Christian Churches of God

No. F025




Commentary on Lamentations


(Edition 1.0 20230518-20230518)


Commentary on Chapters 1-5.






Christian Churches of God

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Commentary on Lamentations



Jerusalem had been sent into captivity in 587 (586) BCE under the Prophet Jeremiah. These psalms in Lamentations have been traditionally ascribed to Jeremiah due to 2Chron, 35:25. These laments were for the death of Josiah and not for the desolation of Jerusalem and so that technicality has led academics to differentiate the texts. The thought and diction of the texts is sufficiently distinct to enable the distinction. The first four chapters are alphabetic acrostics with a stanza for each of the 22 letters of the Hebrew alphabet and the fifth chapter has the same number of verses as the Hebrew Alphabet. Chapters 1, 2 and 3 are in the form of dirges over the dead city, with Ch. 3 inspired by Job. The OARSV n. says that the elegies “limping 3:2 meter (three beats followed by two beats is recognisable even in translation together with the exclamatory ”How...”in the opening line as an expressions of grief (2Sam. 1:25, 27 (Isa. 1:21).”  In Ch. 3 the sadness of the desolate people and reflection on the meaning of the disaster are voiced by an individual. Chapter 5 in its form and language recalls the liturgies used in time of national trouble (see Pss. 74 and 79). The common theme of all the poems is the agony of the people; the apparent desertion of Zion by her God and the hoped for restoration by God of a humbled and repentant Israel, in the Last Days under Messiah (see also Bullinger's comments below). 


It is thought that Lamentations may well be the work of one or several authors speaking out over the dreadful conditions of the overthrow of the city (see OARSV n.). The traditional view is that it is the product of Jeremiah, with the assistance of the scribal house of Baruch. The captivity, from the texts of the prophets from Isaiah to Ezekiel, had been because they had failed to keep the Laws of God and God's Calendar (No. 156). Indeed they had refused to obey God from the text of Jeremiah (esp. Chs. 50-51), and keep the Sabbaths, and they had kept the Calendar of Baal and the Queen of Heaven, Easter (Ishtar or Astarte). The tribes of Israel have kept that Calendar ever since they were sent into captivity and God is to destroy them for it (No. 212F), including Judah, Levi and Benjamin (No. 212E). who keep the Babylonian Intercalations. This destruction will intensify in the last days under the Witnesses and for the Return of the Messiah (No. 282E). Jeremiah says, in Ch. 13, by God's oracle, that Babylon has effectively spoiled Judah due to the Babylonian influence (re. the parable of the loincloth). So also Ezekiel records the failure of Judah and the continued reorganisation of the Calendar and the final structure of the Temple under Messiah (F026, ii, iii, iv, v, vi, vii, viii, ix, x, xi, xii). (The continued failure of Judah is listed in the text of the Summary in Part XIV of Jeremiah (F024xiv). So also the correct sequence of the LXX text is listed in that Part and the later reorganised MT is also listed after the fall of the Temple from 70 CE to the reorganisation of the MT post 220 CE after the return of the Temple MSS to the Jews under the emperor Severin. The alterations to the MT had begun after 70 CE at the completion of the first phase of the Sign of Jonah and the History of the Reconstruction of the Temple No 013), and the dispersion of Judah.  The sequence of the prophecies also here refers to the Last Days and the coming of the Messiah (see below), developing the prophecies in Isaiah and Ezekiel regarding Pharaoh's Broken Arms  (No. 036) and to the Last Days (No. 036_2) and also Jeremiah ch. 4 Part 1 (F024) and also the Summary Part XIV (F024xiv). So also we see the prophecies under Daniel end in the Last Days, as we see in  F027, i, ii, iii, iv, v, vi, vii, viii, ix, x, xi, xii,  xiii.

See also the Twelve Prophets F028, F029, F030, F031, F032, F033, F034, F035, F036, F037, F038, F039.

So also we see the Last Days to the Completion of the Sign of Jonah (No. 013B).  See also F040, F041, F042, F043, F043ii, F043iii, F043iv, F043v and F043vi and F066, i, ii, iii, iv, v.


E.W. Bullinger


Book Overview


Author and Time of Writing

Although the Lamentations do not bear any name of an author they have been ascribed to the prophet Jeremiah in the oldest tradition already. The Lamentations in the Septuagint (Greek translation of the OT, around 200 BC) begin with the following words: "And it happened after Israel had been led captive and Jerusalem had been destroyed that Jeremiah sat and lamented with the following lamentation and said: How doth the city sit solitary, that was full of people!" Most researchers - included the ones who refuse Jeremiah as author - would agree that the author must have been an eyewitness of Jerusalem's destruction (compare with Jeremiah 39). Jeremiah's authorship is underlined by a number of stylistic parallels in the two consecutive books.


Jerusalem's destruction by the Babylonians in the year [587 BCE] 586 BC, which is described in the Lamentations by Jeremiah as eyewitness, is decisive for the date of writing. The time of writing therefore will have to be set shortly after this incident and in Jeremiah's last years of life.


Purpose of Writing

In most of the modern Bible editions the Lamentations follow upon the book of Jeremiah. In the Hebrew Bible however they are set in the third part, the so-called "writings" (Hebr. Ketubim). There they belong to the so-called "rolls" (Hebr. Megillot), which are read on certain festive days. The reading of the Lamentations happens on the 9th day of the month of Ab (July/August) that is the fasting-day on the occasion of Jerusalem's destruction (compare Jeremiah 52:6).


The Lamentations are written in poetry. The five chapters from five stanzas of one elegy over Zion's fall.

- The two first stanzas (chapters) are composed of 22 verses each and the initial letter of each verse follows the alphabetical order.

- The third stanza (chapter) is constructed identically with the difference that each verse of the succeeding set of three begins with the same Hebrew letter. This is why chapter 3 contains 66 verses.

- The fourth stanza (chapter) is constructed as stanzas 1 and 2 with the difference that each verse contains of two instead of three lines.

- The fifth stanza (chapter) contains of 22 single lines, which however are not in alphabetical order. With this we find here one of the few cases where chapters and verses are inspired! Compare with paragraph 3. Peculiarities, a) Hebrew Poetry, in the Book of Psalms.


The Lamentations are the expression of a heart full of love for the earthly people of Jehovah, a people punished for their sins by losing their kingdom, their land, their city and their sanctuary. Jeremiah considers himself as part of these people but thereby repents and puts his hope in spite of all mourning in God.



Christ in the Lamentations

Similar to the Psalms we may also see in Lamentations a prophetical preview of the sufferings of the Jewish remnant in the last time of trouble before Christ's appearing. As Jeremiah identified himself with the sad condition of the people under God's judgment so will also the Lord Jesus have compassion with Israel's woe, and especially so with the remnant's woe.


This is why various parallels are to be seen. Jeremiah lamented over Jerusalem and the Lord Jesus did so as well (Math. 23:37-38; Luke 19:41-44).

Further parallels are:

Lamentations 2:15-16 - Math. 27:39

Lamentations 3:8 - Math. 27:46

Lamentations 3:19 - Math. 27:34


Overview of Contents

I. Lamentations 1: Lamentation over Jerusalem's Destruction

II. Lamentations 2 : Reason for God's Wrath

III. Lamentations 3 : Lamentation of the Prophet

IV. Lamentations 4 : Sufferings during the Siege

V. Lamentations 5 : Prayer for Mercy



RSV throughout


Chapter 1

1How lonely sits the city that was full of people! How like a widow has she become, she that was great among the nations! She that was a princess among the cities has become a vassal. 2She weeps bitterly in the night, tears on her cheeks; among all her lovers she has none to comfort her; all her friends have dealt treacherously with her, they have become her enemies. 3Judah has gone into exile because of affliction and hard servitude; she dwells now among the nations, but finds no resting place; her pursuers have all overtaken her in the midst of her distress. 4The roads to Zion mourn, for none come to the appointed feasts; all her gates are desolate, her priests groan; her maidens have been dragged away, and she herself suffers bitterly. 5Her foes have become the head, her enemies prosper, because the LORD has made her suffer for the multitude of her transgressions; her children have gone away, captives before the foe. 6From the daughter of Zion has departed all her majesty. Her princes have become like harts that find no pasture; they fled without strength before the pursuer. 7Jerusalem remembers in the days of her affliction and bitterness all the precious things that were hers from days of old. When her people fell into the hand of the foe, and there was none to help her, the foe gloated over her, mocking at her downfall. 8Jerusalem sinned grievously, therefore she became filthy; all who honored her despise her, for they have seen her nakedness; yea, she herself groans, and turns her face away. 9Her uncleanness was in her skirts; she took no thought of her doom; therefore her fall is terrible, she has no comforter. "O LORD, behold my affliction, for the enemy has triumphed!" 10The enemy has stretched out his hands over all her precious things; yea, she has seen the nations invade her sanctuary, those whom thou didst forbid to enter thy congregation. 11All her people groan as they search for bread; they trade their treasures for food to revive their strength. "Look, O LORD, and behold, for I am despised." 12"Is it nothing to you, all you who pass by? Look and see if there is any sorrow like my sorrow which was brought upon me, which the LORD inflicted on the day of his fierce anger. 13"From on high he sent fire; into my bones he made it descend; he spread a net for my feet; he turned me back; he has left me stunned, faint all the day long. 14"My transgressions were bound into a yoke; by his hand they were fastened together; they were set upon my neck; he caused my strength to fail; the Lord gave me into the hands of those whom I cannot withstand. 15"The LORD flouted all my mighty men in the midst of me; he summoned an assembly against me to crush my young men; the Lord has trodden as in a wine press the virgin daughter of Judah. 16"For these things I weep; my eyes flow with tears; for a comforter is far from me, one to revive my courage; my children are desolate, for the enemy has prevailed." 17Zion stretches out her hands, but there is none to comfort her; the LORD has commanded against Jacob that his neighbors should be his foes; Jerusalem has become a filthy thing among them. 18"The LORD is in the right, for I have rebelled against his word; but hear, all you peoples, and behold my suffering; my maidens and my young men have gone into captivity. 19"I called to my lovers but they deceived me; my priests and elders perished in the city, while they sought food to revive their strength. 20"Behold, O LORD, for I am in distress, my soul is in tumult, my heart is wrung within me, because I have been very rebellious. In the street the sword bereaves; in the house it is like death. 21"Hear how I groan; there is none to comfort me. All my enemies have heard of my trouble; they are glad that thou hast done it. Bring thou the day thou hast announced, and let them be as I am. 22"Let all their evil doing come before thee; and deal with them as thou hast dealt with me because of all my transgressions; for my groans are many and my heart is faint."


Intent of Chapter 1

1:1-22 Jerusalem the widow calls on men and God for pity. 1:1-6 Jerusalem is desolate until the Last Days. Due to the Babylonian influence and Hillel the Feasts are not kept on the Biblically appointed Feasts. She is desolate and the priests groan (v. 4). Her foes have become the head, her enemies prosper because the Lord has made her suffer for the multitude of her transgressions (v. 5). The majesty has departed from the daughter of Zion and in these Last Days they will suffer under the Witnesses ((No. 141D). The nexus of the law will be restored for the coming of the Messiah over the Wars of the End (No. 141C). Israel will be punished through the length and breadth of its tribes and territories from the Isles throughout Europe and into the Middle East and the Celts through whom they were dispersed by the Assyrians and Babylonians (Nos. 212E and 212F). All her previous things that were from days of old were stripped from her when her people fell into the hand of the foe and her downfall was mocked (v. 7).

1:8-10 Jerusalem sinned grievously and became filthy (or a mockery v. 8). The nations invaded her sanctuary, even those forbidden to enter there.

1:11 The people groan and search for bread and trade their treasures to revive their strength.

1:12-17 God sent fire from on high to destroy Jerusalem in His anger and all the transgressions of Israel and Judah were bound into a yoke (the rendering “Is it nothing to you” is doubtful (see OARSV n. ).

1:18-22 The Lord is in the right for Israel and Judah has rebelled against His word and the Law of God and all their evil doing is before God. 


Chapter 2

1How the Lord in his anger has set the daughter of Zion under a cloud! He has cast down from heaven to earth the splendor of Israel; he has not remembered his footstool in the day of his anger. 2The Lord has destroyed without mercy all the habitations of Jacob; in his wrath he has broken down the strongholds of the daughter of Judah; he has brought down to the ground in dishonor the kingdom and its rulers. 3He has cut down in fierce anger all the might of Israel; he has withdrawn from them his right hand in the face of the enemy; he has burned like a flaming fire in Jacob, consuming all around. 4He has bent his bow like an enemy, with his right hand set like a foe; and he has slain all the pride of our eyes in the tent of the daughter of Zion; he has poured out his fury like fire. 5The Lord has become like an enemy, he has destroyed Israel; he has destroyed all its palaces, laid in ruins its strongholds; and he has multiplied in the daughter of Judah mourning and lamentation. 6He has broken down his booth like that of a garden, laid in ruins the place of his appointed feasts; the LORD has brought to an end in Zion appointed feast and sabbath, and in his fierce indignation has spurned king and priest. 7The Lord has scorned his altar, disowned his sanctuary; he has delivered into the hand of the enemy the walls of her palaces; a clamor was raised in the house of the LORD as on the day of an appointed feast. 8The LORD determined to lay in ruins the wall of the daughter of Zion; he marked it off by the line; he restrained not his hand from destroying; he caused rampart and wall to lament, they languish together. 9Her gates have sunk into the ground; he has ruined and broken her bars; her king and princes are among the nations; the law is no more, and her prophets obtain no vision from the LORD. 10The elders of the daughter of Zion sit on the ground in silence; they have cast dust on their heads and put on sackcloth; the maidens of Jerusalem have bowed their heads to the ground. 11My eyes are spent with weeping; my soul is in tumult; my heart is poured out in grief because of the destruction of the daughter of my people, because infants and babes faint in the streets of the city. 12They cry to their mothers, "Where is bread and wine?" as they faint like wounded men in the streets of the city, as their life is poured out on their mothers' bosom. 13What can I say for you, to what compare you, O daughter of Jerusalem? What can I liken to you, that I may comfort you, O virgin daughter of Zion? For vast as the sea is your ruin; who can restore you? 14Your prophets have seen for you false and deceptive visions; they have not exposed your iniquity to restore your fortunes, but have seen for you oracles false and misleading. 15All who pass along the way clap their hands at you; they hiss and wag their heads at the daughter of Jerusalem; "Is this the city which was called the perfection of beauty, the joy of all the earth?" 16All your enemies rail against you; they hiss, they gnash their teeth, they cry: "We have destroyed her! Ah, this is the day we longed for; now we have it; we see it!" 17The LORD has done what he purposed, has carried out his threat; as he ordained long ago, he has demolished without pity; he has made the enemy rejoice over you, and exalted the might of your foes. 18Cry aloud to the Lord! O daughter of Zion! Let tears stream down like a torrent day and night! Give yourself no rest, your eyes no respite! 19Arise, cry out in the night, at the beginning of the watches! Pour out your heart like water before the presence of the Lord! Lift your hands to him for the lives of your children, who faint for hunger at the head of every street. 20Look, O LORD, and see! With whom hast thou dealt thus? Should women eat their offspring, the children of their tender care? Should priest and prophet be slain in the sanctuary of the Lord? 21In the dust of the streets lie the young and the old; my maidens and my young men have fallen by the sword; in the day of thy anger thou hast slain them, slaughtering without mercy. 22Thou didst invite as to the day of an appointed feast my terrors on every side; and on the day of the anger of the LORD none escaped or survived; those whom I dandled and reared my enemy destroyed.


Intent of Chapter 2

2:1-22  The peoples’ Agony and their cry to God for mercy.

The splendour of Israel has been cast down from heaven to earth the splendour of Israel due to her sin and rejection of the Law of God and His Calendar (vv.2-5).

2:6 God has destroyed His booth (i.e. the Temple; also in future prophecy ca 70 CE (No. 013) and He will send the Messiah to rebuild it. He has spurned king and priest because of their sin. Israel and the Churches of God must repent to be allowed to keep God's Calendar (No. 156).

v. 7 Clamour of Battle as opposed to the sounds of worship on an appointed Feast.

v. 8 Line   - A measuring line (Job 38:5).

v. 9 God has allowed her gates to sink into the ground and scattered her princes among the nations. The law of God is not among the Churches of God (Jer. 18:18; Mal. 2:5-8) and the prophets obtain no vision from the Lord until the Last Days (Jer. 4:15-27 (F024); Jn. 1:19 n (F043); Rev. 11:3ff (F066iii).

2:14 Oracles false and misleading. The prophets lied with false and deceptive visions and that continued on after the dispersal and also into the Churches of God. The elect died in the millions (F044vii) and two entire eras of the Churches of God in the Last Days were destroyed by lies and false prophecy (No. 269) under a false calendar (Nos. 195 and 195C (Rev. 3:1-22). Note also the 22 verses in this oracle carrying on to the Last Days regarding the destruction of Sardis and Laodicea and the final establishment of Philadelphia (F066; No. 283).  There will be no false system allowed in the Church of God or on the planet for the Millennium. The priests of Sardis and Laodicea will be exterminated, unless they repent under the Witnesses (No. 141D). They will not be allowed to teach. Only the Zadokites and Philadelphia will retain their positions (F026; F026x; F026xi;  F066 & No. 090).

2:15-16 The destruction of the Holy Land and City was and is a joy to the nations purely because it is a symbol of the Laws of God and the seat of Melchisedek as the priesthood of God (No. 128; F058). The destruction in the Last Days will be worse than the previous destructions (see Wars of the End (No. 141C)). This will see the great earthquake at the Mount of Olives at the return of Messiah (No. 282E). The Trinitarian systems will be destroyed completely (No. 288).

2:17 The Lord has done what he set aside in order to bring all to repentance in punishment for the breach of the Law of God (1Kgs. 9:6-9); as we see effected in 2:18-19.

2:20-22 The destruction will be complete. Yet God will not make a full end over the Last Days as He foretold in Jeremiah (4:15-27; F024) but Israel and their nations will be broken and they will keep the Law and the Temple Calendar, or they will die. (v. 20   2Kgs. 6:28-29) (v. 22: Am. 5:18-20). Everyone teaching that the Law of God is done away will start to die, commencing from the Witnesses. They will not enter the millennial system.


Chapter 3

1I am the man who has seen affliction under the rod of his wrath; 2he has driven and brought me into darkness without any light; 3surely against me he turns his hand again and again the whole day long. 4He has made my flesh and my skin waste away, and broken my bones; 5he has besieged and enveloped me with bitterness and tribulation; 6he has made me dwell in darkness like the dead of long ago. 7He has walled me about so that I cannot escape; he has put heavy chains on me; 8though I call and cry for help, he shuts out my prayer; 9he has blocked my ways with hewn stones, he has made my paths crooked. 10He is to me like a bear lying in wait, like a lion in hiding; 11he led me off my way and tore me to pieces; he has made me desolate; 12he bent his bow and set me as a mark for his arrow. 13He drove into my heart the arrows of his quiver; 14I have become the laughingstock of all peoples, the burden of their songs all day long. 15He has filled me with bitterness, he has sated me with wormwood. 16He has made my teeth grind on gravel, and made me cower in ashes; 17my soul is bereft of peace, I have forgotten what happiness is; 18so I say, "Gone is my glory, and my expectation from the LORD."19Remember my affliction and my bitterness, the wormwood and the gall! 20My soul continually thinks of it and is bowed down within me. 21But this I call to mind, and therefore I have hope: 22The steadfast love of the LORD never ceases, his mercies never come to an end; 23they are new every morning; great is thy faithfulness. 24"The LORD is my portion," says my soul, "therefore I will hope in him." 25The LORD is good to those who wait for him, to the soul that seeks him. 26It is good that one should wait quietly for the salvation of the LORD. 27It is good for a man that he bear the yoke in his youth. 28Let him sit alone in silence when he has laid it on him; 29let him put his mouth in the dust--there may yet be hope; 30let him give his cheek to the smiter, and be filled with insults. 31For the Lord will not cast off for ever, 32but, though he cause grief, he will have compassion according to the abundance of his steadfast love; 33for he does not willingly afflict or grieve the sons of men. 34To crush under foot all the prisoners of the earth, 35to turn aside the right of a man in the presence of the Most High, 36to subvert a man in his cause, the Lord does not approve. 37Who has commanded and it came to pass, unless the Lord has ordained it? 38Is it not from the mouth of the Most High that good and evil come? 39Why should a living man complain, a man, about the punishment of his sins? 40Let us test and examine our ways, and return to the LORD! 41Let us lift up our hearts and hands to God in heaven: 42"We have transgressed and rebelled, and thou hast not forgiven. 43"Thou hast wrapped thyself with anger and pursued us, slaying without pity; 44thou hast wrapped thyself with a cloud so that no prayer can pass through. 45Thou hast made us offscouring and refuse among the peoples. 46"All our enemies rail against us; 47panic and pitfall have come upon us, devastation and destruction; 48my eyes flow with rivers of tears because of the destruction of the daughter of my people. 49"My eyes will flow without ceasing, without respite, 50until the LORD from heaven looks down and sees; 51my eyes cause me grief at the fate of all the maidens of my city. 52"I have been hunted like a bird by those who were my enemies without cause; 53they flung me alive into the pit and cast stones on me; 54water closed over my head; I said, 'I am lost.' 55"I called on thy name, O LORD, from the depths of the pit; 56thou didst hear my plea, 'Do not close thine ear to my cry for help!' 57Thou didst come near when I called on thee; thou didst say, 'Do not fear!' 58"Thou hast taken up my cause, O Lord, thou hast redeemed my life. 59Thou hast seen the wrong done to me, O LORD; judge thou my cause. 60Thou hast seen all their vengeance, all their devices against me. 61"Thou hast heard their taunts, O LORD, all their devices against me. 62The lips and thoughts of my assailants are against me all the day long. 63Behold their sitting and their rising; I am the burden of their songs. 64"Thou wilt requite them, O LORD, according to the work of their hands. 65Thou wilt give them dullness of heart; thy curse will be on them. 66Thou wilt pursue them in anger and destroy them from under thy heavens, O LORD."


Intent of Chapter 3

3:1-66  This text is seen as an acrostic in three parts with three verses to each letter of the alphabet.

3:1-24 The text is a psalm of personal distress and trust in God (comp. Psalm 56). The Book of Job is used as a basis for the text. It is structured to compare the text with Job's complaints against God;

v. 1, comp. Job 9:34; v. 2 comp. Job 19:8; v. 3 comp. Job 7:18; v. 4 comp. Job 7:5; 30:30;  v. 5 comp. Job 19:6,12; v. 6 comp. Job 23:16-17; v. 7 comp. Job 19:8; v. 8 comp. Job 30:20; v. 9, comp. Job. 19:8; vv. 10-11, comp. Job 16:9; vv. 12-13, comp. Job 16:12-13; v. 14, comp. Job 30:9; v. 15, comp. Job 9:18; vv. 16-18, comp. Job 19:10; 30:19.

vv. 19-24, recalls the chastisement of God and the steadfast love of God that never ceases. This chastisement will continue on to the return of the Messiah and the reintroduction of the Law of God (L1). Note that Job's children were killed because of their involvement with false doctrines such as Birthdays (No. 287) and conduct contrary to the Law of God. Satan was permitted to deal with Job but not kill him. Satan is allowed to sift the earth like wheat in the Last Days. Only the Holy Seed keeping the Laws of God is protected in the Last Days (Isa. 6:9-13; Am. 9:1-15). All false religion instigated by Satan and the Demons is subject to the demons and they can kill them.


3:25-51 Wisdom requires Submission and Penitence for the receipt of God's Righteous Justice and Mercy.

3:25-27 The soul that seeks God finds His goodness and mercy.

3:29 His mouth in the dust – in self abasement.

3:31-33 God does not willingly (Lit. “from His heart”) afflict or grieve the sons of men.

3:34-39 No man is to complain about the punishment of his sins. Good and Evil- (comp. Isa. 45:7; Am. 3:6)

3:40-51 All discipline is to force a return to the Lord under His Law. (Us. -The Nation of Israel as God's Elect (## 001, 001A, 001B; 001C).

3:52-66 A Psalm in plea for God’s mercy and restoration. (Comp. 5:1-22). Mankind will be persecuted and hunted to repentance in the Last Days.

3:55-66 When we repent and call upon the name of the Lord He will hear and protect and requite all our enemies according to their works. The sentiments of v. 59 are in contrast to 2:39 above.

vv. 64-66 These verses recall the cries of the persecuted Righteous of the Psalms (see Ps. 3:7; 17:13,14; 35:26; 59:11-13; comp. Jer. 11:20-23; 18:21-22).


Chapter 4

1How the gold has grown dim, how the pure gold is changed! The holy stones lie scattered at the head of every street. 2The precious sons of Zion, worth their weight in fine gold, how they are reckoned as earthen pots, the work of a potter's hands! 3Even the jackals give the breast and suckle their young, but the daughter of my people has become cruel, like the ostriches in the wilderness. 4The tongue of the nursling cleaves to the roof of its mouth for thirst; the children beg for food, but no one gives to them. 5Those who feasted on dainties perish in the streets; those who were brought up in purple lie on ash heaps. 6For the chastisement of the daughter of my people has been greater than the punishment of Sodom, which was overthrown in a moment, no hand being laid on it. 7Her princes were purer than snow, whiter than milk; their bodies were more ruddy than coral, the beauty of their form was like sapphire. 8Now their visage is blacker than soot, they are not recognized in the streets; their skin has shriveled upon their bones, it has become as dry as wood. 9Happier were the victims of the sword than the victims of hunger, who pined away, stricken by want of the fruits of the field. 10The hands of compassionate women have boiled their own children; they became their food in the destruction of the daughter of my people. 11The LORD gave full vent to his wrath, he poured out his hot anger; and he kindled a fire in Zion, which consumed its foundations. 12The kings of the earth did not believe, or any of the inhabitants of the world, that foe or enemy could enter the gates of Jerusalem. 13This was for the sins of her prophets and the iniquities of her priests, who shed in the midst of her the blood of the righteous. 14They wandered, blind, through the streets, so defiled with blood that none could touch their garments. 15"Away! Unclean!" men cried at them; "Away! Away! Touch not!" So they became fugitives and wanderers; men said among the nations, "They shall stay with us no longer." 16The LORD himself has scattered them, he will regard them no more; no honor was shown to the priests, no favor to the elders. 17Our eyes failed, ever watching vainly for help; in our watching we watched for a nation which could not save. 18Men dogged our steps so that we could not walk in our streets; our end drew near; our days were numbered; for our end had come. 19Our pursuers were swifter than the vultures in the heavens; they chased us on the mountains, they lay in wait for us in the wilderness. 20The breath of our nostrils, the LORD's anointed, was taken in their pits, he of whom we said, "Under his shadow we shall live among the nations." 21Rejoice and be glad, O daughter of Edom, dweller in the land of Uz; but to you also the cup shall pass; you shall become drunk and strip yourself bare. 22The punishment of your iniquity, O daughter of Zion, is accomplished, he will keep you in exile no longer; but your iniquity, O daughter of Edom, he will punish, he will uncover your sins.


Intent of Chapter 4

4:1-22 Horrors of the Siege and Sack of Jerusalem.

His sack and devastation was to be repeated again and again from 587 BCE to 70 CE and then on to the Last Days for the First and Second Holocaust (No. 141C_3).

4:1-2 Refers to the Temple Treasures. The sons of Zion are yet more precious in the sight of God.

4:3 The nation can no longer care for her children.

4:5, 9-10 see 2Kgs. 25:3

4:12  (see Isa. Chs. 36-37).

4:13-16 Judah's religious leaders have been moral lepers and only the Witnesses and Messiah can correct them.

4:17 A nation which could not save – Egypt (Jer. 37:5-10).

v. 20 The Lord's Anointed (Zedekiah 2Kgs. 25:4-6). Pits – Hunter's traps

4:21-22 Unlike Chs. 1-3 which end with a prayer for mercy and deliverance Ch. 4 ends with a prophecy that Edom will suffer for her treachery against its brother Jacob (see Ob. 8-14).


Chapter 5

1Remember, O LORD, what has befallen us; behold, and see our disgrace! 2Our inheritance has been turned over to strangers, our homes to aliens. 3We have become orphans, fatherless; our mothers are like widows. 4We must pay for the water we drink, the wood we get must be bought. 5With a yoke on our necks we are hard driven; we are weary, we are given no rest. 6We have given the hand to Egypt, and to Assyria, to get bread enough. 7Our fathers sinned, and are no more; and we bear their iniquities. 8Slaves rule over us; there is none to deliver us from their hand. 9We get our bread at the peril of our lives, because of the sword in the wilderness. 10Our skin is hot as an oven with the burning heat of famine. 11Women are ravished in Zion, virgins in the towns of Judah. 12Princes are hung up by their hands; no respect is shown to the elders. 13Young men are compelled to grind at the mill; and boys stagger under loads of wood. 14The old men have quit the city gate, the young men their music. 15The joy of our hearts has ceased; our dancing has been turned to mourning. 16The crown has fallen from our head; woe to us, for we have sinned! 17For this our heart has become sick, for these things our eyes have grown dim, 18for Mount Zion which lies desolate; jackals prowl over it. 19But thou, O LORD, dost reign for ever; thy throne endures to all generations. 20Why dost thou forget us for ever, why dost thou so long forsake us? 21Restore us to thyself, O LORD, that we may be restored! Renew our days as of old! 22Or hast thou utterly rejected us? Art thou exceedingly angry with us?


Intent of Chapter 5

5:1-22  This was a communal psalm of lament and plea for Restoration (see Pss. 44; 74; 79; 80).

Israel's ancestors sinned and polluted their sanctuaries and Israel has been in dispersion for two millennia in constant sins and they will not repent and keep the Law of God and the Temple Calendar.

They willingly adopt the Babylonian system under Hillel.

v.      9 Slaves  - Important posts were sometimes given to Slaves of the king.

v. 10 The nation burns with Famine.

5:15-18 The Davidic monarchy is no more  (No. 067) and the Temple site is desolate. The Trinitarians turned the site into a rubbish tip and the Caliph Omar had to conquer Jerusalem to clean it up and make it, once more, a place of worship.

5:16 This is a double reference to the garland of dancers and the king's crown. It is Messiah’s right and will be restored to him at his return.

5:19-22 A prayer for divine restoration in mercy in the Last Days under Messiah the rightful king of Israel and the world, pointing out that it is after all God's throne (comp. also Pss. 74:1-2; 79:5-8; 80:1-7).


Messiah will restore Israel and establish world rule from there under Messiah as we see from all the Latter prophets and the NT texts (see F066v).


E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes on
Lamentations (for KJV)


Chapter 1

Verse 1

How = Alas! or, O how! Hebrew. "eykah = an exclamation of pain and grief, a wailing cry (preserved in Eng. "jackal"). The Massorah (App-30) points out that this exclamation is used by three prophets, concerning Israel:

(1) by Moses in her multiplication (Deuteronomy 1:12. Compare Lamentations 1:11);

(2) by Isaiah in her dissipation (Isaiah 1:21);

(3) by Jeremiah in her desolation (Lamentations 1:1).

This word "How" is to be supplied at the beginning of verses: Lamentations 1:2-3 by Figure of speech Ellipsis (App-6). Compare also Lamentations 2:1; Lamentations 4:1; and Isaiah 14:12.

solitary: i.e. empty; referring to the houses and streets.


Verse 2

weepeth sore. Note Figure of speech Polyptoton (App-6). The Hebrew = a weeping she weepeth. Thus well rendered. See note on Genesis 26:28; and note the Figure of speech Prosopopoeia (App-6).

lovers: i.e. allies, whom she had preferred to Jehovah. See Jeremiah 2:17, Jeremiah 2:27, Jeremiah 2:36, Jeremiah 2:37; Jeremiah 4:30; Jeremiah 22:22. Eze 23; and Lamentations 29:6, Lamentations 29:7, Lamentations 29:16.

enemies. Especially the Edomites and Ammonites. Compare Jeremiah 12:14.


Verse 3

among the heathen. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 28:64, Deuteronomy 28:65).

heathen = nations.

between the straits. Like a hunted animal driven where there is no escape. Same word as in Psalms 116:3; Psalms 118:5. Occurs only in these three places. Compare Lamentations 1:6.


Verse 4

The ways. Not streets in the city, but the roads leading thereto.

solemn feasts = appointed feasts. See note on Psalms 74:8 (same word).

bitterness = bitter for her. Instead of festal joy, Compare Jeremiah 7:34; Jeremiah 16:9; Jeremiah 25:10; Jeremiah 31:13; Jeremiah 33:11.


Verse 5

are the chiefs are the head. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 28:13, Deuteronomy 28:44), the same word. App-92.

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4. transgressions = rebellions. Hebrew. pasha". App-44.

children = young children, as in Lamentations 2:11, Lamentations 2:19, Lamentations 2:20, and Lamentations 4:4. Not "sons".


Verse 6

like harts. See note on Lamentations 1:3.


Verse 7

pleasant things. Hebrew = things of desire. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), for the things she used to enjoy.

sabbaths: or, sabbath-keepings; which she had herself profaned. See Jeremiah 17:21-23. Ezekiel 22:8, Ezekiel 22:26; Ezekiel 23:38,


Verse 8

grievously sinned. Note the Figure of speech Polyptoton Hebrew = sinned a sin. Thus well rendered. See note on "weepeth sore" (Lamentations 1:2).

sinned. Hebrew. chata". App-44.

is remove d = separated as unclean.


Verse 9

last end = hereafter.

wonderfully. Hebrew, plural "wonders" = a great wonder.

behold = see, behold. Same word as in verses: Lamentations 1:18, Lamentations 1:20. Not the same word as in Lamentations 1:12.


Verse 10

entered into her sanctuary. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 23:3), a technical expression. App-92.

congregation = convocation, or assembly.


Verse 11

soul. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.


Verse 12

behold = look attentively. Not the same word as in verses: Lamentations 1:9, Lamentations 1:18, Lamentations 1:20.

be = exists. Hebrew. yesh. See Genesis 18:24. Proverbs 8:21; Proverbs 18:24, &c.

sorrow = pain.

done unto me. Compare Lamentations 1:22; Lamentations 3:15.


Verse 14

The yoke, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 28:48), the same words. App-92.

wreathed = intertwined.

He: or. It: i.e. the yoke.

fall = stumble.

the LORD*. One of the 134 places where the Sopherim say they changed Jehovah to Adonai. See App-32.


Verse 15

mighty men = valiant ones. Hebrew. "abir. Not the same word as in Lamentations 3:1, Lamentations 3:27, Lamentations 3:35, Lamentations 3:39.

called = proclaimed. Same word as in verses: Lamentations 1:19, Lamentations 1:21.

an assembly = a festal gathering. Now that Israel"s feasts had ceased, there was another of a different nature and with a different object.

winepress. Hebrew. gath, where the grapes were trodden. Not the vat (yekeb) into which the juice was received.


Verse 16

mine eye, mine eye. Figure of speech Epizeuxis (App-6), for emphasis. It is not repeated in the Septuagint

relieve my soul = bring me back to life. Compare Lamentations 1:19.

children = sons. Not the same word as in Lamentations 2:11, Lamentations 2:19, Lamentations 2:20 and Lamentations 4:4.


Verse 17

Jacob. Referring to the natural seed. See notes on Genesis 32:28; Genesis 43:6; Genesis 45:26, Genesis 45:28. Compare Lamentations 2:1.


Verse 18

is. Hebrew = He [is].


Verse 21

the day: i.e. the day of vengeance of Jeremiah 25:17-26.


Verse 22

Let all, &c. This prayer is in accordance with that Dispensation. Not with this. See App-63.

wickedness. Hebrew. ra"a". App-44.

as =. according as.


Chapter 2

Verse 1

the LORD*. One of the 134 places where the Sopherim say they altered "Jehovah" of the primitive text to "Adonai". See App-32.

the beauty of Israel. Probably referring to the Temple (Isaiah 64:11), or the heroic defenders of Jerusalem (2 Samuel 1:19).

Israel. Referring to the spiritual seed. See note on Lamentations 1:17.

His footstool. Probably referring to the ark of the covenant (1 Chronicles 28:2), or the sanctuary (Psalms 99:5; Psalms 132:7. Isaiah 60:13).


Verse 2

swallowed up: i.e. as by an earthquake.

habitations = the open villages of the shepherds, in contrast with the strongholds of the next lines.


Verse 3

horn. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), App-6, for the self-protection afforded by it.

right hand. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. App-6.


Verse 4

His bow. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia.

all that were pleasant to the eye. Hebrew = all the desires of the eye; "eye" being put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of the Adjunct), for the things desired by it.

eye. Transfer here the colon which is wrongly placed after Zion.

Zion: place this colon after "eye" in preceding line, and connect Zion with the verb which follows.


Verse 5

her. Ginsburg thinks it should be "His".

mourning and lamentation. Note the Figure of speech Paronomasia (App-6). Hebrew. taaniyyah vaaniyyah.


Verse 6

tabernacle = dwelling, or pavilion. Hebrew. sok. Occurs only here.

as if it were of a garden: or, as [a booth in] a garden [is destroyed] See note on Isaiah 1:8. Septuagint reads "like a vine". Ginsburg thinks "like a thief".

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

solemn feasts = appointed seasons.


Verse 9

her king, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 28:36). App-92.

the law is no more: i.e. is no longer known and obeyed. Compare Nehemiah 13:1, and Esd Lamentations 14:20, Lamentations 14:21.


Verse 10

girded . . . with sackcloth. The outward symbol of mourning.


Verse 11

troubled = moved, or in ferment.

liver. Figure of speech for the seat of the emotions. Compare Job 16:13.

children = babes.


Verse 12

wine. Hebrew. yayin. App-27.

soul. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.


Verse 14

prophets, &c. Compare Ezekiel 12:24; Ezekiel 13:1-16, Ezekiel 13:23; Ezekiel 21:29; Ezekiel 22:28.

turn away thy captivity = cause thy captives to return. See note on Deuteronomy 30:3.

burdens = oracles.

causes of banishment. Here, the Figure of speech Metonymy (of Effect), App-6, is translated. Hebrew = expulsions, which is put for the effect of listening to those who brought about the expulsion (Jeremiah 2:8; Jeremiah 5:31; Jeremiah 14:14; Jeremiah 23:16).


Verse 15

pass by = pass by the way.

saying. Note the Ellipsis of this verb, which is very frequent in Hebrew. See Psalms 109:5; Psalms 114:12, &c.

Is . . . ? Figure of speech Erotesis.


Verse 16

All, &c. In some Codices, with Syriac, Lamentations 2:16 and Lamentations 2:17 are transposed to bring the letters Ayin and Pe into alphabetical order. The Septuagint leaves the verses, but transposes the letters. This is done because it is supposed to be a mistake. But it cannot be, because the same order appears in Lamentations 3 and Lamentations 4, and in the former case it occurs three times, although the subject-matter allows no such break. It is easier to believe that the outward artificial form is sacrificed to call our attention to the greater importance of the utterance. In Lamentations 2:16 we learn what the enemy thought and said; but, as the Ayin really precedes the Pe, so we are reminded that this was only owing to Jehovah"s purpose which had been revealed centuries before. See note on Lamentations 2:17.


Verse 17

For the transposition of the Hebrew alphabet here, see note on Lamentations 2:16, above.

devised. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 26:16, Leviticus 26:17. Deuteronomy 28:15).


Verse 19

the LORD*. This is the reading in some Codices, with one early printed edition.


Verse 20

consider. Put a colon after "consider", and an"? "after "this".

Shall . . . ? Figure of speech Erotesis. App-6. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 26:29. Deuteronomy 28:53). App-92.

span. See App-51.


Chapter 3

Verse 1

This chapter contains twenty-two verses: each verse having three lines: each line beginning with the same letter: and so, onward to the end of the alphabet.

I am the man. The prophet is representative of the nation, and speaks in the name of the whole. He is also typical and prophetical of Another, Who, in after years, took on Himself and bore the nation"s sin. App-85. The chapter must be read in connection with the Passion Psalms (Psalms 22:69, Psalms 22:88). The Figure of speech is Prosopopoeia (App-6), by which the nation speaks as one man.

man = strong man. Hebrew. geber. App-14.


Verse 5

gall. Compare Lamentations 3:19, and Psalms 69:21, with Matthew 27:34.

travel = travail, or labour. This line probably is put for the fortifications and the trench.


Verse 6

set me = made me to dwell.

as they, &c. = like the age-long dead.


Verse 7

chain = iron, or bronze. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause). App-6, for the fetters made of it. Compare Judges 16:21 and 2 Kings 25:7. 2 Chronicles 83:11; 2 Chronicles 36:6. Jeremiah 39:7; all of distinguished men.


Verse 9

CROOKED. To turn or wind back


Verse 10

as a lion. See note on Psalms 22:16.


Verse 12

His bow. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia.


Verse 13

arrows = sons. Figure of speech Hypocatastasis. As "sparks" are called "sons of the flame".


Verse 14

derision. Compare Jeremiah 20:8.


Verse 18

STRENGTH. strength (for endurance). Hebrew. nezah. See notes on Isaiah 40:9; 40:10; 40:26; 40:29; 40:31.


Verse 20

My soul. The primitive reading was "Thy soul", which the Sopherim have recorded, and state that they altered it to "My soul" (see App-33), considering it an offensive anthropomorphism. By so doing they destroyed the logical sequence and deep pathos of the primitive text. The three verses (Lamentations 3:19-21) retranslated will show this:
19) "Remember my humiliation and my misery, The wormwood and the gall
20) Yea, verily, Thou wilt remember, And Thy soul will mourn over me.
21) This I bring back to my heart, Therefore I shall have hope. "


Verse 21

mind = heart.

hope = expectation.


Verse 22

MERCIES. lovingkindnesses. BECAUSE. verily.... 

[ Continue Reading ]


Verse 23

NEW. fresh. EVERY MORNING. Put by Figure of speech _Synecdoche_ (of the Part), for always and continually.... 


Verse 25

WAIT FOR HIM. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 49:18, same word).


 Verse 26

QUIETLY WAIT. wait, and be silent.


Verse 29

HE. See note on Lamentations 1:12.


Verse 30

giveth his cheek. Compare Isaiah 50:6.


Verse 31

the LORD*. One of the 134 places where the Sopherim say they altered "Jehovah" of the primitive text to "Adonai". See App-32. Here some codices, with two early printed editions, also read "Jehovah".


Verse 33

children = sons.

men. Hebrew. "ish (sing).


Verse 35

turn aside, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 16:19; Deuteronomy 24:17; Deuteronomy 27:19, same word).

the MOST HIGH. Hebrew. "Elyon. App-4.


Verse 41

GOD. Hebrew El. App-4.

the heavens. Supply the Ellipsis thus: "the heavens [saying], We have", &c.


Verse 42

TRANSGRESSED. revolted. Hebrew. _p_ asha _'_. App-44. Compare Lamentations 1:22


Verse 43

persecuted = pursued. Compare Psalms 35:6.


Verse 46

All our enemies, &c. Here again, as in Lamentations 2:16 and Lamentations 2:17, the letters Pe (= P) and Ayin () are transposed; not from any "mistake" or "forgetfulness", but to call our attention to the truth which might otherwise have been overlooked: viz. the sorrow, on account of the destructive work of the enemies (verses: Lamentations 3:46-48), which would have been averted by true sorrow for the sins which caused it (verses: Lamentations 3:49-51).

opened their mouths. Compare Psalms 22:13. Psalms 22:45


Verse 47

Fear and a snare. Note the Figure of speech Paronomasia (App-6). Hebrew. pachad vapachath. Compare Isaiah 24:17. Jeremiah 48:43. In English, "Scare and snare".


Verse 48

MINE EYE RUNNETH DOWN. Compare Luke 19:41. App-85. EYE. tears: "eye" being put by Figure of speech _Metonymy_ (of Adjunct), for the tears which flow from it.


Verse 51

mine heart = my soul. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.


Verse 53

DUNGEON. pit. Compare Jeremiah 38:6. and Psalms 88:6.


Verse 54

over mine head. Compare Psalms 69:2.

I am cut off. Compare Psalms 88:5.


Verse 55

Thy name = Thee, or Thy attributes. See note on Psalms 20:1.


Verse 56

at my breathing. See note on Malachi 3:16.

at my cry. Some codices, with Vulgate, read "and at my cry" (or outcry).


Verse 58

redeemed. Hebrew. ga"al. See note on Exodus 6:6.


Verse 62

device = meditation. Hebrew. Higyon. See App-66.


Verse 63

their musick = their mocking song, as in v. 14.


Verse 65

Give them sorrow of heart = Thou wilt suffer them a veiling (or obstinacy) of heart. See Isaiah 6:9, Isaiah 6:10.


Chapter 4

Verse 1

This chapter, like Lamentations 1 and Lamentations 2, is an acrostic: the twenty-two verses commencing successively with the twenty-two letters of the Hebrew alphabet.

gold . . . most fine gold . . . fine gold. Figure of speech Anabasis, which is lost in Authorized Version rendering, which should be "gold . . . fine gold . . . pure gold".


Verse 2

fine gold = pure gold. See note above.

as earthen pitchers. The comparison is both in the material and in the workmanship. Compare Jeremiah 18:1-6; Jeremiah 19:1-10.


Verse 3

ostriches. Compare Job 39:13-17.


Verse 5

embrace. Compare Job 24:8.


Verse 6

For = And.

punishment of the iniquity. This is the full translation of the Figure of speech Metonymy (of Effect): the "iniquity "being put for its consequent punishment.

punishment of the sin. This is the full translation of the Figure of speech Metonymy (of Effect), App-6, the Hebrew chata (sin) being put for the consequent punishment.

overthrown, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 19:25). App-92.

Stayed = travailed on her: i.e. brought it about; for the overthrow was direct from God.


Verse 8

known = recognized.


Verse 9

are = have proved.


Verse 10

pitiful = tender-hearted.

have sodden, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 28:56, Deuteronomy 28:57). Compare 2 Kings 6:29.

children = babes.


Verse 11

The LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

kindled a fire. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 32:22). App-92.


Verse 13

just = righteous ones. Compare Matthew 23:31, Matthew 23:37.


Verse 14

polluted . . . with blood. Reference to Pentateuch (Numbers 19:11, Numbers 19:16). App-92.


Verse 15

Depart ye, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 18:46).

heathen = nations.


Verse 16

anger = face. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Effect), App-6, as manifesting the anger felt.

persons = face. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the Part), for the whole person.


Verse 19

persecutors = pursuers.

swifter than the eagles. Ref, to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 28:49).


Verse 20

breath. Hebrew. ruach. App-9.

the anointed: i.e. Zedekiah was still Jehovah"s "anointed", even as Saul was (1 Samuel 26:9, 1 Samuel 26:11, 1 Samuel 26:16, 1 Samuel 26:23).

pits = toils. Occurs only here and Psalms 107:20. Hebrew. shichith. Compare Jeremiah 2:6.


Verse 21

Rejoice, &c. Said in solemn irony. the land of Uz. See notes on p. 666, and App-62.

naked. Between Lamentations 4:21 and Lamentations 4:22 lies the whole of this present Dispensation. See App-63and App-72.


Verse 22

accomplished = completed.

visit = punish, as in Lamentations 4:6. See note there.


Chapter 5

Verse 1

The acrostic gives way before the outburst of emotion in prayer. The only connection with it is the number of the verses (twenty-two, corresponding with the letters of the Hebrew alphabet).


Verse 2

inheritance: i.e. Canaan.


Verse 5

Our necks are under persecution = Our pursuers are upon our necks.

persecution = pursuers.

and. Some codices, with two early printed editions and Syriac, read this "and" in the text.

have no rest = no respite was granted us.


Verse 6

given the hand. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of the Adjunct), App-6, for voluntary submission.


Verse 7

borne. As a burden. The same word as in Isaiah 53:4, Isaiah 53:11.

iniquities. Hebrew. avah. App-44.


Verse 9

We gat our bread = We brought home our bread.

lives = souls. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13. Some codices, with one early printed edition, read "souls".

sword of the wilderness. "The sword" is put, by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), for the raids and fightings of the inhabitants of the wilderness.


Verse 11

women = wives.


Verse 12

faces. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the Part), App-6, for the whole person.


Verse 13

to grind: i.e. to do women"s work.

children = young children, youths.

fell = staggered.

under the wood: i.e. under [the weight or load] of the wood (they were compelled as bond-slaves to carry).


Verse 17

this: ie.

this sin.

these things: i.e. loss of king, country, possessions, and liberties.


Verse 18

foxes = jackals.


Verse 19

remainest = sittest: i.e. as king.


Verse 20

dost = wilt.


Verse 21

Turn Thou us. National repentance was the one abiding condition of national blessing, and this must be Jehovah"s own work.

unto Thee = unto Thyself.


Verse 22

art = hast been.

In the public reading of the Hebrew text Lamentations 5:21 is repeated after Lamentations 5:22, so that the book may end with comfort. The same is the case with Ecclesiastes, Isaiah, and Malachi. The synagogue use appoints this book to be read on the Fast of Ab, which commemorates the destruction of Jerusalem.