Christian Churches of God

No. F023xvii




Commentary on Isaiah: Summary

(Edition 2.0 20240107-20240212)


This is the summary for the Commentary on Isaiah



Christian Churches of God

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Commentary on Isaiah: Summary


The Book of Isaiah is one of the most important prophetic works of the OT. It is the beginning of the Later Prophets and deals with the Plan of God through to the Coming of the Messiah, his death and resurrection and the dispersal and then the Restoration of Israel under the Messiah at his Second Advent. It also deals with the restoration of the Law of God and the Temple Calendar and the Second Exodus in the Return of Israel to the Promised Land and to the Restored Jerusalem.


It was due to the clarity of God's Prophecies through Isaiah and the latter prophets that the Trinitarian Christian Church had to conspire to claim that the OT was done away as well as the Law of God being no longer valid. Nothing could be further from the truth. As well the Modern Scholars had to diminish the prophecies by direct attacks in Isaiah, as a sequence of a posteriori writings as Parts 1 and II and then II A and II B or Part III;  and Daniel as a book of Canaanite origin.


From the Introduction (F023) we note:

  “The prophet Isaiah, son of Amoz, was appointed by God to proclaim his message to Judah and Jerusalem between 742 and 687 BCE (see OARSV n.).  In this critical period the Northern Kingdom was annexed to the Assyrian Empire (2Kgs. Ch. 17) and Judah survived as a tributary state in its shadow (2Chr. 28:21).


Modern Revisionist theory holds that Chapters 1-39 are attributed to Isaiah (Isa. 1) and that Chs. 40-66 come from the time of Cyrus of Persia (539 BCE) being judged to be from historical background, literary style and theological emphases (cf. OARSV Intro. n.).


The First section is considered to contain Isaiah's memoirs 1:1-12:6. The text then continues with oracles against foreign and domestic enemies (13:1-23:18) followed by what is termed the “Isaiah Apocalypse” (24:1-27:13). The Oracles are generally concerned with Judah's intrigue with Egypt, its implications and consequences (28:1-32:20). That is then followed by what are considered to be post-exilic eschatological oracles (33:1-35:10). An historical appendix is then considered to complete the pre-exilic section (36:1-39:8) (see OARSV n.). It is thought that there is some rearranging of oracles by post- exilic editors (OARSV n.). They assume that Isaiah seems to know the works of his contemporaries, Amos, Hosea and Micah and that in attacking social injustice is asserting Judah's tenuous relationship with God. Indeed, the theme of all the latter prophets is to condemn Judah for their abandonment of the laws of God and the Covenant as we see particularly in Jeremiah and also in Ezekiel, which shows their long-term rejection and their ultimate dispersion. (F024, F024xiv; F026ix, x, xi, xii).


Chapters 40-66 are called, by modern revisionist scholars, Second Isaiah (or even Second and Third Isaiah). They assume that it originated before the fall of Babylon (Oct. 29 539 BCE) to the armies of Cyrus King of Persia and during the generation following (cf. OARSV n.). It is asserted that the anonymous author of the First (bipartite) Section (Chs. 40-55) (or 40-48; 49-55) exults in joyful anticipation of exiled Judah’s restoration to Palestine, for which Cyrus is God's Precipitating Agent (44:28). It appears that modern revisionist scholars assume that God cannot issue prophecy and that for a person to be named in prophecy it must have been an aposteriori event, written after the person took the action God said he would take, and not as prophecy. The rest of the OARSV introduction reflects this aposteriori view of Isaiah and we will not canvas the view further. The same reasoning is applied to Daniel. Not only did Daniel prophesy the main events of the Babylonian and Medo-Persian Empires but all that of the Greeks and the North and South divisions (which were pointed out to Alexander when he went to Jerusalem) and then the Roman Empire and also the Holy Roman Empires and now the final Empire leading into the Wars of the End and the Return of Messiah (see F027xiii). We will examine these prophecies and outline all of the activities to the Return of the Messiah and the Restoration of the Laws of God and the Calendar for the Second Exodus (Chs. 65-66) (see Summary of Isaiah and also No. 156f).


What will be apparent is that the prophecies given to Isaiah relate from the captivity and removal of the Northern Kingdom ca. 722 to the Babylonian captivity and the restoration of Judah and the execution of the Messiah and then to the dispersion of Judah and the Restoration in the Last Days at the Return of Messiah and the Second Exodus of Israel in its entirety over these coming years. We will see that Isaiah is one of the greatest inspired texts of the Bible and we will deal with the assumed divisions and rejection of inspired prophecy by modern revisionist scholars, many of whom do not believe in the inspiration of the Bible texts. Many claim that the OT was not written until the Second Century BCE due to aposteriori reasoning.


Note that Bullinger's dates in his commentary are based on faulty 19th century timelines, which scholarship has improved over the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. The timelines of the Kings of Judah and Israel are at Outline Timetable of the Age (No. 272).”


The reality is that Isaiah covers the 2750 years from the captivity of Israel to the Restoration of Israel, in the Second Exodus  under Messiah in the Promised land, again and forever.


Other religions and sects will be wiped out once and for all time as we see from the texts.



Intent of the Chapters

Chapter 1

1:1 Superscription. Vision of Isaiah (6:1-13); Jer. Ch.1; Ezek. Chs. 1-3) identifies Isa. Chs. 1-39 as God's Message to Judah through the prophet. Isaiah means The Lord (Yaho) gives Salvation. The text in the days of etc. is considered possibly to be an editorial expansion (see OARSV n.).

1:2-31 First Series of Oracles – as a prologue.

vv. 2-3 A poetic exhortation akin to God's assumed address to the Heavenly Host in 40:1-2, although unstated.

Sons Comp. Jer. 3:19-22. The word Know here implies a deep identifying comprehension of a right relationship with God.

This theme is recurrent with the prophets (Jer. 1:5; Hos. 2:20; 4:1,6; 5:4).

1:4-9 An appeal to a people that did not give heed to the devastation by Tiglath-Pileser III (734-733 BCE; 7:1-2) or that of Sennacherib (701 BCE; 36:1) and Jerusalem's isolation (daughter of Zion (Jer.4:29-31n.) (see also OARSV n.).

v. 4 Note the poetic parallelism nation, people, offspring, sons. The expression Holy One of Israel (5:19,24; 10:20; 12:6; 17:7; 29:19; 30:11,12,15; 37:23), emphasises God's unapproachable separateness which He has bridged by His election of Israel as the vehicle for the Plan of Salvation (No. 001A) (see also Nos. 001B, 001C), (see Hos. 8:1; Jer. 3:20). 


1:10-20 God's declaration re Judah

God declares Judah's religious superficiality (Am. 5:21-24; Jer. 6:20). Judah could repent and return (Jer. 7:5-7); the alternative is destruction (Jer. 7:22-34).

v. 10 Teaching The Hebrew word here is Torah frequently translated as law;

On Sodom and Gomorrah see Gen. 18:16-19:28; Jer. 23:14; Ezek. 16:46-58.

v. 14 My Soul a Hebrew idiom which in this context means “I” (comp. Lev. 26:11,30).

Burden  see Jer. 23:33-40.

vv. 16-17 Comp. Ex. 22:21-22. Am. 5:6-7.

v. 18  Reason as arguing a case before a judge (Job. 23:7).

White for Holiness. Scarlet – wickedness as the clothes of Babylon. (Rev. 17:4).


1:21-23 Lamentation over Jerusalem

v. 21 harlot (Jer. 3:6-10; Ezek. Chs. 16 and 23). Justice and Righteousness It is God declaring the city as a harlot, not Isaiah. Where there was once justice and righteousness now there are murderers.

v. 24 Mighty One of Israel recalls Israel's patriarchal traditions (49:26; Gen. 49:24; Psa.132:2,5).

v. 25 As with lye – thoroughly

v. 26 Isaiah uses symbolic names (7:14; 8:1; 9:6; see also Jer. 33:16; Ezek. 48:35 n.). There will be a new creation as we also see in Am. 9:11; Rev. 3:12; 21:1-4.

From 1:24-31 we see the Mighty One of Israel, the Lord of Hosts declare here the end purpose of the prophecy which is the final restoration of Israel by repentance and they are redeemed by justice, and the symbols of false religion and the systems of Babylon and Baal worship shall be consumed by fire in the restoration of Last Days (vv. 29-31). God then proceeds to give Isaiah the prophetic oracles from Chs. 1-66 which details the sequence of the Plan of Salvation (No. 001A) from beginning to end.


The text from 1:14ff. rejecting Judah’s keeping of the New Moons and Sabbaths is a rejection of their keeping of them in an unspiritual and unfit manner. It is not a condemnation of the keeping of New Moons and Sabbaths etc. in their own right, it is merely a rejection of the way they are being kept.


Chapter 2

2:1 This word concerns the Message of the Last Days (see also Jer. 7:1; 11:1).

2:2-5 The New Age at the Return of the Messiah. The text involves the elevation of Zion over the Last Days, and all the nations shall flow to the God of the House of Jacob that He may teach them His ways and that they may walk in his paths. At this time the Messiah will judge between the nations and shall decide for many peoples. The nations will not participate in war, and they shall be at peace over the whole world. This is the conclusion of the wars of the end as we see from Rev. Chs. 10-22 (see F066 iii, iv; v). This is the Millennial Rule of the Messiah termed the age of peace (see also Mic. 4:1-4).

v. 3 Law i.e. “teaching” or “Torah” (1:10).

v. 4 The Millennial Age of Peace will follow the Law of God under the Judgment of the Messiah. It will involve the Restoration of Israel and the Laws of God all over the world and the restoration of God's Calendar (No. 156) as held at the Temple before its destruction (5:25; 30:27-28; see 65:17-66:24; Zech. 14:16-21; F038). The false calendar of Hillel will be utterly expunged, and doctrines of post Temple Judaism removed completely as we will see from the texts.

v. 5 paraphrased in Mic. 4:5.


2:6-22 The Day of the Lord

Seen as perhaps three stanzas (6-11; 12-17; 18-22). The first two have similar conclusions (11, 17). The third stanza is thought to have ended similarly as the present verse 22 is missing in the LXX and is grammatically corrupt (see also OARSV n.). The intent of the three conclusions is to reduce the opinion man has in himself. The three stanzas are to deride Judah and Levi's view in themselves and their corruption of the Law and the Testimony (which carries in into the text to 8:20), through foreigners and they now bow down to idols (v. 8) and hence the Terror of the Lord is to fall upon them, and they are humbled (in three stanzas).


2:6-11 Judgement on Idolatry

v. 6 Diviners were forbidden in Israel (Ex. 22:18; Lev. 20:27; Deut. 18:10-11; comp. 8:19; 1Sam. 28:8-25; Ezek. 13:9). The situation is what we are told of Uzziah's reign in 2Kgs. 15:1-7; 2Chr. Ch 26).

v.7 Judah’s prosperity (Deut. 17:16-17; 1Kgs. 10:14-29).

v. 11 In that day – The Day of the Lord in which He sends Messiah and the Host to subjugate the earth and God subdues the earth and manifests His Glory (see also 13:6; Am. 5:18-20; Jer. 17:16-18; Ezek. 30:3; Jl. 1-15).


2:12-17 Pride and Punishment

v. 13 Lebanon, Bashan (Ezek. 27:5-6; Jer. 22:20). Due to the pride and idolatry and arrogance of Judah and Levi, only the sons of Zadok will be allowed as priests in the Restored Temple and the rest of Judah and Levi will be servers in wood and water in the Temple under Messiah (F026ix, x xi, xii).

v. 16 Ships of Tarshish - the term may refer to the fact that the king has a fleet of the ships of Tarshish at sea with those of Hiram and they came every three years with massive wealth (1Kgs. 10:22 n.; Jer. 10:9 n.).


2:18-22 Judgment on Idolatry

v. 19 The caves they are to enter refers to the texts in revelation in the Latter Days (Rev. 6:15) and the Camp David's and Cheyanne Mountains of the world and not just to the masses of limestone caves in the hills of Palestine. The idolatry of the nations is to be expunged from the earth (see No. 141F).


Chapter 3

3:1-15 God decrees anarchy for Jerusalem

3:1-7 Removal of the key men sees society break down.

v. 1 Stay and staff - all the economic resources essential to the support of life down to food and drink, and the stability which comes from the functionaries of vv. 2-3 as the key roles deemed necessary for the continuance of the state.

 v. 4 The inexperienced and unfit will rule. 


3:5-6 As we see now, in these latter days civil unrest will become open violence and the society collapses into anarchy in all sectors. The politicians are corrupt, and the people love to have it so. They refuse to act until it is too late.

3:8-12 This is commentary on vv. 1-7.

Like Judah in the text Israel's and the world's willful and brazen sin and contravention of the Laws of God (L1) has ruined the people and billions will die as the majority died from this time onwards.


3:13-15 God will judge the corrupt Judges, the elders the primary administrators of justice (Ex. 19:7; Jos. 20:4; Deut. 21:19-21) and princes of His people as royal appointees (1Kgs. 4:2; 2Kgs. 10:1; Jer. 34:19).

Vineyards (see 5:1-7; Nos. 001B and 001C).


3:16-4:1 The Humiliation of Jerusalem's and Israel's Women (Am. 4:1-3).

3:18-24 is a detailed expansion of v. 17. Israel's wars. as a result of sin, have decimated the male population over the years and forced the females to resort to desperate measures to preserve themselves and their respect. See 3:16-4:1 re “our reproach.”


The religious of Israel's society continued in brazen sin until God sent them into captivity and they refused to repent. They went into three captivities, one to the Assyrians, in two phases (east and then west of the Jordan), and the second to Babylon (No. 250B) and the third to the Romans (No. 298) with many intervening disasters and yet they refused to learn. In the Twentieth Century they faced two world wars and a Holocaust and still they did not repent and in the Last Days they will face the Wars of the Fifth Trumpet and the deaths of billions and then the War of the Sixth Trumpet as WWIII (No. 141C) and a second Holocaust and still they will not repent. As we go on in the text, we will see what God has determined the result will be.


4:1 is correctly a continuation of the situation brought about by the sins and wars of Chapter 3 and its effect on the women of the nations.


Chapter 4

4:2-6 Jerusalem’s restoration under the Great Exodus (Chs. 65:17-66:24; Zech 14:16-21).

4:2 Branch (11:1; Jer. 23:5). The righteous remnant (or Holy Seed (see 6:9-13; Am. 9:1-15). Comp. 3:10 and Messiah as Branch (11:1; Jer. 23:5); Fruit of the Land as return to paradise and the restoration of Eden which is where it was. (see also the Golden Jubilee (No. 300).


4:3 Recorded for Life comp. Ex. 32:32; Mal. 3:16; Dan. 12:1; Rev. 20:12,15.

v. 5 Smoke and Flaming Fire These are the signs of God's presence and protection as it was at Sinai and in the Wilderness among His people (Ex. 13:21-22; 40:34-38). 


We see the Plan of God was to run full cycle to the Restoration of the Last Days under Messiah for the Millennial system. We will now unfold the story over the text of Isaiah which will show the Plan of God in all its complexity and brilliance (see also No. 001A).


Chapter 5

Song of the Vineyard

5:1-7 The Vineyard of the Lord is the whole house of Israel.  Israel was used to implement the Plan of Salvation (001A). The place of Israel as the inheritance of Messiah was determined by the Only True God Eloah in Deut. 32:8-9 when He allocated the nations to the Sons of God (see also Israel as the Plan of God (No. 001B)), then He placed Israel as the Vineyard of God (No. 001C).

The sequence was necessary in order for the final stage of the Creation in order for the Elect as Elohim (No. 001), (see also Hos. 10:1; Jer. 2:21; Ezek. 19:10-14). That is an allegory explained by the compilation of Scripture in the texts in the 001 series above. It is thought that this unique didactic poem may have been composed for a celebration, perhaps the Feast of Tabernacles in Jotham's reign, the prophet, using the form of a vintage festival song (see OARSV n.).  However, its real purpose was to outline the prophecies developed by the Psalms (see F019_5iii) following on from the Law of the Pentateuch as concentrated in Deuteronomy.


5:1. Introduction to the poem (a) God set his beloved on a very fertile hill so that they would produce.

v. 2. Choice vines The Hebrew word (soreq) means either red vines or vines native to the valley of Soreq, west of Jerusalem.

vv. 3-4  Judah and Israel's only possible answer would be to pass judgment on itself. This was the same way God had Nathan make David to have judgment on himself (2Sam. 12:1-12).

v. 5 shows God's Judgment.

v. 7 Shows the faithful application of God's will. For justice He found bloodshed. For righteousness He found a cry. The implication is that in the acceptable relationship between man and God the compliance with the law of God is necessary (see also 1:27; 9:7; 16:5; 28:17). God requires Righteousness and Justice under the Law (1:21) and they are naturally coupled in the covenant, and they are the same word in Hebrew Tsedek. (Ex. Chs. 19-20).

A cry - from the oppressed.


5:8-23 Six Reproaches and a Seventh

(see 8, 11, 18, 20, 21, 22 with 10:1-4 as the Seventh) (comp. Am. 5:7, 18; 6:1; Jer. 22:13).

5:8-10 Against covetousness (Mic. 2:1-5, 8-9; Ex. 20:17). Bath, ephah  - 6.07 gallons; homer – 6.5 bushells (see Ex. 45:11 n.).

5:11-12 Against carousing (Am. 6:4-6).

5:13-17 Knowledge – (1:3) The severity of Israel’s and Judah's punishment will require an enlargement of Sheol the grave (14:9-18). 

v. 16 In all things God is just and holy in righteousness.

v. 18-19 Mocking God is condemned.

v. 20 Concerns moral depravity (32:5; Pro. 17:15).

v. 21 Is against conceit.

5:22-23 Concerns Bravado and Bribery.

5:24b-30 These verses also apply in following 10:4 (see 9:8-10:4 n.).

Law – Torah again here in the sense of teach God's Law.  Both the Assyrians and Babylon (a nation afar off) (Jer. 5:15 will be the executors of God's Judgment.


Chapter 6

Origins of Radical Unitarianism and Binitarianism (No. O76C)

“Isaiah, son of Amoz, was born before 760 BCE. He began his work in 742 BCE in the year that king Uzziah died (Isa. 6:1). He came into prominence in the Syro-Ephraimitic invasion of Judah in 734 BCE. From 734 he prophesied of the coming Immanuel and in 734 he retired from public prominence owing to Ahaz’s conclusion of the Syrian alliance. His seclusion lasted until 715 BCE when he began to speak more freely under Hezekiah. In 705 the death of Sargon II saw a general revolt against Assyria and the invasion of Sennacherib saw the rejection of the Assyrians and their expulsion by God from Judah with the virtual end of his ministry from 701.”


6:1-13 The Call of Isaiah

Here God's appearance in the setting of the Jerusalem Temple (comp. The entered city in 1Kgs. 22:19-23; Ezek. 1:4-2:1).

v. 1 742 BCE. Throne – Ark of the Covenant.

v. 2 “The seraphim of Isaiah 6:2 were called burning ones. Thus, the angelic host were of a fiery or shining bronzed countenance” (No. 246). They are also associated with the Glory of the Lord (Ezek. Ch. 1). They are teaching angels.

v. 3 The Lord of Hosts is thrice holy in emphasis (see Jer. 7:4).

v. 5 Before the Holy God man cannot stand (cf. Ex. 33:18-20).

vv. 6-8  Isaiah is cleansed by God's forgiving act. Isaiah may now seek for God.  This also prefigures baptism in the developing plan of salvation (see Nos. 052; 117).

6:8-9 The voice is from the Temple. Isaiah answers. What follows is the most important prophecy and the deepest import to Israel's history.  This was not Isaiah's first prophecy, but it was his special commission by God for this great dispensational prophecy. Chs. 1-5 form the general introduction to the whole book. See also Bullinger's notes.

Us – Council of the elohim or sons of God in the Host ref. to Pentateuch Gen. 1:26; 3:22; 11:7.


6:9-13 The Holy Seed

In this text Israel and Judah and the world is cleansed of sin (comp. Jer. 1:10, 13-19 and also Am. 9:1-15). Verses 9b-10 are quoted in Mat. 13:10-15; comparing Mk. 4:12; Lk. 8:10; Jn. 12:39-41; Act. 28:25-27; Rom. 11:8. It is quoted in three great crises:

1. By Christ (Mat. 13:14), as coming from Yahovah on the day a council was held to destroy him.

2. By Christ as coming from Messiah in all his glory (Jn. 12:40,41) after counsel taken to put him to death (Jn. 11:53; and comp.12:37).

3. By Paul as coming from the Holy Spirit when after a whole day’s conference they believed not (Acts 28: 25-27).

v. 11 How Long? Answer see Rom. 11:25.

v. 12 Lord = Yahovah

v. 13 is rendered as obscure by revisionist scholars (cf.  OARSV n.) as it shows the Wrath of God and the destruction of the earth in the Last Days and the only elements left alive after the remnant of the tenth is burnt again to remove the pagan religious practices, and the only people left alive for the Millennial Reign of Christ (Rev. Ch. 20) are the Holy Seed which will be the remnant of the tenth after their warning (Jer. 4:15-27) and the Wrath of God at the return of Messiah (No. 141E; 141E_2).  


Chapter 7

7:1-8:15  Isaiah and the Syro-ephraimite War

(734-733 BCE).

For the historical background see 2Kgs. 16:1-20.

Ephraim is here referred to meaning the Ten Tribes apart from Judah and Simeon and their Levites with a remnant of Benjamin. 

7:1-9  Sign of Shear-jashub

v. 1 Ahaz For the history explaining this prophecy see 2Kgs. 15:37-16:5. Rezin see 2Kgs. 16:5-9 Pekah's reign was the last prosperous reign in Israel. It began in the last year of Uzziah king of Judah. The son of Remaliah is repeated for emphasis in vv. 1,4,5,9. Pekah (as a murderer (2Kgs 15:25) could not prevail against it (comp. 2Kgs. 16:5).

v. 2 The continuation of the Davidic Monarchy was threatened (see v. 6).

v. 3 Shear-jashub “A remnant shall return” assuming the worst of God's promise to David in 2Sam. 7:8-16 and the promise shall be preserved in the remnant (10:20-23).

Upper pool is the reservoir south of the Pool of Siloam.

v. 5 Son of Tabeel  OARSV says “perhaps a prince of Judah whose mother came from Tabeel in northern Transjordan” Most probably it is Rezin king of Syria.


7:8-9a Some scholars hold that the text and meaning are unclear. (See OARSV n.).  Damascus was soon to be spoiled and Rezin, the last independent king of Syria, was a firebrand soon to be quenched. The sixty-five years was compiled as follows: Ahaz 14, Hezekiah 29, Manasseh 22 years = 65 years (13 x 5). 


7:10-17 Sign of Immanuel

This text is regarded as the Divine Interposition where God prophesies the Messiah as the virgin's son. Here God has Isaiah ask Ahaz, seeming to draw his response to v. 9, to ask him for a sign.

v. 11 sign:  (Heb. 'oth a present visible token or pledge, as in Gen. 1:14; Ex. 4:8-9; 12:13;  and esp. 8:18): used eight times in what these revisionists claim as the “former” portion (here, v. 14; 8:18;  19:20; 20:3; 37;30; 38:7,22) and three times `in the “latter” portion (44:25; 55:13; 66:19). The sign to Hezekiah was to restore the ten degrees that had gone down in the sundial of Ahaz to its former position in the days of Hezekiah as sign of the Restoration and the addition of 15 years to Hezekiah’s life.`

The Significance of the Term Son of God (No. 211)


vv. 13-14 This prophecy is of the Messiah that is the sign given to the house of David.

This was the second assurance that God had given the wavering Ahaz.


7:13 shows Isaiah’s impatience with Judah.

v. 14 God here gives the sign of the virgin and Immanuel as God with us. This was perhaps the most important prophecy in the texts.

“At the time Yahoshua came, the Jewish people were in earnest expectation of a prophesied Messiah. Yet many in the churches of the world have misunderstood who the Jews were expecting. Let’s see who the Jews thought Messiah would be. They knew he would be of the house of David and specifically in Bethlehem Ephrathah. He would also be born of a virgin, but they misunderstood this fact. Also, his name was misunderstood.


[Immanuel means literally with us is God. This aspect of prophecy was given to Isaiah so that it was seen to extend beyond the times of Ahaz as we see from Isaiah 8:8 and would involve the captivity of the land of Immanuel.]”


Immanu-el: “El with us is in the text, not elohim. This el with us was the Messiah. El is able to be used in the same sense of mighty one either deity or angelic or also human.” (No. 003) See also The Significance of the Term Son of God (No. 211).

“The Jews had no idea that Messiah would be of divine origin. Yet, how can that be from the above-mentioned Scriptures (Isa. 9:6-7; 11:1-4; Jer. 23:5-6)? The simple answer is the Jews didn’t understand these Scriptures.


Look at what the Soncino says about Isaiah 7:14 with regard to the phrase a virgin:

the young woman.  Hebrew ha’almah means an adolescent woman, one of marriageable age.  The contention that the word must necessarily connote ‘virgin’ is unwarranted.  The Hebrew for ‘virgin’ is bethulah, though almah too sometimes bears this meaning.  It is difficult to say with certainty who was the young woman referred to.  Chronological consideration excludes the mother of Hezekiah (Rashi, Ibn Ezra, Kimchi); and the fact that the birth (or the name) was to serve as a sign to convince Ahaz of the certain fulfillment of the prophecy rules out the Christological interpretation (emphasis added throughout) ... The wife of Isaiah (Rashi, Ibn Ezra), a wife of Ahaz (Kimchi) or a woman of the Royal Family (Arbarbanel) may have been the young woman of the text (Isaiah, Soncino Press, New York, p. 35).”


7:15-16 The prophecy is that before Messiah knows as a child how to discern good from evil the lands of Israel and Syria will be in dispersion and occupation.

v. 17 The king of Assyria (fulfilled in 2Kgs. 16:7; 2Chro. 28:19,20). He came against Damascus and took its people captive to Kir and he killed Rezin.


7:18-25 Four threats

These four threats amplify v. 17.

v. 18 Rivers of Egypt ref. to Pentateuch (Ye'or) 29 times in Genesis and Exodus and only twice in the plural (Ex. 7:19; 8:5).

v. 20 Feet  see Ex. 4:25 n.

v. 21 Not so much the abundance of cattle but the scarcity of people.

This text refers to the millennial productivity under Messiah that begins to increase exponentially.


Chapter 8

8:1-4 The sign of Maher-shalal-hash-baz.

The spoil speeds; the prey hastes; Isaiah's third assurance to Ahaz.

v. 1 A tablet of wood.

v. 2 Uriah  2Kgs. 16:10-16. Zechariah perhaps Ahaz's father-in-law (2Kgs. 18:2).

v. 3 Prophetess – Isaiah’s wife.


8:5-8 Oracle of Shiloah: waters of the Euphrates Judah is included in Assyria's sweep as it escaped only by becoming a tributary to Assyria.  Shiloah was a conduit flanking Ophel from the spring Gihon (see 1Kgs. 1:33 n) to the reservoir (7:3) is contrasted with the Euphrates. So Ahaz's mighty ally Assyria will inundate God's people Judah.

8:9-10 God is with his people (7:14 n.) to deliver them (Psa. 46 esp. vv. 7,11).


8:11-22 The Testimony and the Teaching.

vv. 11-18 “Isaiah has much to say about this process of sanctification. For by it we not only sanctify and set ourselves apart, but we also sanctify God who saves us.” (No. 291) (see also Sanctification of the Temple of God (No. 241)). Cf. also 29:23. OARSV n.  “Man proposes God disposes (Pro. 16:9).

v. 16 Bind, seal as one binds and seals a scroll (Jer. 32:10).

 v. 18 Signs 7:3, 14; 8:1. 


8:19-20 Condemnation of Superstition (2:6)

For necromancy as consultation of the dead (see 1Sam 28:7).

v. 20 This refers to the Law and the Testimony. All prophets and ministers speak according to the Law and Testimony or there is no light in them.


Chapter 9

9:1 Zebulun, Napthali and Issachar occupied the area of what became later Galilee. It was famous for the home of Messiah and many of the apostles. The Way of the Sea was the highway from Damascus to the sea which was the probable route of Assyrian invasion in 733-732 BCE (2Kgs. 15:29) (see also OARSV n.).

9:2-7 The Messianic King

Compare 11:1-9. The text describes the coming Messiah as the ideal king.

v. 2 The text is prophecy of the Messiah and the people who walked in darkness are the people of Judah, Levi and Bejamin in Palestine and those of Israel to whom were sent the apostles from 30 CE.

v. 3 foresees the increase of the nation of Israel and its inheritance as promised to the patriarchs Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.

v. 4 The yoke of Israel's burden, the staff for his shoulder and the rod of his oppressor will be broken in the last days for the establishment of the final rule of Messiah and the Second Exodus of Israel (see Chs. 65-66 and Zech. 14:16-21).

Midian Judg. 7:15-25.


9:6 Government - World rule of the Messiah. Prince of Peace - the Messianic rule of the millennial system of world peace mentioned in Rev. 20:4 (F066v). The Messiah embodies the best qualities of Israel's heroes and looks forward to the Resurrection of David under Messiah and the restoration of Israel under the Prophets and the Church of the Great Multitude of Revelation Ch. 7; Ezek. 37:24-28).


Isaiah 9:6 (No. 224)

“Isaiah 9:6 is used by Trinitarians to justify their theology. Argument is advanced that, by the name given in Isaiah 9:6, the attributes and, thereby, co-equality and co-eternality were conferred on the son as being the same God, in the case of Trinitarians and Binitarians, or an independent co-eternal God who had co-equality conferred upon him when he agreed to become the son of the other, in the case of the Ditheists. However, it was not understood in that light by ancient Israel.

The Septuagint (LXX) renders Isaiah 9:6 as reading the Angel of Great Counsel. Brenton’s

translation is:

For a child is born to us, and a son is given to us, whose government is upon his shoulder: and his name is called the Messenger of great counsel: for I will bring peace upon the princes, and health to him.


Verse 7 continues:

His government shall be great, and of his peace there is no end: it shall be upon the throne of David and upon his kingdom, to establish it and support it with judgment and with righteousness from henceforth and forever. The zeal of the Lord of hosts shall perform this.

We can see there is no trace of this later theology or assertion in the LXX. Here, he is the Aggelos, the Angel or Messenger of Great Counsel.

The term mighty god in Isaiah 9:6 is derived from the words mighty el and this can apply to any mighty one, even a human. The same views emerge when we examine the concepts from the New Testament. The term everlasting father refers to the fatherhood of Messiah of which Paul says there are many in heaven and on earth and the reason why we bow to the Father for whom they are named.

Ephesians 3:14-15 For this cause I bow my knees unto the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, 15Of whom the whole family in heaven and earth is named, (KJV)

Ephesians 3:14-15 For this reason I bow my knees before the Father, 15from whom every family in heaven and on earth is named, (RSV)

The actual text is of whom every fatherhood (patria) in [the] heavens and on earth is named (cf. Marshall’s Interlinear text).

The Peshitta (Lamsa’s translation) has:

For whom all fatherhood in heaven and on earth is named.

Thus, the concept of Isaiah 9:6 is the allocation by delegation of the rulership function expressed in terms of fatherhood.

Everlasting father is held by Green to be a combination of Strong’s Hebrew Dictionary 1 and 5702. SHD 1 is father as AB but when we examine the text here, we see the word is ABY (SHD 21) meaning fatherly. SHD 5702 is 'AGN 'agan meaning to stay from the concept of debar (as from marriage). However, the consonants are 'AD (SHD 5704 'ad) meaning to stay for a long time. Thus, the term here denotes the continuation of fatherly responsibility and not the fatherhood of procreation which is reserved to God the Father as we see from Christ's own comments in the New Testament regarding us not calling any man father as we have only one Father and He is in heaven.

The Soncino text renders Isaiah 9:5[6] as:

For a child is born unto us; and the government is upon his shoulder; And his name is called Pele-joez-el-gibbor-Abi-ad-sar-shalom.

This is more or less consistent with the above. The words are a name which denotes the relationship of the person given the name with the being associated with it. The Soncino holds the words to mean:

Wonderful in counsel is God the mighty, the Everlasting Father, the Ruler of Peace. The child will bear these significant names in order to recall to the people the message which they embody (Arbarbanel) (Soncino Isaiah fn. to 9:5[6]).

Even here, where the name is read in reference to another entity, it is not inferred and cannot be inferred that the child is possessed of these attributes. Rather he, Messiah as the child, is understood to act for the being who does possess these attributes. The Peshitta carries the same name concept that we see from the Soncino.

The LXX uses the concepts in like manner but renders the Greek text as a follow on of the power given to the child by the Lord of Hosts (Kuriou Sabbaoth).

Similar in concept to the LXX, The Concordant Version of the Old Testament, by the Concordant Publishing Concern, also translates Isaiah 9:6-7 as:

"6) For a Boy, He is born to us; A Son, He is given to us, And the chieftainship shall come to be on His shoulder, And one shall call His name Marvelous; Counsel to the master shall He bring, Unto the chief, well-being.

7) To the increase of the chieftainship And to the well-being there will be no end; On the throne of David and over his kingdom, To establish it and to brace it with right judgment and with justice, Henceforth and in the future eon, The zeal of Yahweh of hosts, it shall achieve this."

In view of the ancient texts, Isaiah 9:6 cannot be used to construe any equality with the Father as Trinitarians and Binitarians/Ditheists seek to assert. It was never understood that way in ancient Israel or Judah nor by the Church of God of past centuries, nor by modern Judaism.”

Nor does it confer co-eternality.

9:8-10:4 Ephraim's Judgment as a Lesson for Judah

The text is in five stanzas (including 5:24b-30)

(see also OARSV n.) with the same refrain 9:12,17,21; 10:4; 5:25) (comp. Jer. 3:6-10; Ezek. 16:44-58).

9:8-12 Punishment for Pride and Unrepented Wickedness of Israel.

Word. This was the word of God as prophecy against the whole house of Israel. It is specifically addressed to Ephraim including the northern tribes scattered abroad in the Last Days.

Bricks and Sycamores - for ordinary houses, Dressed Stones and Cedars - for palaces (see Jer. 22:7,23). They do not learn from God's correction and rebuke, and they do not abandon their heresies and false doctrines (comp. 55:10-11; Jer. 3:6-10; Ezek. 16:44-58. See also Jer. 4:15-27 (F024)). God allowed Ephraim to retake Palestine and Jerusalem as prophesied under Habakkuk (F035) and Haggai in (F037) on 24 Chislev 1917 (according to the Temple calendar - not Hillel) with the Australian Light Horse. A British Garrison then occupied the conquered city on the 26 Chislev (claimed as 24 Chislev by Hillel).

So also it is centred on Palestine and includes Syria and the Philistines and they devour Israel with an open mouth. Even then God's anger is not turned away and the wars of the end continue from this sequence on into the texts of Daniel 11:40-12:7 (see F027xi, xii, xiii). Then Messiah will return with the host and take control  (see

9:13-17 The people did not turn to God and their corrupt leaders continue to mislead and misdirect them through false doctrines and lies to this very day (see also Jer. 6:14-15). For that reason they cannot avoid this final war ahead.

9:18-21 Moral decay is like a forest fire (Hos. 7:6). The wrath of God has the land burned with the people as fuel for the fire, and no man spares his brother. They steal and devour on left and right and are still hungry. Each devours his neighbour’s flesh (the Hebrew consonantal text may be read the flesh of his offspring (on cannibalism see Jer. 19:9). Ephraim lives off Manasseh and Manasseh off Ephraim and together they were against Judah and they devour one another contrary to God's Law as we see today.

“The expansion of the USA was directly assisted by the wars between Britain and France.

· 1806. War between Britain and France breaks out again. This was to force the Louisiana Purchase where Napoleon sold the areas to the USA making possible the continental expansion of the USA. Thus Manasseh fed off Ephraim in the first instances as Isaiah prophesied at Isaiah 9:21.” The Fall of Egypt:...(No. 036)

The being here is the incarnation of the subordinate elohim of Israel appointed by Eloah (Deut. 32:8-9; Psa. 45:6-7; Heb. 1:8-9 (F019_2); who became the Christ.

Chapter 10

10:1-4 Justice is miscarried

(see 3:13-15; Jer. 8:8). God avenges the poor and the oppressed and the widows and orphans. He raises armies against the rich and unjust rulers.


10:5-19 Woe to Assyria

Assyria served as God's instrument of punishment but was unaware that it and Israel through arrogance and pride were to be punished (see Jer. 25:8-14; 50:23). They were doomed to destruction in the wars of the last days and in the end they will come out of the lands of the north with Israel to reoccupy the lands north of the Euphrates (see 19:23 for the trading triumvirate in the Millennium).

10:9 The prophecies are ongoing. In northern Syria Assyria under Tiglath-Pileser III captured Calno (742 BCE); Carchemish, Hamath (738 BCE); Arpad (741 BCE); Southern Syria, Damascus 732 BCE). Menahem of Israel paid him tribute (2Kgs. 15:19-20).

10:10-11 Assyria was full of Idols and Israel and Judah have also adopted this idolatry and so they were to be sent into captivity to a land where Israel's God was just another idol.

10:12 The text is a prose summation of vv. 5-11; 13-19.

10:13-14 Assyria's boast Removed Boundaries to discourage rebellion. They transplanted peoples and in the end Israel was removed north of the Araxes and Christ had to send the Apostles into Parthia and beyond to reach the Ten Tribes of Israel in the dispersion (see No. 122D; 212E; 212F). (see also Nos 122 and 170).

10:15 a rhetorical question recalling v. 5 (45:9). God does as He wishes with those He uses as his instrument.

10:16-19 God's Vengeance

v. 16 The Lord of Hosts sends a wasting sickness among the warriors and sends the Messiah as a flame and it will burn and devour the briars and thorns in a single day. The remnant of the nation will be so few that a child can write them down. This refers to the Holy Seed mentioned in 6:9-13 above).

Light of Israel - a reference to God's Glory and the Holy Spirit of God working in the Host under the Holy One, who is the Messiah (see the centrality of Psalm 110 and the build-up); (see F019_5iii and the Summary). (See also 2:10; 29:6; Ezek. 1:26-28 F026.) The effect is that God will ravage Assyria like a forest fire over its sins in the last days.

10:20-23 Only A Remnant will Return

As we saw with the Holy Seed only a remnant will be in Israel so also will only a remnant return with Assyria to the land of Shinar north of the Euphrates. The phrase is the same as the name of Isaiah's son Shear -jashub. In 7:3-4 it stands as an oracle of encouragement. Here it is an oracle of doom but is there to show the equality with which God treats the people, not being in respect of persons.

10:22 Sand of the Sea recalls God's promise to the Patriarchs (Gen. 22:17, 18; comp. Rom. 9:27).

Here the world is to be blessed through Israel because they obeyed the Laws of God under Messiah despite their incessant lapses and idolatry. That is the remnant of the Holy Seed that survives in the Last Days for the Millennium.

In Isaiah (see 4:2-3; 6:13; 7:3; 28:5-6; 37:4; 37:31-32; comp. Mic. 4:7; 5:2-9; Zeph. 2:7) remnant refers to those remaining after Israel and Judah's punishment, and from whom a great people will arise in the millennial system under Messiah (see Rev. Chs. 20-21 (F066v)). During the exile of both Israel and Judah the remnant was the deported people (Ezek. 6:8-10; Jer. 23:3; 31:7). These are they whom God would bring back and make great as we see in Chs. 65-66 and Zech. 14:16-21. Jewish faithlessness again caused their dispersion from 70 CE onwards and saw their destruction on the holocaust from which they learned nothing and still keep the Babylonian intercalations in Hillel for which they will suffer again from 2023-2027, as will the Churches of God that keep Hillel (see also Zech. 8:11; 14:2; Hag. 1:12).

10:24-27c Oracle of promise – Oreb Judg. 7:25 (F007ii); rod – Ex. 14:16.

10:27d-32 The Assyrian invaders (firstly under Tiglath Pileser III and then Sennacherib) (1:4-9) approached from the north to the outskirts of Jerusalem (Jer. 6:1-3). This is the traditional northern route we have seen many times and to the Last Days. For the southern route see Mic. 1:10-15.

10:33-34 The Lord, as Forester, will cut down Assyria, and then re-establish it (see 19:23).


Chapter 11

11:1-9 Messiah as King

(comp. 9:2-7 n.). See the notes on the original oracle.

1-3a The Messiah will manifest the rulership of Israel's great kings and leaders. He was to appear in two phases as we see from the Atonement sequence as the priest Messiah and as the king Messiah in the Last Days (Rev. Chs. 20-22) (see also Geza Vermes, Dead Sea Scrolls in English).

11:1 The Messiah is of the root of Jesse (David's father see 1Sam 16:1-20).

v. 2 To these six “gifts of the spirit” the LXX adds piety.

11:3b-5 Wisdom and Justice (5:7) were traditionally associated with the just king and the Messiah embodies the characteristics of the subordinate Elohim of Psa. 45 (see also 1Kgs. Ch. 3; Psa. 72 (F019_2)).

11:6-9 The reign of Messiah under the millennial system will see nature restored to order (Ezek. 47:1-12).

v. 9 My Holy Mountain see 65:25; Ezek. 20:40.

11:10-16 The Messiah termed here the root of Jesse shall stand as an ensign to the people (see also v. 1).

11:11-16 This period is of the Millennial Restoration after the return of the Messiah (F066v). This refers to the Second Exodus which is also stated in Chs. 65-66 at the final restoration.

The remnant will be recovered from Assyria, and from Egypt including Pathros which is in Upper Egypt; from Shinar which is Babylonia and to which regions Assyria will be returned from the north country in Europe; the coastlands and not just from the Aegean sea coast and islands. They are also brought back from Sinim (Isa. 49:12) identified with China but often mistranslated as Syene. It is a far-off land and really cannot be Aswan in Egypt. The Septuagint associates it with China, as do many Bibles and Young's Concordance. Strong lists them as an unspecified people. Sinae is the Latinised term for the Qin of China.

v. 12 Messiah raised an ensign for Israel and Judah and gathers them from the four corners of the earth (see also Chs. 65-66).

v. 13 Judah and Israel will be reunited and dwell in harmony under the Law and the covenant as we will see (see also Jer. F024xiv; and Ezekiel F026ix, x, xi, xii).

v. 14 all of the lands in either side of the Jordan shall be incorporated in the restored Israel.

11:15 The tongue of the Red Sea will be destroyed in the earthquake at the Return of Messiah to the Mt. of Olives (Zech. 14:4).

The river of the Euphrates will be split into seven channels and men will walk over dry-shod which is now effectively the case.

v. 16 There will be a highway from Assyria as there was from Egypt for the First Exodus.


Chapter 12

Two songs conclude this first section of the Book of Isaiah.

v. 1-3 The Song of Deliverance (comp. Ps. 116). 1a and 4a are liturgical rubrics; v. 2b (Ex. 15:2; Psa. 118:14).

v. 2 The water from the well of salvation is the Holy Spirit (No. 117) given to the church at Pentecost 30 CE on the Death and Resurrection of Messiah.

v. 3 The elect are to partake of the waters of the Spirit, which is referred to as waters.


12:4-6 The Song of Thanksgiving. Shout and sing for joy (comp. Zeph. 3:14).

In your midst – God in his Temple.

Holy One – see 1:4.


Chapter 13

13:1-23:18 Oracles Against Foreign Nations

(comp. Jer. Chs. 46-51; Ezek. Chs. 25-32); each is in intro to 32; each has the word “Oracle.”


13:1-22 Oracle Against Babylon

The prophecy here looks forward to the time when Babylon superseded Assyria and was the dominant power in the region. Revisionist scholars place the text of vv. 17-22 as being sometime after the death of Nebuchadrezzar in 562 BCE rather than God prophesying through Isaiah.  (see OARSV n.).

v. 2 Gate of the Nobles – Thought to be the name of one of the city gates (e.g. see Jer. 19:2).

v. 3 Perhaps these were the Persian soldiers serving God's purpose (10:5-6; 45:1-4). However, this text looks forward to the time of the end when God sets about summoning the consecrated ones of the loyal host to join the mighty of the Army of God to execute the Wrath of God as His proudly exulting ones.


13:4-5 This text speaks of the End of Days when the Lord of Hosts musters a host for battle. They come from the distant lands of the earth and from the end of the heavens. These are the weapons of heaven to destroy the whole earth. The text here refers to Daniel Chapter 2 in which the false religious system of the Babylonians is completely destroyed and wiped from the face of the earth at the return of Messiah to crush the final empire of the Ten Toes of the Beast system and to restore the Laws of God and the Temple system (see F024, xiv; F026xi, xii; F027ii, xi, xii, xiii; F066iii, iv, v).


13:6-16 The Day of the Lord

13:6-9 This text is not simply regarding the fall of the Babylonians after the death of Nebuchadrezzar. The time frame was detailed in Daniel to cover the Seven Times (7 x 360 = 2520 years) from the battle of Carchemish (605 BCE) to the end of the world systems in 2027 (1916 + 80 + 30 years) (see F027xiii) and then coupled with  Ezekiel we see texts coupled with the period of two forty year periods come to the time of the end (see Nos. 036 and 036_2).


13:10-22 The destruction of Babylon from the Medes into the last days. Babylon is now an uninhabited city which serves only as a monument to its past. However the Empire of the Beast serves as the king of the north (F027xi) in the last days (F066v) and will act as the army of the beast system (see Nos. 299A; and 299B).


The Fall of Egypt:.....(No. 036)

v. 10 “God is specifically detailing the day of the Lord here. The build up to the prophecy in Isaiah 14 is thus for the end of the age and Messianic. Isaiah 14 has direct application to Ezekiel 28. The sequence in Ezekiel 29 to 32 relates to the period between the times of the Gentiles and the days of the Watchmen in Ezekiel 33. These chapter groupings are not without significance. The periods of these prophecies are the same periods dealt with in Daniel 2 which shows beyond question that the sequence commences with Nebuchadnezzar but ends with the destruction of the ten-king system of the empire of iron and clay in the last days, thus beginning the millennial reign of Messiah.

vv. 11-22 Shows that God will punish the world for its evil and He will make men more rare than the “golden wedge of Ophir” and mankind rarer than fine gold. (v. 12).  Also Joel 2:10 states of the day of the Lord at this end time:

Joel 2:10 The earth quakes before them, the heavens tremble. The sun and the moon are darkened, and the stars withdraw their shining. (RSV)

Also Zephaniah 1:15 states:

Zephaniah 1:15 A day of wrath is that day, a day of distress and anguish, a day of ruin and devastation, a day of darkness and gloom, a day of clouds and thick darkness, (RSV)”


13:17-19 Medes The people Northwest of Persia who earlier were Babylon’s allies against Assyria.


13:20-22  Busy Babylon was to become a wasteland inhabited only by animals (Jer. 50:35-40. Satyr, (a goat demon 34:14; Lev. 17:7).


Chapter 14

The Return of Israel and Judah from Exile

(Chs. 65-66; see also Zech 8:20-22)

The Fall of Egypt:.....(No. 036)

“This prophecy in Isaiah 14 is the well-known prophecy that relates not only to Babylon but also to the destruction of Satan, the current Morning Star or Lightbringer, in the Messianic advent (Isa. 14:8-21). The city referred to in Josephus, Acts of the Jews XV, II, 2, was another city on the Tigris adjoining Baghdad, both of which were also later referred to as Babylon. When Revelation 18:2 was written Babylon had been long destroyed yet it was referred to in latter-day prophecy. Similarly, Peter wrote from Babylon (1Pet. 5:13) where Satan's seat was. Thus the prophecies connect the entire structure of Daniel's statue of Daniel Ch. 2 as extensions of the Babylonian system. Revelation could hardly be referring as a future event to something that had happened some 600 years beforehand. That is hardly prophecy. Moreover, we are talking about world religious systems, which are conjoint with the civil empires. There is no doubt whatsoever that the empires referred to in Daniel 7:3-8 are explanatory to the structure in Daniel 2 and that they embrace the Roman system as the empire of iron and that the empire of iron and clay was its successor. That empire can only have been the Holy Roman Empire. Moreover, Daniel 7:9 shows that these systems proceed into the last days and the casting down of the thrones before the Ancient of Days and the subsequent judgment.”

14:1-6 “From the text in Isaiah 14 Satan is grouped as King of Babylon, Ruler of Assyria, and also Philistia is prophesied as being destroyed by this smoke from the North. The City of Zion is established with all the nations surrounding it as being subject to it, and that includes the angelic being that sought to make himself as the Most High God, who is brought down to the sides of the pit. In other words he is killed but not buried. He is then made into a man and he is seen as being a man and made as weak as they.

vv. 3-4a Prose Introduction

4b-8 After the fall of Lucifer the people rejoice. His religious system is smashed, and the Sun and Mystery Cults abolished (F066v).

v. 7 Note that once the King of Babylon is laid low and his system is destroyed the world is at peace under the Messiah.

vv. 8-9 Thus this being is laid low. The cedars of Lebanon are spirit beings and Lebanon is incorporated into the body of Israel under Messiah. Then note that the grave, Sheol or Hades, is stirred up to meet this angelic being, who is Lucifer the Light Bearer or Satan, when he is brought down to the grave.

14:10-12 Then the human leaders say to Satan the following text when he is brought down to the grave to death. They note he has become as weak as they and his pomp or rulership and his system is brought down with him. He is identified specifically in verses 12f. as the Lucifer (KJV) and Day Star, Son of the Dawn (RSV). He is the God of this Earth of 2Cor. 4:4. He is here consigned to the Second Resurrection and the Great White Throne Judgment (see Judgment of the Demons (No. 080)) and Messiah and the elect rule the world (see also 5:14-17 n.; Ezek. 17:22).

vv. 12-17 “What we see about Satan is developed from Isaiah 14:12-17 where he is the Lucifer or Light Bearer.

The stars of God here are the sons of God. Star is a rank. Hell is the grave. We are going to have a morning star that is going into the grave. (v. 16)

v. 17 We have a change in status here to man.

It is also important to study Ezek. 28 for the fate of Satan as King of Tyre (F026vii); and for the fate of restored Israel at 28:24-26. 


The Second Resurrection and the Great White Throne Judgment (No. 143B)

10and the devil who had deceived them was thrown into the lake of fire and sulphur where the beast and the false prophet were, and they will be tormented day and night forever and ever.

“This text [Rev. 20:10] makes it appear as though Satan is cast into the lake of fire. The comment is that the Diabolos or the devil is cast into the lake of fire. That would indicate that God had a vengeful streak and was to punish Satan forever and ever but that is not what the Bible says in the Old Testament in both Isaiah 14 and Ezekiel 28.  In Isaiah 14:4-20 we read the prophecy made against Satan, the King of Babylon, who sought to make himself as the Most High God.

vv. 13-15 This can be no other being but Satan who was the then Day Star or Morning Star of the Earth.  This being had to be one of the fallen Host as we see from the text. Day star Heb.  Helal; Dawn  Heb. Shahar – Names of Canaanite deities. Mount of Assembly of the gods located at Jebel 'Aqra north of Ugarit. Most High a title applied to Baal Shamaim as Lord of Heaven: The One True God over the Heavenly Council.


The Names of God (No. 116)

vv. 16-20 Note that this being dies and lies with the maggots beneath him. He is thus rendered as a human body. Note also the question: “Is this the man etc.” He is human; he is not buried like the kings of the earth who lay in glory. He and the fallen Host are not buried. They lie with the stones of the earth. He is cast out and is now dead awaiting the mercy of The One True God Eloah as Ha Elohim (Jn. 17:3; 1Tim. 6:16; (see also above) who made him and all the elohim, as sons of God (No. 199).

vv. 21-23 Then the Lord pronounces the judgment of the system and the rest of the Host with them. His followers are to be destroyed completely (v. 21). In the prose conclusion (vv. 22-23), note that the entire remnant of Babylon is cut off. Its system of the Sun and Mystery Cults and its entire religious system are destroyed along with Satan, the Lucifer.

vv. 24-27 Against Assyria (17:12-14; 30:27-33; 37:22-29). God cannot be prevented from accomplishing His purpose. Also, the Assyrian system is destroyed but we know that Assyria is brought from out of the north with Israel in the beginning of the Millennium (Isa. 11:16; 19:23) and so it is the Babylonian religious system that is described as “fallen” in Revelation Chapter 18. Note that the system is throughout the nations and it is God that destroys it. This is the Sun and Mystery cults that had penetrated the nations through the Trinitarian and other Cults of the nations, including Hadithic Islam.


vv. 28-32 Against Philistia Then the prophecy concerning Philistia or the Palestinians follows. They were to be reduced to nothing and then made part of the Kingdom of Zion under Messiah at the beginning of the Millennium.” (see Jer. Ch. 47; Am. 1:6-8). Although it may appear Philistia is secure, the foe from the north (Jer. 1:13-15) will destroy her also and Gaza of the Philistines will be occupied by the armies of the king of the North in the wars of the end (Dan. 11:45); and then come to his end with none to help him; killed by the Host.  The message to the nations that are required to send representatives to Zion each year at Tabernacles, for instruction under Messiah (Zech. 14:16-21), is that the Lord has founded Zion and in her the afflicted of God's People find refuge (v. 32).


Chapter 15

Against Moab  15:1-16:14 (Ezek. 25:8; Am.: 2:1-3).

This oracle and Jer. Ch. 48 are two recensions of the same elegy over once despised Moab (Gen. 19:30-37) lying prostrate under the invader's (probably Assyria's) heel (vv. 1-9) (see OARSV n.).

This text explains how Moab is punished in the last days until the coming of the Messiah and the banishment of the oppressors into their own lands (see 16:5).


Chapter 16

The Place of Safety (No. 194)

16:1-5 “This section deals with the reduction of Moab so that it is small and feeble and deals with their captivity. This period is taken as being within three years. The lambs being sent to the ruler are taken to have spiritual significance. The area deals with Sela and the fords of Arnon. The lambs are held to refer to the Church. This is also seen as the tribute lamb of the ruler and perhaps refers to the event in 2Kings 3:4 where Mesha king of Moab did the same. Sela here is identified as Petra being in Mt Seir near Mt Hor (see also Companion Bible noting 2Kings 14:7).”

The Moabite refugees will seek sanctuary under Messiah in Judah as we see from this chapter. Lambs. A gift for the Messiah as the lambs of the church; comp. The tribute paid to Judah by Moab (2Kgs. 3:4).

16:5 deals with the coming of the Messiah to establish the throne at Zion and mete out Justice to Moab.


16:6-12 A description of the disaster

16:6-7 is a prophecy concerning the reduction of Moab in the last days when they are saved by Messiah at his return.

16:8-12 Destruction continues on with the forces of the kings of the Ten Toes of the last days. A parallel is in Jer. 48:29-33. Kir-hareseh and Kir-heres, the same as Kir, 15:1.

16:13-14 Despite previous success Moab will again be devastated. It will be absorbed into the kingdom of Israel under Messiah as we see from the other texts. It will then be at peace under Messiah.


Chapter 17

Oracle concerning Damascus

17:1 This text refers to the final rebuke of the nation of Syria and also the region of Ephraim in these final wars of the end about to engulf us all.

Ephraim will lose its military structure and Damascus will be absorbed into Israel under Messiah where the remnant of Syria will be as the Glory of the Children of Israel.


The text was considered to be an oracle against the Syro-Ephraimite alliance (ca 734 BCE – see 2Kgs. 16:1-20;  Isa. 7:1-8:4; see also OARSV n.).

However, this prophecy is Messianic and goes on to the Advent of the God of Israel of Pss. 45, 110 (see vv. 7ff). Israel was sent into captivity from 722 BCE. Damascus is as yet to be completely destroyed in this final war of the end breaking upon us. The two stanzas (1-3, 4-6) reaffirm the ultimate defeat of Damascus and Northern Israel down to the valley of Rephaim, Northwest of Jerusalem (2Sam. 5:18). The glory of Israel is at the final restoration of Messiah and shows that the remnant of Syria are with them in that restoration.


17:7-11 Extermination of Idolatry in greater Israel

17:7-9 The text refers to the Day of the lord when they regard their Maker and the Holy One of Israel

The text here says plainly that in that day they will turn to God and the Holy One of Israel (1:29-31). They will reject all the idols of the Sun and Mystery Cults and the Asherim (sacred wooden poles of the mother goddess 6:13 n.) and their altars of incense. The cities in the Last days will be as it was with the Hivites and the Amorites under the initial invasion after the Exodus (Deut. 7:1) (cf. F006). All devotees of the Mystery and Sun Cults will be eliminated (see No. 141F). There will be desolation everywhere (see F066v).

17:10-11 The Children of Abraham (No. 212A) have forgotten the God of their Salvation and the Rock of their refuge (see also Acts 7:30-53 (F044ii); 1Cor. 10:1-4). Plants, slips These are the gardens of Tammuz with plants (Ezek. 8:14-18), and also slips dedicated to the goddess in the gardens of Tammuz. Today they are called the Gardens of Easter or Adonis and were also dedicated to Adonis in the Balkans and are still found among the Trinitarian Sunday worshippers there.  What they plant and do in service of these idols will fail and produce nothing in the long term.

17:12-14 The nations will attempt to stop the Messiah (Rev. 19:19) (see Nos. 141E; 141E_2); and roar like the thunder of the sea but they will fail. Messiah will rebuke them and they will flee far off; hence terror in the evening and by morning they are gone. They are in fact destroyed (F066v). (Indeed, Assyria's onslaught of 701 BCE was dispelled but that is not the purpose of this text.)


Chapter 18

Modern scholars attempt to isolate this text to the Anti-Assyrian plot by Egypt of 714 BCE (e.g. OARSV n.). This text refers to the time of the Restoration under Messiah where all nations will be required to send their representatives to Jerusalem at the Feast of Tabernacles. If they do not keep the Sabbaths, New Moons and Feasts everywhere (Isa. 66:23-24), they will get no rain in due season and suffer the plagues of Egypt (see Zech. 14:16-21). The text begins with the nations of Africa beyond the Nile that are included in the nations of the last days. The Land the rivers divide refers to the Nile and its branches (pl.), hence Ethiopia/Abyssinia.

18:3 directs the message to all nations of the world, to all who dwell on the earth. They are told that when a signal is raised on the mountains to look and when a trumpet is blown to hear (see also Jer. 4:15-27; F024).

18:5-6 Before the final harvest, God says He will cut off the shoots with pruning hooks and the spreading branches He will hew away. Because of the sins and false religion of the people they will be left to the birds of prey and the beasts of the field. These people that survive the final holocaust are the Holy Seed referred to in Isa. 6:9-13. 18:7 refers to the gifts in offerings and tithes (No. 161) and tribute that is brought to Jerusalem in Zech. 14:16-21.


Chapter 19

Oracle Concerning Egypt

The Oracle to Egypt prophecies its future to the Messianic Age (see also Ezek.  Chs. 29-32).

God was to send Isaiah to deal with Egypt and to prophecy against them and tell them what was to become of them over the age. This text covers the age overall to the birth of the Messiah and then beyond to the Last Days.

19:1-4 God prophecies the age of civil turbulence in Egypt which He is to use to reduce them to a weak and downtrodden people due to their idolatry. It appears to have commenced with the Twenty-fifth (Ethiopian) Dynasty ca. 714 BCE, by Piankhi, who began the time of the hard master of v. 4. That continued with the defeat of Egypt by Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon in support of the Assyrians in 605 BCE, and then to Cambyses' invasion of Egypt in 525 BCE and its occupation under Satraps to the beginning of the Fourth Century BCE. It was then occupied by the Greeks who were superseded by the Romans from the battle of Actium.


19:5-10 Prophecy concerning the Nile

The prophecy refers to the Nile drying up. The building of the Aswan Dam has increased the vulnerability to this type of catastrophe. God will use this disaster in the last days. How could they have overlooked God's plan for them?


19:11-15 God here taunts Egypt.

Through Isaiah, God asks them if through their “wisdom” can they control natural disasters. Zoan and Memphis see Ezek. 30:13-19 n.

Palm and reed – rulers and the ruled (9:14).

The Lord added a spirit of Confusion to the princes of Egypt in order to cause Egypt to stagger in all her doings (v. 14) and there is nothing its leadership may do (v. 15).

19:16-25 In that day refers to the Messianic Age which began after the Greek conquest of Egypt. Jewish settlements in the area are known from the Sixth Century onwards (see OARSV n.).

19:19-23 The visit of the High Priest Onias IV to Egypt ca. 160 BCE saw the establishment of a Temple in the Land of Goshen at Heliopolis (City of the Sun) (exact location uncertain) (see Jer. 43:13). There were functioning temples to the Lord at Elephantine (fifth century BCE) and at Leontopolis). This area was the land that Israel occupied prior to the Exodus and which came to be occupied again by Jews into Alexandria and its surrounds in the Second Century BCE and beyond. Onias IV ordered the construction of the Temple there which stood until its closure in 71 CE, by order of Vespasian, before the Passover, after the Fall of the Temple in Israel in 70 CE (see The Sign of Jonah … (Nos. 013; 298).  

The purpose was to be there for the Messiah when he was forced to be taken to Egypt by his parents in 5 BCE, in protection from Herod.

19:19-22. The text shows that the last days see Egyptian converts are treated as Israel.

19:24-25 Israel is to become the mediator and blessing for the nations (Gen. 12:3).


Chapter 20

Again Against Egypt

Egypt failed to defend a co-conspirator Ashdod against Sargon's attack in 711 BCE. Isaiah naked like a prisoner warns Egypt of its impending captivity and begins the sequence. 

20:2 Sackcloth was customarily worn by prophets when uttering prophecy (2Kgs. 1:8; Zech. 13:4-6) and also in the final phase of the Last Days (Rev. 11:3). 


Chapter 21

Oracle Concerning the Wilderness of the Sea

This text is an oracle concerning the attacks against Babylon by the Medes and Persians (13:1).

21:1-10 Attack against Babylon Negeb in southern Palestine.

21:2-5 Prepare for the attack! Elam Jer. 49:34-39.

Media aided Persia against Babylon (13:17-19).

Oil the shield (to preserve leather’s suppleness and capacity).

21:6-10 The prophet (as watchman Ezek. 3:17)   awaits the news of Babylon's fall (Jer. 51:33; and in Rev. 18:2) for the final phase in the Last Days and Return of the King (No. 282E).

v. 9 ground  - to the underworld (of Tartaros as the pit for the demons) (Jer. 17:12-13 n.). It symbolises the Babylonian system under Satan being sent to the pit (F066iv, v).


21:11-12 The Oracle Concerning Dumah

Concerning Edom who shared Ashdod's fate (20:1). The prophet suggests a relief (morning) followed by renewed oppression (night). Their problems were thus sequential.

Dumah – a town in Arabia; The word means silence and here may be a name for Edom meaning silence. Edom was conquered by John Hyrcanus in the Second Century BCE and converted under force and absorbed into Judah (No. 212E).

Seir – Gen. 32:3).


21:13-17 Concerning Arabia

Dedan in Northern Arabia (Ezek. 25:13).

Tema – an Oasis in Northwestern Arabia (Jer. 25:23).

Kedar in northern Arabia. 

Kedar was aggressive (Jer. 49:28) and as we see from the Psalms when David wanted peace they were for war (Psa. 120:5 F019_5iii). They will be reduced to a remnant also.


Chapter 22

Oracle Concerning the Valley of Vision

Destruction Approaching Jerusalem

The invasion of Sargon in 711 BCE (20:1) bypassed Judah and Jerusalem. Nor were they affected by the Civil strife in Assyria following Sargon's death in 705 BCE. This refers to later problems.

22:1-4  Valley of vision – the name is taken from v. 5 and is perhaps a reference to the Valley of Hinnom (comp. Jer. 7:30-34; 32:35).

The texts refer to the sins of Judah that worship the goddess and Tammuz on the housetops (see also F023v).

 v. 4 Daughter of my people – Jerusalem.


22:5-8a. Day of the Lord is understood to be when God intervenes to correct and punish Israel and Judah for their unrepented sins. (2:11; 13:6). In the Last Days it is to take control of the world. (No. 192). Elam (21:2) and Kir appear to be mercenaries in the Assyrian armies.  Kir (SHD 7024) is an Assyrian district on the Kur River, but it is also a Moabite city (SHD 7024) (15:1; 22:6). See also Kir- Hareseth (SHD 7025) (2Kgs. 3:25; Isa. 16:7) and Kir- Haresh (7025) (16:11).  

In that day God will take away the covering of Judah.


22:8b-11  Faith

Military preparedness does not replace faith and faithfulness to God. 

House – The royal place (Jer. 22:13-14).

The City of David – The oldest (southeast) section of Jerusalem (2Sam. 5:7).

Collected the waters of the lower pool – May refer to the excavation of Hezekiah's tunnel (2Kgs. 20:20; 2Chr. 32:3-5).


22:12-14 The words of the idolaters and revellers in the festival of the Goddess Easter or Ashtaroth and the festival of the Sun-god (Jer. 10:1-9) will be turned against them (5:11-12) see No 235.

22:15-25 Against Shebna (Jer. 20:1-6).

This text appears to be a specific oracle concerning Hezekiah's servant or “major-domo” who may well have been an instigator in the anti-Assyrian plot preceding 711 BCE (18:1-7 n.).

Verses 24-25 suggest that Eliakim (36:3) acted, but the administration that he set up failed and was cut off.


Chapter 23

Oracle Concerning Tyre and Sidon

The oracle against Sidon (23:1-4, 12-14) is combined with a later one against Tyre (23:5-11, 15-18).

1a Superscription

1b-c Tarshish (Jer. 10:9 n.). There were Phoenician colonies in Cypress who informed them no doubt.

v. 3 Shihor   The “waters of Horus” near Zoan

v. 4 The stronghold of the sea is barren having neither sailors (young men) nor their women.


23:5-11 Tyre's commercial empire reacts with alarm. The trading empire covered the Mediterranean and beyond to Egypt and to Tarshish (comp. Ezekiel Ch. 26; 27:1-9, 25-36; Ch. 28).

v. 12 God has given command over the system and over Caanan who was part of it.  


23:15-18 As usual modern revisionists attribute later origins to prophetic instances of items that occurred as prophesied. Revisionists relate the texts here to what they class as later revisions and then relate them to what they class as later oracles in Jeremiah 48:47; 49:6,39. (See F024xii) (see OARSV n.)

Seventy years see also Jer. 25:11.

v. 17 Play the harlot – act contrary to the law of God for gain.

v. 18 The wealth of the merchant system typified by Tyre and Sidon as Satan's system will finally be used to supply food and fine clothing for those dwelling before the Lord under the Messiah.


The Wrath of God

Chapters 24-27 constitute what is termed the “Isaiah Apocalypse” The text relates to the eschatological texts in the latter prophets and the Apostles. They concern the establishment of the Kingdom of God, the judgment, the eschatological banquet, the heavenly signs and other key texts. There is no way to escape the Messianic meaning of the prophecies. The entire structure of the prophecies has been Messianic from Chapter 1 to these texts but the modern Revisionists do their best to ignore them.


We commence the sequence with the desolation of the earth on the Great and Terrible Day of the Lord at the return of Messiah and the Loyal Host.


Chapter 24

The Wrath of God in Judgement

24:1-6 (comp. vv. 16b-23) There can be no other interpretation of this text other than the Day of the Wrath of God in the Last Days (No. 192) at the Return of the Messiah and the Host (No. 141E; 141E_2; 210A; 210B;  282E).


24:1-3 God says that He will twist the surface of the earth (by earthquakes) and destroy its structure and reduce all of it so that the priest and the people who follow them contrary to the laws of God will both suffer the same fate as does the family and the society and the businesses (v. 2 is an expansion of Hos. 4:9).  The Earth is to be utterly laid waste and utterly despoiled under the command of God. The reasons are clearly laid out in the previous chapters of Isaiah and continue to be explained in the later chapters. They simply will not obey God and keep His Commandments and the Calendar of God (No. 156) as laid out in the Law and the Testimony. 


So also we see in Jeremiah and Ezekiel and Daniel. In the Last Days under His Command, the Messiah and the Host will utterly exterminate the antinomians and idolaters who refuse to the keep the Law and the Testimony (Isa. 8:20) and there is no light (or dawn) in them. This is the reason both Sardis and Laodicea are removed from the House of God (Rev. Ch. 3) and will not enter the First Resurrection (No. 143A) or the Millennium without abject repentance. Judah will also be destroyed because of Hillel and the failure to keep the Law and the Testimony (see Jeremiah Summary F024xiv) and Ezekiel (F026 x, xi, xii). All other religious systems will be removed from the face of the earth (Daniel 2:44-45;  F027ii. (No. 141F). Those who say the Law of God and the Calendar is done away or fail to keep the Sabbaths and the New Moons will be put to death immediately (Isa. 66:23-24).

This word (vv. 1-3)

24:4-6  The heavens and the earth are damaged by the conduct of the nations and their rejection of the Laws of God.

v. 4 Polluted the earth through violation of the law and in pollution.

v. 5 they have transgressed the law and violated the statutes (Isa. 42:22-25). 

The Everlasting Covenant  see The Covenant of God (No. 152).

(See also Gen. 9:1-17; comp. Isa. 54:9.) It is the Covenant that was given to the Patriarchs and reinforced through Moses and the Prophets and through Christ and the Apostles. The antinomians would have it otherwise.


24:7-16a Deliverance from the Destruction

24:7-12 Over this text the earth is in disarray and the happiness of the festivals are quieted. Their celebrations are bitter.

v. 10 The City of Chaos refers to the cities of the Last Days which are shuttered and closed due to the mayhem and chaos that controls the streets of the societies of the last days. It does not refer to Ancient Babylon but to the structures of the religious and social system of the last days in the universal destruction of vv. 1-6.


24:13-16a Preparation for the Return

v. 13 The nations will all be beaten as an Olive Tree as at the gleaning when the vintage is done. The harvest is the First Resurrection and the Holy Seed (6:9-13) that is harvested for the Millennial Rule of the Messiah (F066v). The text refers to the harvest and vindication of Israel for the Millennium. (See Chs. 65-66 comp. 19:24; Ezek. 38:12.)

The righteous one -  as Israel under Messiah.


24:16b-23 The Universal Judgment of the Entire Host

24:16b-18b The structure continues vv.1-6 (see also Chs. 1-6).

17-18b The text appears in Jer. 48:43-44.


24:18c-23 Confinement of the Fallen Host to the Pit

In this text we see God intervene and deal with both the Fallen Host and the Human Host (v. 18c); (see also Jer. 19:13; Zeph. 1:5).

24:19-20 The Earth is found wanting and is rent asunder. It sways as from earthquakes and falls to rise no more.

24:21-22 God then intervenes in the heavenly Host (windows of heaven see also Gen. 7:11) and we see that the Host is shut up in a pit as prisoners for “many days.”  The text refers to the imprisonment of the demons in the pit (which can only be Tartaros) (see Isa. 14:15; Ezek. Ch. 28 (F026vii); Rev. 20:1-3).

The many days refers to the millennial imprisonment of the Satan and the Fallen Host as we see in Rev. 20:3,7 (F066v). They are then punished at the end of that time which is in the Second Resurrection and the Great White Throne Judgment (see Judgment of the Demons (No. 080)). 

24:23 The status of the moon and stars as cult objects is smashed (Jer. 8:2; Deut. 17:3). The text then refers to the Lord of Hosts reigning on Mt Zion and He will manifest His Glory before His Elders (as with Moses Ex. 24:9-11,12-16; comp. Rev. 4:4,10-11). This is after the Second Resurrection (No. 143B) and does not refer to Christ who takes up his rule from the imprisonment of the demons in Tartaros. This simple text refers to the Coming of God to the Earth. This text refers to the City of God (No. 180) coming to the Earth (see (F066v).


Chapter 25

25:1-5 Psalm of Thanksgiving (see Psalm 145). What follows is then the exaltation of God and His Plan (see Nos. 001A; 001B; 001C).


God has made cities heaps (a single city is uncertain) and fortified city/cities ruins. The reference to Moab in v. 10 may be symbolic of the region surrounding Israel). Palaces of aliens will not be rebuilt. The nations will be reorganised under the Laws of God from the Advent of Messiah and as part of the extended Kingdom of God (Zech. 14:16-21). Poor The helpless of Israel as opposed to the strong peoples now being brought low to glorify God.


25:6-10a The text goes on to the Feast prepared for the peoples as we saw in Zechariah above. The text is regarded as the Third Eschatological Section.

v. 6 This mountain – Zion. The Feast of Tabernacles (see also 1Sam. 9:13; these lesser feast sites became corrupted; but this text refers to Zion under Messiah at the Millennium - see also Lk. 14:15-24).

v. 7-8 The text refers to the veil of ignorance that was spread over the nations under Satan’s deception with the false religions of the Sun and Mystery Cults. The swallowing up of death forever points to the two Resurrections of the Dead at the Beginning and End of the Millennium (see 143A and 143B). The Messiah will bring the First Resurrection and then the whole world will be resurrected at the end of the Millennium and retrained so that all mankind can become Elohim (No. 001).


25:10b-12 Shows the subjugation of all nations and their idolatrous past. Moab is here symbolic as it appears unexpectedly (see also OARSV n.).


Chapter 26

This part continues the section that is termed the Apocalypse texts or chapters of Isaiah. It is in reality the culmination of the Messianic message of the first half of the Isaiah text and is a direct warning to the world of what is to occur in the last days at the return of the Messiah and the establishment of the Millennial Kingdom of God under Messiah and then the establishment of the humans of the world as Elohim (No. 001) under the Plan of God (No. 001A).   


26:1-6 Song of Victory of the Messianic Occupation (see 24:7-16a; 25:1-5). This is a processional psalm to be sung on entering Jerusalem (the strong city) at the return of the Messiah (v. 1 Comp. Ps. 24:7-10), celebrating God's victory (as salvation) over the enemies of Israel, as the righteous nation. These are the remnant of the holy seed of 6:9-13.

v. 5  Low ...height The proud are abased, the humble exalted (Ps. 147:6; Lk. 1:52). Babylon is crushed.


26:7-19 Apocalyptic Psalm

v. 7 God's help for the righteous (Ps. 9:19; 18:25-27; 34:21-22).

v. 8 Comp. Rev. 22:4, 6-20. The desire of the elect is for the memorial name of God and the return of the Messiah.

26:10-11 The wicked do not learn righteousness in an upright land. God is here entreated to let their own evil deeds consume them.

v. 12 God has ordained peace for the elect and ordained their works.


The Resurrection of the Dead (No. 143)

vv. 13-14 “... denies the resurrection to the Rephaim or Nephilim. The word Rephaim was interpreted as deceased or dead.


They are not listed in the memory of God. They are not part of the Resurrection. It is quite clear they shall not rise.


The word for deceased here is Rephaim (related to and associated with Nephilim, the offspring of the fallen sons of God) and The Companion Bible states that it is a proper name and should not be translated. The Rephaim refers to the other lords of verse 13. Where it is translated, it is always rendered giants or dead (Job 26:5; Ps. 88:10). Job 26:5 should read:

The Rephaim remain (Heb.: hul) under the waters (Companion Bible, fn. to verse 5).”


The Water here refers to the Flood. The Rephaim were the major reason that God wiped out the population of the Earth as they had been contaminated by the Fallen Host and their DNA made them corrupt and they had to be destroyed. The same is being done now under the mRNA contaminated vaxxes put out by the Globalists in the last days. They have to be destroyed and sent to the Second Resurrection. They will not enter the Millennium (see also The Nephilim (No. 154)).


The Fallacy of the Third Resurrection (No. 166)

“The resurrections are discussed from Isaiah 26:13-14 and follow on into the timeframe outlined in Isaiah 26:15-18.


The nation of Israel is here being increased. This is the future nation of Matthew 21:43. This nation was the woman that travailed as in childbirth in Revelation 12:17, where the seed of the woman was Jew and Gentile, and all of Israel. They did not, however, bring any deliverance. They did not convince the Gentiles to accept the Law and did not save the world. The Dragon tried to destroy them with the flood of his mouth, but he also failed.


The significant aspect here is that Isaiah is saying that the elect failed to bring deliverance to the Earth, or to bring the Earth to repentance, or to destroy its systems. This sequence is immediately prior to the end as is the next text (Isa. 26:19ff.) and goes on to discuss the resurrection.


We go from the Rephaim (or Nephilim) not having a resurrection, and at verse 19 we talk about a resurrection. So it is making a distinction between the Rephaim and the descendants who are those of the creation of God. The period of the prophecy is over the term called the Times of the Gentiles and spans an enormous period of history. The end of this period deals with a number of concepts. The resurrection of the dead is grouped. Isaiah refers to the dead at the end of the period of the world systems as being God's dead men, and that he also was with them in that resurrection. Thus the prophets are in the First Resurrection (No. 143A). Secondly, the People of God then enter into chambers prepared for them and the doors are shut about them. This is the shutting of the doors referred to in Matthew 25:1ff., where the parable of the wise and foolish virgins was used to show that the wise virgins – the elect who are full of the Spirit, those virgins referred to in Revelation 14:4 – enter the doors of the Kingdom and the doors are shut behind them and nobody can get in.


That is the hour of trial that comes upon all the Earth, and from which the Philadelphian system is protected. The Laodicean system and the foolish virgins and the Sardis system do not go into that protection. Those two churches do not go into the First Resurrection. Only a very few of them enter. So these people enter the chambers and they become the Temple of God. These texts interrelate to Revelation 7:3 where the Earth and sea were not to be hurt until the servants of the Lord were sealed. These were sealed for the nation of Israel referred to in Isaiah 26:19ff. above. These elect of God were grouped with the Lamb until the nations were overthrown. The timeframe of this prophecy deals with the Day of the Lord which covers the period of one thousand years from the [wars and the] First Resurrection until the Second Resurrection when the Earth discloses its blood and no more covers its slain. Thus Isaiah 26:19-21 covers the one-thousand years of Revelation 20:4ff., called the Millennium.” So we don’t need the New Testament to know that the Millennium is a protracted period (a thousand years) and the span of the resurrections follow. The concept flows from the Old Testament. Both Testaments say the same thing and cover seven thousand one hundred years.


26:20-27:1 Fourth Eschatological Segment

Logically following the preceding petition, the text returns to judgment and to the return of the exiles referred to in 27:12-13, and also those of Chs. 65-66.

26:20-21 The people await God's victory at the return of Messiah.


Chapter 27

The Fall of Egypt…(No. 036)

“Isaiah 27 goes on to discuss the slaying of Leviathan in the day of the Lord. This Leviathan, the piercing and crooked serpent, the dragon that is in the sea shall be slain or bound as in Revelation 20:4. Then shall Israel take root throughout the world. In that day the Lord will beat off or harvest as one would olives, the Children of Israel from the channel of the River, or the Tigris-Euphrates, to the stream of Egypt.”

27:1 Leviathan Canaanite mythological sea monster. Dragon  Hebrew tannin another sea monster applied to the demons also (see Ps. 74:13-14). The texts seem to apply these terms to the demonic influences in both Assyria and Babylonia and also in Egypt (vv. 12-13; Ezek. 29:3; Rev. 12:7-12). 


27:2-11 Fourth Apocalyptic Poem of Deliverance

27:2-6 God's Vineyard (comp. 5:1-7) (Nos. 001B; 001C). Here Israel is prepared as God's Vineyard and at the return of the Messiah the entire world will be converted under the Messianic system.

27:7-11 Israel (Jacob) will be blessed as will the entire world be blessed once all semblance of idolatry is removed. All false religion and every aspect of the Mystery and Sun Cults will be removed from the face of the earth (see No. 141F). There will be no effigies or idols permitted anywhere, nor their calendars or symbols. The Asherim or symbols of the goddess Easter or Ashtaroth will be completely removed and crushed. The Sabbaths and New Moons will be ordered kept holy as in the Temple Period (66:23-24). The fortified city refers to the Last Days and the state of the Military Industrial Complex raised under the Babylonian system of Daniel Ch. 2 (F027ii; xiii) destroyed by Messiah at his return (No. 282E) (see also 24:10; 26:5). God's Law (L1) and God's Calendar (No. 156) will be kept throughout the world on pain of death (see 66:23-24).  


27:12-13 The eschatological harvest separates the Wicked from the Righteous which is the winnowing we see with the Holy Seed (Ch. 6). That act will see the earth reduced to less than a tenth of its people (6:9-13; Am. 9:1-15).  Those driven out to Assyria and Egypt (north and south) will be restored (as in Chs. 65-66). The Trumpet call is that of the Restoration at the Archangel's call (Dan. 12:1; Mat. 24:31; 1Thes. 4:16) (see also Num. 2:10; Jl. 2:15).

Everyone has the choice of obeying God and keeping His Laws or suffering the consequences.


Chapter 28

28:1-35:10 Oracles Concerning Judah and Ephraim


The Fall of Egypt…(No. 036)

Isaiah 28 then goes on to talk of the crushing of the pride of the drunkards of Ephraim. Thus the end days involve war in Ephraim. The prophecy is clearly interrelated to that of Ezekiel and the destruction of Egypt. Moreover, the last days are indisputably involved and developed.”


28:1-13 Against Religious leaders

28:1-4 The text commences with the rejection of Israel as the drunkards of Ephraim referring to the entire nation. The reference to the crown of Ephraim was as the walls of Samaria (Am. 3:9,15) before Assyria's onslaught (2Kgs. 17:5). However this is in the last days and refers to the Military Industrial Complex of Israel in both Ephraim and Manasseh and the EU in the wars of the end (No. 141C). 

First ripe fig - Just as quickly will Israel be consumed later, just as it was in 722 BCE.


28:5-6 In that day The Day of the Lord God will be a blessing to the Holy Seed that survives into the Millennial Kingdom of God under Christ.


28:7-10 This section continues vv. 1-4 but is directed against Judah. It is not confined to Palestine but Judah throughout the world. It is directed at Judah's intemperate religious leaders who were incapable of responsible guidance (Jer. 13:12-14). So also are they to this day with the Hillel abominations and absolute failure to keep the Laws of God and His Calendar (No. 156). Priest and prophet. This applies to the leadership of Judah but also in all Israel (see also Jer. 26:7-9). No doubt Isaiah's opponents were a problem (comp. v. 9-10 where the foundation of the law and prophecy is detailed). He had no respect for them.

Tables For sacrificial feasts (1Sam. 9:12-13).


28:11-13 Israel and Judah will not listen and so they must be subject to other nations and hear the word of the Lord in a foreign tongue especially so that Judah and Levi have it driven into them precept upon precept line upon line, here a little, there a little. So will it be with Israel in the last days. So will they go captive to Messiah and returned.


28:14-22 Against Civil Leaders

vv. 14-15 The scoffers have forsaken God for other gods. They believe they are free from death and that with the grave, and the demons, they have an agreement. The world in the last days treats God as a myth and subjects themselves to raging pestilence.


28:16-17a  The Symbolic name of the foundation stone (v. 16d; 1:26), gives salvation to those who trust in God.

Justice and Righteousness (1:21; 5:16) will characterise the New Jerusalem.


28:17b-22 The faithless will be destroyed by the storm of God's wrath.

v. 20 This proverb describes an insoluble problem.

v. 21 Perazim 2Sam. 5:17-21.


28:23-29  Parable of the Farmer

As with the farmer, God conducts His Affairs according to Plan (comp. vv. 16-17a).

Spelt less valuable than wheat and barley.

Dill and Cummin Spices are too soft to thresh with a sledge. God teaches each as each requires to be brough to Salvation.


Chapter 29

29:1-8 Judah's Eventual Restoration

29:1  Ariel - Meaning “Mountain of God” or “Hero” as an allusion to Jerusalem.

v. 2 Like an Ariel - a second meaning of Ariel is like an underworld or shade. This meaning is derived from the Babylonian word “Arallu.” (see OARSV n.). The words are used here as a word play to emphasise Jerusalem's (and Israel's) degradation by the Babylonian Mystery and Sun Cults epitomised by the Hillel Calendar of Modern Judaism.


29:9-24 Spiritual Blindness of the People

The text refers to miscellaneous oracles as they affect the people’s relationship with God. In the last days of the Age it is at the lowest point in history.

29:9-12 Independent section related to vv. 1-8; 13-14.

vv. 9-10 As drunkards, Israel's leadership is incapable of moral discrimination. Now in the last days they are destroying their people with drugs for profit.

29:11-12 Is considered to be an explanatory later prose addition (see OARSV n.).

Book a scroll (Jer. 32:9-15).

29:13-14 There will be a new relationship with God emerge in the Millennium that will be based on a positive response to His Laws and Government in replacement of the traditions and lies of the “oral law” they use to regulate God's Laws in disobedience to God's Will and Law (see also Ex. 19:4-6). He refers to their traditions ironically as wisdom and discernment (comp. Isa. 45:9; 1Cor. 1:19).

29:15-16 Judah's leaders usurp God's prerogatives by plotting against Assyria (45:9; Jer. 18:1-6; Mat. 10:24; Rom. 9:20-21).

29:17-24 Considered by the Oxford scholars to be two later stanzas from Chs. 40-46 (see OARSV n.).

29:17-21  Israel's sufferings will soon be ended at the return of the Messiah (35:1-2; 41:17).

v. 19 Holy One of Israel see 1:4 n.; 41:14,16, 20.

29:22-24 The God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob is to restore Israel when it is brought to repentance and accepts God's Instructions (Ezek. 36:22-32; see also Isa. 41:8; 51:2).


Chapter 30

30:1-7 Concerning the Embassy Sent to Egypt

Ca. 703 BCE soliciting support against Assyria.

God says through Isaiah that He considers it rebellion against Him (28:14-22; 29:15-16).

30:1-5 The pact is against God's Wishes and thus will fail. Zoan see Ezek. 30:13-19 n.; Hanes  (Anusis) fifty miles south of Memphis.


6a An oracle on the beasts of the Negeb. The meaning is obscure. The meaning may refer to the Edomites that were to occupy it or as some suggested it may refer to the heat of the Negeb.

7b also obscure: Perhaps refers to Rahab who should be destroyed. Note the two uses of Rahab; one referring to Egypt, and the other in Israel at Jericho (comp. Josh. 2:1,3; 6:17, 23, 25; Heb. 11:31; Jas. 2:25; and also re Egypt, Pss. 87:4; 89:10; Isa. 51:9); here it is a Mythological Sea dragon vanquished in cosmic combat (26:20-27:1; Job 26:12) (OARSV n.).


30:8-17 Judah's intrigue with Egypt against Assyria

30:8-11 God instructs Isaiah to preserve the oracles in writing against their fulfilment (8:16-18).

Tablet see 8:1 n.

Book 29:11 n.

lying sons - those who deny their sonship (1:2-4) and refuse the instruction of the Lord and will not follow His laws and oracles. Instruction – Heb. “torah” see 1:10 n.

Smooth things - platitudinous falsehoods (Jer. 28:8-9).


30:12-14 Sentence of Judgment. Should perhaps follow vv. 15-17, as this word (v. 12b) is recorded in v. 15 (see also OARSV n.).  Judah's perversity is a basic character flaw which it does not seem to be able to completely shed and under pressure causes all to be lost on a repetitive basis. 

This was to cause the dispersion under the Sign of Jonah … (No. 013) in 70 CE on to the present day.

30:15-17 Instead of trust in the faith in God they seek alliances, which fail, and as a result they are struck with cowardice and flight, but their adversaries will be swifter still. 


30:18-26 Hope for the people of Zion who wait on the Lord. The Lord is a God of Justice and He blesses all those who wait on Him. 

After we are given bread of adversity and water of affliction yet in the Last days the God of Ps. 45 and high Priest of Ps. 110 will appear and reveal himself to Israel and instruct them all in the way of God (vv. 20-21). Then all Israel will rid itself of all idols and effigies as the unclean things they are and not touch them again.


30:23-26 Then will God give them rain in due season and their cattle will be grazed in large pastures and on salted provender. On every mountain and hill streams will run with water. These bounties will follow the days of Great Slaughter and the Moon and the Sun will provide greater light when the Lord binds up the hurt of the people and heals the wounds of His blow to the earth.

30:27-28   Refers to the action of the Lord in sifting the nations and stopping their sin and error.

30:29-33 The people will then be called to the Mountain of the lord to the Holy Feast and they will send their representatives from around the world each year at Tabernacles (Zech. 14:16-21).

The text refers to the Assyrians as being terror stricken and the wrath of God, but we know they will come out of the North with Israel in the restoration, but they will be obedient this time as will Egypt as part of the trading block (see Isa. 19:23; 35:8-10).


Chapter 31

31:1-3 Against Egypt  (see 30:1-7).

v. 1 Judah's reliance was on the Lord, as they could not afford the military budgets and their terrain did not favour chariot warfare except in the plains in the east and west.

v. 3  Both helper and helped will stumble and fall and only God is to be relied upon.

It was God that saved Israel from Egypt at the Red Sea (Ex. 14:26-31).


31:4-9 Against Sennacherib (29:1-8; 37:21-25).

vv. 4-5 God will defend Jerusalem.

vv. 6-7 A plea to rid Jerusalem of idols (considered, by some a later addition (comp. 2:20) (OARSV n.). To this day Jerusalem is rotten with idols in every nook and cranny and has to be broken down and cleansed of them all and those who use them.

31:8-9 The Assyrians are to fall by the sword and see forced labour and hardship. It is God’s sword in the final days that will reduce Assyria and bring them to subjection (see Ezek. Ch. 21).

Fire, furnace - It is at the Temple Altar under Messiah that the nations will be subjugated.


Chapter 32

32:1-8 The Coming Age of Justice

The text, patterned on the Wisdom literature (28:23-29), refers to the coming age when the rulers will be high minded with integrity and patience (Prov. 8:15-21). All will be clear minded. Men will see and hearken to the Wisdom of God. The fool and the knave will be obvious and disregarded (Pr. 15:2,7,14) but the noble devise noble things. This is in the millennial system at the return of Messiah and certainly not in the worst phases of the Last Days, as we see now.


32:9-14 Against the complacency of Israel's and Judah's women (3:16-4:1)

Here the women are told that their time of ease is coming to an end and in just over a year they will face hardship and the harvests will fail. The entire system will fail, and the cities deserted and the country desolate.


32:11-12a Signs of Mourning. (Jer. 4:7-8; 16:1-9).

32:15-20 The Age of the Spirit and the Transformation of the Creation (see 11:2)

From this devastation God will pour out the Holy Spirit (No. 117)  on mankind. The wilderness will become a fruitful field and the fruitful field will be deemed a forest. The restoration of the nexus of the law of God will see the conditions of Eden restored. Justice and Righteousness will abide in the wilderness and in the fruitful fields. With Righteousness comes peace and quietness and trust flows from it.


The people of God will dwell in secure dwelling places in peace. This is the millennial system of Messiah of Rev. 20:1-4. The cities will be low in the low ground and the forests will go down. The Heb. says And it will hail when the forest comes down.


Happy are those who sow beside all waters and the feet of the ox and the ass range free.


Chapter 33

33:1-24 A Prophetic Liturgy regarding the fall of the Satanic system of Babylon and the Sun and Mystery Cults and their replacement with Messiah at Jerusalem in the Worship of the One True God, who sent Jesus Christ (Jn. 17:3). Considered to be a post exilic liturgy (compared to Ps. 85:46), perhaps used in the Temple Service led by a prophet (Jer. 14:2; 18:20) (see OARSV n.). 

33:1-6 v. 1 A prophetic reproach of the adversary.

Destroyer used of Babylon in 21:2: Here unspecified, but contextually linked (see Rev. Chs. 18-20; F066v).

v. 2 A Congregational Prayer.

Our arm- Source of strength.


33:3-6 Promise of God's Victory and Restoration of Zion for the Millennial Kingdom of Rev. Chs. 20-22.


33:7-16 Second Section

vv. 7-9 A congregational lament - The conditions are indicative of the total breakdown of society in the Last Days. The entire area from Lebanon, Sharon, Bashan, and Carmel are laid waste (shake off their leaves).

33:10-13 God commands the nations to acknowledge His Might.


33:14-16 God's Wrath in the Day of the Lord will destroy both the sinners in Zion and throughout the world among all the enemies of the Kingdom of God.

vv. 15-16 See Pss. 15 & 24:3-5.


33:17-24 Third Section

vv. 17-20 Their eyes will see Messiah in all his beauty, or glory, and his hand stretches afar over the nations. Then the minds of the people will think back on the terror and those who ruled over them. No more ruled over by aliens in a foreign tongue (vv. 20-24).  We will all look upon Zion as the city of our appointed feasts (Zech. 14:16-21). The land will be amply watered (Ezek. 47:1-12), and not for military purposes or the Military Industrial Complex which will be eliminated. There the nations will send their representatives each year at Tabernacles. It will stand there forever as the  City of God and the centre of the universe and God will come there at the end of human phase of the creation (see Rev. Ch. 22; The City of God (No. 180)). 


The restoration of the planet will commence under the Messiah at his return and the elimination of the Last Empire of the Beast (No. 299A) and the end of the Empire of the Ten Toes of Daniel 2:41-45 (F027ii, xiii) and the Millennium will commence with the Golden Jubilee and the Millennium (No. 300).


Salvation of the Gentiles

Chapter 34

Messianic Prophecy through Isaiah to Hezekiah (No. 157D)

“Isaiah 34 to 36 is concerned with the prophecy of the salvation of the Gentiles. We find Isaiah 35:3 mentioned in the New Testament in Hebrews 12:11-12. The text in Isaiah 34 commences with the indignation of God against the nations and His dealing with them. This prophecy looks forward to the end of the age when the nations are given up to slaughter.”


The text in Isaiah and in 2Kings must therefore be viewed in relation to its place in prophecy, as revealed to Isaiah. Hezekiah is in fact concerned with the future events of the activities of God in sending the Messiah for His purposes. The entire structure of Isaiah is in effect Messianic [over its entire length]. Isaiah 34 commences with the message to the world, which is the inhabited world and all nations (v. 1, Heb. Tebel). The indignation of Yahovah is on them (v. 2). The utter destruction is in fact a devotion to destruction or being placed under a Divine ban (cf. Bullinger, fn. 2). The text says the mountains shall be melted with their blood (hyperbole) (v. 3).  The wrath of God is placed upon the nations and they are to be put to the sword (vv. 5,6). They are sacrificed (vv. 6,7) in God’s vengeance (v. 8).  The unicorns in verse 7 are the re’emin or rhinoceros. The surrounding nations are to be destroyed because of the controversy over Zion as the final recompense as the vengeance of God. The lands will be made tohu and bohu (v. 11). This is the time of the Day of the Lord. The command is given to search the Book of the Lord – and He has commanded and none of the words of God will fail. He has commanded and the Spirit will gather those for whom God has cast lot. He has divided the lands by line and they will dwell there forever (vv. 16,17). This is Messianic prophecy for the Last Days (see the paper The Day of the Lord and the Last Days (No. 192)).


The structure of the text deals with God’s zeal for Zion and its redemption. It is in this context that the subsequent chapters must be viewed.”


34:1-17 The conversion of Edom is the commencement of the absorption into Israel (see also Ezek. Chs. 38-39).

34:4 This text deals with the Fall of the Host as we saw in Isa. Ch. 14 and Ezek. Ch. 28. The host are confined and then after the final release the Fallen Host are killed and then sent to the Second Resurrection (No. 143B) under judgment and correction in the Judgment of the Demons (No. 080).

The Host of Heaven are associated with the corruption of the nations as God's earthly enemies (24:21).

v. 5 The destruction of Edom is used as an example of all the enemies of the Kingdom of God exemplified by Israel (Jer. 49:7-22) as with all God's enemies (Ob. 15-15).  Sword of the Lord (Ezek. Ch. 21). 

Sacrifice (Ezek. 39:17-20). The animals are those of the sacrifices. That is not the intent of those to be sacrificed in Edom. They were brought into Judah in the Second century BCE under John Hyrcanus.

v. 8 Day. See 13:6; 27:2.


34:9-17 God's Assault and After

34:9-10 Edom suffers the punishment of Sodom and Gomorrah (13:19; Gen. 19:24).

v. 11 It is as the primordial chaos.

34:12-15 No kingdom there Thus the end of those opposing the plan of God (No. 001A) in Israel (Nos. 001B and 001C) are to be brought to an end.

Night hag – The storm demon Lilith said to inhabit abandoned places and wild animals haunt its ruins (13:19-22).

v. 16 The book of the Lord (see 4:3).


Chapter 35

Here we see Zion Restored (35:1-10).

The OARSV n. says that the text, with 34:1-17, probably belonged originally to Chs. 40-66 (seemingly following the Revisionist Division of Isaiah). 

35:1-6a All creation will see God's Glory. The helpless exiles (feeble knees) will wait on God and He will send for them to return to Zion (Chs. 65-66). We see the declaration re Lebanon, Carmel and Sharon, as we saw previously and again below.


35:8-10 The Holy Way through a land like paradise (11:6-9), they will come to Zion to sing the praises of God their Deliverer.


Messianic Prophecy through Isaiah to Hezekiah (No. 157D)

“Isaiah 35 then goes on to declare that Lebanon and Carmel and Sharon shall see the Glory of the Lord and the Majesty of our God. This is Messianic. The Glory of the Lord is Messiah.


Isaiah 35:3 is quoted in Hebrews 12:11-12 and that text refers directly to Messiah and the chastening he suffered for us. Isaiah 35:1-2 declares that the desert shall blossom like a rose and the glory of Lebanon shall be given unto it, together with the excellence of Carmel and Sharon, and they will see the Glory of the Lord (Yahovah), and the Excellency of our God. Thus Messiah was to be in Judah and remain in Zion and return to Zion in the Last Days. We are told in verse 4 that he will come specifically to save us. The miracles he performed were to open the eyes of the blind and the ears of the deaf, and so that the lame should leap as an hart and the dumb should sing. He performed these miracles in order to commence the calling of the Church, which was to be watered by the Holy Spirit [No. 117] over two thousand years.


Thus Yahovah has declared that he will come with vengeance and with the recompense of the One True God. We know from both the OT and NT texts that the entity that God will send is Messiah. We are specifically told that the ransomed of the Lord shall return and come to Zion with songs and everlasting joy upon their heads. They shall obtain joy and gladness and sighing will flee away. This theme is then taken up in Isaiah 40 after the references to the theme of the Assyrian invasion, and it is in that context that the Assyrian invasion and return must be viewed.


In the midst of this Messianic declaration in Isaiah, and by comparison with 2Kings, we then find that we are confronted with the Assyrians besieging Jerusalem in the fourteenth year of Hezekiah. Sennacherib had besieged the fortified cities of Judah and took them, and finally besieged Jerusalem.


The early period of Hezekiah is dealt with in 2Kings 18:1-12. It is important to read that section also.


We see that Israel was taken away in the sixth year of Hezekiah. In the fourteenth year of Hezekiah the Assyrians decided to destroy Jerusalem and transport Judah into captivity, as they had done to Israel at Samaria eight years previously. As was the practice of the Assyrians, Israel was taken to the opposite ends of the Empire beyond the Araxes to the north, in what is now Georgia and Armenia. The significance of this event was that Judah would not have been identified, and the Messiah could not have been born in Judea when it was time for him to be incarnated in the virgin, as prophesied elsewhere in Isaiah 7:14. Isaiah 37:22 also refers to the virgin as the daughter of Zion who has despised the Assyrian and mocked her. Isaiah 47:1 also deals with the virgin daughter of Babylon and prophesies against her and says she will sit in the dust and grind and no longer be called the lady of kingdoms.  In Isaiah 47:6 it is clearly stated that God is to give Judah into her hands and then deal with her. The text in Isaiah and in 2Kings dealing with Hezekiah is prophetic and has nothing to do with that time, except that the second element of the prophecy deals with the return of the Assyrians, and they remain there in Assyria.


Also, Messiah could not have come to the Temple and fulfilled the prophecies as given to Isaiah if Assyria had removed Judah. Thus God decided to intervene and He told Isaiah why and what the sign of the ministry would be. The sign of the Messiah’s ministry was given by God to Isaiah and spoken to Hezekiah and recorded in both books as a dual witness to the commencement of the ministry. It is for this reason that so much effort was made to destroy the Calendar and the Jubilee system by the later Pharisees and Rabbis.”


Chapter 36

Messianic Prophecy through Isaiah to Hezekiah (No. 157D)

“The Assyrians were so confident that they uttered blasphemy against God at the walls of Jerusalem. God is not mocked, and He brings all to fruition in accordance with His Plan and in His own time, according to His Calendar.


The text in 2Kings chapters 18 to 20 has much repeated in Isaiah chapters 37 to 40. Some of the text is not repeated in Isaiah, and so the text in 2Kings 19 is used over Isaiah 38. We see from the text in Isaiah 37 and 2Kings 19 that the prophecy concerning what is to happen to Judah is broken into two parts. (See esp. 2Kgs. 19:1-19 in this text.)


Hezekiah was obedient enough to place his faith in God and ask for deliverance, and God answered Him.


The text also continues in 2Kings 19: 20-28.

Here we see God answering Assyria and speaking concerning the virgin daughter of Zion. This is the Church of the Messiah that is being spoken about. What virgin daughter of Zion existed before 28 CE? The virgin was to conceive and bear a child, as we know from Isaiah, and the child was Messiah. God then gives the sign for the virgin daughter of Zion. 2Kgs. 19:29-31 continues on regarding the sign given regarding the surviving remnant of the House of Judah.


Here we are seeing God declare the timing and the purpose of the sign. In accordance with the Calendar, at the end of the two years of the Seventh Sabbath and the Jubilee year, the work was to be undertaken. In the third year of this sequence, which was the first year after the Jubilee, the planting was to be undertaken and the fruit eaten. Then the surviving remnant would again take root downward. Now this was to be fulfilled in two ways. The restoration of Jerusalem and the Law were undertaken by Ezra and Nehemiah at the Jubilee sequence, as we see from the text in Reading the Law with Ezra and Nehemiah (No. 250). This was to point to the Restoration under Messiah and the forming of the Virgin daughter of Zion, which is the Church of God, and the ultimate despatch of the Church into all lands; “For out of Jerusalem shall go forth a remnant and out of Jerusalem a band of survivors”. Thus Christ could only have commenced his ministry in the first year after the Jubilee. We know that he declared the acceptable year of the Lord from the scroll of Isaiah in 27 CE, which was a Jubilee year, and he commenced his ministry after the imprisonment of John the Baptist, after Passover of 28 CE (see the paper Christ’s Age at Baptism and the Duration of his Ministry (No. 019)).


This sign could not be broken. Hezekiah had nothing to do with the remnant or the captivity. It was not done in his reign (see also the paper The Seven Great Passovers of the Bible (No. 107)).


The sign referred to Messiah and the establishment of the remnant after the Jubilee year. Messiah thus had to commence in the year following the Jubilee of 27 CE. We know from the NT text itself that he did not commence his ministry until after the Passover of 28 CE, after John the Baptist had been imprisoned.


God purposes to send Jerusalem and Judah into captivity to Babylon and not to Assyria, as Assyria was about to fall, and the restoration had to take place under the Medes and Persians. If Judah had gone north of the Araxes, they could not have returned. There was no remnant during the reign of Hezekiah, as Jerusalem did not fall in his lifetime and not to the Assyrians. After the purpose of the prophecy had been declared by God through Isaiah, the message then turned to what God was to do with the Assyrians. The text in 2Kgs. 19:32-37 then concerns the king of Assyria and the slaying of 185,000 Assyrians attacking Jerusalem, causing them to return home.


The timeframe of verses 36-37 covers 20 odd-years from the king’s return to his eventual death, as described. It was prophecy that the Assyrians would not take Jerusalem nor come near them again – and they did not do so.


The next sequence in 2Kgs. 20:1-3. 12-21 concerns the remainder of the life of Hezekiah and the actual details of the captivity of Judah to the Babylonians, and for this we compare 2Kings 20 with Isaiah 38.


Chapter 37

37:1-35 Hezekiah consults Isaiah

See 2Kgs. Ch. 19.

37:1 Clothes rent, sackcloth, signs of mourning and despair (15:3; Jl. 2:12); for recourse to the Temple in national crisis see Neh. Ch. 9; Jl. 1:13-14.

v. 2 Earlier kings consulted the prophets hence Hezekiah’s embassy to Isaiah (see 1Kgs. 22:8-28; 2Kgs. 1:9-17; 3:11-27).

37:5-7 Isaiah's reply reassures Hezekiah. The rumour was of internal problems at home in Assyria. 


37:8-20 This was Sennacherib's second challenge to Hezekiah ca 688-687 BCE, perhaps in a later attack on Jerusalem.

v. 8 Libnah ten miles north of Lachish.

v. 9 Tirhakah 2Kgs. 19:9.

v. 12 Places in Mesopotamia: Gozan on the west Tributary of the Kabur River, east of Haran; Haran, on the upper Balikh River (Gen. 11:27-32); Reseph between Nineveh and northern Khabur; Eden, Bit Adini, on the Middle Euphrates (Ezek. 27:23); Telassar also on Middle Euphrates.

v. 14 Letter – scroll

v. 16 Enthroned - Temple imagery also in 1Kgs. 8:6-7; Ezek. 1:4-28. 

vv. 17-20 Recalling Sennacherib’s claim in vv. 11-13.

no gods see Jer. 10:1-16.

v. 21 see vv. 33-35.


37:22-29 Isaiah's challenge to Sennacherib (10:5-19); 22-29 Isaiah here taunts Sennacherib by reminding him that he has defied God, who determines history’s course, and He is to frustrate Sennacherib’s purpose and plan.

vv. 27-28 Reads with the Dead Sea Scroll of Isaiah “...housetops which are parched by the east wind; Your rising and your sitting down I know ...” (see also OARSV n.).

v. 27 with 2Kgs. 19:26 Heb. field


37:30-32 A Second Assurance to Hezekiah (see vv. 5-7). The sign will be a return to normal conditions by the third year (considered to belong between verses 35 and 36 (OARSV n.). 

Remnant see 10:22 n.


37:33-35  A Third Assurance to Hezekiah. (comp. v. 21). Verse 35 recalls Nathan's words to David (2Sam. 7:12-17).


37:36-38 Devastation of Sennacherib's Army

Here the Angel of the Lord went into the camp of the Assyrians and slew 185,000 of the Assyrians. Modern scholars say that it is a euphemism for a plague by reference to the texts in Ex. 12:29 and 2Sam. 24:15-17 (see OARSV n.).  The text does say messenger of the Lord.


Chapter 38

vv. 1-4 Hezekiah's Illness and Recovery [cf. 2Kgs. 20:4-11]

v. 3 The Form of Hezekiah’s Prayer for recovery is found in the Psalms (comp. Ps. 6).

v. 8 The dial is lit. stairs or steps. Following the text of one ancient Hebrew MS found in the DSS it may be translated “... Behold I shall turn back the shadow of the steps down which the sun has moved on the steps of the roof chambers of Ahaz your father. I will cause the sun to move backwards ten steps and the sun moved back on the steps down which the shadow had descended.” (See also OARSV n.).

38:9-20 This song, traditionally ascribed to Hezekiah, is a liturgical thanksgiving for use when presenting a thank-offering in the temple for personal deliverance (Ps. 32; 1Sam. 2:1-10; Jon. 2:2-9) (see also OARSV n.).

v. 9 Writing    Heb. “miktab”, read “Miktam” as in Pss. 56-60 (F019_2).

v. 16ab Is based on a corrupted text the Heb. of which is uncertain. It probably should be emended to read. “O Lord with thee is the days of my life, thine alone is the Life of my spirit.” (See also OARSV n.)

v. 17 Here we see God's saving power is demonstrated in recovery from illness demonstrated as forgiveness of sin (Lk. 5:17-26).

38:21-22 These verses are considered to belong between vv. 6-7 (see OARSV n.).


Chapter 39

Merodach-Baladan's Embassy

Messianic Prophecy through Isaiah to Hezekiah (No. 157D)

“Isaiah continues with the matters of the further captivity of Judah to Babylon. When the prophecy of Isaiah 39 was given the sons referred to in verse 7 had not yet been born. Manasseh was born in the third of the added fifteen years of Hezekiah. This is the reason for the text in the Song of Degrees in Psalm 127:3-5 following on from Hezekiah’s Song of Degrees in Psalm 126, and the reference in Psalm 128:5-6 to the comment by Hezekiah to Isaiah in 39:8. Hezekiah’s submission to the will of God was as Eli’s (1Sam. 3:18; cf. 2Kgs. 20:12-19; Job 1:21; 2:10; Jas. 5:10-11).


vv. 1-8 Thus it was revealed that God’s purpose was to send them to Babylon into captivity and from there they would be restored, and the virgin daughter of Zion would go forth from Jerusalem in due time. The details of the captivity are covered in the paper Fall of Jerusalem to Babylon (No. 250B). The reign of Hezekiah was not over a Jubilee at any part of it, or even near a Jubilee. Jerusalem was not captured, nor was it ever again besieged during his reign. Judah remained intact and safe. This prophecy and sign were never fulfilled in his lifetime. The Assyrians were sent back home so that the sign given to him could be fulfilled under Messiah many centuries later. That is why Messiah could not commence his ministry before 28 CE, nor after it. What he was doing was declaring the acceptable year of the Lord and reinforcing the Temple Calendar and declaring that he was in fact the Messiah. That is why he said to his mother at the wedding at Cana: “My time has not yet come”, because it was still in the Jubilee year of 27 CE.


That this was the purpose of the prophecy is revealed in the next chapter. It is beyond doubt that this referred to Messiah, as the texts from Isaiah 40:3-8 are quoted in the Gospels at Matthew 3:3; Mark 1:3; Luke 3:4-6; John 1:23; and 1Peter 1:24. This text refers to the scattering and the gathering of the people.”

v. 2 The tribute paid to Sennacherib (701 BCE) depleted Hezekiah's treasury (2Kgs. 18:14-16) much of which had been derived from Arabian trade (2Chr. 32:27-29).


39:3-4 The Intrigue with the Babylonians prompted the warning by God through Isaiah. The Babylonian system was to be the source of the undoing of Judah (see Dan. Ch. 2 (F027ii). 

5-7 re 597 BCE see 2Kgs. 24:10-17.

v. 8 For the Postponement of punishment see also 1Kgs. 21:27-29.


Beginning of the Revisionist Divisions of Isaiah  II

Chapter 40

40:1-11 Announcement of the Coming of the Messiah

Messianic Prophecy through Isaiah to Hezekiah (No. 157D)

“There is no doubt that the reference is to Messiah and the Church – which is the remnant of Zion – and the subsequent gathering.


Judah is without excuse concerning the prophecy and the Messiah.


The actions had to take place from Jerusalem while the Temple stood, and the remnant had to be planted there and then spread throughout the nations from there. The activities had to take place under the Temple Calendar and in the First year of the Sacred Calendar after the Jubilee. The Pharisees and their successors, the Rabbis, could never have been left in control of the Temple as they would have destroyed the Temple Calendar – as we saw after 70 CE – and broken the prophecies.


There is no other person in human history that could have qualified to do all these things in the right timeframe. Christ had to commence his ministry in 28 CE in order to fulfil the sign of Isaiah, as given to Hezekiah. He did that as we know from the NT text.


He also had to keep the Sign of Jonah as the sign of his ministry after he began his mission at the right time, and fulfilled the requirements of Isaiah (see the paper The Sign of Jonah and the History of the Reconstruction of the Temple (No. 013)).


If Christ was not the Messiah, then Judah is lost and without salvation. They do not keep the Sabbaths and the Jubilee and so could never qualify under the conditions of Isaiah to have the Messiah at any time after 28 CE. They were in captivity by the next Jubilee in 77 CE and never again have been obedient enough to keep the Temple Calendar.


The vineyard of the Lord of Hosts is the whole House of Israel, and Judah is his special plant (Isa. 5:7). The text of Isaiah concerns the Messiah and the place he had in Judah. The Gentiles are grafted into Israel, which is now a spiritual edifice not a physical one.”


The background scene is the Council of Heaven of the Elohim from which the voices of vv. 3 and 6 are sent.

40:1-2 Comfort The text refers to the comfort and peace extended from Jerusalem to Israel and the world. This peace is to come with the rule of the Messiah (see also 51:9; 52:1; 57:14).

My people...your God … Repetition of the Covenant phrase (Ex. 19:4-6; Jer. 11:5) (see No. 152). Her warfare refers to Her time of service in the exile and dispersion.

Double  refers to the blessings following her punishment for sin following on from the principle in the Law of God (Ex. 22:7-8).  God is also subject to the Law as it flows from His Nature.

40:3-5 Quoted in Lk. 3:4-6 (see also Mat. 3:3; Mk. 1:3; Jn. 1:23).

The way of the Lord is common in this section of Isaiah (42:16; 43:16,19; 48:17; 49:11; 51:10).

The text refers to the Messiah who comes to restore God's people (35:1-10).

The Glory of the Lord shall be revealed at the return of the Messiah (Ezek. 1:28; 10:18-19; 43:1-5).

40:6-8 An elohim of the Council as Herald of God declares that the Word of God will stand forever and is immutable (9:8; 55:8-11) unlike all living things (quoted in 1Pet. 1:24-25).

v. 6b See 51:12 n.

40:7 Breath -  as the wind of judgment (Jer. 4:11).

40:9-11  The Messianic advent with Messiah as the Arm of God and the elohim of Israel of Ps. 45:6-7. His reward is with him and his recompense before him (v. 10). He will feed his flock and gently lead those that are with young. See Ezek. Ch. 34 (F026ix). See also Acts. 10:36; Rom. 10:15; Rev. 22:7.

Jerusalem  Jerusalem used for Judah over 30 times in this section from Chs. 40-55.

Arm, symbol of the power of God used of Messiah as Captain of the Army of the Lord (33:2; 48:14; 51:5,9; 52:10; 53:1; see also Josh. 5:14-15 (F006)).


40:12-31 Creator of the Universe

v. 12  Waters  (seas) heavens, earth  - The world's three environments or divisions.

40:13-14 God is the source of all knowledge and wisdom (Pr. 8:22-31; Job 38:2-39:30).

40:15-17 Before Him all nations are as nothing and must pay Him homage.

40:18-20  Idols cannot and must not be compared with him (see 42:17; 45:16,20; Jer. 10:1-16).

40:21-24 God the Creator is also Lord of the History and Progression of the Earth (44:24-28; 51:9-10).

Circle...Tent The vault of heaven (Pr. 8:27; Job 22:14).

40:25-27 God as Creator is Incomparable and Omniscient.

Created  Job 38:4-7; Gen. 1:1, used here in v. 28; 41:20; 42:5; 43:7,15; 45:7,8,12,18; 54:16.

v. 26 Host of Heaven 3:1.


40:28-31 God Alone is Immortal (1Tim. 6:16). He is Omnipotent and Omniscient and is concerned for man in His Plan of Salvation (No. 001A).

v. 31 Wait  in the hope and confidence that God will not desert His people (see also 49:23; Pss. 25:3; 33:20). (see also No. 001).


Chapter 41

41:1-42:4 concerns the Trial of the Nations

v. 1 The background scene is the Celestial Court of the Elohim where the nations stand trial (see Chs. 41-46 and 48).


Revisionists attempt to assert that the References to the victorious figure from the East refer to Cyrus.  However, that East is the direction that Messiah enters Jerusalem and the Temple. It is Messiah that acts at the direction of God and it is God that determines the generations from the beginning (see Ezek. 43:1-2; 44:2 F026xi).


The judgment extends to the islands and the nations associated with them and the nations generally (40:14; 42:4; 49:1; 51:5).


41:2-4 One from the East - Messiah. It is not Cyrus as claimed by Revisionists (see OARSV n.).  God did indeed call and name Cyrus to do his work but this text is not concerning him. Victory The Hebrew term implies God's approval.

First...Last 43:10; 44:6.

Alpha and Omega see Rev. 1:8, 11; 21:6; 22:13 (F066v)  (see No. 229).


41:5-7 The nations are as powerless as their gods (40:19-22).


41:8-10 Israel, my servant (Jer. 30:10; 46:27-28).

Punished for its faithlessness Israel is to be restored (44:1-5; 45:4; 48:10). There is a different emphasis on “servant” in the Servant Songs (42:1).

41:11-13 The nations are judged. God defends Israel against their adversaries who then are taken into Israel as the Body of the Messiah.

41:14-16 Israel, as the servant under the Holy One of Israel, will thresh the Mountains or nations and they will become one with them.

Redeemer The Hebrew term elsewhere may refer to the Blood Avenger (Num. 35:19) (OARSV n.). Here it refers to Messiah. He was the Redeemer of Israel (43:14; 44:6; 47:4).  


Purpose of the Creation and the Sacrifice of Jesus Christ (No. 160)

v. 14 “Now the argument that says that anyone less than God being sacrificed is not good enough strikes at the very power and omnipotence of God. Fear not you worm Jacob. God can determine by what means He will accept humanity and only God can determine that fact. If God wanted mankind to be redeemed by anything, that object would be adequate.”


41:17-20  Classed as a Rhapsody on God as Lord of Nature (55:13; Ezek. 47:12) (OARSV n.).

Holy One  v. 16; 1:4; 40:25.


41:21-24  The pagan nations are summoned and challenged to prove the validity of their claims as to the power of their gods.

Former things (46:9) of the historical past to the early phases of the creation or the phases yet to come. The nations have no defence and no power over those aspects.

Here God says that all these aspects and systems have no value and no power to control events and do not exist (43:8-13).

41:25-29 The Second Judgment against the Nations (comp. vv. 11-13).

From the North....the rising of the Sun  The first phase referred to the Assyrians (14:31), and Babylonia  (Jer. 6:22). These empires spread out into the Last Days. See Daniel Chs. 2 &12 (F027ii, xii, xiii)  

v. 29 comp. v. 24; 40:18-20.


Chapter 42

42:1-4 The First Servant Song (49:1-6; 50:4-11; 52:13-53:12). This text refers to the Messiah. Many try to make it not refer to the Messiah as they wish to deny the Christ and place it to someone into the future.


The Mission of the Servant 

Israel is the Nation as God's Chosen under the Messiah whom the One True God (Eloah) chose and gave Israel to him as his inheritance (Deut. 32:8-9; Ps. 45:6-7; Heb. 1:8-9). He will, with peace and patience, faithfully bring forth justice to the world (vv. 3-4a). He will bring the Law (1:10) and restore justice (5:16) to the nations. Spirit (11:2)  (see Mat. 12:18-21).


42:5-17 God's Glorious Victory  

5. God is Creator of all (40:21-22). He is the source of all life (Gen. 2:7; Acts 17:24-25).   

42:6-9 God has given the Messiah as a gift and covenant to mankind as a light to the nations, to open the eyes that are blind and let the oppressed go free (60:1-3; Lk. 2:30-32; Acts 13:47; 26:23).

v. 8 Lord. Yahovah of Hosts as the One True God (41:23-24; Deut. 4:23-24). 


42:10-13 Song of Victory

(see Pss. 93; 96, 149 (F019_4, F019_5iii). 

v. 11 “Another text which is sometimes used to indicate that the Church will live in the wilderness of Petra in the end days.”  (No. 194)

Kedar (Jer. 49:28-29) and Sela (Jer. 49:20). The remote places surrounding Israel which are to be brought into the structure at the return of the Messiah. The entire world praises God (Ex. 15:1-18; Jdg. 5:2-5).


42:14-17  God's Intervention over History

Long time since the creation (v. 5) to redemption (vv. 14-16).

v. 15  Jer. 4:23-28. 

v. 16 Blind (vv. 6-7) and God led Israel safely through the Wilderness (41:17-20; Ex. 13:21-22).


42:18- 43:7 Israel,  the Blind and Deaf Servant

42:18-25 Israel's Judgment

42:19-21 Blindness to God's will and ways is Israel's greatest sin (6:9-10). (see also 1:10)

v. 21 The task of the elect is to magnify the law of God and teach it to the nations but Israel and Judah failed continuously. They are about to be corrected for their sins over these last days.

42:23-25 Israel. Was punished and dispersed and sent into the wilderness for 2,750 odd years because they would not obey the Laws of God. God punished them for their sins and He is about to purge their false teachers from among them. Those who teach that the Law of God is done away are to be purged from the face of the earth.


Chapter 43

Israel's Redemption (41:8-13)

God is Israel's Creator (44:2,21,24) and Redeemer (41:14; 48:17; 49:7).

By name Israel is God's unique possession (45:3-4; Ex. 19:5; 33:17). God set Israel aside as the key element in the Plan of Salvation (No. 001A)  for  His Salvation of all mankind (see Nos 001B and 001C) as the single vineyard under Messiah, which He, Eloah, gave to Messiah as his inheritance as the Elohim of Israel in Deut. 32:8-9.


The Witnesses (No. 135)

“In Isaiah 43, God names Jacob and Israel as His witnesses.

vv. 1-13 Notice in this text we have Jacob and Israel mentioned as distinct entities.

In this section, we see that God is Israel’s creator (cf. Isa. 44:2,21,24) and redeemer (Isa. 41:14; 48:17; 49:7). God called them by name and they are God’s unique possession (cf. Isa. 45:3-4; Ex. 19:5; 33:17).

God protects His people through all dangers (Ps. 66:12). Here we see that God’s ransom of Israel includes the nations of Africa (Egypt and Ethiopia) and Arabia (Seba). Cyrus was expected to conquer all of these nations (cf. Annotated Oxford Bible, fn. to Isa. 43:3c-7). The ransom here actually represented the salvation of the Gentiles.


Israel as the Lord's Witness

From Isaiah 43:8-13 we see the following propositions emerge:

·     Israel is capable of conversion (v. 8).

·     The nations are going to gather together but they cannot defend their gods.

From this point, God declares that there is and will be no other god (cf. Isa. 41:23-24; 48:5).


Redemption and Restoration of Israel

From Isaiah 43:14 to 44:5 we see the prophecy of the Redemption and Restoration of Israel. Here we see the Redeemer and Holy One of Israel put in apposition. The Redeemer is mentioned more often in Isaiah than elsewhere. From Genesis 48:15-16 we see that the Angel of Redemption was the elohim of Israel (cf. also Job 33:23; see Isa. 43:1; 54:5; 59:20; Jer. 50:34; cf. also Isa. 41:14; 47:4; 48:17 for the term Holy One).

God redeems Israel not for its merits but because of His Covenant relationship with them. Other nations have kings, but God is Israel's King (1Sam. 8:4-9).

43:16-17 An allusion to the passage through the Red Sea (Ex. Chs. 14-15). This theme builds up to the New and Greater Exodus in 41:17-20; 42:16, here, and finally in the final restoration in Chs. 65-66 under Messiah for the millennial system (see also Rev. Ch. 20).

43:18-19 New thing – The return of Israel to Palestine. (See also Habakkuk (F035) and Haggai (F037).)

A way in the wilderness... Ex. 17:1-7.

This theme (40:3) is part of the Exodus story (vv. 16-17).

43:22-24 Israel has ignored and offended God. They continued to do this for 2700 years and God redeems them anyway under Messiah in the Last Days.

Sweet Cane Ex. 30:23; Jer. 6:20.

43:25-28 Here God stands in judgment of Israel's transgressions (also 41:1). He asks they plead their case and delivers them to destruction and reviling both as Jacob and Israel in both its elements.

The First Father Jacob sinned (Gen. Ch. 27; Hos. 12:2-4).

Mediators the patriarchs and prophets (1Kgs. 13:11-32).

In Isaiah 43:22 we see Jacob and Israel mentioned again in distinction.

God does this again in Isaiah 43:28.”


Chapter 44

The Witnesses (No. 135)

In Isaiah 44:1 He speaks again to both, but this time as one.

vv. 1-5 Thus the two are distinct but within the structure of the one people. Also, we see the name Yeshurun (SHD 3484) (vv.1-2) come into this duality (see also Deut. 32:15; 33:5,26). Yeshurun is derived from the root yashar (SHD 3474) meaning to be straight or even. It has the sense of making straight or taking the straight path. It leads on to concepts of equity and justice.


We see here that God redeemed Israel not for its merits but because of His Covenant relationship with it. God is its king and that kingship will be restored when He who comes whose right it is.


[3b God promises to the people His Spirit (No. 117) on Jacob’s descendants and offspring.  In this sense the distinction of Jacob and Israel is in the receipt of the spirit in the process of the redemption of Israel.] 


God shows here that He will make Israel as the straight (upright) one. Yeshurun is then coupled with Jacob. Jacob is the name of the patriarch, and Israel was the name he came to be called. This name also came to be the name of the nation of the sons of Jacob. The duality is thus apparent.

The transformation of the world will be complete with God's Spirit bringing new life. In v. 5 we see all people will identify themselves with Israel and Israel's God (see ## 001A, 001B; 001C).


The Being here is Yahovah, the King of Israel and Israel’s redeemer. He is the Yahovah of Hosts. There are two Beings referred to in Psalm 45:6-7. This Being here is the haElohim referred to elsewhere as Yahovih when the term Yahovah of Hosts is not used of Him (see also Psalms Part 5iii and Summary (F019_5iii)).


vv. 6-8 He declares again here that these are His witnesses. His uniqueness is also in vv. 21-23.


This deity is the One True God (Jn. 17:3) and beside Him there is no elohim. All are subordinate to Him. The RSV has the words ending with: “There is no Rock? I know not any”. This appears to have been hidden by the mainstream because of the symbolism. Thus the single Rock strikes also at the patrimony of Peter argument...


The concept here is that God deals with Jacob and Israel as His witnesses against the nations. The duality referred to here is not the duality of Israel and Judah. It is the duality of the physical and the spiritual. Jacob was the named patriarch who became Israel, which means: he shall rule as El. Thus the significance is that the nation is one witness and the Church is the other. For it is the Church that becomes the body of Israel and shall rule as God or elohim, as the Angel or Messenger of Yahovah at their head (Zech. 12:8).

Note also the apposition of Redeemer (43:14; 60:16) and Lord of Hosts, one of several references (see also 45:13; 47:4) (cf. OARSV n.).

v. 7 Reference God's Uniqueness as One True God who alone is immortal (1Tim. 6:16).

v. 8 The Elect as Elohim (No. 001)

“The concept of Israel as the Church has been examined in detail in the papers Proverbs 31 (No. 114); The Covenant of God (No. 152); Song of Songs (No. 145); Commentary on Esther (F016) and Measuring the Temple (No. 137).


The reference to Isaiah 44:8, as a demonstration that YHVH is one Elohim – which is offered by Trinitarians – is simply false. Isaiah 44:6-8 states:

So says Jehovah, the King of Israel, and his Redeemer, Jehovah of [H]osts: I am the First and I am the Last; and there is no God except Me ... Is there a God beside me? Yea there is none. I have not known a rock. (Interlinear)


It is asserted that Yahovah (or incorrectly Jehovah) is one here but the text in fact [is held to refer] to two entities, Yahovah King of Israel and Yahovah of Hosts. Yahovah King of Israel is speaking of Yahovah of Hosts. Green has translated the text by inserting and with his Redeemer to make it appear that both are referred to as one. Similarly, he has translated the word biladay (SHD 1107) as except in Isaiah 44:6 and as beside in Isaiah 44:8. However, the sense of without or beside is that conveyed here. [This application can only be made as the duality of Psalm 45:6-7 and Heb. 1:8-9. The One True God of Jn. 17:3 who sent Christ.]


Isaiah 44:8 identifies clearly that the entity spoken of, namely YHVH of Hosts. He is Eloah. Eloah is a singular word which refers only to God the Father or the God of Hosts. From Proverbs 30:4-5, we know that this Eloah is God the Father (as Ha Elohim) and He has a son predicated to Him in His Old Testament relationship with Israel. Judaism, Islam and biblical Christianity worship this entity as the One Supreme God. The Yahovah of Israel is identified, from above as the Angel of the Presence who is Messiah. The text demonstrates that there are two YHVHs here, with the subordinate YHVH of Israel proclaiming the ascendancy of YHVH of Hosts. This YHVH of Hosts is Eloah and beside whom, and indeed without whom, there is no Elohim. This concept forms the basis of the First Commandment. Thus, the YHVH of Israel here is separate and subordinate.”

(See also Arche of the Creation of God as Alpha and Omega (No. 229)) and the Deity of Christ (No. 147).)

v. 8 Rock. 17:10; Ps. 18:2.


44:9-20 Attack on idolatry

This satire follows on from the declaration of the One True God in vv. 6-8. Esp. 8b and also v. 21 (comp. 40:18-20; 41:6-7).

vv. 9-11 Idols are images and not an elohim.

vv. 12-14. It is made by craftsmen, half of which are turned to base uses and the rest are turned into objects of worship (vv. 14-20). Israel does not note this ridiculous inconsistency. Their thinking is absurd.

44:21-23 As in vv. 6-8, Israel is forgiven and redeemed. God (as Redeemer 41:14; 63:9) removes the sin that clouds Israel (v. 22). Let all creation praise the Lord God (Comp. Jer. 51:48; Rev. 12:12; 18:20).


44:24-45:13 The prophetic Commission of Cyrus

44:24-28 This is a Prophetic declaration by God through Isaiah of a king not yet born that was to identify Cyrus of Persia who was to conquer the Chaldeans using also Darius the Mede and re-establish Jerusalem. It identifies Cyrus and declares him as shepherd (a terminology used of kings in custody of God's people) (see also Jer. 23:4). This prophecy was not taken as a demonstration of God’s Omniscient Prescience that it was (see also Predestination (No. 296)). It was taken, by Revisionists, as proof that it must have been written after the event.


Chapter 45

45:1-13 Commission of Cyrus (Cont. from 44:24-28)

45:1-8  God's Charge to Cyrus

He is God's anointed. The charge is universal in scope as is Israel's task to all nations in the Plan of God. 

v. 1 The only OT passage in which Messiah refers to a non-Israelite.

vv. 2-3 God has commissioned Cyrus and will assist him in his mission (40:4).

v. 4  My chosen  41:8; 42:1; 44:1; 49:3,5,6.

45:5-7 Cyrus was not even born when this prophecy was made. His people only remotely knew of God when it was made. God had it revealed to him when it was necessary (see also 44:6-8).

45:8 Righteousness

The song extends righteousness to all as the Plan of God.

45:9-13 The Sovereign Power of God

45:9-10 This rare invective is directed against those questioning the propriety of Cyrus' appointment as an anointed of God (29:16).

v. 9 Rom. 9:20.

45:11 Children...the work of my hands  refers to the Gentiles. God's extension of messiahship to the Gentiles should be unquestioned (see also #001) 

v. 12  40:12-31; 44:24.

Isaiah 45:9-13 (No. 224A)

“In dealing with the nature of God let us examine the following texts and the implications and why Ditheists and Binitarians don’t quote this verse.  The mainstream doesn’t quote it because it destroys their case.


Isaiah 45:11 (RSV) states "thus says the Lord THE HOLY ONE of Israel, and HIS MAKER:....

The text is quite encompassing in what Christ is saying on behalf of the Lord of Hosts.
Further, it is clear that Christ is being identified as the Holy One of Israel and the Lord of Hosts is identified as his Maker and Creator of the Earth and mankind and the Hosts of Heaven and also commander of the Hosts of Heaven.


God says here [in vv. 9-13] that He aroused him, (that is Yahovah of Israel or Christ) in Righteousness.


From Acts 2:25-35, Peter quoting Psalm 16:8-11 in 2:25-28 makes it clear that Christ is the Holy One of God who wasn’t abandoned in Sheol or the grave to see corruption; that is the decay of the body. So also in Acts 13:35:

Acts 13:35 Therefore he says also in another psalm, `Thou wilt not let thy Holy One see corruption.'


The text in Psalm 16:2 has had the last word translated as Lord changed by the Sopherim from Yahovah to Adonai as with the other 133 places where it was changed, and which are listed by Bullinger (Comp. Bible Ap. 32).

Psalm 16:2 O my soul, thou hast said unto the LORD, Thou art my LORD [Yahovah]: my goodness extendeth not to thee;


If the Holy One of Israel has a maker, then logically he was created and not co-equal with his God which is exactly what Hebrews 3:2 says in the Greek (poiesanti) and RSV and also what Revelation 3:14 says. In spite of these clear texts identified in Acts with Christ, the Ditheists and Binitarians refuse to deal with it. And [some sects] deny that the One True God is even mentioned in the OT which is a blatant misrepresentation.

See also the paper Isaiah 9:6 (No. 224).”


45:14-25 The Conversion of the Nations

(See also 2:2-4; 42:1-4; 55:3-5; Jer. 16:19-21)

45:14-15 The Nations will acknowledge Israel's God and support the restored Israel under the Messiah (see also 43:3). This group is part also of the new millennial trading system (see also Zech. Ch. 14).

v. 14 God is with Israel in the restoration. 1Cor. 14:25 (comp. Jn 4:16-19).

45:16-17 Idol makers are condemned (44:9-20) but Israel is saved.

45:18-19 The One True God as Creator has revealed Himself to Israel. 

Chaos  The state of the world before the re-creation of Gen. 1:2. God did not create it that way (see also Job 38:4-7). It became tohu and bohu after God's initial creation. God then had to send the elohim to refurbish it in Genesis Ch. 1.

45:20-21 The Nations’ gods are powerless. (44:8; Acts 15:18).

45:22-25 Let all nations bow before God and sing His praises.

v. 23 Comp. Rom 14:11; Phil. 2:10-11. All the offspring of Israel as the Vineyard of God (Isa. 5:1-7) will triumph in glory. Salvation is of the Gentiles.


Chapter 46

The Lord Supports Israel

46:1-4 Bel Chief god of Babylon. Bel-Marduk; Nebo the Babylonian god Nabu, son of Marduk (Jer, 39:3). These gods must be erected and transported and are incapable of protecting their devotees (37:12-13). God bears and protects His people (44:2). The Babylonian system corrupted Israel and Judah and that is why Israel, including Judah, were sent into captivity. Judah and Levi will be made hewers of wood and drawers of water in the Temple under Messiah and only the sons of Zadok in Levi will be in the priesthood under Messiah as High Priest (see Ezekiel F026ix, x xi, xii).

46:5-7   40:18-20

46:7  The text is a probable reference to the Solstice or  New Year's Festival in Babylon (45:20) (see also Jer. 10:1-9; (see (No. 235)).

45:8-11 45:9-13

v. 8 This  Israel's history (44:21)

v. 9  41:22-29; 42:8-9. 

v.10 “The omniscience of God the Father is perfect. He knows the elect and delivers them to Christ. This knowledge covers the span of time that we understand to be the creation. As mentioned, the elect were determined before the foundation of the world. God declares the end from the beginning.” (No. 160)

v. 11 Bird of prey  Held to refer to Cyrus (see 41:2; 44:28; 45:1-13). It may also refer to Jer. 4:15-27 in the Last Days (see F024) and Habakkuk, F035; Haggai F037. 


Chapter 47

47:1-15 Lamentation over Babylon

47:1-4 God strips Babylon of her royalty.

v. 1 Virgin daughter – Unconquered, used of Jerusalem in 37:22; Israel Jer. 31:4; Egypt Jer. 46:1.

v. 2  grind meal – do the work of slaves.

v. 3 Hos. 2:9-12; Jer. 13:20-27; Nah. 3:5.

47:5-7 Babylon’s pride is condemned as she wrongly attributed her success to her own strength when it actually came from God (Jer. 27:6-7; 25:12-14). God used Babylon as a tool in retribution and then used Cyrus as we saw previously to assume control over Babylon and its systems to restore Judah (see Isa. Chs. 44-45 F023xi).

47:8-9 Babylon’s sense of strength and security is an illusion.

v. 8. I am.... used as an arrogant presumption of divinity (42:8; 44:6).

v. 9 Jer. 10:17-22; 15:5-9; Rev. 18:8.


47:10-11 Wisdom and knowledge (their divination, astrology and magic (from the Magi) (v. 12-13) failed to reveal her approaching fall. She will be consumed, and both vassals and allies will desert her (Jer. 2:33-37; 4:29-31). Daniel had told Nebuchadnezzar of the progressive changes in that system of the Sun and Mystery Cults yet they became arrogant and dismissed, or disregarded, the prophecies (see Dan. Ch. 2 F027ii). See also F027xiii for the timeline and charts).


Chapter 48

48:1-22 Call to all of Jacob, both Israel and Judah

This chapter summarises the early part of this section of Isaiah from Chapter 40-48. The Revisionists use this to confirm their views of the division they refer to as Second Isaiah, and which some use as a conclusion to that division.

The text emphasises God's control over world events and His actions within them.

48:1-2 The text narrows the people involved as Jacob called Israel, but here narrowed to those who came from the loins of Judah and who confess the God of Israel but not in truth or right. They call themselves after the Holy City and stay themselves on the God of Israel, the Lord of Hosts.

48:3-5 God foretold the future events through the prophets, ages in advance, so that none could say “my idol did them” or their molten or graven images did them. This is the case when those reject the prophecies as a posteriori event rather than by false images. The result is the same. Isaiah covers the entire Age to the Return of Messiah and the millennial system.

Former things 41:22-29; 43:9-12; 45:21. Israel has been obstinate over time (Ex. 12:9; Deut. 9:13; Jer. 5:5; 7:26).

48:6-8 In this text God declares the future long yet in the future.

new things The text then deals with Israel's future deliverance by Cyrus and the destruction of Babylon (43:18-19).

God is faithful and He renews His goodness daily. However, Israel is continually faithless and rebellious (Ezek. 2:6-8; Deut. 32:5).


48:9-10. Israel is kept for God's purpose in the Plan of Salvation (No. 001A). This was for the salvation of the nations (Ezek. 20:22). It was for God's own purpose and so that His Name should not be profaned.

Furnace  Exile and captivity also used to refer to the Egyptian bondage (Deut. 4:20; Jer. 11:4).

From 48:12-13 we are hearing the text from the Creator God of Psalm 45 (F019_2). He is the God Most High and the God of the Elohim of Israel.

The First and the Last  Here we see God declare His Uniqueness and Eternity (43:10; 44:6; 1Tim. 6:16; Rev. 1:17; 2:8; 22:13).

(see also Arche of the Creation of God as Alpha and Omega (No. 229)).


From 48:14-16 we see that the Elohim of Israel speaks who we see in v. 16 is the Angel of the Presence given Israel as his inheritance and who was with them in the wilderness (Deut. 32:8-9). He is the subordinate elohim of Ps. 45. Here he declares that the Lord God sent him and with His Spirit.

48:14-15 You - Israel; them  Idols/demons;

him  -  Cyrus.

48:16 He has been there from the creation and recreation as an elohim (Job. 1:6; 2:1; 38:4-7; Gen. 1:2ff).


48:17 Teaches and leads. The relationship of the Elohim of Israel in his direct relationship with them (55:12; Ex. 13:18; Deut. 29:5; Ps. 27:11).


48:18-19  Ps. 81:13-16. 

Peace – The state of physical and spiritual wellbeing under the covenant relationship with God (No. 152).

Sand  Gen. 22:17.


48:20-22 This text refers to the role of the Elohim of Israel as the Angel of the Presence in leading Israel in the wilderness (Ex. 17:1-7; Jer. 31:10). He spoke for God and gave them the Law and protection (Acts 7:30-53) and water from the Rock and that rock was Christ (1Cor. 10:1-4).

v. 22 57:21.


Chapter 49

49:1-6 The Second Servant Song (see 42:1-4 n.).

49:1-3 The servant Israel speaks.

v. 1 41:1 Called... My name Jer. 1:5; Gal. 1:15.

v. 2 Sharp sword Eph. 6:17; Heb. 4:12.

49:3-4 Israel is glorified by service to and for God. Although Israel saw no benefit or result in the service, their right and recompense was with God (1Kgs. 19:4-18; Jer. 15:15-21 F024iv).


49:5-6 Here God reinforces that the purpose of Israel is to be restored and redeemed as a servant of God so that it will be a light (see 42:6) to the nations and the source of the salvation of the Gentiles. Comp. 5:1-7; Acts 13:47; 26:23 (see ##001, 001A, 001B; 001C).

v. 7 is the logical conclusion of vv. 1-6. i.e. Thus says the Lord.


49:7-26 Return and Restoration of Israel

The Servant of the Nations will be ultimately served by them under the Messiah in all honour as we see in the Restoration in Chs. 65-66; Zech. 14:16-21 and in the texts of Ezekiel Chs. 39-48.

God's faithfulness is Israel's assurance.

49:8-9b Though in bondage, as in Egypt (48:10), they will be released and restored (see Chs. 45-46; 2Cor. 6:2 where the Day of Salvation is the church under the Messiah).

49:9c-11 The image of Israel under the Exodus (48:20-22) is combined with that of Israel's deliverance (40:3-4,11).


49:12  The RSV has the word as Syene as the land from which they came. That is not correct the land is listed as Sinim. It is used only here. Bullinger says it is probably China (Comp. Bible n.). The Soncino renders the text as Sinim. In the n. they say “some render 'the land of the Chinese' (Biberfeld). Alternatives proposed are:

'a southern land (so the Targum).

'the land of Sin' i.e. Pelusium on the Egyptian border (Ibn Ezra).”

(see also SHD 5515; cf. SHD 5512)

Strong renders it a distant oriental region.


49:13 Hymn praising God as Comforter (44:23).

49:14-16 God declares His Love for Israel (Hos. 2:14-23; Jer. 31:20).

Graven you (as a carving) on the palms of God's hands.

v. 17   The destroyers go forth from Israel and her builders outstrip their destruction.

v. 18 Ruined Jerusalem will be repopulated. 

v. 19 The land will be well populated.


49:20-21 Zion who had no hope of inhabitants will have more than room for them (Jer. 31:15-17). 

Children Those borne in the exile and the persecutions.


49:22-23 A signal fire (30:17; Jer. 6:1). God signals to the nations and the nations will commence the restoration of Israel of Chs. 65 and 66 (comp. 11:10,12; 62:10). The nations will all acknowledge Israel and its role and where necessary serve them.

v. 23 The text is carried over to Rev. 3:9 where the nations and pseudo-Jews will be made to acknowledge the Churches of God under Messiah in the last days, who are acknowledged as the authorities on the Calendar of God which is restored under Messiah.


49:24-26 The nations will be made to restore Israel and those that oppress Israel will be made to suffer, even to eating their own flesh and drunk on their own blood, as with wine. Then all flesh shall know that God is the Lord their saviour and the Mighty One of Jacob. This is not Judah but of all Israel. Anti-Semitism will be stamped from the face of the earth. All the earth will acknowledge Israel's God (1:24; 60:16).


Chapter 50

50:1-3 Israel's Covenant, Faithfulness and Judgment

Exiled Israel is not divorced, but she was separated for adultery (Deut. 24:1-4); nor was she sold to slavery. (52:3; Ex. 21:7). However, she is punished for her unfaithfulness (Hos. 2:4-9; Jer. Ch. 3; Ezek. Ch. 16).

vv. 2-3 Why was it that when God called, through His Acts and through the prophets, no one responded?


50:4-11 The Third Servant Song (see 42:1-4 n.).

Taught by God, the Servant knows how to speak to the weary of his fellow Israelites despite them treating him despicably (52:13-53:12). God's servants and prophets appear to have always been treated badly (see also Rev. 12:17; 14:12; paper Nos. 122, 122C; 122D; 170).


50:7-9 Faced with accusations everywhere he relies totally on God who vindicates him (Jer. 1:18-19; 17:17-18; Ezek. 3:7-11; Rom. 8:33).


50:10-11 Those who reject the guidance given by the prophets and saints and walk by their own counsel will lie down in torment as punishment.


Chapter 51

51:1-6 Promise of Comfort of the Lord

51:1-3 This salvation was as God's promise to Abraham (Gen. 12:1-3). God will fulfil His promised salvation to Zion (49:20-21).

v. 1 Rock, quarry Abraham the solid Rock to whom God gave the Covenant based on the Law of God (L1). 

v. 2 The only reference to Sarah in the OT outside of Genesis.

v. 3 Eden, Garden of the Lord  The millennial system under Messiah (Rev. 20:4-6) will restore the entire system as it was in Eden, as the Garden of God for the entire world (see Ezek. 36:35; 47:1-12) (see No. 300).  

51:4-6 The Law (1:10) and Justice (42:4) will go forth from Zion (1:21; 5:7) under the Messiah as the arm of the Lord God (40:10). v. 6 (Mat. 24:35).

51:7-8 God’s Deliverance will be forever and His Salvation to all nations.

51:9-16 The call to Messiah as the Arm of God in Israel who took the redeemed out of Egypt through the sea as dry land for the redeemed to pass over. Again the ransomed of the Lord shall return to Zion with singing. They shall obtain joy and gladness. Sorrow and sighing shall flee away (9-11) (see the pattern at v. 1-8, 9-16; comp. 26:8-14; 16-21; 49:14-23, 24-26; Jer. 15:10, 15-21) (also OARSV n.).   This was a reference to God’s intervention in the Hebrew referring to the combat in Egypt (rahab 30:7; dragon (Heb. Tannin)  27:1; Ezek. 29:3; Sea (Heb. Yam) Job. 38:8; deep (Heb. Tehom), Ezek. 26:19; Job 38:16).

51:12-16 It is the One True God, the Lord of Hosts, that comforts all. In this text. Eloah stretched out the heavens and laid the foundation of the earth (Job 38:4-7; Prov. 30:4-5).

12-14 Mortal man cannot compete with the omnipotent and eternal God (Ps. 90:5)

bowed down as a prisoner,

Pit Sheol (14:9-11).

51:15-16 Your God people   re-emphasises the covenant relationship (see 40:1).

v. 15 (Jer. 31:35). Here the Lord God is the Lord of Hosts. He has put His words in the mouths of His people which will operate from Zion under Messiah.


51:17-52:12 God’s Kingship and Protection of Israel

51:17:20 In this sequence Jerusalem has drunk deeply and repeatedly of the Cup of God's Wrath (see also Jer. 25:15:31; see also The Sign of Jonah ...( No. 013)). The last phase lies before us, over the final years before the Return of the Messiah.


51:21-23 Now her oppressors will drink of it (41:1–42:4; 45:20-25).


Chapter 52

52:1-2 The text refers to the Holy City under Messiah at the end of the Age. She is freed from captivity and oppression and bidden to arise (see 51:17).

uncircumcised and unclean refers to those not of the elect as the Body of Christ and occupiers (see also 33:19) (Nos. 001; 052). Zion will be the Headquarters of the World systems and no one will be admitted to the Temple and its environs who is unclean and not keeping the Law and the Testimony (8:20). 

52:3-6 Here God promises in prose. Israel went into Egypt to sojourn there (in the drought) and the Assyrians oppressed them. Seeing they were taken away for nothing God will redeem them for nothing. God's name is despised therefore the people will all know His Name and that it is He who speaks (emphasising Ex. 20:7). Thus upholding His Name in the face of those who oppressed His people (Egypt (Ezek. 29:9); Assyria (10:7-11); Babylon (Jer. 50:29)).

52:7-8 Here the coming of the Messiah is introduced in anticipation of the text of Ch. 53. He publishes peace and brings good news of Salvation and says to Zion, “your God reigns” (see Ps. 125:2; 2Sam. 18:25-27; Nah. 1:15; Rom. 10:15).

The watchmen refers to the voice of 40:3-5 declaring the Glory of God. 

52:11-12 The Messiah and the elect of the Body will return to Zion in peace under Messiah (see also Ex. 13:21-22; and Chs. 65-66).


52:13-53:12 The Fourth Servant Song (see 42:1-4n.).

52:13-15 Here God speaks of His servant the Messiah of Israel. It cannot refer to Israel as the nation (e.g. OARSV n.). He was marred and his form damaged but he will be raised and the kings of the earth will see, and what  they have not been told they shall see, and that which they have not heard they shall understand (49:7, 23 in F023xii). The text then moves on to the suffering servant in Ch. 53 as the Messiah, as a man that was to suffer and die for the sins of many.  This can only have been a  man while the Temple stood and for which Judah was finally condemned under the Sign of Jonah … (No. 013) which ended in 70 CE with the destruction  of the Temple (No. 298). Messiah could not fulfil the prophecies after 70 CE.

v. 15 Rom. 15:21 (see No. 152).


Chapter 53

53:1-3 A Lament (40:12; 50:8-10). The Servant’s background and appearance was marred as in 52:14. He was described as an average person of no attractive presence and this text is applied to the Christ of 27-30 CE as the man of sorrows. He was rejected.

v. 1 Jn 12:38.

v. 2 young plant comp. 11:1;

root 11:10 comp. Jer. 23:5. These are Messianic allusions and applied to the Christ.

v. 3 He suffers rejection by the community (Job 19:13-19).

53:4-6 By the Servant’s suffering (wounded for our transgressions) he vicariously restored all mankind to God (Mat. 8:17; 1Pet. 2:24-25) (contrary to Greek philosophical objections).

Whole restored to God in general wellbeing (peace 48:18). Unlike Jeremiah (11:18-12:6) or Job, the Servant suffers silently. From the Gospels we see he is unjustly condemned (Lk. 22:37) executed and ignominiously buried (Mat. 27:57-60 see also Acts 8:32-33).

9b some emend to read and His tomb with evil doers (others read with demons (satyrs) (see also OARSV n.). The rich man was Joseph ben Mattat of Arimathea, Christ’s great uncle, brother of Heli, to whom Pilate gave his body) (see Lk. 3 (F042). God declared the human lineage of the Messiah as Suffering Servant through the prophet Zechariah (12:10-14). He was to be of the lineage of David through Nathan (to Heli Lk. 3) and Levi through Shimei (John the Baptist and Heli's wife (Miriam's Mother). Zechariah shows he was to be pierced by spear or sword, as was Christ in 30 CE.

53:10-12 Here we see the Servant’s suffering manifest God's Judgment of Sin and His Mercy upon mankind in sin. Here Messiah is to see his offspring in Israel and Messiah prolongs his days and sees the fruit of his labour. By his knowledge the Righteous one, God's Servant, makes many to be accounted righteous and he bore their iniquities. He poured out his soul to death and was numbered with the transgressors and bore the sins of many and made intercession for the transgressors. He was thus mediator for mankind.  For that reason God gave him a portion with the great and he is to divide the spoil with the strong.  

This was the purpose of God's Covenant People. (No. 152). 


Chapter 54

54:1-17 Song of Assurance to Israel

Here the desolate one, Israel, will be blessed following on from the Redemption of the Messiah as the Suffering Servant of Ch. 53.

54:1-3 49:14-21 

v. 1: Barren Exilic Zion left by her husband (Ezek. Ch. 16).

Married  pre-exilic Zion (62:4 Gal. 4:27).

54:4-8 God as faithful husband

v. 4. Shame ...youth  Pre-exilic infidelity,

Widowhood, The Exile – including the Forty Jubilees in the wilderness under the Sign of Jonah... (No. 013)  (F032).

v. 5. God the Lord of Hosts is creator and Husband of Israel and God of the Whole Earth.

v. 6. God will restore His wife (Ch. 53; Hos. 2:19; 11:8-9).

v. 8. God declares His everlasting love for Israel (43:4; Jer. 31:3). He declares a parent's love (49:14-16; Jer. 31:20), a husband’s love (Jer. 2:2) Ezek. 16:8) is held to be unmerited and always faithful.

54:9-10 This text refers to the everlasting Covenant (Jer. 32:40 F024viii).

v. 9  Gen. 8:21-22; 9:11-17

v. 10 Jer. 31:35-36; Mk. 13:31; 

Covenant of Peace (48:18); Ezek. 34:25).


54:11-14 The Establishment of New Jerusalem under Messiah for the Millennial System.

The afflicted one is restored (comp. 51:21) as paradise restored (Ezek. 28:13-19; Jn. 6:45; Rev. 21:19 F066v).

54:15 The text further develops v. 14 and states that any future strife in the Messianic or millennial system is not of God. 

54:16-17 God has created the workers of weapons and the ravages of destruction. No weapon that is fashioned against Israel under Messiah shall prosper and every tongue that rises against her in judgment shall be confuted and that is the heritage of the Lord and their vindication from God.


Chapter 55

55:1-13 Hymn of Joy and Triumph

Here, in the text as a celebration regarding the Final Restoration of Israel under the Messiah, God renews the Covenant promise to the people of Israel as the Servants of God under David. This was the promise in Zech. 12:8, given prior to the identification of the Lineage of Messiah in 12:10-14 and mentioned in Ch. 53 n.  (F023xiii).  So also is Messiah of Bethlehem Ephratah (Mic. 5:2) in his incarnation. This later text refers to the First Resurrection as David is involved, and he was long dead when God gave the text to Zechariah and here in Isaiah. God's word shall not return empty. The entire world shall be blessed. The system is developed for and from the millennial reign of Messiah from Jerusalem (Rev. Ch. 20). This section concludes the first Section of the Second phase of Isaiah, called Second Isaiah by the Revisionists.

55:1-2 This text is similar to Wisdom's invitation to a banquet (Prov. 9:3-6; comp. Jn. 7:37). The Calling and Grace of God is a free gift that cannot be purchased. It was paid for by the Sacrifice of Messiah at Chs. 53 and 54. 

55:3-5 God's promise to David (2Sam. 7:4-17) is here continued as the Everlasting Covenant between God and His People (54:9-10; Jer. 33:19-26; comp. Jer. 31:31-34). In this text we see the emphasis move from David's messianism to Israel's messianism aimed at the nations of the world.

55:6-9 Here God reissues a call to repentance as issued through the prophets (Jer. 29:12-14; and in the Gospels under John the Baptist (Mat. 3:2) and trust in God's grace (Ps. 103:11; Rom. 11:33-36).

55:10-11 As the rain and snow bring moisture to the earth and vegetation so also shall God's word not return to him empty (9:8) but bring forth fruit in the Plan of Salvation (No. 001A).

55:12-13 This is the New Exodus of Chs. 65-66 (comp. 43:16-21; 46:9-11) into the millennial system which will be restored to an Eden like environment (51:3 n.; 41:18,19; 44:3-4).


Chapter 56

56:1-66:24 Miscellaneous Oracles

These oracles are classed by the Revisionists as Miscellaneous Post Restoration Oracles. These are classed as post 538 BCE (see OARSV n. and Intro. p. 822, 1973). 


56:1-8 A Blessing on all those who keep the Sabbath (comp. 58:13-14; Jer. 17:19-27).

There is no oracle indicating that God has allowed any transfer of the blessings applied to the Sabbaths to any other day such as Sunday or any other festival. On the contrary the culmination of all God's Oracles and Promises in Isaiah end after the final restoration of Israel under Messiah for the millennial system, with the specific injunction in 66:23-24 that unless mankind keeps the Sabbaths and New Moons fully and correctly they will be put to death.

v. 2 Blessed is the man comp. Ps. 1:1; Jer. 17:7; Mat. 5:2-12.

v. 3 Foreigner - Gentile converts to the faith (see also v. 6).

56:4-5 The rewards God has will suffice Eunuchs to be part of the family of the Lord with an everlasting name that shall never be cut off.

56:6-7 Conversion of the Gentiles will see them added to the nation under Messiah and they will be added to the nation keeping the Sabbaths and the Covenant which is tied to the Sabbath, and which cannot be profaned. They will be brought to the Holy Mountain and their offerings and prayers will be accepted. The Messiah has fulfilled the sacrifices, and the Temple was replaced with the Spiritual Temple made of humans (see 282D).

House of prayer Mk. 11:17;

For all people 60:1-14;

v. 8 In the Second Exodus of Chs. 65-66 Israel is restored, and God's Community extends to all of the nations of the world as part of the Israel of God under Messiah.


56:9-12 Oracle Against Corrupt Leaders

v. 9 Beasts - nations come to devour (Jer. 12:8-9; Ezek. 39:17; Dan. Ch. 2). 

v. 10 Watchmen – prophets (Ezek. 3:17; 33:7).

v. 11 Shepherds - Rulers and leaders (Ezek. 34:1; Zech. 11:4-17).

The religious leaders have no understanding, and they follow their own way and teach for hire (see also Mic. Chs. 2-4).


Chapter 57

57:1-13 Against Idolatry

57:1-2 The Righteous are taken away from the calamitous time to come. They enter into peace and the upright rest in their beds (graves).


57:3-13 Destruction of the Unrighteous

The text deals with the sons of the sorceress and the adulterers and harlots. The children of transgression and deceit who burn with lust among the oaks. These are they who say their children are in the valleys and the clefts of the rocks while their sinners offer cereal and drink offerings to the gods and of Molech as they forsook the One True God. When they sold themselves and cry out God will not hear them and they can rely on their collection of idols to deliver them, but God will deliver those who take refuge in Him to possess the land and they shall inherit His holy mountain. 

3-4 You i.e. the illegitimate apostates of Jerusalem who abuse the righteous as the legitimate children (Jer. 3:1-20; Ezek. 16:1-63). 

5-6 Israel and Judah were full of the ancient fertility cults and it permeates them to this day. Oak 6:13 n. Slay your children Jer. 19:5;

portion, lot refers to the god's of the Valleys (v. 6) and the mountains (v. 7) and the house (v. 8) and the other shrines (v. 9-10) rather than the true God (Jer. 10:16).

7-8 Sexual immorality is endemic to the cults.

9-10 Molech  (see Jer. 7:31 n.;

to Sheol  - to the gods of the underworld (14:9-11). God condemns the practices as futile (Jer. 2:25).

11-13 God rebukes the idolaters (42:8) and their gods are impotent or powerless (42:17; Jer. 2:20-28).


57:14-21 Poem of Consolation

14 Comp. 40:1-4, 15. God is omnipresent (Jn. 1:1-18) and the Monogenes Theos speaks for Him. He is the Most High and inhabits eternity (1Tim. 6:16). 

16-21 God's Anger will not last forever. He will spare Israel and mankind.

17 Israel continued to sin despite repeated punishment.

18 God will heal Israel by Grace.

Mourners refers to those who repent.

57:19-21 Israel will have peace, but there is no peace for the wicked (48:18; Eph. 2:17). 


Chapter 58

Intent of Chapter 58

The Fasts in the Temple Calendar are most important. The key fast is on the day of Atonement on the 10th day of the Seventh Month.  The First fast is in the sequence of the Sanctification of the Temple of God (No. 241). It falls on the Seventh Day of the First Month as part of the process of the Cleansing of the Temple in the build up to the Passover. This period begins the preparation of the individual and the nation in the sequence to the Passover and Unleavened Bread and the sequence on from the Wave Sheaf offering to the Feast of Pentecost. The fast of the First month was kept by Messiah and the church from the formation in 27 CE right through to the present day with the exception of a period in the 20th century in the Sardis system. See the Annex to # 291 below.  This process is also tied to the Sanctification of the Nations (No. 077).


Fasting is an integral part of preparing an individual to be reconciled and at peace with God to the extent God accepts their approach to Him.


Sanctification of the Simple and Erroneous (No. 291)

“The Fast

How do we know that the fast is appropriate? The answer lies in the purpose of fasting as expressed in Isaiah 58:1-14. The first section of this text requires the lifting up of the voice like a trumpet, showing Israel their transgressions. In this we all err, and there is none righteous save Messiah.


Our people seek God daily and delight to know His ways as a nation that did righteousness and one that forsook not the ordinances of their God. They ask of Him the ordinances of justice and take delight in approaching unto God but they are deceived. God does not see the nation. Why have they fasted and He sees them not? Why do they afflict their souls and God takes no knowledge? He says through Isaiah: “Behold in the day of their fast they find pleasure and exact all their labours”. When Israel should be before God in prayer and supplication they work, both on the Feasts and the New Moons and on the Sabbaths. They work at Atonement, and they know not that they sin.


They fast for strife and debate and to smite with the fist of wickedness, and God says they shall not fast as they do on such days just to make their voice heard on high. Also, this type of righteousness of these people is not heard, because they spread sackcloth and ashes under them and bow down as bulrushes, and their fasts and prayers are not acceptable to God.


The fast that God has chosen is this:

To loose the bonds of wickedness, undo the heavy burdens, and let the oppressed go free, and to break every yoke.”

 58:1-14 The Lord desires kindness and justice as we see from the body of the text (Mic. 6:6-8; Jas. 1:27).

58:1-5 Proper Motivation is required for fasting. Trumpets were used to announce fast days (Jl. 2:15; comp. Ezek. 33:3). However, individuals could choose any day that they considered it was important for them to fast.  

3. Day of your fast (Lev. 23:26-32; Jer. 36:9).

5. Sackcloth worn by mourners (Ezek. 7:18), by prisoners (3:24), and by prophets (20:2).

58:6-9b One demonstrates one's spiritual attitude to God by one's attitude to one's fellow man (Lk. 10:25-37). It is the Spiritual fruits that become obvious by the way we treat our fellow man; in justice and sharing in mercy (Lk. 3:8).

Light (42:6-7);

rear guard (52:12).

58:9c-12 With the right attitude God will hear (1:10-20; Mat. 25:34-40). God will give His people strength (strong bones) (66:14), abundance (Jer. 31:12) and your ancient ruins shall be rebuilt (44:26; 61:4) and the foundations of many generations shall be raised up and the righteous people shall be called the repairer of the breach and the restorer of streets to dwell in.  The aim of the restoration is to restore the Sabbaths and God's Calendar (No. 156) in worship (66:23-24).

Point the finger - accusative gesture of contempt (Pr. 6:13).

58:13-14 Israel and Judah continually failed to properly observe the Sabbaths, New Moons and Feasts and Holy Days (56:2; Mat. 12:1-8). With the Second Exodus under Messiah, God says they will be enforced on pain of death (Isa. 66:23-24).


Chapter 59

59:1-21 Call to National Repentance

Following on from the injunctions in Ch. 58 F023xiv concerning fasting, God then proceeds to have Isaiah call for national repentance. The situation as it was in the days of Isaiah did not change in spite of the fact that Israel was sent into captivity in 722 BCE and Judah in 597 BCE and then again permanently in 70 CE under the Sign of Jonah ...(No. 013). It is the same or worse to this day and soon it will be brought to an end under Messiah and the Second Exodus of Chs. 65-66. 

59:1-4 God is Omnipotent and Omniscient. Both Israel and Judah have broken the Covenant (50:1-2). The people are totally given over to wickedness. Injustice and dishonesty are rampant (Rom. 3:10-18; quoting Pss. 14:1-2; 53:1-2; 5:9; 140:3; 10:7; Isa. 59:7-8; Ps. 36:1). The law only succeeds in making men aware of their spiritual condition. The purpose of these texts in Isaiah is to explain what God plans to achieve through Messiah in the Last Days in the millennial system, on the Restoration. 

59:5-8 The verses take verses 3-4 on with vivid descriptions of the social disintegration and contamination (Mat. 23:13-36). There are synonyms of ways in vv. 7-8 (Rom. 3:15-17). They describe the blind alleys down which Judah is going and also all of Israel.

59:9-11 Consequently the nations grope in the darkness of social and spiritual depravity (13:10; 50:10-11) and fear and foreboding (38:14).

59:12-15b The text is a public confession of the magnitude of its offences and rebellion in trespassing against the Laws of God and their faithlessness in denying God and His Law, in turning away in disobedience. The integrity of its people is entirely corrupted.

59:15c-17 The nation was bereft of an individual to intervene. Thus God himself intervened using all means (42:13); Comp. Eph. 6:14-17).

59:18-20 God enforces judgment with the power of his Omnipotence. (30:27-28).  He thus redeems a repentant Jerusalem in the last days (Rom. 11:26-27) when Messiah comes from and returns to Zion (over 2000 years) and God removes their sin.

59:21. A prose reminder of the Covenant of God and the words He has given to them, and the Holy Spirit God has given them (44:3-5).


Chapter 60

60:1-22 Jerusalem's Glorious Restoration

60:1-3 Fallen Zion is commanded to arise, shine

(42:6-7). It is to reflect the Glory of the Lord (6:3; Ezek. 1:4-28; 10:4). In that way it will attract all nations to its light (66:18).

60:4-5 Risen Zion welcomes her children home (49:18ab; 22de) and her poverty is replaced by wealth (45:14; 61:6).

vv. 6-12 Kedar (21:16) is a tribe of Ishmael. Isaiah 60:7 indicates that Kedar will find a place of ministry in the House of God at the advent of Messiah in the restoration. It must therefore be concluded that the Arab nation is to serve as part of the true faith, at that time.

6-7 Arabia's riches are brought by camel caravan. Midian (see Ex. 2:15 n.).

Ephah Arab tribes east of the Gulf of Aqabah; Sheba (Gen. 10:7);

Nebaioth An Arab tribe (Gen. 25:13).

This final conversion of the nations covers all people. Here from the texts we see that the entire world is meant. They are bonded to Israel under Messiah (see 5:1-7; Nos 001B and 001C).

60:8-9 Here we see the returning exiles arrive by ships (v. 8).

Tarshish (see Jer. 10:9 n.). This is the beginning of the Second Exodus of Israel and Judah (Chs. 65-66). This final restoration is also covered  in Habakkuk (F035) and Haggai (F037).

60:10-11 Having been destroyed by foreigners the New Jerusalem will be built by and aided by foreigners (Jer. 52:13-16; see Rev. 21:24-27).  It will take over from all other religious sites.

60:13-14 As it was with David and Solomon (1Kgs. 5:8-10), wood will come from Lebanon (41:19), and wealth and resources from the nations will build the Temple and Holy City (35:1-10; 49:26).

60:15-16 Once forsaken (54:6-7) Zion will be exalted as the City of God. (1:24; Ezek. 16:1-63).

60:17-18 God will bless the nations in bringing superior materials such as gold for bronze and silver for iron. It will be ruled by peace and righteousness. There will be no devastation or destruction and the walls of Zion will be called Salvation and the gates Praise. New Jerusalem will surpass Solomon's City and Temple.

60:19-20 God's Glory will perpetually illumine the city of Righteousness (35:10; Rev. 21:4).

60:21-22 In the divinely restored city God will be glorified. The least of the families shall become clans and the smallest a mighty nation and the One True God will bring it about in its time with the Messiah and the Elect (No. 001) at its head (Zech. 12:8).


Chapter 61

61:1-11 Mission to and for Zion.

This poem reinforces the Servant Songs of Chs. 42-53 and esp. 50:4-11 (F023xii).

61:1-3 Lk. 4:13-21; comp. Mat.11:5; Lk. 7:22. God sends the prophets to bring encouragement to the exiled and oppressed; the encouragement makes them mighty oaks (60:21; Jer. 17:8).

Spirit The Spirit of the Lord God is upon the Messiah, as prophesied here, and fulfilled in part, in 27-30 CE, and then finally in the Last Days at the Return and the Final Restoration (Chs. 65-66) (See also 42:1; 59:21; Ezek. 2:2.).

61:1-2 “Messiah had returned to Galilee from his forty days in the wilderness and in Nazareth had fulfilled this prophecy of God through Isaiah. The text is found in Isaiah 61:1-2 and also a compound from Isaiah 58:6.” (No. 250)

2. Vengeance, better rescue (OARSV n.).

61:4-5 60:10-11.


61:6-7 Priests (Ex. 19:6).

Double Portion for double punishment (40:2).

61:8-9 In Israel, in the Restoration to Zion, all nations will see God's faithfulness and his blessings.

Justice 5:7,16.

Everlasting Covenant 54:9-10.

61:10-11 The prophet rejoices in the salvation of God in Zion, in righteousness (comp. v. 1-3). The Salvation of God springing before all the nations is as certain as its vegetation.


The Seven Days of the Feast (No. 049)

Isaiah 61:11 For as the earth brings forth her bud, and as the garden causes the things that are sown in it to spring forth; so (SHD 3069 changed to Adonai by the Sopherim) Yahovih will cause RIGHTEOUSNESS (SHD 6666) and PRAISE (SHD 8416) to spring forth before all the nations.

“As we are faithful and are blessed so shall Yahovih, the Eternal God, cause righteousness and praise to spring forth. Thus, what we do is critical to the ongoing calling and salvation of the Earth.”


Chapter 62

62:1-12 The Glory of God's People

62:1-3 The prophet continues to utter oracles re the glory of God's people and Zion's vindication.

New Name denotes a change in status (1:26; Jer. 33:16; Ezek. 48:35; Note changes in name denote an elevated status in the servants of God (e. g. Abram (exalted father) to Abraham (father of a multitude) (Gen 17:5). The change in status meant an increase in the number and standing of his progeny.  

Crown of beauty  (28:1-6).

62:4-5 New status – new names and also a new future for the posterity and the relationship with God is established forever.

62:6-9 Watchmen  - prophets of 52:8; Ezek. Ch.  33 but in the body of Christ in the Temple. This will be in the restoration at the end of this age now upon us. The certainty of it is underscored by the Lord's oath (vv. 8-9).

Right hand  (Ex. 15:6,12).

Mighty arm  (40:10; Deut. 7:19).

Foreigners, as the Babylonians, and encroachers, as the Edomites (Ob. 13).


The Seven Days of the Feast (No. 049)

“Isaiah 62:9 requires us to gather the tithes and to PRAISE THE LORD together in the courts of His Holiness.

But they that have gathered it shall eat it and praise the Lord; and they that have brought it together (i.e. extracted it or “brought it out”) shall drink it in the courts of my sanctuary or holiness.

The Companion Bible notes to this verse refer to the Pentateuch in Deuteronomy 14:23,26; 16:11,14 and 12:12. There is a requirement to share the Feast with each other and eat together in the place of pilgrimage. The consumption of alcohol is clearly required at the place of the Feast and is to be shared by all those who are there.”

62:10-12 This text refers to the eschatological hopes of Israel in the Messiah (Chs. 60-62).

10b (49:22).

11b (40:10). Their salvation comes and his reward is with him. He brought the Holy Spirit (No. 117)  with him in 30 CE and the Final Restoration we will see in the final section (F023xvi).


Chapter 63

God announces His Divine Vengeance

63:1-6 The prophet (watchman 62:6 n.)  questions who it is that comes from Edom in crimson garments from Bozrah (fortress of Edom, symbolic of God's opponents (34:5-7) and those of Israel, from Esau onwards). Edom was forced into Judah under the Maccabees (2nd Cent. BCE) and is now part of modern Judah and in Israel. (see 212E).  Herod established a sea going system with the Phoenicians and was able to assist Octavian at the battle of Actium and thus was supported as king of Judea. He was then to attempt to eradicate the Davidic line of the Messiah based on the visit of the Magi (Mat. 2:1-16). He died between 1 and 13 Abib 4BCE. Messiah was thus born in the years prior to 4BCE (see No.  019).

2-3 Compare Jl. 3:13; Rev. 14:19-20.

4-6 This announces the day of vindication (or vengeance) and the year of Redemption that has come at the return of the Messiah in the Last Days.  

Drunk  - see Jer. 25:15-29; Zech. 12:2).


63:7-64:12 Psalm of Intercession

63:7-14 This is an historical prologue recalling Israel's deliverance from Egypt by the Angel of the Presence. He saved them and redeemed them.  This being was the Messiah as Elohim of Israel appointed by Eloah (Deut. 32:8-9). He is listed as the subordinate elohim of Ps. 45:6-7; Heb. 1:8-9, and he was with Israel in the wilderness (Acts 7:30-53; 1Cor. 10:1-4).  Through the Messiah Israel was called (v. 8; Ex. 4:22-23; 19:3-6), protected (v. 9a; Ex. 12:1-32), exalted (v. 9b; Ezek. Ch. 16), delivered (vv. 11-12; Ex. 14:9-15:21; Jer. 15:1), and safely led though Sinai into Canaan (vv. 13-14) (see also OARSV n.). Through Israel's rebellion and refusal to obey the Law, God was forced to oppose them and punish them (Jer. 5:20-29). 

63:7 Steadfast love expresses God's continuing loyalty under the Covenant (No. 152) despite Israel's faithlessness.

63:15-16 The prophet then turns to the One True God as Father of the Nations and contrasts Him to the Humanity of the Patriarchs, Abraham and Jacob (Israel), who await the Resurrection.

63:17-19 He, Isaiah, pleads with God asking why He makes them err from His ways and harden their hearts so they fear Him not. He asks for Him to return for the sake of the tribe of His heritage (Deut. 32:8-9). They had the sanctuary a little while and others trod it down. The Trinitarians turned it into a rubbish pit until the Seventh Century CE when the Caliph Omar ordered it cleaned up on conquest. 

The prophet begs for it to be restored and that is the thrust of the text and this last phase.


Chapter 64

64:1-5b Return in Power

Here the prophet outlines the Return of God as in the power demonstrated in days of old (see above; Ex. 19:16-18; Jdg. 5:4-5; Hab. 3:3-15). Man cannot come to God except by prayer (Gen. 11:1-9; Ex. 33:17-23). God comes to man Ex. Chs. 19-20.

64:5c-7 Here the prophet confesses the sins of the people and states that they have been delivered into the hand of their iniquities.

64:8-12 The appeal to God asks for forgiveness and to not remember Israel's iniquity forever.

v. 10 The Holy Cities have become a wilderness and Jerusalem a desolation.

Thy Holy Cities The cities are the Lord's because the promised land belongs to Him. 

v. 12 Wilt thou keep silent …? comp. Pss. 79:5; 85:5-7.


Chapter 65

65:1-25 God’s answer to Israel.

1-2 Here the people were silent. God spoke to therm.

Spread out my hands A gesture of invitation see also Rom. 10:20-21 quoting here. 

3 Sacrificing in gardens  Nature cult practices and also among the Asherah of Baal worship of the Sun and Mystery Cults (see No. 235 and 222). Burning Incense. Associated with pagan cults but while also part of the Temple system it infuriated God (Jer. 1:16).

4 Sit in tombs - For divination to consult the dead (29:4)

Spend the night in secret places - In a shrine to receive visions (comp. 1Kgs. 3:4-15).

Swine’s flesh was forbidden (Lev. 11:7; Deut. 14:8) but it was consumed in the Sun and Mystery cults (see No 015).

5 I am set apart - Sanctified by some idolatrous rite.

6-7 God has noted their faithlessness in burning incense on the mountains and their idolatry, where they reviled God in the hills (4:3).

65:8-10 As good grapes are separated from bad so shall the people be separated, and God will not destroy them all (Mat. 25:32-33). God will bring forth descendants from Jacob and from Judah inheritors of God's mountains and His Chosen shall inherit it (57:13) and His Servants shall dwell there (44:1).  Sharon (Northern Coastal Plain) shall become a pasture for flocks and the Valley of Achor (desolate region west of the Dead Sea (Jos. 7:24; Hos. 2:15 n.) a place for herds to lie down.

65:11-12 God here says that those who forget His Holy Mountain and set tables for Fortune and Destiny (Heb. Gad and Meni as Syrian gods of fate or chance) will be destined to the sword and slaughter because they would not listen.

65:13-14 God specifically condemns them to hunger and thirst. They shall be put to shame. God's servants shall rejoice but they will cry out in pain of heart and anguish of spirit.

65:15-16 Those idolaters separated will be used as a curse but the Servants of the Lord God will be called by a  different name (62:2,4) and that those who bless themselves in the land shall do so by the God of Truth and swear by the God of Truth (No. 168). 

65:17-19 In the Great Restoration both during and at the end of the Millennium in the Second Resurrection of the Dead (No. 143B) there will be  the newly restored earth and a training period. The infants will not die and those of the Second Resurrection will live a full life and given the opportunity to repent over two jubilees or 100 years from their resurrection as an adult.

65:21-23 They will live in their own dwellings and eat the fruit of their own produce.   See also The Judgment of the Demons (No, 080) and the  Second Death (No. 143C). Their days are to be like those of a tree. God's elect (No. 001) shall long enjoy the work of their hands. Their children shall not be destined for calamity for they are the offspring of the blessed of the Lord and their children with them.

65:24-25   God will oversee their needs and before they ask God will answer their call and He will hear before they have finished speaking through His Divine Omniscience (see Predestination (No. 296).  The final structure will be peace, and the wolf and the lamb shall feed together and the lion shall eat straw like the ox and the dust shall be the serpents food and they shall not hurt or destroy in all God's Holy Mountain. God has foretold it and Scripture cannot be broken (Jn. 10:34-36). 


Chapter 66

God's Final Oracles for the Restoration

Here we see God's Concluding Oracles for the End of the Age and the Millennial Restoration under Messiah.

66:1-6 On Temple Worship

66:1-2 A material building cannot contain the Creator and the Lord God of Heaven and Earth (comp. 1Kgs. 8:27). Nor do acts in worship suffice for genuine devout humility (1:10-20).

66:3-4 The text then develops the thoughts of the previous verses. Here the text develops the sacrifices as they were developed in the Canaanitish practices in Human Sacrifice, Dogs, and Swine Flesh. The intermingling of pagan practices with those of God and the Temple were an abomination. So also was the pagan calendar of the Sun Cults in those practices. The word like is not in the Hebrew text and is one interpretation of the intent of the text (see also OARSV n.). The first part of the examples describe what is normally acceptable practices, the second what is not acceptable. (He who slaughters an Ox, He who kills a man...; These have chosen their own ways. … Swine's Blood is also forbidden. They are abominations. Only the High Priest (Messiah Ps. 110), was to appear in the Holy of Holies with the Blood of a clean animal and sprinkle it. The mingling of the abominations of the Sun and Mystery Cults with worship of God in Israel and the world is forbidden. It will be stamped out along with its calendar and worship on Sunday, Christmas and Easter (Ex. 20:8; Deut. 5:12; Jer. 7:18; 10:1-9; No. 235; vv. 23-24 below).

66:5-6 This text represents the restoration and vindication for Israel, and recompense for those who reject and disobey God (and also keep false calendar systems). God has returned to His Temple (Ezek. 43:1-5).

66:7-16 Jerusalem's Restoration

66:7-9 The miracle of Jerusalem's rebirth occurs as a divinely wrought and unexpected event.

66:10-11 The divinely restored city can provide abundance for all (49:17-21).

66:12-14 The text continues the vision of Jerusalem's wealth and prosperity and comfort. The nations will support Jerusalem as the Holy City of the World under Messiah.

66:15-16 God says that He will come with fire (29:6; 64:11) and sword (31:8; Ezek. Ch. 21) to destroy His enemies.

66:17 This text says that God will simply wipe out those not keeping the Food Laws (No. 015) and following pagan practices and ceremonies. All these pagan systems will be brought to a sudden and abrupt end with the Return of Messiah and the Host (No. 282E; 141E_2; 141F; F066v). However much of it will be done by Satan using the Beast Power (No. 299A; 299B), before and over the 42 months that the Witnesses are here (Rev. 11:3-19; No. 135; 141D).

66:18-24 The Return of Israel and the fate of the wicked.


The Witnesses (No. 135)

vv. 18-24 “We know from Isaiah that there will be a great exodus out of the nations to the Promised Land at the end days that will make the exodus from Egypt remembered no more.

Thus the nation will not be killed and physical Israel will exist. It clearly has a job to do in the Millennium. Therefore, terms relating to Revelation 11 cannot refer to the nation and descendants of Jacob.

The tasks of the two types are thus specific. The first task was as a physical witness, and as a spiritual witness over the two thousand years of the Church in the wilderness. The nation Israel was also the people to whom the responsibility was given of which Christ spoke when he said the responsibility was to be removed from Judah and given to a people showing the fruit (Mat. 21:43).

The Witnesses are thus the last phase in this process and they will be killed after they have done their job. This was done in part with Messiah in that he lay for three days and three nights in the tomb and then waited until the morning to ascend as the Wave Sheaf.

The same will occur at the end. As Christ and John were killed for their witness against Judah, so too will the Witnesses of the Last Days be killed. The entire world will exchange presents in celebration of their deaths. This was not and cannot be done concerning the nation of Israel and the Church. If it was then Scripture would be broken, but Scripture cannot be broken. One is a type of the other.

The Church stands as witness against the world. Most of the elect of the Church have been killed for the Faith over the 1,260-year period. However, not all have been killed and not all will be killed at the end. In the same way, the nation survives. The reason Messiah returns is for the elect’s sake. If he did not return when God cuts short the time of the end, there would be no flesh left alive.

Matthew 24:21-22 For then there will be great tribulation, such as has not been from the beginning of the world until now, no, and never will be. 22And if those days had not been shortened, no human being would be saved; but for the sake of the elect those days will be shortened. (RSV)

Those days are cut short for the elect’s sake. If the elect were all in the Church, and hence in the First Resurrection, then it would not matter if the days were cut short or not. He returns to keep those alive of the nation who will go into the physical Millennium as physical kings and priests so that the Plan of God might be fulfilled.

Thus they cannot die and lie in the streets. The witness is continuous, and at the end it involves two great prophets as well as having that responsibility carried by the Church and the nation over the centuries.

The Church and the nation thus act in the following aspects:

They are the prototype of the Two Witnesses of the final 1,260 days or three and one-half years immediately prior to the return of the Messiah.”

66:18-21 God will reveal His glory to the nations. They will assemble in Jerusalem with Israel and many of the nations will become priests.

v. 22 God's people, like the New Creation of the Millennium will endure forever (Jer. 31:34-36).

66:23-24 God's Calendar (No. 156) will be enforced forever and from one New Moon to another and from one Sabbath to another the world will worship God. All false practices and false Sabbaths such as Sunday, Christmas and Easter etc will be stamped from the face of the earth (see also Summary attached).

God's Calendar is determined from the New Moon of Abib and the New Moons are determined from one conjunction to the next as determined at Jerusalem. All the Sabbaths include the Holy Days of the Feasts also. The Feasts have to be kept and each nation will be required to keep the feasts and send their national representatives to Jerusalem each year at the Feast of Tabernacles for instruction (Zech. 14:16-21). Nations not complying with this requirement will receive no rain in due season and suffer the plagues of Egypt and it will strike the administration at all levels. The instigators will be killed, no matter who they are. God will not be mocked, and over the Millennium, Christ will enforce the Law and the Testimony. No one not keeping the Temple Calendar (No. 156) based on the Sabbaths and the New Moons will live into the Millennium. Jews and Judaisers will abandon Hillel or they will not live onto the Millennium.



The Use of the Words Lord, God and Jehovah in Isaiah

Strong’s Definitions

3050 Yahh yaw contraction for 3068, and meaning the same; Jah, the sacred name:--Jah, the Lord, most vehement. Comp. names in "-iah," "- jah."

3068 Yhovah yeh-ho-vaw' from 1961; (the) self-Existent or Eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God:--Jehovah, the Lord. Comp. 3050, 3069.

3069 Yhovih yeh-ho-vee' a variation of 3068 (used after 136, and pronounced by Jews as 430, in order to prevent the repetition of the same sound, since they elsewhere pronounce 3068 as 136):--God.

113 'adown aw-done' or (shortened) adon {aw-done'}; from an unused root (meaning to rule); sovereign, i.e. controller (human or divine):-- lord, master, owner. Comp. also names beginning with "Adoni-". 410 'el ale shortened from 352; strength; as adjective, mighty; especially the Almighty (but used also of any deity):--God (god), X goodly, X great, idol, might(-y one), power, strong. Comp. names in "-el." 430 'elohiym el-o-heem' plural of 433; gods in the ordinary sense; but specifically used (in the plural thus, especially with the article) of the supreme God; occasionally applied by way of deference to magistrates; and sometimes as a superlative:--angels, X exceeding, God (gods)(-dess, -ly), X (very) great, judges, X mighty.

433 'elowahh el-o'-ah; rarely (shortened) >eloahh {el-o'-ah probably prolonged (emphat.) from 410; a deity or the Deity:--God, god. See 430.

7945 shel shel for the rel. 834; used with prepositional prefix, and often followed by some pronominal affix; on account of, whatsoever, whichsoever:--cause, sake.

136 'Adonay ad-o-noy' an emphatic form of 113; the Lord (used as a proper name of God only):--(my) Lord. 46 'abiyr aw-beer' from 82; mighty (spoken of God):--mighty (one).

4480 min min or minniy {min-nee'}; or minney (constructive plural) {min-nay'}; (Isaiah 30:11); for 4482; properly, a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses (as follows):--above, after, among, at, because of, by (reason of), from (among), in, X neither, X nor, (out) of, over, since, X then, through, X whether, with

Note that the following texts were altered by the Sopherim in the Masoretic Text where Yahovah Yahovih was altered to Adonay (136) to disguise the distinctions. See App. 32 Below. In each of these texts in the MT the alteration is carried over into Strong's. Therefore it is important to check these against the original lists.

    Isa_3:17-18; Isa_4:4; Isa_6:1; Isa_6:8; Isa_6:11; Isa_7:14; Isa_7:10; Isa_8:7; Isa_9:8; Isa_9:17; Isa_10:12; Isa_11:11; Isa_21:6; Isa_21:8; Isa_21:16; Isa_28:2; Isa_29:13; Isa_30:20; Isa_37:24; Isa_38:14; Isa_38:16; Isa_49:14.


Isa_1:2             LORDH3068 

Isa_1:4             LORD,H3068 

Isa_1:9             LORDH3068 of hostsH6635 

Isa_1:10            LORD,H3068                           God,H430 

Isa_1:11            LORD:H3068 

Isa_1:18            LORD:H3068 

Isa_1:20            LORDH3068 

Isa_1:24            Lord,H113 the LORDH3068 of hosts,H6635 the mighty OneH46 of Israel,H3478           

Isa_1:28            LORDH3068 

Isa_2:2             LORD'SH3068 

Isa_2:3             LORD,H3068                           GodH430                      LORDH3068 

Isa_2:5             LORD.H3068

Isa_2:10            LORD,H3068 

Isa_2:11            LORDH3068 

Isa_2:12            LORDH3068 of hostsH6635 

Isa_2:17            LORDH3068 

Isa_2:19            LORD,H3068 

Isa_2:21            LORD,H3068 

Isa_3:1             Lord,H113 the LORDH3068 of hosts,H6635 

Isa_3:8             LORD,H3068 

Isa_3:13            LORDH3068 

Isa_3:14            LORDH3068 

Isa_3:15            LordH136 GODH3068 of hosts.H6635

Isa_3:16            LORDH3068 

Isa_3:17            LordH136                                                         LORDH3068 

Isa_3:18            LordH136 

Isa_4:2             LORDH3068 

Isa_4:4             LordH136 

Isa_4:5             LORDH3068 

Isa_5:7             LORDH3068 of hostsH6635 

Isa_5:9             LORDH3068 of hosts,H6635 

Isa_5:12            LORD,H3068 

Isa_5:16            LORDH3068 of hostsH6635                  GodH410 

Isa_5:24            LORDH3068 of hosts,H6635 

Isa_5:25            LORDH3068 

Isa_6:1             LordH136 

Isa_6:3             LORDH3068 of hosts:H6635 

Isa_6:5             LORDH3068 of hosts.H6635

Isa_6:8             Lord,H136 

Isa_6:11            Lord,H136 

Isa_6:12            LORDH3068 

Isa_7:3             LORDH3068 

Isa_7:7             LordH136 GOD,H3069 

Isa_7:10           LORDH3068 

Isa_7:11            LORDH3068                                        God;H430 

Isa_7:12            LORD.H3068

Isa_7:13            GodH430 

Isa_7:14            LordH136 

Isa_7:17            LORDH3068 

Isa_7:18            LORDH3068 

Isa_7:20             LordH136 

Isa_8:1              LORDH3068 

Isa_8:3             LORDH3068 

Isa_8:5              LORDH3068 

Isa_8:7             LordH136 

Isa_8:10            GodH410 

Isa_8:11            LORDH3068 

Isa_8:13            LORDH3068 of hostsH6635 

Isa_8:17            LORD,H3068 

Isa_8:18            LORDH3068                            LORDH3068 of hosts,H6635 

Isa_8:19            God?H430 

Isa_8:21            God,H430 

Isa_9:6             God,H410 

Isa_9:7             LORDH3068 of hostsH6635 

Isa_9:8             LordH136 

Isa_9:11            LORDH3068 

Isa_9:13            LORDH3068 of hosts.H6635

Isa_9:14            LORDH3068 

Isa_9:17            LordH136 

Isa_9:19            LORDH3068 of hostsH6635 

Isa_10:12          LordH136 

Isa_10:16          Lord,H113 the LordH3068 of hosts,H6635 

Isa_10:20          LORD,H3068 the Holy OneH6918 of Israel,H3478 

Isa_10:21          God.H410

Isa_10:23          LordH136 GODH3069 of hostsH6635 

Isa_10:24          LordH136 GODH3069 of hosts,H6635 

Isa_10:26          LORDH3068 of hostsH6635 

Isa_10:33          Lord,H113 the LORDH3068 of hosts,H6635 

Isa_11:2            LORDH3068                                        LORD;H3068

Isa_11:3            LORD:H3068 

Isa_11:9            LORD,H3068 

Isa_11:11          LordH136 

Isa_11:15          LORDH3068 

Isa_12:1            LORD,H3068 

Isa_12:2            GodH410                                              LORDH3050                JEHOVAHH3068 

Isa_12:4            LORD,H3068 

Isa_12:5            LORD;H3068 

Isa_13:4            LORDH3068 of hostsH6635 

Isa_13:5            LORD,H3068 

Isa_13:6            LORDH3068                                        Almighty.H4480 H7706

Isa_13:9            LORDH3068 

Isa_13:13          LORDH3068 of hosts,H6635 

Isa_13:19          GodH430 

Isa_14:1            LORDH3068 

Isa_14:2            LORDH3068 

Isa_14:3            LORDH3068 

Isa_14:5            LORDH3068 

Isa_14:             God:H410 

Isa_14:22          LORDH3068 of hosts,H6635    LORD.H3068

Isa_14:23          LORDH3068 of hosts.H6635

Isa_14:24          LORDH3068 of hostsH6635 

Isa_14:27          LORDH3068 of hostsH6635 

Isa_14:32          LORDH3068 

Isa_16:13          LORDH3068 

Isa_16:14          LORDH3068 

Isa_17:3            LORDH3068 of hosts.H6635

Isa_17:6            LORDH3068 GodH430 of Israel.H3478

Isa_17:10          GodH430 

Isa_17:13          God

Isa_18:4            LORDH3068 

Isa_18:7            LORDH3068 of hostsH6635                  LORDH3068 of hosts,H6635 

Isa_19:1            LORDH3068 

Isa_19:4            lord;H113         Lord,H113                    LORDH3068 of hosts.H6635

Isa_19:12          LORDH3068 of hostsH6635 

Isa_19:14          LORDH3068 

Isa_19:16          LORDH3068 of hosts,H6635 

Isa_19:17          LORDH3068 of hosts,H6635 

Isa_19:18          LORDH3068 of hosts;H6635 

Isa_19:19          LORDH3068                                        LORDH3068

Isa_19:20          LORDH3068 of hostsH6635                  LORDH3068 

Isa_19:21          LORDH3068                                        LORDH3068             LORD,H3068 

Isa_19:22          LORDH3068                                        LORDH3068 

Isa_19:25          LORDH3068 of hostsH6635 

Isa_20:2            LORDH3068 

Isa_20:3            LORDH3068 

Isa_21:6            LordH136 

Isa_21:8            lord,H113 

Isa_21:10          LORDH3068 of hosts,H6635 the GodH430 of Israel,H3478 

Isa_21:16          LordH136 

Isa_21:17          LORDH3068 GodH430 of IsraelH3478 

Isa_22:5            LordH136 GODH3069 of hostsH6635 

Isa_22:12          LordH136 GODH3069 of hostsH6635 

Isa_22:14          LORDH3068 of hosts,H6635                LordH136 GODH3069 of hosts.H6635

Isa_22:15          LordH136 GODH3069 of hosts,H6635 

Isa_22:17          LORDH3068 

Isa_22:18          lord'sH113 

Isa_22:25          LORDH3068 of hosts,H6635                 LORDH3068 

Isa_23:9            LORDH3068 of hostsH6635 

Isa_23:11          LORDH3068

Isa_23:17          LORDH3068 

Isa_23:18          LORD:H3068                                       LORD,H3068 

Isa_24:1            LORDH3068 

Isa_24:3            LORDH3068 

Isa_24:14          LORD,H3068 

Isa_24:15          LORDH3068                                       LORDH3068 GodH430 of IsraelH3478 

Isa_24:21          LORDH3068 

Isa_24:23          LORDH3068 of hostsH6635 

Isa_25:1            LORD,H3068                                       God;H430 I

Isa_25:6            LORDH3068 of hostsH6635 

Isa_25:8            LordH136 GODH3069                          LORDH3068 

Isa_25:9            God;                                                     LORD;H3068 

Isa_25:10          LORDH3068 

Isa_26:1            God

Isa_26:4            LORDH3068                                        LORDH3050 JEHOVAHH3068 

Isa_26:8            LORD,H3068 

Isa_26:10          LORD.H3068

Isa_26:11          LORD,H3068 

Isa_26:12          LORD,H3068 

Isa_26:13          LORDH3068                                        God,H430                     lordsH113 will

Isa_26:15          LORD,H3068 

Isa_26:16          LORD,H3068 

Isa_26:17          LORD.H3068

Isa_26:21          LORDH3068 

Isa_27:1            LORDH3068 

Isa_27:3            LORDH3068 

Isa_27:12          LORDH3068 

Isa_27:13          LORDH3068 

Isa_28:2            LordH136 

Isa_28:5            LORDH3068 of hostsH6635 

Isa_28:13          LORDH3068 

Isa_28:14          LORD,H3068 

Isa_28:16          LordH136 GOD,H3069 

Isa_28:21          LORDH3068 

Isa_28:22          LordH136 GODH3069 of hostsH6635 

Isa_28:26          GodH430 

Isa_28:29          LORDH3068 of hosts,H6635 

Isa_29:6            LORDH3068 of hostsH6635 

Isa_29:10          LORDH3068 

Isa_29:13          LordH136 

Isa_29:15          LORD,H4480 H3068 

Isa_29:19          LORD,H3068 

Isa_29:22          LORD,H3068 

Isa_29:23          GodH430 of Israel.H3478

Isa_30:1            LORD,H3068 

Isa_30:9            LORD:H3068

Isa_30:15          LordH136 GOD,H3069 

Isa_30:18          LORDH3068                                       LORDH3068                GodH430 

Isa_30:20          LordH136 

Isa_30:26          LORDH3068 

Isa_30:27          LORDH3068 

Isa_30:29          LORD,H3068 

Isa_30:30          LORDH3068 

Isa_30:31          LORDH3068 

Isa_30:32          LORDH3068 

Isa_30:33          LORD,H3068 

Isa_31:1            LORD!H3068

Isa_31:3            God;H410                                             LORDH3068 

Isa_31:4            LORDH3068                                        LORDH3068 of hostsH6635 

Isa_31:5            LORDH3068 of hostsH6635 

Isa_31:9            LORD,H3068 

Isa_32:6            LORD,H3068 

Isa_33:2            LORD,H3068 

Isa_33:5            LORDH3068 

Isa_33:6            LORDH3068 

Isa_33:10          LORD;H3068 

Isa_33:21          LORDH3068 

Isa_33:22          LORDH3068                                        LORDH3068                LORDH3068 

Isa_34:2            LORDH3068 

Isa_34:6            LORDH3068                                        LORDH3068 

Isa_34:8            LORD'SH3068 

Isa_34:16          LORD,H3068 

Isa_35:2            LORD,H3068                                       God.H430

Isa_35:4            GodH430                                              GodH430 

Isa_35:10          LORDH3068 

Isa_36:7            LORDH3068                                        God:H430 

Isa_36:10          LORDH3068                                        LORDH3068 

Isa_36:15          LORD,H3068                                      LORDH3068   

Isa_36:18          LORDH3068                                       godsH430 

Isa_36:20          godsH430                                             LORDH3068 

Isa_37:1            LORD.H3068

Isa_37:4            LORDH3068                                        GodH430                      God,H430 LORDH3068                                                GodH430 

Isa_37:6            LORD,H3068 

Isa_37:10          God