Christian Churches of God


No. F023xvi





Commentary on Isaiah

Part 16

 (Edition 1.0 20240104-20240104)


Chapters 63-66



Christian Churches of God

PO Box 369,  WODEN  ACT 2606,  AUSTRALIA






(Copyright © 2024 Wade Cox)



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Commentary on Isaiah Part 16

Chapter 63

1Who is this that comes from Edom, in crimsoned garments from Bozrah, he that is glorious in his apparel, marching in the greatness of his strength? "It is I, announcing vindication, mighty to save." 2Why is thy apparel red, and thy garments like his that treads in the wine press? 3"I have trodden the wine press alone, and from the peoples no one was with me; I trod them in my anger and trampled them in my wrath; their lifeblood is sprinkled upon my garments, and I have stained all my raiment. 4For the day of vengeance was in my heart, and my year of redemption has come. 5I looked, but there was no one to help; I was appalled, but there was no one to uphold; so my own arm brought me victory, and my wrath upheld me. 6I trod down the peoples in my anger, I made them drunk in my wrath, and I poured out their lifeblood on the earth." 7I will recount the steadfast love of the LORD, the praises of the LORD, according to all that the LORD has granted us, and the great goodness to the house of Israel which he has granted them according to his mercy, according to the abundance of his steadfast love. 8For he said, Surely they are my people, sons who will not deal falsely; and he became their Savior. 9In all their affliction he was afflicted, and the angel of his presence saved them; in his love and in his pity he redeemed them; he lifted them up and carried them all the days of old. 10But they rebelled and grieved his holy Spirit; therefore he turned to be their enemy, and himself fought against them. 11Then he remembered the days of old, of Moses his servant. Where is he who brought up out of the sea the shepherds of his flock? Where is he who put in the midst of them his holy Spirit, 12who caused his glorious arm to go at the right hand of Moses, who divided the waters before them to make for himself an everlasting name, 13who led them through the depths? Like a horse in the desert, they did not stumble. 14Like cattle that go down into the valley, the Spirit of the LORD gave them rest. So thou didst lead thy people, to make for thyself a glorious name. 15Look down from heaven and see, from thy holy and glorious habitation. Where are thy zeal and thy might? The yearning of thy heart and thy compassion are withheld from me. 16For thou art our Father, though Abraham does not know us and Israel does not acknowledge us; thou, O LORD, art our Father, our Redeemer from of old is thy name. 17O LORD, why dost thou make us err from thy ways and harden our heart, so that we fear thee not? Return for the sake of thy servants, the tribes of thy heritage. 18Thy holy people possessed thy sanctuary a little while; our adversaries have trodden it down. 19We have become like those over whom thou hast never ruled, like those who are not called by thy name.


Intent of Chapter 63

God announces His Divine Vengeance

63:1-6 The prophet (watchman 62:6 n.)  questions who it is that comes from Edom in crimson garments from Bozrah (fortress of Edom, symbolic of God's opponents (34:5-7) and those of Israel, from Esau onwards). Edom was forced into Judah under the Maccabees (2nd Cent. BCE) and is now part of modern Judah and in Israel (see 212E).  Herod established a sea going system with the Phoenicians and was able to assist Octavian at the battle of Actium and thus was supported as king of Judea. He was then to attempt to eradicate the Davidic line of the Messiah based on the visit of the Magi (Mat. 2:1-16). He died between 1 and 13 Abib 4 BCE. Messiah was thus born in the years prior to 4 BCE (see No.  019).

2-3 Compare Jl. 3:13; Rev. 14:19-20.

4-6 This announces the day of vindication (or vengeance) and the year of Redemption that has come at the return of the Messiah in the Last Days.  

Drunk  see Jer. 25:15-29; Zech. 12:2.


63:7-64:12 Psalm of Intercession

63:7-14 This is an historical prologue recalling Israel's deliverance from Egypt by the Angel of the Presence. He saved them and redeemed them.  This being was the Messiah as Elohim of Israel appointed by Eloah (Deut. 32:8-9). He is listed as the subordinate elohim of Ps. 45:6-7; Heb 1:8-9. and he was with Israel in the wilderness (Acts 7:30-53; 1Cor. 10:1-4). Through the Messiah Israel was called (v. 8; Ex. 4:22-23; 19:3-6), protected (v. 9a; Ex. 12:1-32), exalted (v. 9b; Ezek. Ch. 16), delivered (v. 11-12; Ex. 14:9-15:21; Jer. 15:1), and safely led through Sinai into Canaan (vv. 13-14) (see also OARSV n.). Through Israel's rebellion and refusal to obey the Law, God was forced to oppose them and punish them (Jer. 5:20-29). 

63:7 Steadfast love expresses God's continuing loyalty under the Covenant (No. 152) despite Israel's faithlessness.

63:15-16 The prophet then turns to the One True God as Father of the Nations and contrasts him to the Humanity of the Patriarchs, Abraham and Jacob (Israel), who await the Resurrection.

63:17-19 He, Isaiah, pleads with God asking why he makes them err from His ways and harden their hearts so they fear him not. He asks for him to return for the sake of the tribe of his heritage (Deut. 32:8-9). They had the sanctuary a little while and others trod it down. The Trinitarians turned it into a rubbish pit until the Seventh Century CE when the Caliph Omar ordered it cleaned up on conquest. 

The prophet begs for it to be restored and that is the thrust of the text and this last phase.


Chapter 64

1O that thou wouldst rend the heavens and come down, that the mountains might quake at thy presence-- 2as when fire kindles brushwood and the fire causes water to boil--to make thy name known to thy adversaries, and that the nations might tremble at thy presence! 3When thou didst terrible things which we looked not for, thou camest down, the mountains quaked at thy presence. 4From of old no one has heard or perceived by the ear, no eye has seen a God besides thee, who works for those who wait for him. 5Thou meetest him that joyfully works righteousness, those that remember thee in thy ways. Behold, thou wast angry, and we sinned; in our sins we have been a long time, and shall we be saved? 6We have all become like one who is unclean, and all our righteous deeds are like a polluted garment. We all fade like a leaf, and our iniquities, like the wind, take us away. 7There is no one that calls upon thy name, that bestirs himself to take hold of thee; for thou hast hid thy face from us, and hast delivered us into the hand of our iniquities. 8Yet, O LORD, thou art our Father; we are the clay, and thou art our potter; we are all the work of thy hand. 9Be not exceedingly angry, O LORD, and remember not iniquity for ever. Behold, consider, we are all thy people. 10Thy holy cities have become a wilderness, Zion has become a wilderness, Jerusalem a desolation. 11Our holy and beautiful house, where our fathers praised thee, has been burned by fire, and all our pleasant places have become ruins. 12Wilt thou restrain thyself at these things, O LORD? Wilt thou keep silent, and afflict us sorely?


Intent of Chapter 64

64:1-5b Return in Power.

Here the prophet outlines the Return of God as in the power demonstrated in days of old (see above; Ex. 19:16-18; Jdg. 5:4-5; Hab. 3:3-15). Man cannot come to God except by prayer (Gen. 11:1-9; Ex. 33:17-23). God comes to man Ex. Chs 19-20.

64:5c-7 Here the prophet confesses the sins of the people and states that they have been delivered into the hand of their iniquities.

64:8-12 The appeal to God asks for forgiveness and to not remember Israel's iniquity forever.

v. 10 The Holy Cities have become a wilderness and Jerusalem a desolation.

Thy Holy Cities The cities are the Lord's because the Promised Land belongs to him. 

v. 12 Wilt thou keep silent …? comp. Pss. 79:5; 85:5-7.


Chapter 65

1I was ready to be sought by those who did not ask for me; I was ready to be found by those who did not seek me. I said, "Here am I, here am I," to a nation that did not call on my name. 2I spread out my hands all the day to a rebellious people, who walk in a way that is not good, following their own devices; 3a people who provoke me to my face continually, sacrificing in gardens and burning incense upon bricks; 4who sit in tombs, and spend the night in secret places; who eat swine's flesh, and broth of abominable things is in their vessels; 5who say, "Keep to yourself, do not come near me, for I am set apart from you." These are a smoke in my nostrils, a fire that burns all the day. 6Behold, it is written before me: "I will not keep silent, but I will repay, yea, I will repay into their bosom 7their iniquities and their fathers' iniquities together, says the LORD; because they burned incense upon the mountains and reviled me upon the hills, I will measure into their bosom payment for their former doings." 8Thus says the LORD: "As the wine is found in the cluster, and they say, 'Do not destroy it, for there is a blessing in it,' so I will do for my servants' sake, and not destroy them all. 9I will bring forth descendants from Jacob, and from Judah inheritors of my mountains; my chosen shall inherit it, and my servants shall dwell there. 10Sharon shall become a pasture for flocks, and the Valley of Achor a place for herds to lie down, for my people who have sought me. 11But you who forsake the LORD, who forget my holy mountain, who set a table for Fortune and fill cups of mixed wine for Destiny; 12I will destine you to the sword, and all of you shall bow down to the slaughter; because, when I called, you did not answer, when I spoke, you did not listen, but you did what was evil in my eyes, and chose what I did not delight in." 13Therefore thus says the Lord GOD: "Behold, my servants shall eat, but you shall be hungry; behold, my servants shall drink, but you shall be thirsty; behold, my servants shall rejoice, but you shall be put to shame; 14behold, my servants shall sing for gladness of heart, but you shall cry out for pain of heart, and shall wail for anguish of spirit. 15You shall leave your name to my chosen for a curse, and the Lord GOD will slay you; but his servants he will call by a different name. 16So that he who blesses himself in the land shall bless himself by the God of truth, and he who takes an oath in the land shall swear by the God of truth; because the former troubles are forgotten and are hid from my eyes. 17"For behold, I create new heavens and a new earth; and the former things shall not be remembered or come into mind. 18But be glad and rejoice for ever in that which I create; for behold, I create Jerusalem a rejoicing, and her people a joy. 19I will rejoice in Jerusalem, and be glad in my people; no more shall be heard in it the sound of weeping and the cry of distress. 20No more shall there be in it an infant that lives but a few days, or an old man who does not fill out his days, for the child shall die a hundred years old, and the sinner a hundred years old shall be accursed. 21They shall build houses and inhabit them; they shall plant vineyards and eat their fruit. 22They shall not build and another inhabit; they shall not plant and another eat; for like the days of a tree shall the days of my people be, and my chosen shall long enjoy the work of their hands. 23They shall not labor in vain, or bear children for calamity; for they shall be the offspring of the blessed of the LORD, and their children with them. 24Before they call I will answer, while they are yet speaking I will hear. 25The wolf and the lamb shall feed together, the lion shall eat straw like the ox; and dust shall be the serpent's food. They shall not hurt or destroy in all my holy mountain, says the LORD."


Intent of Chapter 65

65:1-25 God’s answer to Israel.

1-2. Here the people were silent. God spoke to them. Spread out my hands A gesture of invitation see also Rom. 10:20-21 quoted here. 

3. Sacrificing in gardens  Nature cult practices and also among the Asherah of Baal worship of the Sun and Mystery Cults (see No. 235 and 222). Burning Incense. Associated with pagan cults but while also part of the Temple system it infuriated God (Jer. 1:16).

4. Sit in tombs  For divination to consult the dead (29:4) Spend the night in secret places - In a shrine to receive visions (comp. 1Kgs. 3:4-15). Swine’s flesh was forbidden (Lev. 11:7; Deut. 14:8) but it was consumed in the Sun and Mystery cults (see No 015).

5. I am set apart  - Sanctified by some idolatrous rite.

6-7. God has noted their faithlessness in burning incense on the mountains and their idolatry, where they reviled God in the hills (4:3).

65:8-10 As good grapes are separated from bad so shall the people be separated, and God will not destroy them all (Mat. 25:32-33). God will bring forth descendants from Jacob and from Judah inheritors of God's mountains and His Chosen shall inherit it (57:13) and His Servants shall dwell there (44:1).  Sharon (Northern Coastal Plain) shall become a pasture for flocks and the Valley of Achor (desolate region west of the Dead Sea (Jos. 7:24; Hos. 2:15 n.) a place for herds to lie down.

65:11-12 God here says that those who forget His Holy Mountain and set tables for Fortune and Destiny (Heb. Gad and Meni as Syrian gods of fate or chance) will be destined to the sword and slaughter because they would not listen.

65:13-14 God specifically condemns them to hunger and thirst. They shall be put to shame. God's servants shall rejoice but they will cry out in pain of heart and anguish of spirit.

65:15-16 Those idolaters separated will be used as a curse but the Servants of the Lord God will be called by a  different name (62:2,4) and that those who bless themselves in the land shall do so by the God of Truth and swear by the God of Truth (No. 168). 

65:17-19 In the Great Restoration both during and at the end of the Millennium in the Second Resurrection of the Dead (No. 143B) there will be  the newly restored earth and a training period. The infants will not die and those of the Second Resurrection will live a full life and given the opportunity to repent over two jubilees or 100 years from their resurrection as an adult.

65:21-23 They will live in their own dwellings and eat the fruit of their own produce.  See also The Judgment of the Demons (No, 080) and the  Second Death (No. 143C). Their days are to be like those of a tree. God's elect (No. 001) shall long enjoy the work of their hands. Their children shall not be destined for calamity for they are the offspring of the blessed of the Lord and their children with them.

65:24-25 God will oversee their needs and before they ask God will answer their call and He will hear before they have finished speaking through His Divine Omniscience (see Predestination (No. 296)). The final structure will be peace, and the wolf and the lamb shall feed together and the lion shall eat straw like the ox and the dust shall be the serpent’s food and they shall not hurt or destroy in all God's Holy Mountain. God has foretold it and Scripture cannot be broken (Jn. 10:34-36).  


Chapter 66

1Thus says the LORD: "Heaven is my throne and the earth is my footstool; what is the house which you would build for me, and what is the place of my rest? 2All these things my hand has made, and so all these things are mine, says the LORD. But this is the man to whom I will look, he that is humble and contrite in spirit, and trembles at my word. 3"He who slaughters an ox is like him who kills a man; he who sacrifices a lamb, like him who breaks a dog's neck; he who presents a cereal offering, like him who offers swine's blood; he who makes a memorial offering of frankincense, like him who blesses an idol. These have chosen their own ways, and their soul delights in their abominations; 4I also will choose affliction for them, and bring their fears upon them; because, when I called, no one answered, when I spoke they did not listen; but they did what was evil in my eyes, and chose that in which I did not delight." 5Hear the word of the LORD, you who tremble at his word: "Your brethren who hate you and cast you out for my name's sake have said, 'Let the LORD be glorified, that we may see your joy'; but it is they who shall be put to shame. 6"Hark, an uproar from the city! A voice from the temple! The voice of the LORD, rendering recompense to his enemies! 7"Before she was in labor she gave birth; before her pain came upon her she was delivered of a son. 8Who has heard such a thing? Who has seen such things? Shall a land be born in one day? Shall a nation be brought forth in one moment? For as soon as Zion was in labor she brought forth her sons. 9Shall I bring to the birth and not cause to bring forth? says the LORD; shall I, who cause to bring forth, shut the womb? says your God. 10"Rejoice with Jerusalem, and be glad for her, all you who love her; rejoice with her in joy, all you who mourn over her; 11that you may suck and be satisfied with her consoling breasts; that you may drink deeply with delight from the abundance of her glory." 12For thus says the LORD: "Behold, I will extend prosperity to her like a river, and the wealth of the nations like an overflowing stream; and you shall suck, you shall be carried upon her hip, and dandled upon her knees. 13As one whom his mother comforts, so I will comfort you; you shall be comforted in Jerusalem. 14You shall see, and your heart shall rejoice; your bones shall flourish like the grass; and it shall be known that the hand of the LORD is with his servants, and his indignation is against his enemies. 15"For behold, the LORD will come in fire, and his chariots like the stormwind, to render his anger in fury, and his rebuke with flames of fire. 16For by fire will the LORD execute judgment, and by his sword, upon all flesh; and those slain by the LORD shall be many. 17"Those who sanctify and purify themselves to go into the gardens, following one in the midst, eating swine's flesh and the abomination and mice, shall come to an end together, says the LORD. 18"For I know their works and their thoughts, and I am coming to gather all nations and tongues; and they shall come and shall see my glory, 19and I will set a sign among them. And from them I will send survivors to the nations, to Tarshish, Put, and Lud, who draw the bow, to Tubal and Javan, to the coastlands afar off, that have not heard my fame or seen my glory; and they shall declare my glory among the nations. 20And they shall bring all your brethren from all the nations as an offering to the LORD, upon horses, and in chariots, and in litters, and upon mules, and upon dromedaries, to my holy mountain Jerusalem, says the LORD, just as the Israelites bring their cereal offering in a clean vessel to the house of the LORD. 21And some of them also I will take for priests and for Levites, says the LORD. 22"For as the new heavens and the new earth which I will make shall remain before me, says the LORD; so shall your descendants and your name remain. 23From new moon to new moon, and from sabbath to sabbath, all flesh shall come to worship before me, says the LORD. 24"And they shall go forth and look on the dead bodies of the men that have rebelled against me; for their worm shall not die, their fire shall not be quenched, and they shall be an abhorrence to all flesh."


Intent of Chapter 66

God's Final Oracles for the Restoration

Here we see God's Concluding Oracles for the End of the Age and the Millennial Restoration under Messiah.


66:1-6 On Temple Worship

66:1-2 A material building cannot contain the Creator and the Lord God of Heaven and Earth (comp. 1Kgs. 8:27). Nor do acts in worship suffice for genuine devout humility (1:10-20).

66:3-4 The text then develops the thoughts of the previous verses. Here the text develops the sacrifices as they were developed in the Canaanitish practices in Human Sacrifice, Dogs, and Swine flesh. The intermingling of pagan practices with those of God and the Temple were an abomination. So also was the pagan calendar of the Sun Cults in those practices. The word like is not in the Hebrew text and is one interpretation of the intent of the text (see also OARSV n.).  The first part of the examples describes what are normally acceptable practices, the second what is not acceptable. (He who slaughters an Ox, He who kills a man...; These have chosen their own ways. … Swine's Blood is also forbidden. They are abominations. Only the High Priest (Messiah Ps. 110), was to appear in the Holy of Holies with the Blood of a clean animal and sprinkle it. The mingling of the abominations of the Sun and Mystery Cults with worship of God in Israel and the world is forbidden. It will be stamped out along with its calendar and worship on Sunday, Christmas and Easter (Ex. 20:8; Deut. 5:12; Jer. 7:18; 10:1-9;   No. 235;  vv. 23-24 below).

66:5-6 This text represents the restoration and vindication for Israel, and recompense for those who reject and disobey God (and also keep false calendar systems). God has returned to His Temple (Ezek. 43:1-5).


66:7-16 Jerusalem's Restoration

66:7-9 The miracle of Jerusalem's rebirth occurs as a divinely wrought and unexpected event.

66:10-11 The divinely restored city can provide abundance for all. (49:17-21).

66:12-14 The text continues the vision of Jerusalem's wealth and prosperity and comfort.  The nations will support Jerusalem as the Holy City of the World under Messiah.

66:15-16 God says that He will come with fire (29:6; 64:11) and sword (31:8; Ezek. Ch. 21) to destroy His enemies.

66:17 This text says that God will simply wipe out those not keeping the Food Laws (No. 015) and following pagan practices and ceremonies. All these pagan systems will be brought to a sudden and abrupt end with the Return of Messiah and the Host (No. 282E; 141E_2; 141F; F066v). However much of it will be done by Satan using the Beast Power (No. 299A; 299B), before and over the 42 months that the Witnesses are here (Rev. 11:3-19; No. 135; 141D).  

6:18-24 The Return of Israel and the fate of the wicked.

The Witnesses (No. 135).

vv. 18-24 “We know from Isaiah that there will be a great exodus out of the nations to the Promised Land at the end days that will make the exodus from Egypt remembered no more.


Thus the nation will not be killed and physical Israel will exist. It clearly has a job to do in the Millennium. Therefore, terms relating to Revelation 11 cannot refer to the nation and descendants of Jacob.


The tasks of the two types are thus specific. The first task was as a physical witness, and as a spiritual witness over the two thousand years of the Church in the wilderness. The nation Israel was also the people to whom the responsibility was given of which Christ spoke when he said the responsibility was to be removed from Judah and given to a people showing the fruit (Mat. 21:43).


The Witnesses are thus the last phase in this process, and they will be killed after they have done their job. This was done in part with Messiah in that he lay for three days and three nights in the tomb and then waited until the morning to ascend as the Wave Sheaf.


The same will occur at the end. As Christ and John were killed for their witness against Judah, so too will the Witnesses of the Last Days be killed. The entire world will exchange presents in celebration of their deaths. This was not and cannot be done concerning the nation of Israel and the Church. If it was then Scripture would be broken, but Scripture cannot be broken. One is a type of the other.


The Church stands as witness against the world. Most of the elect of the Church have been killed for the Faith over the 1,260-year period. However, not all have been killed and not all will be killed at the end. In the same way, the nation survives. The reason Messiah returns is for the elect’s sake. If he did not return when God cuts short the time of the end, there would be no flesh left alive.

Matthew 24:21-22 For then there will be great tribulation, such as has not been from the beginning of the world until now, no, and never will be. 22And if those days had not been shortened, no human being would be saved; but for the sake of the elect those days will be shortened. (RSV)


Those days are cut short for the elect’s sake. If the elect were all in the Church, and hence in the First Resurrection, then it would not matter if the days were cut short or not. He returns to keep those alive of the nation who will go into the physical Millennium as physical kings and priests so that the Plan of God might be fulfilled.

Thus they cannot die and lie in the streets. The witness is continuous, and at the end it involves two great prophets as well as having that responsibility carried by the Church and the nation over the centuries.

The Church and the nation thus act in the following aspects:

·     from physical kingdom at Jerusalem to Messiah and the spiritual kingdom of the Church with the destruction of the physical Temple; and

·     from the 1,260 years from 590 to 1850 CE.

They are the prototype of the Two Witnesses of the final 1,260 days or three and one-half years immediately prior to the return of the Messiah.”


66:18-21 God will reveal his glory to the nations.

They will assemble in Jerusalem with Israel and many of the nations will become priests. 

v. 22 God's people, like the New Creation of the Millennium will endure forever (Jer. 31:34-36)


66:23-24 God's Calendar (No. 156) will be enforced forever and from one New Moon to another and from one Sabbath to another the world will worship God. All false practices and false Sabbaths such as Sunday, Christmas and Easter etc. will be stamped from the face of the earth (see also Summary attached).

God's Calendar is determined from the New Moon of Abib and the New Moons are determined from one conjunction to the next as determined at Jerusalem. All the Sabbaths include the Holy Days of the Feasts also. The Feasts have to be kept and each nation will be required to keep the feasts and send their national representatives to Jerusalem each year at the Feast of Tabernacles for instruction (Zech. 14:16-21). Nations not complying with this requirement will receive no rain in due season and suffer the plagues of Egypt and it will strike the administration at all levels. The instigators will be killed, no matter who they are. God will not be mocked, and over the Millennium Christ will enforce the Law and the Testimony. No one not keeping the Temple Calendar (No. 156) based on the Sabbaths and the New Moons will live into the Millennium. Jews and Judaisers will abandon Hillel or they will not live onto the Millennium.


Summary F023xvii


Bullinger’s Notes on Chs. 63-66 (for KJV)


Chapter 63

Verse 1

Who . . . ? Figure of speech Erotesis. The prophet's question. App-6 .

This: i.e. Messiah in the execution of His vengeance in judgment.

Edom = red. Compare Isaiah 34:5 .

Bozrah = vintage. Compare Isaiah 34:5 .

traveling = bending forward, as in marching.

strength . . . mighty = strength (for endurance). Hebrew. koah. Not referring to His death, which was in weakness.


Verse 2

red = ' adom . Hence "Edom" (Isaiah 63:1 ).

winefat = winepress. Hebrew. gath. Not yekeb, a wine-vat.


Verse 3

winepress = trough. Hebrew. purah.

the people = peoples.

none = not a man. Hebrew. 'ish . App-14 .

blood. Literally grape-juice, put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Subject), for life-blood. All this is in judgment, not redemption. Compare Revelation 14:20 ; Revelation 19:11-21 .

shall be sprinkled = will spurt.


Verse 4

day . . . year. Compare Isaiah 61:2 .

the year of My redeemed. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 32:35 ). Compare Isaiah 61:2 .

redeemed = redeemed as by a kinsman (Exodus 6:6 ).


Verse 5

Mine own arm. Compare Isaiah 59:16 .

salvation = victory.

fury = indignation. Some codices, with four early printed editions, read "righteousness". Compare Isaiah 59:18 .


Verse 6

make them drunk in. Some codices, with one early printed edition, and Aramaean, read "brake them in pieces with".

strength = life-blood, as in Isaiah 63:3 .


Verse 7

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4 .

house of Israel. See note on Isaiah 5:7 .


Verse 8

children = sons.

lie = deal falsely.


Verse 9

In all their affliction He was afflicted. Hebrew text reads, "In all their adversity [He was] no adversary". But some codices, with two early printed editions, read as text of Authorized Version.

the Angel of His presence. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 14:19 ; Exodus 23:20 , Exodus 23:21 ; Exodus 33:14 ). App-92 .

redeemed them. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 15:13 ). App-92 .

bare them. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 19:4 .Deuteronomy 1:31 ; Deuteronomy 32:18 ). Compare Isaiah 46:3 , Isaiah 46:4 .Acts 13:18 . App-92 .


Verse 10

But they rebelled. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 15:24 .Numbers 14:11 , Numbers 14:34 ). App-92 .

holy. See note on Exodus 3:6 .

Spirit. Hebrew. ruach. App-9 .

and He fought = and He Himself fought. Some codices, with three early printed editions, read this "and" in the text.


Verse 11

shepherd. Many codices, with five early printed editions (one Rabbinic, 1517), and Vulgate, read "shepherds". Referring either to Moses, Aaron, and Joshua; or, the plural of Majesty, referring to Jehovah their Shepherd. Some codices, with four early printed editions, read "shepherd" (singular)

put His holy Spirit, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Numbers 11:17 ). Compare Exodus 14:31 ; Exodus 32:11 , Exodus 32:12 .Numbers 14:13 , Numbers 14:14 . App-92 .

Verse 12

arm. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 15:16 ). App-92 .

dividing the water. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 14:21 , the same word).

everlasting name. See note on Isaiah 44:7 .


Verse 14

As a beast goeth down = as the cattle go down. Referring to the settlement of Israel in Canaan.


Verse 15

habitation . . . Thy, &c. See note on "courts" (Isaiah 62:9 ).

strength = mighty deeds.

sounding = yearning. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. App-6 .


Verse 16

Thou art our Father. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 32:6 ).

Father. A rare word in this connection. Compare Isaiah 64:8 .

Redeemer. See note on Isaiah 60:16 .


Verse 17

made us = suffered us.

hardened = let us harden.

Return. Reference to Pentateuch (Numbers 10:36 ). App-92 .


Verse 18

The People of Thy holiness = Thy holy People. Figure of speech Enallage . See note on Exodus 3:5 . Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 7:6 ; Deuteronomy 26:19 ).


Verse 19

We are [Thine]. There is no word for "Thine" in Hebrew text. The Hebrew accent (disjunctive) leaves a solemn hiatus between the two clauses; as though, what Israel had become could not be expressed by words: "We are come to this Thou never barest rule over them"; implying an Ellipsis , to be supplied thus: "We are become [as they]".

they were not called by Thy name = Thy name was not called upon them.


Chapter 64

Verse 1

Oh, &c. Figure of speech Euche. Isaiah 6:0 4 is joined to Isaiah 6:0 3 by the Massoretic pointing.

flow down = quake. The reference is to Sinai in these verses. Compare Psalms 68:7 , Psalms 68:8 . Judges 5:4 , Judges 5:5 .


Verse 2

melting. The Hebrew word occurs only here, and is plural.

Thy name. See note on Psalms 20:1 .


Verse 3

When Thou didst terrible things. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 34:10 , same word).


Verse 4

since the beginning of the world = from of old.

men have not heard. Quoted in 1 Corinthians 2:9 . Compare Psa 3:19 .

nor. So, some codices, with two early printed editions, Syriac, and Vulgate. But others read "have not perceived".

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4 .

hath prepared = could work, or will do.

him that waiteth = the man who waited.


Verse 5

Thou meetest him = Thou didst meet him. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 32:1 ). App-92 .

that rejoiceth = who was rejoicing, &c.

art wroth = wert, or wast wroth.

sinned. Hebrew. chata . App-44 .

those is continuance = those [ways of Thine] is continuance. Same word as "since the beginning" in Isaiah 64:4 . Compare Isaiah 63:9 , Isaiah 63:11 , Isaiah 63:16 , Isaiah 63:19 .


Verse 6

wind. Hebrew. ruach. App-9 .


Verse 7

hast hid = hadst hidden. Compare Isaiah 45:15 ; Isaiah 53:3 ; Isaiah 54:8 ; Isaiah 57:17 ; Isaiah 59:2 . Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 31:17 , Deuteronomy 31:18 , Deuteronomy 31:20 ). App-92 .


Verse 8

now. A special various reading, called Sevir ( App-34 ), with some codices, two early printed editions, and Aramaean, read "Thou".

Thou art our Father. See note on Isaiah 63:16 .

hand. Some codices, with Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "hands" (plural)


Verse 9

Be not, &c. Continue not to be, &c.

remember = continue not to remember.


Verse 10

holy. See note on Exodus 3:6 .

desolation . Referring to the time of Matthew 23:38 ; Matthew 24:2 .


Verse 11

praised. See note on "shall not", &c. (Isaiah 13:10 ).

is burned up with fire. This prayer is proleptic; and is said now by anticipation of the then (and now still future) day of Israel's repentance and return to Jehovah.

pleasant things = goodly places, or vessels. Same word as in 2 Chronicles 36:19 .


Verse 12

refrain Thyself: i.e. refuse to give way in compassion, &c. Compare Genesis 43:1 ; Genesis 45:1 .Genesis 42:14 ; Gen 63:15 .


Chapter 65

Verse 1

I am found, &c. Quoted in Romans 10:20 , Romans 10:21 .

Behold Me. Figure of speech Epizeuxis. See note on Isaiah 24:16 .

a nation that was not called by My name. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 32:21 ), and to the Dispensation of the Acts.


Verse 2

good = right. Compare Psalms 36:4 .


Verse 3

provoketh Me to anger. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 32:21 , the same word, though not the same form). App-92 .

that sacrificeth in gardens. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 17:5 ).

upon altars of brick = upon the bricks: i.e. not on the golden altar of incense.


Verse 4

graves = tombs. Hebrew. keber. App-35 .

monuments = secret places. Probably in heathen temples.

eat swine's flesh. Reference to Pentateuch, where this was forbidden (Leviticus 11:7 . Deuteronomy 14:8 ). App-92 . Bones of swine were found at Gezer. See note on 1 Kings 9:15 .

broth. The reference is to a sacrificial feast of unclean food.

abominable things. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 7:18 ; Leviticus 19:7 ). The Hebrew word ( piggul ) is found only in Ezekiel 4:14 , beside these passages. App-92 .


Verse 6

it is written. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 32:35 .Leviticus 26:0 . Deuteronomy 32:0 ).

will recompense, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 32:35 , the same word, and is unique in its occurrence). App-92 .


Verse 7

iniquities. Hebrew. 'avah. App-44 .


Verse 8

Thus saith the LORD. Note the frequent occurrence of this expression in predicting these new things.

As = According as.

new wine. Hebrew. tirosh . App-27 . Here is further reference to the new Israel. See notes on Isaiah 65:1 .

My servants' sake. Some codices, with one early printed edition, and Septuagint, read "servant's (singular): i.e. Messiah (see note on Isaiah 37:35 ): = "for the sake of My servant".


Verse 9

a seed. A further reference to the new Israel of Isaiah 26:2 ; Isaiah 66:7 , Isaiah 66:8 . Matthew 21:43 .


Verse 10

Sharon. See note on Isaiah 33:9 . valley of Achor. As in Hosea 2:15 . The only two references to the history of Joshua 7:0 .


Verse 11

that troop. Hebrew Gad, the well-known Syrian god of "Fate".

furnish the drink offering = fill up the

mixed wine. Hebrew. mimsak. App-27 . Compare Jeremiah 7:18 .

that number. Hebrew. m'ni. Same as the god Manu (= Destiny) of the Assyrian inscriptions.


Verse 12

number = destroy. Hebrew. manithi. Figure of speech Paronomasia , with the name of the god, Meni.


Verse 13

Behold, &c. Figure of speech Asterismos ( App-6 ), for emphasis. Figure of speech Symploke. Luke 6:25 refers to the period prophesied here.

My servants. Refers to the new Israel of Isaiah 26:2 ; Isaiah 66:7 , Isaiah 66:8 . Matthew 21:43 .


Verse 14

vexation = breaking.

spirit. Hebrew. ruach. App-9 .


Verse 15

by another name: i.e. Hephzi-bah. See Isaiah 62:4 .


Verse 16

That = So that.

he who blesseth, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 22:18 ; Genesis 26:4 ).

truth = faithfulness. Compare 2 Corinthians 1:20 .

shall swear, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 6:13 ).


Verse 17

new heavens, &c. : i.e. new, in respect to the old. Not the "new" of 2 Peter 3:13 , or Revelation 21:1 . Note the contrast of this with the only two references to the history of Revelation 21:0 :

Isaiah 65:0 .

Name , Jerusalem (Hephzi'bah, Isaiah 65:18 )

Position , on mountain (Isaiah 65:25 ).

Privileges , Isaiah 65:18-20 .

Character , sinners there (Isaiah 65:20 ).

Character , prayer (Isaiah 65:24 ).

Employment , labour, planting, building (Isaiah 65:21 ).

Revelation 21:0 .

New Jerusalem (Revelation 21:2 ) ;

"great", "holy" (Revelation 21:10 ).

out of heaven (Revelation 21:2 ).

Revelation 21:4

no sinners (Revelation 21:27 ).

no temple (Revelation 21:22 ).

already built by God (Revelation 21:12-25 ; Revelation 22:3-5 ).


Verse 18

for ever. Chaldee Targum renders it "in the world of worlds": i.e. the most glorious world.


Verse 19

no more heard. Therefore not the restoration of Ezra-Nehemiah, or the Church of God now.


Verse 20

There. Some codices read "And there".

of days: i.e. of a few days.

child shall die = youth may die: i.e. neither early death, nor premature decay.

accursed = cut off. Compare Psalms 101:8 .


Verse 21

they shall build, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 26:16 . Deuteronomy 28:41 ).


Verse 22

elect = chosen.


Verse 23

They shall not labour in vain. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 28:41 , reversed). Compare Leviticus 26:16 . App-92 .


Verse 24

before they call, &c. A reference to Isaiah 30:19 . The blessing of Messiah (Psalms 21:3 ) now extended to the new Israel.


Verse 25

wolf, &c. As in Isaiah 11:6 , Isaiah 11:7 , Isaiah 11:9 , which is Millennial, not eternal.

together = as one. Hebrew ' echad . Same word as "one" in Deuteronomy 6:4 , i.e. one of others. Occurs in former part of Isaiah (Isaiah 4:1 ; Isaiah 5:10 ; Isaiah 6:2 , Isaiah 6:6 ; Isaiah 9:14 ; Isaiah 10:17 ; Isaiah 19:18 , &c.); and, in the latter part (Isaiah 47:9 ; Isaiah 51:2 , &c.) See App-79 .

dust. Never was the serpent's food. It is used as a powerful Figure of Speech, or Idiom, as in Psalms 72:9 Compare Proverbs 20:17 .

the serpent's, &c. = as for the serpent, dust shall be his food: i.e. the Old Serpent (Revelation 20:2 ), who brought in all the sin and misery to the world and to Israel, will then be bound (Revelation 20:1-3 ), and he will lick the dust, the symbol of his humiliation, disappointment, and defeat. Referring to the Figures of speech used in Genesis 3:14 . See App-19 .

in all My holy mountain. See note on Isaiah 11:9 .


Chapter 66

Verse 1

Thus saith the LORD. See App-82 .

The heaven, &c . Quoted in Acts 7:49 . Compare 1 Kings 8:27 . 2 Chronicles 6:18 .

the = this. Hebrew. zeh .

ye: i.e. the future builders of the house.

the place of My rest: i.e. rest in satisfaction. The Temple was for sacrifice and atonement (2 Chronicles 2:6 ), not for dwelling. Compare Acts 7:48 .


Verse 2

saith the LORD = [is] Jehovah's oracle.

poor = wretched, or lowly, Hebrew. 'ani. See note on "poverty", Proverbs 6:11 .

trembleth at = careth anxiously for. Compare Isaiah 66:5 .


Verse 3

cut off = breaketh.

oblation = gift, or meal offering. Hebrew. minchah .

swine's blood. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 14:8 . Leviticus 11:7 ). Compare Isaiah 65:4 .

burneth incense = maketh a memorial of frankincense. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 2:2 ). App-92 .

chosen. See note on Isaiah 1:29 .

their soul = they. Note the Introversion beginning with the last clause of Isaiah 66:3 , and including Isaiah 66:4 , They delight, &c. I also will choose, &c. When I called, &c. When I spake, &c. They chose, &c. I delighted not.


Verse 4

did = have done.


Verse 6

A voice, &c. Compare Zechariah 12:3-6 ; Zechariah 14:3 . Compare Isaiah 42:14 .

rendereth recompence. Compare Isaiah 65:6 .


Verse 7

she brought forth. This is the birth of the new nation. These are the "birth pangs" (or "sorrows") of Matthew 24:8 . In Revelation 12:1 , Revelation 12:2 we have one part of the type in the person of Messiah. Here is the other part of the type

a man child = a male, as in Revelation 12:5 .


Verse 8

who. Some codices, with four early printed editions, Septuagint, and Vulgate, read "and who".

a nation: i.e. the righteous nation of Isaiah 26:2 . Referred to in Isaiah 66:7 . Matthew 21:43 .

at once = at a stroke.

children = sons.


Verse 9

saith thy God. See note on Isaiah 1:11 .


Verse 10

Rejoice ye with Jerusalem. The promises, of Isaiah 1:27 ; Isaiah 2:1-5 , are now at length to be fulfilled.

mourn. As for one lost, or dead. See note on Isaiah 3:26 .


Verse 12

Gentiles = nations.

then shall ye suck. The promises of Isaiah 49:22 and Isaiah 60:4 are again renewed.


Verse 13

one = a man. Hebrew. 'ish . App-14 .

in Jerusalem. Not in the Church. Compare Isaiah 1:1 .


Verse 14

when ye see this = as soon as ye see this.


Verse 16

a11 flesh. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the Part), for all mankind.


Verse 17

gardens. Compare Isaiah 1:29 , and Isaiah 65:3 .

tree: i.e. the Asherah .

tree, &c. See notes on next page.

abomination. Hebrew. shakaz. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 7:2 ). Occurs in Isaiah only here; Leviticus thirteen times (Isaiah 7:2 ; Isaiah 11:9 , Isaiah 11:11 , Isaiah 11:11 , Isaiah 11:13 , Isaiah 11:13 , Isa 11:20 , Isa 11:23 , Isa 11:41 , Isa 11:42 , Isa 11:43 ; Isa 20:25 ); and Ezekiel 8:10 . Not the same word as in Isaiah 65:4 . App-92 .

mouse. Reference to Pentateuch, where it is forbidden (Leviticus 11:29 ). App-92 . Elsewhere, only in 1 Samuel 6:4 , 1 Samuel 6:6 , 1Sa 6:11 , 1 Samuel 6:18 .

be consumed = come to an end.


Verse 18

thoughts = devices.

I will gather. Compare Joel 3:2 .Zephaniah 3:8 .

sign. See note on Isaiah 7:11

send: as missionaries.

those that escape: i.e. the remnant of saved Israel

Tarshish. put for the far west.

Pul. Lud = Phut. Lud, put for African peoples. They are mentioned together, as serving in the Egyptian armies (Ezekiel 30:5 ).

Tubal = the Scythian tribes.

Javan . Put for the Greeks settled in Asia Minor.

isles = maritime countries. See note on Isaiah 11:11 .


Verse 20

shall bring. Not into the Church, but back to the Holy Land.

an offering = a gift offering. Hebrew. minchah. App-43 .

swift beasts: carriages, as required by the Structure of Isaiah 66:20 : q | horses. x | in chariots and litters. q | upon mules. r | in carriages. "Swift beasts" is Hebrew. kirkaroth , from karar, to move in a circle; hence, may mean (like English car) any vehicle on wheels. It is never used of animals. There is nothing to suggest " swaying furnaces", as suggested by some, to mean "locomotives".

holy. See note On Exodus 3:5 .

as = according as.

bring an offering, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 2:0 , &c.) App-92 .


Verse 21

them . i.e. Israel.

priests and for Levites. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 17:9 ). See notes on Ezekiel 43:19 ; Ezekiel 44:10 , Ezekiel 44:13 , Ezekiel 44:15 . App-92 .

priests. Thus completing the fulfilment of Exodus 19:6 .

and. Some codices, with Aramaean, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read this "and" in the text.


Verse 22

new heavens, &c. See note on Isaiah 65:17 .


Verse 23

new moon. sabbath. Reference to Pentateuch. and the law concerning them (Numbers 10:10 ; Numbers 28:11-15 ). App-92 . Compare Psalms 81:3 , Psalms 81:4 .

before Me. Reference to Pentateuch, implying centralized worship, as in Exodus 20:3 , Exodus 20:5 .Deuteronomy 26:3 , Deuteronomy 26:5 . App-92 . Compare Isaiah 1:12 .


Verse 24

men. Hebrew, plural of 'Enosh. App-14 .

transgressed. Hebrew. pasha'. App-44 .

their worm. Quoted in Mark 9:44 . Referred by our Lord to Gehenna, of which the fires in the valley of Hinnom were an illustration. Hebrew. tola', the maggot bred from putrid substances. See Exodus 16:20 . Deuteronomy 28:39 . Job 25:6 (second word). Psalms 22:6 . Psa 14:11 (second word); Isaiah 41:14 ; Isaiah 66:24 ; and Jonah 4:7 , which are all the occurrences of tola' in O.T. In the synagogue use, Isaiah 66:23 is repeated after Isaiah 66:24 , so that the book may end with comfort. Compare end of Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and Malachi.

an abhorring. The Hebrew occurs only here.