Christian Churches of God


No. F023xi





Commentary on Isaiah

Part 11

(Edition 1.0 20231206-20231206)


Chapters 43-46





Christian Churches of God

PO Box 369,  WODEN  ACT 2606,  AUSTRALIA





(Copyright © 2023 Wade Cox)



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Commentary on Isaish Part 11

Chapter 43

1But now thus says the LORD, he who created you, O Jacob, he who formed you, O Israel: "Fear not, for I have redeemed you; I have called you by name, you are mine. 2When you pass through the waters I will be with you; and through the rivers, they shall not overwhelm you; when you walk through fire you shall not be burned, and the flame shall not consume you. 3For I am the LORD your God, the Holy One of Israel, your Savior. I give Egypt as your ransom, Ethiopia and Seba in exchange for you. 4Because you are precious in my eyes, and honored, and I love you, I give men in return for you, peoples in exchange for your life. 5Fear not, for I am with you; I will bring your offspring from the east, and from the west I will gather you; 6I will say to the north, Give up, and to the south, Do not withhold; bring my sons from afar and my daughters from the end of the earth, 7every one who is called by my name, whom I created for my glory, whom I formed and made." 8Bring forth the people who are blind, yet have eyes, who are deaf, yet have ears! 9Let all the nations gather together, and let the peoples assemble. Who among them can declare this, and show us the former things? Let them bring their witnesses to justify them, and let them hear and say, It is true. 10"You are my witnesses," says the LORD, "and my servant whom I have chosen, that you may know and believe me and understand that I am He. Before me no god was formed, nor shall there be any after me. 11I, I am the LORD, and besides me there is no savior. 12I declared and saved and proclaimed, when there was no strange god among you; and you are my witnesses," says the LORD. 13"I am God, and also henceforth I am He; there is none who can deliver from my hand; I work and who can hinder it?" 14Thus says the LORD, your Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel: "For your sake I will send to Babylon and break down all the bars, and the shouting of the Chalde'ans will be turned to lamentations. 15I am the LORD, your Holy One, the Creator of Israel, your King." 16Thus says the LORD, who makes a way in the sea, a path in the mighty waters, 17who brings forth chariot and horse, army and warrior; they lie down, they cannot rise, they are extinguished, quenched like a wick: 18"Remember not the former things, nor consider the things of old. 19Behold, I am doing a new thing; now it springs forth, do you not perceive it? I will make a way in the wilderness and rivers in the desert. 20The wild beasts will honor me, the jackals and the ostriches; for I give water in the wilderness, rivers in the desert, to give drink to my chosen people, 21the people whom I formed for myself that they might declare my praise. 22"Yet you did not call upon me, O Jacob; but you have been weary of me, O Israel! 23You have not brought me your sheep for burnt offerings, or honored me with your sacrifices. I have not burdened you with offerings, or wearied you with frankincense. 24You have not bought me sweet cane with money, or satisfied me with the fat of your sacrifices. But you have burdened me with your sins, you have wearied me with your iniquities. 25"I, I am He who blots out your transgressions for my own sake, and I will not remember your sins. 26Put me in remembrance, let us argue together; set forth your case, that you may be proved right. 27Your first father sinned, and your mediators transgressed against me. 28Therefore I profaned the princes of the sanctuary, I delivered Jacob to utter destruction and Israel to reviling.


Intent of Chapter 43

Israel's Redemption (41:8-13)

God is Israel's Creator (44:2,21,24) and Redeemer (41:14; 48:17; 49:7).

By name Israel is God's unique possession (45:3-4; Ex. 19:5; 33:17). God set Israel aside as the key element in the Plan of Salvation (No. 001A)

for  His Salvation of all mankind (see Nos 001B and 001C) as the single vineyard under Messiah, which He, Eloah, gave to Messiah as his inheritance as the Elohim of Israel in Deut. 32:8-9.


The Witnesses (No. 135)

“In Isaiah 43, God names Jacob and Israel as His witnesses.

vv. 1-13 Notice in this text we have Jacob and Israel mentioned as distinct entities.


In this section, we see that God is Israel’s creator (cf. Isa. 44:2,21,24) and redeemer (Isa. 41:14; 48:17; 49:7). God called them by name and they are God’s unique possession (cf. Isa. 45:3-4; Ex. 19:5; 33:17).


God protects His people through all dangers (Ps. 66:12). Here we see that God’s ransom of Israel includes the nations of Africa (Egypt and Ethiopia) and Arabia (Seba). Cyrus was expected to conquer all of these nations (cf. Annotated Oxford Bible, fn. to Isa. 43:3c-7). The ransom here actually represented the salvation of the Gentiles.


Israel as the Lord's Witness

From Isaiah 43:8-13 we see the following propositions emerge:

·     Israel is capable of conversion (v. 8).

·     The nations are going to gather together but they cannot defend their gods.

From this point, God declares that there is and will be no other god (cf. Isa. 41:23-24; 48:5).


Redemption and Restoration of Israel

From Isaiah 43:14 to 44:5 we see the prophecy of the Redemption and Restoration of Israel. Here we see the Redeemer and Holy One of Israel put in apposition. The Redeemer is mentioned more often in Isaiah than elsewhere. From Genesis 48:15-16 we see that the Angel of Redemption was the elohim of Israel (cf. also Job 33:23; see Isa. 43:1; 54:5; 59:20; Jer. 50:34; cf. also Isa. 41:14; 47:4; 48:17 for the term Holy One).

God redeems Israel not for its merits but because of His Covenant relationship with them. Other nations have kings, but God is Israel's King (1Sam. 8:4-9).

43:16-17 An allusion to the passage through the Red Sea (Ex. Chs. 14-15). This theme builds up to the New and Greater Exodus in 41:17-20; 42:16, here, and finally in the final restoration in Chs. 65-66 under Messiah for the millennial system (see also Rev. Ch. 20).

43:18-19 New thing – The return of Israel to Palestine. (See also Habakkuk (F035) and Haggai (F037).)

A way in the wilderness... Ex. 17:1-7.

This theme (40:3) is part of the Exodus story (vv. 16-17).

43:22-24  Israel has ignored and offended God. They continued to do this for 2700 years and God redeems them anyway under Messiah in the Last Days.

Sweet Cane Ex. 30:23; Jer. 6:20.

43:25-28 Here God stands in judgment of Israel's transgressions (also 41:1). He asks they plead their case and delivers them to destruction and reviling both as Jacob and Israel in both its elements.

The First Father Jacob sinned (Gen. Ch. 27; Hos. 12:2-4).

Mediators the patriarchs and prophets (1Kgs. 13:11-32).


In Isaiah 43:22 we see Jacob and Israel mentioned again in distinction.

God does this again in Isaiah 43:28.”


Chapter 44

1"But now hear, O Jacob my servant, Israel whom I have chosen! 2Thus says the LORD who made you, who formed you from the womb and will help you: Fear not, O Jacob my servant, Jeshu'run whom I have chosen. 3For I will pour water on the thirsty land, and streams on the dry ground; I will pour my Spirit upon your descendants, and my blessing on your offspring. 4They shall spring up like grass amid waters, like willows by flowing streams. 5This one will say, 'I am the LORD's,' another will call himself by the name of Jacob, and another will write on his hand, 'The LORD's,' and surname himself by the name of Israel." 6Thus says the LORD, the King of Israel and his Redeemer, the LORD of hosts: "I am the first and I am the last; besides me there is no god. 7Who is like me? Let him proclaim it, let him declare and set it forth before me. Who has announced from of old the things to come? Let them tell us what is yet to be. 8Fear not, nor be afraid; have I not told you from of old and declared it? And you are my witnesses! Is there a God besides me? There is no Rock; I know not any." 9All who make idols are nothing, and the things they delight in do not profit; their witnesses neither see nor know, that they may be put to shame. 10Who fashions a god or casts an image, that is profitable for nothing? 11Behold, all his fellows shall be put to shame, and the craftsmen are but men; let them all assemble, let them stand forth, they shall be terrified, they shall be put to shame together. 12The ironsmith fashions it and works it over the coals; he shapes it with hammers, and forges it with his strong arm; he becomes hungry and his strength fails, he drinks no water and is faint. 13The carpenter stretches a line, he marks it out with a pencil; he fashions it with planes, and marks it with a compass; he shapes it into the figure of a man, with the beauty of a man, to dwell in a house. 14He cuts down cedars; or he chooses a holm tree or an oak and lets it grow strong among the trees of the forest; he plants a cedar and the rain nourishes it. 15Then it becomes fuel for a man; he takes a part of it and warms himself, he kindles a fire and bakes bread; also he makes a god and worships it, he makes it a graven image and falls down before it. 16Half of it he burns in the fire; over the half he eats flesh, he roasts meat and is satisfied; also he warms himself and says, "Aha, I am warm, I have seen the fire!" 17And the rest of it he makes into a god, his idol; and falls down to it and worships it; he prays to it and says, "Deliver me, for thou art my god!" 18They know not, nor do they discern; for he has shut their eyes, so that they cannot see, and their minds, so that they cannot understand. 19No one considers, nor is there knowledge or discernment to say, "Half of it I burned in the fire, I also baked bread on its coals, I roasted flesh and have eaten; and shall I make the residue of it an abomination? Shall I fall down before a block of wood?" 20He feeds on ashes; a deluded mind has led him astray, and he cannot deliver himself or say, "Is there not a lie in my right hand?" 21Remember these things, O Jacob, and Israel, for you are my servant; I formed you, you are my servant; O Israel, you will not be forgotten by me. 22I have swept away your transgressions like a cloud, and your sins like mist; return to me, for I have redeemed you. 23Sing, O heavens, for the LORD has done it; shout, O depths of the earth; break forth into singing, O mountains, O forest, and every tree in it! For the LORD has redeemed Jacob, and will be glorified in Israel. 24Thus says the LORD, your Redeemer, who formed you from the womb: "I am the LORD, who made all things, who stretched out the heavens alone, who spread out the earth--Who was with me? --25who frustrates the omens of liars, and makes fools of diviners; who turns wise men back, and makes their knowledge foolish; 26who confirms the word of his servant, and performs the counsel of his messengers; who says of Jerusalem, 'She shall be inhabited,' and of the cities of Judah, 'They shall be built, and I will raise up their ruins'; 27who says to the deep, 'Be dry, I will dry up your rivers'; 28who says of Cyrus, 'He is my shepherd, and he shall fulfil all my purpose'; saying of Jerusalem, 'She shall be built,' and of the temple, 'Your foundation shall be laid.'"


Intent of Chapter 44

The Witnesses (No. 135)

In Isaiah 44:1 He speaks again to both, but this time as one.

vv. 1-5 Thus the two are distinct but within the structure of the one people. Also, we see the name Yeshurun (SHD 3484) (vv.1-2) come into this duality (see also Deut. 32:15; 33:5,26). Yeshurun is derived from the root yashar (SHD 3474) meaning to be straight or even. It has the sense of making straight or taking the straight path. It leads on to concepts of equity and justice.


We see here that God redeemed Israel not for its merits but because of His Covenant relationship with it. God is its king and that kingship will be restored when He who comes whose right it is.

[3b God promises to the people His Spirit (No. 117) on Jacob’s descendants and offspring.  In this sense the distinction of Jacob and Israel is in the receipt of the spirit in the process of the redemption of Israel.]  God shows here that He will make Israel as the straight (upright) one. Yeshurun is then coupled with Jacob. Jacob is the name of the patriarch, and Israel was the name he came to be called. This name also came to be the name of the nation of the sons of Jacob. The duality is thus apparent.

The transformation of the world will be complete with God's Spirit bringing new life. In v. 5 we see all people will identify themselves with Israel and Israel's God (see ## 001A, 001B; 001C).


The Being here is Yahovah, the King of Israel and Israel’s redeemer. He is the Yahovah of Hosts. There are two Beings referred to in Psalm 45:6-7. This Being here is the haElohim referred to elsewhere as Yahovih when the term Yahovah of Hosts is not used of Him (see also Psalms Part 5iii and Summary (F019_5iii)).


vv. 6-8 He declares again here that these are His witnesses. His uniqueness is also in vv. 21-23.


This deity is the One True God (Jn. 17:3) and beside Him there is no elohim. All are subordinate to Him. The RSV has the words ending with: “There is no Rock? I know not any”. This appears to have been hidden by the mainstream because of the symbolism. Thus the single Rock strikes also at the patrimony of Peter argument...


The concept here is that God deals with Jacob and Israel as His witnesses against the nations. The duality referred to here is not the duality of Israel and Judah. It is the duality of the physical and the spiritual. Jacob was the named patriarch who became Israel, which means: he shall rule as El. Thus the significance is that the nation is one witness and the Church is the other. For it is the Church that becomes the body of Israel and shall rule as God or elohim, as the Angel or Messenger of Yahovah at their head (Zech. 12:8).

Note also the apposition of Redeemer (43:14; 60:16) and Lord of Hosts, one of several references (see also 45:13; 47:4) (cf. OARSV n.).  v. 7 Reference God's Uniqueness as One True God who alone is immortal (1Tim. 6:16).

v. 8 The Elect as Elohim (No. 001)

“The concept of Israel as the Church has been examined in detail in the papers Proverbs 31 (No. 114); The Covenant of God (No. 152); Song of Songs (No. 145); Commentary on Esther (F017) and Measuring the Temple (No. 137).


The reference to Isaiah 44:8, as a demonstration that YHVH is one Elohim – which is offered by Trinitarians – is simply false. Isaiah 44:6-8 states:

So says Jehovah, the King of Israel, and his Redeemer, Jehovah of [H]osts: I am the First and I am the Last; and there is no God except Me ... Is there a God beside me? Yea there is none. I have not known a rock. (Interlinear)


It is asserted that Yahovah (or incorrectly Jehovah) is one here but the text in fact [is held to refer] to two entities, Yahovah King of Israel and Yahovah of Hosts. Yahovah King of Israel is speaking of Yahovah of Hosts. Green has translated the text by inserting and with his Redeemer to make it appear that both are referred to as one. Similarly, he has translated the word biladay (SHD 1107) as except in Isaiah 44:6 and as beside in Isaiah 44:8. However, the sense of without or beside is that conveyed here. [This application can only be made as the duality of Psalm 45:6-7 and Heb. 1:8-9. The One True God of Jn. 17:3 who sent Christ.]


Isaiah 44:8 identifies clearly that the entity spoken of, namely YHVH of Hosts. He is Eloah. Eloah is a singular word which refers only to God the Father or the God of Hosts. From Proverbs 30:4-5, we know that this Eloah is God the Father (as Ha Elohim) and He has a son predicated to Him in His Old Testament relationship with Israel. Judaism, Islam and biblical Christianity worship this entity as the One Supreme God. The Yahovah of Israel is identified, from above as the Angel of the Presence who is Messiah. The text demonstrates that there are two YHVHs here, with the subordinate YHVH of Israel proclaiming the ascendancy of YHVH of Hosts. This YHVH of Hosts is Eloah and beside whom, and indeed without whom, there is no Elohim. This concept forms the basis of the First Commandment. Thus, the YHVH of Israel here is separate and subordinate.”

(See also Arche of the Creation of God as Alpha and Omega (No. 229)) and the Deity of Christ (No. 147).)

v. 8 Rock. 17:10; Ps. 18:2.


44:9-20 Attack on idolatry

This satire follows on from the declaration of the One True God in vv. 6-8. Esp. 8b and also v. 21 (comp. 40:18-20; 41:6-7).

vv. 9-11 Idols are images and not an elohim.

vv. 12-14. It is made by craftsmen, half of which are turned to base uses and the rest are turned into objects of worship (vv. 14-20). Israel does not note this ridiculous inconsistency. Their thinking is absurd.

44:21-23 As in vv. 6-8, Israel is forgiven and redeemed. God (as Redeemer 41:14; 63:9) removes the sin that clouds Israel (v. 22). Let all creation praise the Lord God (Comp. Jer. 51:48; Rev. 12:12; 18:20).


44:24-45:13 The prophetic Commission of Cyrus

44:24-28 This is a Prophetic declaration by God through Isaiah of a king not yet born that was to identify Cyrus of Persia who was to conquer the Chaldeans using also Darius the Mede and re-establish Jerusalem. It identifies Cyrus and declares him as shepherd (a terminology used of kings in custody of God's people) (see also Jer. 23:4). This prophecy was not taken as a demonstration of God’s Omniscient Prescience that it was (see also Predestination (No. 296)). It was taken, by Revisionists, as proof that it must have been written after the event.


Chapter 45

1Thus says the LORD to his anointed, to Cyrus, whose right hand I have grasped, to subdue nations before him and ungird the loins of kings, to open doors before him that gates may not be closed: 2"I will go before you and level the mountains, I will break in pieces the doors of bronze and cut asunder the bars of iron, 3I will give you the treasures of darkness and the hoards in secret places, that you may know that it is I, the LORD, the God of Israel, who call you by your name. 4For the sake of my servant Jacob, and Israel my chosen, I call you by your name, I surname you, though you do not know me. 5I am the LORD, and there is no other, besides me there is no God; I gird you, though you do not know me, 6that men may know, from the rising of the sun and from the west, that there is none besides me; I am the LORD, and there is no other. 7I form light and create darkness, I make weal and create woe, I am the LORD, who do all these things. 8"Shower, O heavens, from above, and let the skies rain down righteousness; let the earth open, that salvation may sprout forth, and let it cause righteousness to spring up also; I the LORD have created it. 9"Woe to him who strives with his Maker, an earthen vessel with the potter! Does the clay say to him who fashions it, 'What are you making'? or 'Your work has no handles'? 10Woe to him who says to a father, 'What are you begetting?' or to a woman, 'With what are you in travail?'" 11Thus says the LORD, the Holy One of Israel, and his Maker: "Will you question me about my children, or command me concerning the work of my hands? 12I made the earth, and created man upon it; it was my hands that stretched out the heavens, and I commanded all their host. 13I have aroused him in righteousness, and I will make straight all his ways; he shall build my city and set my exiles free, not for price or reward," says the LORD of hosts. 14Thus says the LORD: "The wealth of Egypt and the merchandise of Ethiopia, and the Sabe'ans, men of stature, shall come over to you and be yours, they shall follow you; they shall come over in chains and bow down to you. They will make supplication to you, saying: 'God is with you only, and there is no other, no god besides him.'" 15Truly, thou art a God who hidest thyself, O God of Israel, the Savior. 16All of them are put to shame and confounded, the makers of idols go in confusion together. 17But Israel is saved by the LORD with everlasting salvation; you shall not be put to shame or confounded to all eternity. 18For thus says the LORD, who created the heavens (he is God!), who formed the earth and made it (he established it; he did not create it a chaos, he formed it to be inhabited!): "I am the LORD, and there is no other. 19I did not speak in secret, in a land of darkness; I did not say to the offspring of Jacob, 'Seek me in chaos.' I the LORD speak the truth, I declare what is right. 20"Assemble yourselves and come, draw near together, you survivors of the nations! They have no knowledge who carry about their wooden idols, and keep on praying to a god that cannot save. 21Declare and present your case; let them take counsel together! Who told this long ago? Who declared it of old? Was it not I, the LORD? And there is no other god besides me, a righteous God and a Savior; there is none besides me. 22"Turn to me and be saved, all the ends of the earth! For I am God, and there is no other. 23By myself I have sworn, from my mouth has gone forth in righteousness a word that shall not return: 'To me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear.' 24"Only in the LORD, it shall be said of me, are righteousness and strength; to him shall come and be ashamed, all who were incensed against him. 25In the LORD all the offspring of Israel shall triumph and glory."


Intent of Chapter 45

45:1-13 Commission of Cyrus (Cont. from 44:24-28)

45:1-8  God's Charge to Cyrus

He is God's anointed. The charge is universal in scope as is Israel's task to all nations in the Plan of God. 

v. 1 The only OT passage in which Messiah refers to a non-Israelite.

vv. 2-3 God has commissioned Cyrus and will assist him in his mission (40:4).

v. 4  My chosen  41:8; 42:1; 44:1; 49:3,5,6.

45:5-7  Cyrus was not even born when this prophecy was made. His people only remotely knew of God when it was made. God had it revealed to him when it was necessary (see also 44:6-8).

45:8 Righteousness

The song extends righteousness to all as the Plan of God.

45:9-13 The Sovereign Power of God

45:9-10 This rare invective is directed against those questioning the propriety of Cyrus' appointment as an anointed of God (29:16).

v. 9 Rom. 9:20.

45:11 Children...the work of my hands  refers to the Gentiles. God's extension of messiahship to the Gentiles should be unquestioned (see also #001) 

v. 12  40:12-31; 44:24.

Isaiah 45:9-13 (No. 224A)

“In dealing with the nature of God let us examine the following texts and the implications and why Ditheists and Binitarians don’t quote this verse.  The mainstream doesn’t quote it because it destroys their case.


Isaiah 45:11 (RSV) states "thus says the Lord THE HOLY ONE of Israel, and HIS MAKER:....

The text is quite encompassing in what Christ is saying on behalf of the Lord of Hosts. Further, it is clear that Christ is being identified as the Holy One of Israel and the Lord of Hosts is identified as his Maker and Creator of the Earth and mankind and the Hosts of Heaven and also commander of the Hosts of Heaven.


God says here [in vv. 9-13] that He aroused him, (that is Yahovah of Israel or Christ) in Righteousness.


From Acts 2:25-35, Peter quoting Psalm 16:8-11 in 2:25-28 makes it clear that Christ is the Holy One of God who wasn’t abandoned in Sheol or the grave to see corruption; that is the decay of the body. So also in Acts 13:35:

Acts 13:35 Therefore he says also in another psalm, `Thou wilt not let thy Holy One see corruption.'


The text in Psalm 16:2 has had the last word translated as Lord changed by the Sopherim from Yahovah to Adonai as with the other 133 places where it was changed, and which are listed by Bullinger (Comp. Bible Ap. 32).

Psalm 16:2 O my soul, thou hast said unto the LORD, Thou art my LORD [Yahovah]: my goodness extendeth not to thee;


If the Holy One of Israel has a maker, then logically he was created and not co-equal with his God which is exactly what Hebrews 3:2 says in the Greek (poiesanti) and RSV and also what Revelation 3:14 says. In spite of these clear texts identified in Acts with Christ, the Ditheists and Binitarians refuse to deal with it. And [some sects] deny that the One True God is even mentioned in the OT which is a blatant misrepresentation.

See also the paper Isaiah 9:6 (No. 224).”


45:14-25 The Conversion of the Nations

(See also 2:2-4; 42:1-4; 55:3-5; Jer. 16:19-21)

45:14-15 The Nations will acknowledge Israel's God and support the restored Israel under the Messiah (see also 43:3). This group is part also of the new millennial trading system (see also Zech. Ch. 14).

v. 14 God is with Israel in the restoration. 1Cor. 14:25 (comp. Jn. 4:16-19).

45:16-17 Idol makers are condemned (44:9-20) but Israel is saved.

45:18-19  The One True God as Creator has revealed Himself to Israel. 

Chaos  The state of the world before the re-creation of Gen. 1:2. God did not create it that way (see also Job 38:4-7). It became tohu and bohu after God's initial creation. God then had to send the elohim to refurbish it in Genesis Ch. 1.

45:20-21 The Nations’ gods are powerless. (44:8; Acts 15:18).

45:22-25 Let all nations bow before God and sing His praises.

v. 23 Comp. Rom 14:11; Phil. 2:10-11. All the offspring of Israel as the Vineyard of God (Isa. 5:1-7) will triumph in glory. Salvation is of the Gentiles.


Chapter 46

1Bel bows down, Nebo stoops, their idols are on beasts and cattle; these things you carry are loaded as burdens on weary beasts. 2They stoop, they bow down together, they cannot save the burden, but themselves go into captivity. 3"Hearken to me, O house of Jacob, all the remnant of the house of Israel, who have been borne by me from your birth, carried from the womb; 4even to your old age I am He, and to gray hairs I will carry you. I have made, and I will bear; I will carry and will save. 5"To whom will you liken me and make me equal, and compare me, that we may be alike? 6Those who lavish gold from the purse, and weigh out silver in the scales, hire a goldsmith, and he makes it into a god; then they fall down and worship! 7They lift it upon their shoulders, they carry it, they set it in its place, and it stands there; it cannot move from its place. If one cries to it, it does not answer or save him from his trouble. 8"Remember this and consider, recall it to mind, you transgressors, 9remember the former things of old; for I am God, and there is no other; I am God, and there is none like me, 10declaring the end from the beginning and from ancient times things not yet done, saying, 'My counsel shall stand, and I will accomplish all my purpose,' 11calling a bird of prey from the east, the man of my counsel from a far country. I have spoken, and I will bring it to pass; I have purposed, and I will do it. 12"Hearken to me, you stubborn of heart, you who are far from deliverance: 13I bring near my deliverance, it is not far off, and my salvation will not tarry; I will put salvation in Zion, for Israel my glory."


Intent of Chapter 46

The Lord Supports Israel

46:1-4 Bel Chief god of Babylon. Bel-Marduk; Nebo the Babylonian god Nabu, son of Marduk (Jer, 39:3). These gods must be erected and transported and are incapable of protecting their devotees (37:12-13). God bears and protects His people (44:2). The Babylonian system corrupted Israel and Judah and that is why Israel including Judah were sent into captivity. Judah and Levi will be made hewers of wood and drawers of water in the Temple under Messiah and only the sons of Zadok in Levi will be in the priesthood under Messiah as High Priest (see Ezekiel F026ix, x xi, xii).

46:5-7   40:18-20

46:7  The text is a probable reference to the Solstice or  New Year's Festival in Babylon (45:20) (see also Jer. 10:1-9; (see (No. 235)).

46:8-11 45:9-13

v. 8 This  Israel's history (44:21)

v. 9  41:22-29; 42:8-9. 

v. 10 The omniscience of God the Father is perfect. He knows the elect and delivers them to Christ. This knowledge covers the span of time that we understand to be the creation. As mentioned, the elect were determined before the foundation of the world. God declares the end from the beginning.” (No. 160)

v. 11 Bird of prey  Held to refer to Cyrus (see 41:2; 44:28; 45:1-13). It may also refer to Jer. 4:15-27 in the Last Days (see F024) and Habakkuk, F035; Haggai F037. 


Bullinger’s Notes on Chs. 43-46 (for KJV)


Chapter 43

Verse 1

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4 .

the LORD That created thee. This is another Jehovah title (compare App-4 .) = Jehovah Boraaka = Jehovah thy Creator.

Jacob . . . Israel. See notes on Genesis 32:28 ; Genesis 43:6 ; Genesis 45:26 , Genesis 45:28 . See Isaiah 42:24 , above.

He That formed thee = thy Former.

Fear not. Compare Isaiah 43:5 .

redeemed. Hebrew. ga'al. See note on Exodus 6:6 .


Verse 2

When thou passest = shouldst thou pass: the habitual sense of ki with the Future. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 31:6 , Deuteronomy 31:8 ).

the waters . . . the rivers. . . the fire . . . the flame = waters . . . rivers . . . fire . . . flame. A general promise of future deliverance put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Subject), for troubles of any and all kinds. This promise refers to Israel's future, and not to the Saxon race, or the Church.

kindle upon thee = pass over thee.


Verse 3

I am the LORD thy God = I Jehovah am thy God (Hebrew. Elohim. App-4 ). Note the three titles. He was Israel's God by covenant (note the others in the next clause):

the Holy One of Israel , in contrast with all false gods. See note on Isaiah 1:4 , and Psalms 71:22 .

thy Saviour. This is the third title.

Egypt. Ethiopia and Seba = Egypt. Nubia (Cush), and Ethiopia. These were given to Persia as ransommoney (as it were) for the release of Israel by Persia through the successors of Cyrus. In the time of Isaiah these three were united under one dynasty.

ransom = atonement price. Hebrew. kopher. See note on Exodus 29:33 .


Verse 4

Since thou wast = Ever since thou becamest.

men = a man. Can this refer to Christ? Hebrew. 'adam. App-14 .

people = peoples.


Verses 5-6

east. . . west . . . north . . . south. This contemplates a wider and greater deliverance than that from Babylon, even from "the ends of the earth".


Verse 8

the blind People = a blind People: i.e. Israel (See Isaiah 6:10 ; Isaiah 42:19 , Isaiah 42:20 . Jeremiah 5:21 .Ezekiel 12:2 .Matthew 13:14 .Acts 28:26 , Acts 28:27 ).


Verse 9

them. Some codices, with one early printed edition, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "you".


Verse 10

saith the LORD = is Jehovah's oracle.

My Servant: i.e. Israel. See note on Isaiah 37:35 .

chosen. See note on Isaiah 1:29 .

I am He: or, "I [am] He [Who is]".


Verse 12

no strange god. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 32:12 , Deuteronomy 32:16 ). See App-92 .


Verse 13

let it = avert it. See Amos 1:3 , Amos 1:6 , Amos 1:9 , Amos 1:11 , Amos 1:13 ; Amo 12:1 , Amo 12:4 , Amo 12:6 .


Verse 14

Redeemer = Kinsman- Redeemer. Hebrew. Go'el . See note on Exodus 6:6 .

Babylon. This is the first occurrence of the name in Isaiah.

their nobles = all of them in flight.

Whose cry is in the ships = the ships which resound with loud outcries (compare Lamentations 2:19 . Numbers 24:24 ).


Verse 16

maketh a way in the sea. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 14:16 , Exodus 14:21 , Exodus 14:22 .Psalms 77:19Psalms 77:19 ).


Verse 17

together: or, at once.

tow = wick. Hebrew flax. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), App-6 , for the wick made of it.


Verse 19

a new thing. The future deliverance of Israel will be with greater marvels than at the Exodus.


Verse 20

I give waters, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 17:6 ).


Verse 21

This People, &c. For Israel (as Birks puts it) "is the keystone of the whole arch of promise".


Verse 22

called upon Me. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Species), App-6 , for all that has to do with worship, as developed in verses: Isaiah 43:23 , Isaiah 43:24 .

been weary of Me. Note the emphasis is on "Me" in these verses (compare Micah 6:3 .Malachi 1:13Malachi 1:13 ).


Verse 23

Thou hast not brought Me, &c. These verses are quite opposed to the alleged indifference of the prophets to the Divine ritual.


Verse 24

but. Note the solemn antithesis.

made Me to serve. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Effect, of the verb), for the judicial consequences of their sins.


Verse 25

transgressions = rebellions. Hebrew. pasha' .

for Mine own sake. He does not go out of Himself for the reason which flows from grace.

will not remember. He remembers our infirmities (which man forgets. Psalms 103:14 ), but will forget our sins (which man remembers).

remember. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia.


Verse 26

declare = recount [thy works, or sins].


Verse 27

Thy first father: i.e. Jacob, as stated in the next verse (compare Deuteronomy 26:5 .Ezekiel 16:3 , Ezekiel 16:45 ).


Verse 28

princes = priests, whose great duty it was to "teach" the people the Law and Word of God (see notes on Deuteronomy 17:11 ; Deuteronomy 33:10 ).

Jacob . . . Israel. Including the whole Nation: the subject of this prophecy concerning Jehovah's "servant".


Chapter 44

Verse 1

My servant. The subject of these members. See note on Isaiah 37:35 .

chosen. See note on Isaiah 1:29 .


Verse 2

Thus saith, &c. Jehovah's first controversy with Israel closes with this member (p. 980); and the second closes with " N" (p. 984).

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4 .

formed = fashioned. Jesurun. This is a direct reference to the Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 32:15 ; Deuteronomy 33:5 , Deuteronomy 33:26 ), the only three places where this name occurs. See notes there and App-92 .


Verse 3

I will pour, &c. These promises all refer to the day of Israel's future restoration.

spirit. Hebrew. ruach. App-9 . For this promise, see Ezekiel 36:25-30 ; Ezekiel 39:29 . Compare Isaiah 32:15 ; Isaiah 59:21 .Joel 2:28 . Zechariah 12:10 . It began at Pentecost (Acts 2:16 ); but the kingdom was then rejected (Acts 28:25 , Acts 28:26 ), and the promise is now in abeyance. Compare Joel 2:28 , "afterward".


Verse 4

as willows, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Numbers 24:6 ). App-92 .

water courses. See note on "streams", Isaiah 30:25 .


Verse 5

One . . . another . . . another. Hebrew. zeh = this one, that one, &c.


Verse 6

the King of Israel. Note this title (1) in connection with the O.T. manifestation of the kingdom; (2) the Gospels, the proclamation of the kingdom by the Son (Matthew 27:42 .Mark 15:32 . Joh 1:49 ; John 12:13 ). All were rejected, and the kingdom therefore is now in abeyance.

his Redeemer: i.e. his Kinsman-Redeemer. Reference to Pentateuch (See note on Isaiah 41:14 ).

the first, &c. See note on Isaiah 41:4 . Quoted in Revelation 1:17 .

beside Me. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 4:35 .Deuteronomy 32:39Deuteronomy 32:39 ). the first, &c. See note on Isaiah 41:4 . Quoted in Revelation 1:17 , &c.

beside Me. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 4:35 ; Deuteronomy 32:39 ). App-92 .

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4 .


Verse 7

appointed = set, or established.

the ancient People = the everlasting Nation. The nation of Israel is everlasting, like the Covenant. The nations which oppressed Israel (Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, Rome) have passed away; but Israel remains, and, when restored, will remain for ever. Note and compare the nine everlasting things in Isaiah: (1) covenant (Isaiah 55:3 ; Isaiah 61:8 ; compare note on Genesis 9:16 ); (2) kindness (Isaiah 54:8 ); (3) salvation (Isaiah 45:17 ); (4) excellency (Isaiah 60:15 ); (5) joy (Isaiah 51:11 ); (6) name (Isaiah 56:5 ); (7) light (Isaiah 60:19 , Isaiah 60:20 ); (8) sign (Isaiah 55:13 ); and (9) as the pledge of all, "the everlasting God" (Isaiah 40:28 ; Isaiah 63:12 ).

and shall come = and [which] shall come.


Verse 8

My witnesses. Note the Structures above).

no God = no Rock. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 32:4 . Compare Isaiah 26:4 ). App-92 .


Verse 9

make = fashion, or, form.

vanity = emptiness. Hebrew. tohu (without form), as in Genesis 1:2 . See note on Isaiah 24:10 .

their = the fashioners'.

delectable things. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), for the things they have desired.

they: i.e. the makers and worshippers. See the Structure, above.

ashamed: as the Babylonians were when their city was taken by the Medo-Persians.


Verse 12

The smith with the tongs, &c. "The smith was more or less a sacred person, and the iron foundry was an annex of heathen temples. "Mounds of scorioe and iron slag are found near many heathen temples. Note the contrast exhibited (apparently on purpose) in 1 Kings 6:7 .


Verse 15

take thereof = take [of the wood] thereof.


Verse 16

with. Some codices in margin, with one early printed edition, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "and with".


Verse 17

maketh a = maketh into a.


Verse 18

not known = not taken note.

shut = smeared.


Verse 19

none considereth = none reflecteth; none bringeth back to his heart.

understanding = discernment.

the stock of a tree = a log of wood.


Verse 20

soul. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13 .

a lie: i.e. the maker's vain fancy.


Verse 21

O Israel. Some codices, with one early printed edition (Rabbinic, 1517), read "And Israel", The reference is to Genesis 32:26 .

not be forgotten. Because of being the "everlasting Nation" (Isaiah 44:7 ).


Verse 22

I have blotted out. See Isaiah 43:25 .

transgressions = rebellions. Hebrew. pasha '.

redeemed. Hebrew. ga'al. See note on Exodus 6:6 .


Verse 23

Sing . . . shout. Figure of speech Poeanismos .

break forth into singing. See note on Isaiah 14:7 .


Verse 25

tokens = signs. See note on Isaiah 7:11 .

liars: i.e. the false prophets of the heathen.

diviners: i.e. the astrologers, &c, of Assyria. See note on Isaiah 47:13 .

wise. Figure of speech Antiphrasis ( App-6 ) = accounted wise.


Verse 26

His Servant: i.e. His prophet (Isaiah).

Jerusalem . . . cities, &c. These named first because first built. See Isaiah 44:28 .

built = rebuilt.


Verse 27

the deep: i.e. the Euphrates, on which Babylon was built.

I will dry up. Literally fulfilled, at the taking of Babylon, by Cyrus through his general, Gobryas. Compare Jeremiah 50:38 , &c.

rivers. Plural of Majesty for the great river Euphrates.


Verse 28

Cyrus. See note on Isaiah 45:1 .

even saying = and saying: i.e. Jehovah, the Speaker from Isaiah 44:24 , and in the preceding clause. It does not mean that Cyrus spoke of rebuilding Jerusalem (for he did not), but it records what Jehovah would say of Cyrus, and what He would say also to Jerusalem. Nehemiah must have obtained a copy of Isaiah on his visit to Jerusalem, or he could not have instructed Cyrus.

Jerusalem. Named before the temple, because the city and its walls were first built, before the temple foundations were laid. See notes on Nehemiah 7:4 , and also App-57 and App-58 .

temple. Named after Jerusalem, because the city walls were first built. See note above, and compare Nehemiah 7:4 with Haggai 1:1-4 .


Chapter 45

Verse 1

Cyrus. See App-57 .

loose the loins. Idiom for weakening. Compare Job 12:21 . The opposite of "girding" (Isaiah 45:5 ).

open before him the two leaved gates: i.e. of Babylon, as described by Herodotus.

not be shut. They were found open, and Gobryas and the soldiers of Cyrus entered Babylon without fighting.


Verse 2

straight = level.

break in pieces = shiver.

gates of brass. Herodotus (i. 180) tells us that the gates leading to the river were of brass.

cut in sunder =. smash.


Verse 3

call thee by thy name. Only four named by Divine prophecy before birth: Isaac (Genesis 17:19 ); Solomon (1 Chronicles 22:9 ); Josiah (1 Kings 13:2 ); and Cyrus, 137 years before his birth. See App-50 .

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4 .


Verse 4

My servant's. See note on Isaiah 37:5 .

surnamed. Cyrus was the additional name divinely given. His Persian name is said to have been Agradates.

though thou hast not = when thou didst not.


Verse 5

girded thee. Contrast "loose" (Isaiah 45:1 ), and see note on Isaiah 8:9 .


Verse 6

none. See note on Isaiah 5:8 .


Verse 7

create. Hebrew the Poel Participle of the verb bara' (create) which, with "evil", requires the rendering "bring about". Not the same form as in verses: Isaiah 45:8 , Isaiah 45:12 , or Isaiah 45:18 , in connection with the earth. In Jeremiah 18:11 the verb is yazar, to frame, or mould. In Amos 3:6 it is 'ashah, to bring about. A word of wide meaning; its sense has to be determined by its context. Here, disturbance in contrast with "peace".

evil: never rendered "sin". God brings calamity about as the inevitable consequence of sin. It is rendered "calamity" in Psalms 141:5 ; "adversity" in 1 Samuel 10:19 .

Psalms 94:13 .Ecclesiastes 7:14 ; "grief" in Nehemiah 2:10 . Proverbs 15:10 . .

Ecclesiastes 2:17 . .

Jonah 4:6 ; "affliction" in Numbers 11:11 ; "misery" in Ecclesiastes 8:6 ; "trouble" in Psalms 41:1 ; "Sore" in Deuteronomy 6:22 ; "noisome" in Ezekiel 14:15 , Ezekiel 14:21 ; "hurt" in Genesis 26:29 ; "wretchedness" in Numbers 11:15

; also "harm", "ill", and "mischief". Compare Jeremiah 18:11 , and Amos 3:6 . See note on "create", above.


Verse 8

let the earth open, &c. When the earth opened before it brought forth destruction (Numbers 16:32 ; Numbers 26:10 and Psalms 106:17 ).


Verse 9

earth = ground: i.e. here, clay.


Verse 11

the Holy One of Israel. See note on Isaiah 1:4 .

Maker = Former, or Fashioner.


Verse 12

have made, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 1:1 ). App-92 .

man = Hebrew. adam . App-14 .


Verse 13

raised him up : i.e. raised Cyrus up.

he shall build My city. Nehemiah rebuilt only the walls. See Nehemiah 7:4 .

The city was not rebuilt until after the return under Zerubbabel, and the emancipation by Cyrus. See App-68 .

captives. Hebrew captivity. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), for the captives in it.

the LORD of hosts. See note on 1 Samuel 1:3


Verse 14

labour. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), for that which is produced by it.

men. Hebrew, plural of enosh . App-14 .

shall come over. Some codices, with five early printed editions (one Rabbinic, in margin), Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "and they shall", &c.

GOD. Hebrew El. App-4 .


Verse 16

idols = images. Hebrew. zirim . Occurs in this sense only here.


Verse 17

everlasting salvation. See note on "ancient" people (Isaiah 44:7 ).

world without end = the ages of futurity.


Verse 18

That created = the Creator of. Note how these expressions are heaped together to impress us with the fact that the One Who created all ought to be able to tell us, better than ignorant man, how He created it.

That formed = The Former of. Hebrew. yazar = to fashion.

made = the Maker of.

He created. It did not come of itself by evolution (see App-5 and App-8 ). Reference to Pentateuch Genesis 1:1 ).

in vain = tohu . The same word as in Genesis 1:2 ("without form"). Therefore it must have become tohu : which is exactly what Genesis 1:2 declares (see note there). In Genesis 1:1 we have "the world that then was" (compare 2 Peter 3:6 ); and in Isaiah 45:2 we have the ruin into which it fell. We are not told how, when, or why, or how long it lasted. When geologists have settled how many years they require, they may place them between Genesis 1:1-2 . In Genesis 1:2-31 ; Genesis 2:1-4 , we have "the heavens and the earth which are now" of 2 Peter 3:7 . Both are set in contrast with the "new heavens and the new earth" of 2 Peter 3:13 .

[ Conversion Note : The following comment is found in some Companion Bible text on the Internet but not in my original book.]

"why" God destroyed "the world that then was" may be better understood from Revelation 12:4 (see note there), where Satan rebelled against God and drew a third part of God's children with him.


Verse 19

in vain. Hebrew. tohu . Repeated from Isaiah 45:18 . Jehovah did not command His People to seek Him in a pathless and trackless waste, where there are no indications of how He is to be found; but in His Word, where He has revealed Himself clearly and distinctly: not "in secret" or "in darkness" (same words as in Isaiah 45:18 ). Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 30:11 ). App-92 . See note on Isaiah 24:10 .


Verse 21

them: i.e. the "image" and "god" of Isaiah 45:20 .

there is no God. Note the Figure of speech Pleonasm , by which the same assertion is made in two ways (positive. and negative) for emphasis.


Verse 23

I have sworn, &c. Quoted in Romans 14:11 ; and Philippians 1:2 , Philippians 1:10 . Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 22:16 ). App-92 .

unto Me. Ascribed to Christ in the quotation above.


Verse 24

men come = one come. Hebrew text is singular, as in preceding clause; but plural in Isaiah 45:1 .


Verse 25

shall glory. See note on "give light" (Isaiah 13:10 ).


Chapter 46

Verse 1

Bel. Abbreviation of Baal = lord. Here = Zeus, or Jupiter of the Greek and Roman mythology.

Nebo. Answers to the Egyptian Anubis, Greek Hermes, and Roman Mercurius (compare Acts 14:12 ). These gods were indeed brought down.

your carriages = the things ye carried about: i.e. in procession (Amos 5:26 ).

were heavy loaden = are become a burden.

they are a burden = [are even now] loaded on beasts [for exile].


Verse 2

they. Aram, and Syriac, with five early printed editions, read "and they". But some codices, with two early printed editions, omit "and".

themselves = their soul. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13 .


Verse 3

Hearken. Note the two calls to hear: here, and Isaiah 46:12 . See App-82 .

house of Jacob. See note on Isaiah 2:5 .

house of Israel. See note on Isaiah 5:7 .

which = who are borne. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 19:4 .Deuteronomy 1:31 ; Deuteronomy 32:11 ). App-92 .

which. Some codices, with two early printed editions, Aramaean, and Septuagint, read "and who".


Verse 4

even = yea. Some codices, with three early printed editions, Syriac, and Vulgate, omit "yea".


Verse 6

god. Hebrew El. App-4 .


Verse 8

Remember. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 32:7 ). App-92 .

men. Hebrew. 'ish. App-14 .

bring it again. The Western reading was "and bring it", &c.

transgressors = rebels. Hebrew. pasha'. App-44 .


Verse 9

GOD. Hebrew El. App-4 .

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4 .

none. See note on Isaiah 5:8 .


Verse 11

the man that executeth My counsel = the man of My counsel: i.e. Cyrus, a type of Messiah, set apart by God for this special service. See App-57 .

I will also bring it to pass. Reference to Pentateuch (Numbers 23:19 ).


Verse 13

shall not tarry = will not be too late.