Christian Churches of God

No. F027i




Commentary on Daniel

Chapter 1


(Edition 1.0 20200927-20200927)


The Commentary starts with the dating of the Fall of Jerusalem to Nebuchadnezzar and the names of the captives taken into service in the king’s palace and educated there to service.






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(Copyright ã  2020 Wade Cox)



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 Commentary on Daniel Chapter 1


It has become fashionable to redate the Bible stories into later works allocated to the Second Century BCE. The reason that they have to do that is because the Septuagint stands against any later dating. The Septuagint was all translated in the Second Century BCE into Greek and put into the library at Alexandria. So that shows that it could not possibly have been any later and the last time they could invent is the Second Century BCE.  An example is the commentary in the New Oxford Annotated Bible that states that this Book appears under the name of Daniel whose name was twice referred to in tablet texts at Ras Shamra.  They assert that the “author was a pious Jew living under the persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes 167-164 BCE (see “Survey of .... Bible Lands” Section 15) etc.”  This conjecture is rejected in its entirety and we see no reason to assume it is other than what it purports to be, namely the records of a pious man chosen as a prophet of God at the beginning of the Babylonian captivity and which contains a great structure of prophecy to the last days and the Second Coming of the Messiah for the Kingdom of God and the Resurrection of the Dead.  The Annotated RSV states that the work was written in Aramaic and the section from 2:4b to 7:28 is still in Aramaic although the remainder is now in Hebrew (ibid). If the writers at Oxford were correct then the text had to be retranslated to Hebrew after Hebrew had ceased to be used at the time of the Seleucids. Such activity would appear unnecessary and inconvenient.


The text is stated to have commenced in the third year of Jehioakim and that is dated at 606 BCE by the annotated RSV, which is the year prior to the battle of Carchemish in 605 BCE. The reality was that they set out before the Battle of Carchemish but were delayed by the battle and did not get there until the subsequent year, 604 BCE.


The first test these captives were to face was of the Laws of God as laid out by the Bible in Leviticus chapter 11 and Deuteronomy chapter 14 (cf. The Food Laws (No. 015)).


This was to mirror the struggle over the entire period of prophecy until the end of days and the establishment of the Kingdom of God under Messiah and the Laws of God. Antinomian academics simply will not face and deal with those facts.



Daniel Chapter 1

1In the third year of the reign of Jehoiakim king of Judah came Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon unto Jerusalem, and besieged it. 2And the Lord gave Jehoiakim king of Judah into his hand, with part of the vessels of the house of God: which he carried into the land of Shinar to the house of his god; and he brought the vessels into the treasure house of his god. 3And the king spake unto Ashpenaz the master of his eunuchs, that he should bring certain of the children of Israel, and of the king's seed, and of the princes; 4Children in whom was no blemish, but well favoured, and skilful in all wisdom, and cunning in knowledge, and understanding science, and such as had ability in them to stand in the king's palace, and whom they might teach the learning and the tongue of the Chaldeans. 5And the king appointed them a daily provision of the king's meat, and of the wine which he drank: so nourishing them three years, that at the end thereof they might stand before the king. 6Now among these were of the children of Judah, Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah: 7Unto whom the prince of the eunuchs gave names: for he gave unto Daniel the name of Belteshazzar; and to Hananiah, of Shadrach; and to Mishael, of Meshach; and to Azariah, of Abed-nego. 8But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not defile himself with the portion of the king's meat, nor with the wine which he drank: therefore he requested of the prince of the eunuchs that he might not defile himself. 9Now God had brought Daniel into favour and tender love with the prince of the eunuchs. 10And the prince of the eunuchs said unto Daniel, I fear my lord the king, who hath appointed your meat and your drink: for why should he see your faces worse liking than the children which are of your sort? then shall ye make me endanger my head to the king. 11Then said Daniel to Melzar, whom the prince of the eunuchs had set over Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, 12Prove thy servants, I beseech thee, ten days; and let them give us pulse to eat, and water to drink. 13Then let our countenances be looked upon before thee, and the countenance of the children that eat of the portion of the king's meat: and as thou seest, deal with thy servants. 14So he consented to them in this matter, and proved them ten days. 15And at the end of ten days their countenances appeared fairer and fatter in flesh than all the children which did eat the portion of the king's meat. 16Thus Melzar took away the portion of their meat, and the wine that they should drink; and gave them pulse. 17As for these four children, God gave them knowledge and skill in all learning and wisdom: and Daniel had understanding in all visions and dreams. 18Now at the end of the days that the king had said he should bring them in, then the prince of the eunuchs brought them in before Nebuchadnezzar. 19And the king communed with them; and among them all was found none like Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah: therefore stood they before the king. 20And in all matters of wisdom and understanding, that the king inquired of them, he found them ten times better than all the magicians and astrologers that were in all his realm. 21And Daniel continued even unto the first year of king Cyrus.


Bullinger’s Notes on Chapter 1


Verse 1

In the third year, &c. It was in the third year of Jehoiakim that Nebuchadnezzar set out from Babylon; and Daniel, writing there, speaks of the starting, not of the arrival at Jerusalem. See note on "came", below. In the fourth year Jehovah says by Jeremiah (25:9), "I will send". [Bullinger’s dates are not included or in fn to v 21 as they are in error].

came = went, set out, or proceeded. Hebrew. bo", which means to go or come, according to the context and the point of view.

Nebuchadnezzar did set out in Jehoiakim"s third year, but was delayed by fighting the battle with Pharaoh-necho at Carchemish (605 BCE). In the next (the fourth) year (Jeremiah 46:2), he carried out the object with which he set out. Compare 2 Kings 24:1, and 2 Chronicles 36:6, 2 Chronicles 36:7.


Nebuchadnezzar. This name is so spelled (i.e. with "n" instead of "r") by Berosus (who wrote his history from the monuments, Cent. 3, B. C). Both spellings were in vogue. Ezekiel uses the "r"; and Jeremiah uses "r" before en. 27; and then eight times the "n" (Jeremiah 27:6 where Nebuchadnezzar is once specially called Jehovah"s appointed servant, 8, 20; Jeremiah 28:3, Jeremiah 28:11, Jeremiah 28:14;

Jeremiah 29:1, Jeremiah 29:3); and after that, always with "r" except twice (Jeremiah 34:1; Jeremiah 39:5). It is spelled with "n" in 2 Kings 24:1, 2 Kings 24:10, 2 Kings 24:11; 2 Kings 25:1, 2 Kings 25:8, 2 Kings 25:22; 1 Chronicles 6:15. 2 Chronicles 36:6, 2 Chronicles 36:7, 2 Chronicles 36:10, 2 Chronicles 36:13. Ezra 1:7; Ezra 2:1. Nehemiah 7:6. Esther 2:6).


Verse 2

the LORD*. One of the 134 places where the Sopherim say they altered "Jehovah" of the primitive text to"Adonai". See App-32.

part. Others were brought later (2 Kings 24:13. 2 Chronicles 36:10). See Ezra 1:7 for the subsequent restoration of them by Cyrus.

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

the land of Shinar. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 10:10; Genesis 11:2; Genesis 14:1, Genesis 14:9). App-92. Outside the Pentateuch found only in Joshua 7:21 (Hebrew text). Isaiah 11:11. Zechariah 5:11; and here.


Verse 3

the master of his eunuchs. Hebrew. rab sarisayn = master or chief of the eunuchs; whence the title "Rab-saris" in 2 Kings 18:17. See note there. Called "prince" in Daniel 1:7.

and = even, or both. Some codices, with six early printed editions, omit this "and": reading "sons of Israel, of the king"s seed" (or "seed-royal").

princes = nobles. Hebrew. partemim, a Persian word, found only here and Esther 1:3; Esther 6:9. Not the same word as in verses: Daniel 1:7, Daniel 1:8, Daniel 1:10, Daniel 7:11, &c.


Verse 4

in the king"s palace. The Inscriptions show that there was a palace school with elaborate arrangements for special education. See below on "Chaldeans", and notes on Daniel 2:2.

learning = character, or books. See Prof. Sayce"s Babylonian Literature: which shows the existence of a huge literature and famous libraries, in which were arrangements for procuring books from the librarian as in our own day. These books related to all subjects, and were classified according to their subjects (pp. 12-14).

tongue. This was a special and important department.

Chaldeans. A name not peculiar to Daniel. From Genesis onward it is met with, especially in Jeremiah. They were distinct from the Babylonians (Jeremiah 22:25. Ezekiel 23:23), and belonged to South Babylonia. Used here of a special class, well known as such at that time (Compare Daniel 2:2, Daniel 2:4, Daniel 2:5, Daniel 2:10), and distinct also from other learned classes (Daniel 2:4). The word (Hebrew. Chasdim) is used also in the wider sense of a nationality (Daniel 5:30). See Dr. Pinches on The Old Testament, p. 371; Rawlinson"s History of Herodotus, vol. i; pp 255, 256; and Lenormant"s The Ancient History of the East, i. pp. 493-5.


Verse 5

meat = food. Hebrew. pathbag. A Persian or Aryan word. Occurs only in Daniel.

wine. Hebrew. yayin. App-27.

three years…. See note on Daniel 2:1. It does not say these years were concluded before the events of Dan 2 took place.

stand before the king. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 41:46).


Verse 6

Daniel = God is my Judge. See note on the Title.

Hananiah = Jah is gracious; or, graciously given by Jah.

Mishael = who is (or is as) El? App-4.

Azariah = helped of Jah, or Jah has helped.


Verse 7

prince = ruler. Hebrew. sar.

gave names. In token of subjection. See 2 Kings 23:34; 2 Kings 24:17. Compare Genesis 41:45.

Belteshazzar. According to Dr. Pinches, this is an abbreviated form of Balat-su-usur = protect thou (O Bel) his life. Many such abbreviations are found in the inscriptions; but compare "Belshazzar" (Daniel 5:1).

Shadrach. According to Delitzsch = Sudur-Aku (= command of Aku, the moon-god).

Meshach. Perhaps Misha-Aku = who is as Aku?

Abed-nego = servant or worshipper of Nego. It is not wise to suppose this to be a corruption of Abed- nebo, while any day the name may be met with in the Inscriptions.


Verse 8

defile himself, &c. This was because meat was killed with the blood (contrary to Leviticus 3:17; Leviticus 7:26; Leviticus 17:10-14; Leviticus 19:26), and offered to idols (Exodus 34:15. 1 Corinthians 10:20. Compare Acts 15:29). Not because they were acting on vegetarian and temperance principles.


Verse 9

God. Hebrew. Elohim.(with Art.) = the… God. App-4.


Verse 11

Melzar. Hebrew = the melzar = the steward or butler, who had charge of the wine, &c.


Verse 21

the first year of king Cyrus: i.e. during the whole period of Babylonian supremacy over Israel for sixty-nine years … It does not say that he did not continue longer, but that he lived to see that important epoch. Compare Daniel 10:1; and see App-57and App-58.