from the period of the 42 months. This is the end phase of the idol of chapter 2 in the feet of iron and miry clay and the ten toes which are in fact of the economic system of the New World Order. They are destroyed by Christ (see F027ii)).
The period of the subjugation of the Second and Third Beasts is to occur over the short period of the wars between the time that He goes forth from the Middle East to subjugate the nations that alarm him due to the news from the North and the East. This is the period referred to in Revelation as the wars of the Fifth and the Sixth Trumpet. A third of mankind will be killed in these wars. In the period of the 42 months that the Beast and the False Prophet and the Antichrist rule from Jerusalem they will be opposed by the Two Witnesses sent by God to stand before them. These are Enoch and Elijah who were sent to stand before the God of this earth (see the paper The Witnesses (including the Two Witnesses (No. 135); Wars of the End Part II: 1260 Days of the Witnesses (No. 141D)).
Then we are faced with the coming of the Messiah to take control of the earth and to restore the Kingdom of God (see the paper Advent of the Messiah (No. 210A)).
See also Chapter 12 below.
Bullinger’s notes on Daniel Chapter 11
This verse is parenthetical, to tell us what the angelic speaker had done two years previously (426 B.C.)
Darius the Mede is the same king as in Daniel 9:1, i.e. Cyrus.
stood = was at my station.
him: i.e. Michael.
now. Calling attention to the then present time (424 B.C.) as being distinct from Daniel 11:1, which refers to what took place two years before.
yet: i.e. in the then immediate future.
three kings in Persia. Cambyses, the pseudo-Smerdis, and Darius Hystaspes. See App-57. But ancient histories "contain much that is admittedly fabulous" (Encycl. Brit, 11th ed., vol. 21, p. 210), and the commentaries based on them differing among themselves are therefore not to be relied on. We know from this verse that there were three, after Cyrus, and a fourth. Whoever he was, he was succeeded by the "mighty king" of Daniel 11:4 (Alexander the Great).
by his strength through his riches. Some codices, and five early printed editions, read "by strengthening himself in his riches he will stir up".
a mighty king. The he-goat"s "little horn" (Daniel 8:9).
broken. See Daniel 8:8.
divided. See Daniel 8:22.
winds. Hebrew. ruach. App-9.
not to his posterity. But to his generals. Compare "not in his power" (Daniel 8:22).
others beside those: i.e. beside those four. See note on Daniel 8:22. That there is a break between the past and the future is manifest from Daniel 10:14, of which this chapter is the continuation. Those who take verses: Daniel 11:5-20 as belonging to the past do not agree as to the interpretation from history. We give the commonly held view, making the break between Daniel 11:20 and Daniel 11:21.
the king of the south. Ptolemy Soter, son of Lagus, king of Egypt (see Daniel 11:8). He took the title "king"; whereas his father "Lagus" had been only governor.
south. With reference to Judea.
one of his princes. Seleucus I (Nicator = conqueror).
him: i.e. Ptolemy.
a great dominion. It added Syria to Babylon and Media.
join: i.e. in league.
the king"s daughter. Berenice, daughter of Ptolemy II (Philadelphus) of Egypt.
the king of the north. Antiochus.
north. With reference to Judea.
make an agreement = do upright things: i.e. to come to terms upon what is equitable between the parties. Here it included her marriage with Antiochus, who divorced his wife (Laodice) and disinherited her son (Seleucus Callinious).
given = delivered.
times: or, vicissitudes.
a branch of her roots. Her brother Ptolemy III (Euergetes), "roots" referring to their father Ptolemy II (Philadelphus).
in his estate = in his stead. Hebrew. kanno. See note on Daniel 9:27 ("for the overspreading"): i.e. in the stead of Philadelphus, who avenged the murder of Berenice and her son by Laodice. Euergetes had been restored. This is the second king of the south.
their precious vessels = vessels of desire, said to have been valued at 40,000 talents of silver; and 2,400 images, including Egyptian idols, which Cambyses had taken from Egypt. Hence he was named by the grateful Egyptians "Euergetes" (= Benefactor).
continue = stand.
more years: i.e. four years, reigning forty-six years in all.
land = soil.
his. Seleucus II (Callinicus).
sons. Hebrew text is "son" (singular) But the Hebrew margin, with some codices and one early printed edition, read "sons" (plural), as here: i.e. Seleucus II (Callinicus) and his brother Antiochus III. See Encycl. Brit., 11th (Cambridge) ed., vol. 24, p. 604.
shall = he shall: i.e. Antiochus III, the second king of the north, his brother having died by a fall from his horse.
come. Some codices, with one early printed edition, and Syriac, read "come against him".
be stirred up = will wage war. Defeating Antiochus III.
the king of the south. The second, Ptolemy III.
choler. See note on Daniel 8:7.
he: i.e. the king of the north, Antiochus III.
given = delivered.
his hand: i.e. Ptolemy"s hand.
taken away = subdued.
cast down, &c. = will cause tens of thousands to fall. This occurred at Raphia, south-west of Gaza.
he shall not be strengthened by it. Giving himself up to licentiousness.
the king of the north. The second king, Antiochus III.
return = renew the war.
come. Some codices, with three early printed editions, read "will come against him". Figure of speech Polyptoton = coming he will come. App-6.
after certain years. Hebrew at the end of years, as in Daniel 11:6. This was fourteen years after his defeat at Raphia.
the king of the south. This would be the third king, Ptolemy V (Epiphanes), a mere child.
the robbers = sons of the oppressors: i.e. apostate Jews, or turbulent men who defied laws and justice.
to establish the vision: i.e. to help to fulfil prophecy, by taking the side of Syria, so as to make Judea independent.
but they shall fall. For they indirectly helped to establish Antiochus. See verses: Daniel 11:16-19.
the king of the north. This is Antiochus III (the Great); and verses: Daniel 11:16-19 describe his doings, which were a typical foreshadowing of his antitype, "the little horn", the yet future antichrist, described in Daniel 11:21, Daniel 12:1; which show how the latter portion can be fulfilled by an individual.
neither his chosen people. Dr. Ginsburg suggests "but his people will flee".
him. Ptolemy V.
which by his hand shall be consumed = much wasted in his hand.
consumed = perfected: i.e. completely desolated.
set his face. The idiom for expressing a fixed purpose. Compare 2 Kings 12:17.
and upright ones . . . shall he do = he will make equitable terms with him (i.e. Ptolemy V). The words which follow tell us what the terms were. With this agree the Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate.
the daughter of women: i.e. Cleopatra, his own daughter, then only eleven years of age. The term denotes beauty, &c.
women: i.e. her mother and grandmother, probably still caring for her education, &c.
not stand, &c. She sided with her husband, and defeated her father"s plans.
isles = coast-lands, or maritime countries.
a prince = a captain or general. Hebrew. kazin. Occurs only here in this book. He was the Roman general, Scipio (Lucius Scipio).
for his own behalf: i.e. for his own interest.
him. Antioohus III.
without his own reproach: i.e. with untarnished reputation.
fort = fortresses.
stumble = stagger. Antiochus III, after his defeat by Scipio at Magnesia (near Smyrna), withdrew to Syria.
a raiser of taxes . . . kingdom. = one [Seleucus] causing the exactor [Heliodorus] to pass through [Judea], the glorious land (compare verses: Daniel 16:41; Daniel 8:9). Seleucus sent Heliodorus to Jerusalem to plunder the Temple, &c.
neither in anger. Ginsburg suggests "and not with hands", because it was by poison. Here ends the historical portion, which has been fulfilled now, but which was then future, verse Daniel 21:12, Daniel 21:3 passes on to the time which is still (1912/2009) future to us. Here begins the portion of this prophecy which is still future to us (1912/2009), "the latter days" of Daniel 10:14.
a vile person. One of the twelve titles given to the antichrist. See note on Daniel 7:8. The prophecy concerning him is continuous to the end of the chapter. It is parallel with Daniel 7:8, &c.; Daniel 8:9, &c.; and Daniel 9:26, Daniel 9:27. He is not another successional king of the north, but a totally different and unique personage, still future. He comes in by "flatteries", and in Daniel 11:40 he is attacked by both a "king of the south" and a "king of the north". Note the parallel exhibited in App-89.
vile = despicable. Compare Psalms 15:4.
they shall not give = to whom was not given.
honour = dignity.
be overflown from = sweep all.
broken = broken in pieces.
yea, also, &c.: i.e. a prince with whom he had made a covenant or league (Daniel 11:23), and who had hitherto aided him.
the league: i.e. the covenant just mentioned (Daniel 11:22).
with a small people. Hence he is called "the little horn".
forecast his devices = devise plots.
he: i.e. the king of the south.
shall not stand = will make no stand.
they that feed, &c. There will be treachery within, as well as fighting without.
And both these kings hearts, &c. = Now, as to the two kings, their hearts [will be set] to do, &c.
mischief = evil. Hebrew. ra"a".
his heart, &c Showing when the purpose of breaking the covenant was plotted.
do exploits = act effectively, or accomplish [the purpose of his heart].
do = do [so], or accomplish [it]: i.e. he will break it.
holy. See note on Exodus 3:5.
have intelligence = fix his attention on (with a view to co-operation).
pollute the sanctuary. By putting up the "abomination" (the Asherah, App-42), which brings on the judgment of "desolation". The end is marked by the "cleansing of the sanctuary" (Daniel 8:14; Daniel 9:24). App-89.
take away the daily sacrifice. This marks the middle of the "week", or the last seven years. See Daniel 8:11, Daniel 8:12; Daniel 9:27; Daniel 12:11; and App-89. From this point he is energized by Satan.
such as do wickedly against = them that are ready to deal lawlessly with.
wickedly. Hebrew. rasha". App-44.
corrupt = make impious or profane.
know their God. Denotes those who have an experimental rather than an intellectual knowledge. Hebrew. yada".
God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.
be strong = prove themselves strong. Hebrew. hazak = strong for endurance (i.e. for resisting all temptation to apostatize).
do exploits = work effectually.
shall fall by the sword: i.e. in the great tribulation which is here described, in part.
many. Some codices, with six early printed editions, read this word "many" in the text.
shall be holpen, &c. = shall obtain but little help.
try = refine. Expulsion of dross.
purge = purify. Separation from dross.
the time of the end. Now near at hand.
GOD. Hebrew El. App-4.
gods. Hebrew "elim.
determined = decreed.
the desire of women. In view of the context this must refer to any gods desired by women: such as Baaltis, Astarte, or Mylitta of the Babylonians; the Persian Artemis, or the Nanoea of the Syrians; or the "queen of heaven" of Jeremiah 7:18; Jeremiah 44:17, &c.
GOD. Hebrew Eloah. App-4.
in his estate = in its place: i.e. the God of forces on its pedestal.
God of forces. Hebrew. Ma"uzzim = God of fortresses.
shall he honour, &c. Thus, in secret he is superstitious, though in public he exalts himself above all gods.
do = deal.
the most strong holds = the strongest fortresses.
whom he shall acknowledge = whosoever acknowledged him.
and increase = he will increase.
gain = a price.
at the time of the end: i.e. near the close of the last seven years.
he: i.e. this "wilful king".
the countries = the countries [adjoining].
children = sons.
make away many = devote many [to extermination]. Revelation 13:7.
plant = spread out.
tabernacles, &c. = palatial tent.
come to his end. This could not be said of Antiochus, for he died at Tabae, in Persia. "The wilful king" comes to his end in Judea, between Jerusalem and the Mediterranean Sea.
and none shall help him. For he is smitten by God Himself. See Isaiah 11:4. Zech 12 and Zech 14; 2 Thessalonians 2:8. Revelation 19:20. The grave does not receive him (for Isaiah 14:19 is only a comparison "like"), and he is not joined with them in burial. He is cast into the lake of fire.