Christian Churches of God

No. A_P2023




Passover Calendar for 2023


(Edition 1.0 20230105-20230105)


The 46th Year of the 120th Jubilee begins on 1 Abib or 22 March 2023. The Passover season of the First month is the most important in God's Sacred Calendar. Observing all the Feasts in the correct manner is essential for a continuing relationship with God in the Holy Spirit, and for our progression in the Faith. This schedule outlines the requirements for keeping the full 21 days of Passover. A New Moon and Holy Day Calendar for 2023/24 is appended.



Christian Churches of God

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(Copyright © 2023 Christian Churches of God)


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Passover Calendar for 2023


New Year: 01/01/46/120

The New Year on 1st Abib (Nisan) is on Wednesday 22 March 2023. The luni-solar conjunction of the New Moon is at 19:23 on Tuesday 21st March 2023 in Jerusalem. The start of the First Day of Abib is at the end of evening nautical twilight (EENT), or dark, at 18:44 Jerusalem time on Tuesday 21 March 2023 to EENT on Wednesday 22 March 2023.


This is the First day of the First month of the 46th year of the 120th Jubilee and the 40th Jubilee since the baptism of Messiah. The number forty is significant as it is often the period allotted for repentance (Num. 14:33-34). See the paper Forty Years for Repentance (No. 290).


The Vernal or Spring Equinox is on 20 March 2023 @ 23:24 this year.


Preparing for the Passover

The Passover is a commemorative Feast representing a series of features in God’s Plan of Redemption. The keeping of the Passover and Days of Unleavened Bread is a sign that we are God's people (Ex. 13:3-10). The paper The Passover (No. 098) should be studied.


The Exodus under Moses forms the basis of the Passover and, while the story is based on the physical salvation of the nation of Israel, the Feast symbolises the spiritual salvation of the entire planet (see also Moses and the Gods of Egypt (No. 105)).


Moses' six ascents of the mountain to speak with the Angel of God show that we are able to enter into a relationship of glorification with God through Christ, who was that Angel. We who are predestined are chosen and called, then justified and glorified through Christ. See the paper The Ascents of Moses (No. 070).


Legislation and Timing

The legislation concerning the Passover is found at: Exodus 12:3-49; 23:15-18; 34:18; Leviticus 23:4-8; Numbers 9:2-5,13-14; 28:16-25; Deuteronomy 16:1-8,16-17; Ezekiel 45:21-24.


Passover is the first of the three annual pilgrim Festivals – the others being Pentecost and Tabernacles – and it is to be kept for a full eight days. It represents the first of three major spiritual harvests in the Plan of God – in this case, of Jesus Christ, as the first of the first-fruits (1Cor. 15:20).


The entire Feast is to be kept outside our homes in order to remove ourselves somewhat from the world, even as Israel was taken out of Egypt  (Ex. 12:40-42; Mat. 26:17-19).



We are required to remove any leavened products from our accommodation at the Feast site before the start of 15 Abib (Ex. 12:15,19; 13:6-7; Deut. 16:3-4). Our permanent residences must also be deleavened prior to leaving for the Passover. See the paper Preparing for the Passover (No. 190).


While physical deleavening is important, the sanctification process during the Passover season is not one of outward cleansing but of inward cleansing, which is the hardest of all to achieve. The Feast of Unleavened Bread is understood as a time of replacing the old leaven of malice and wickedness with the leaven of sincerity and truth (see the paper The Old and the New Leaven (No. 106a)).



In all seven of the major Passovers mentioned in the Bible, the sanctification process and the keeping of the Feast for the full seven days were critical to the restoration of the congregation of Israel, as seen in the paper The Seven Great Passovers of the Bible (No. 107). It is incumbent upon us to worship the One True God on the days that He set aside as holy and not on any other days.


It is also one of the few opportunities in the year for isolated and scattered brethren to eat together in worship, and gives participants a stronger sense of belonging to the Body of Christ (see the paper Eating Together in Worship (No. 267)).


During the full 21-day period from 1st Abib, we are required to undertake regular prayer and occasional fasting for the salvation of the people of our nations, and even the fallen Host – for God doesn't wish anyone to perish (2Pet. 3:9). Refer also to the paper Cursing the Fig Tree (No. 090).


First Day of Abib: New Moon

The First day of the First month is a New Moon Sabbath (Isa. 66:23; Ezek. 46:1-3; Num. 28:11-15) and commences the New Year according to God's Sacred Calendar (Gen. 8:13; Ex. 12:2; Ps. 104:19). It is a Holy Day in its own right, and no onerous or paid work is to be done either by us or for us. See the paper The Moon and the New Year (No. 213).


It is the day to begin the preparation for the restoration of the worship of the Living God, and commences with the House of God, the Temple, and from the new priesthood of the Elect (2Chr. 29:16-19; 30:1-5; Mk. 11:11,15-18). The paper Sanctification of the Temple of God (No. 241) should be studied here.


As with all days in God's Calendar, 1st Abib begins at dark (or EENT) in our local area and ends 24 hours later at dark, or “evening” (cf. Gen. 1:5; Neh. 13:19; Lev. 23:32).


Seventh Day: Fast for Error and Ignorance

The Seventh of Abib is the day set aside for prayer and fasting in obedience to God's command to "sanctify a fast" (Joel 1:14; 2:12-17). All baptised members are required to participate in this fast. The paper Sanctification of the Simple and Erroneous (No. 291) should be studied.


The fast begins on Monday, 27 March at dark and ends on Tuesday, 28 March at dark, and reflects the fast on the Day of Atonement in the Seventh month (Lev. 23:27-31).


On this day we go before our Father to appeal for the simple or ignorant among our people, who have not known God’s ways and cannot sanctify themselves (Ezek. 45:18-20; Mk. 11:1; Heb. 5:2). Sanctification in the Church is the process of becoming consecrated to God by prayer and fasting in the study of His word.


Scripture enjoins us "to loose the bonds of wickedness, undo the heavy burdens, and let the oppressed go free, and to break every yoke" (Isa. 58:6-12), so that our people may be reconciled to our God and Father.


A few of the many things to pray for during this fast are that: many are given the gift of the calling of God and the power of the Holy Spirit is poured out upon them; we have the opportunity to properly educate people in God's Way and have people restored to the true Faith; we are able to repair the breach of understanding and restore the path of righteousness; the work of restoration is not frustrated by competing false prophecy and doctrines; encouragement is given to members and leaders of all the Churches of God; there will be peace and freedom among all men; and that all will be kept from the Evil One (cf. Lk. 11:1-4).


We are reminded that: "the prayer of a righteous person has great power in its effect" (Jas. 5:16; 2Chr. 30:18-20).


Tenth Day: Lamb Set Aside

The Tenth day is for the setting aside of the Passover Lamb (Ex. 12:3-5) that represents Messiah, and falls on Friday, 31 March. It is a time to reflect upon our own spiritual condition after having been called out of the world and "set aside" by God for His purpose.


This is also an appropriate day on which to examine ourselves and to "discern the Body" in preparation for partaking of the Lord’s Supper with those who represent the true Body of believers in the true Spirit under one Lord, Jesus Christ, and One True God (2Cor. 13:5; 1Cor. 11:28-32).


Fourteenth Day: Lord’s Supper

The Lord’s Supper is to be observed after dark on Monday, 3 April. A detailed explanation of the ordinance is found in the paper The Lord's Supper (No. 103). It is the second of only two sacraments of the Church, the other being baptism. See also the paper Procedures for the Lord's Supper (No. 103B).


Not everyone is eligible to take the Lord’s Supper. The primary requirement for partaking of the Lord's Supper is to be a baptised member of the Body of Christ. If we are not baptised, we should prepare for baptism (see the paper Repentance and Baptism (No. 052)).


If we are baptised, we should review our baptism and what it means. It requires the development of a right relationship with God. The children are consecrated and given special protection through a baptised and consecrated parent (1Cor. 7:14).


We are reminded that unless we “drink the blood and eat the body of Christ”, we cannot enter the Kingdom of God (Jn. 6:27-58). We ought to remember also that we have been given the Holy Spirit as a down-payment on our redemption as sons of God (2Cor. 1:22; 5:5).


Hence the Lord’s Supper service is purely to reconcile us to God. There are three main elements to it:


1) Foot-washing

The first element is the foot-washing service (Jn. 13:1-17), which precedes the partaking of the bread and wine. Taking part in the foot-washing ceremony each year renews and rededicates us to our conversion and the cleanliness we received from baptism prior to receipt of the Holy Spirit (1Pet. 3:21). See the paper Significance of the Footwashing (No. 099).


2) Bread

The concept of the body and blood of Christ is central to the Lord’s Supper. Christ’s sacrifice is reflected in these two symbols of bread and wine, as shown in the paper Significance of the Bread and Wine (No. 100). An example of the early Church observing this ordinance is found at 1Corinthians 11:20-29.


Only unleavened bread should be used at this service (Ex. 23:18; 34:25), as a physical sign that we are to put the leaven of sin out of our lives during this Passover period but also  importantly no leaven is eaten with the sacrifices of the Lord, which this Supper represents (see the paper Steps to Overcoming Sin (No. 011)).


3) Wine

The wine is symbolic of the High Priest’s annual sacrifice whereby, through the blood of bulls, he entered into the Holy of Holies. Christ himself is now our High Priest, interceding for us before the Throne of God (Rom. 8:34; Heb. 5:1ff.; 7:24-25). Wine is also symbolic of Christ's role as the vine (Jn. 15:1-6).


Thus wine is an indispensable part of the Lord’s Supper for each and every person and cannot be delegated or abrogated. Grape juice, which prevents a person from partaking of wine, cannot be substituted for the wine. Wine is alcoholic by nature (see the paper Wine in the Bible (No. 188)).


Memorial Service at 3:00 p.m.

On Tuesday 4 April at the “ninth hour” or 3:00 p.m., a service is to be held at the time the lamb was traditionally sacrificed (Ex. 12:6; Deut. 16:5-6). The paper The Death of the Lamb (No. 242) should be referred to.



An offering is required to be taken up following the 3:00 p.m. service as above. It is one of only three annual collections (Deut. 16:16; Ex. 23:17), and must be handed in before morning on the first day of Unleavened Bread (Ex. 23:18; 34:25). See also the paper Offering (No. 275). 


Fifteenth Day: Passover and First day of Unleavened Bread

The Fifteenth is the First day of Unleavened Bread; it is a Holy Day (Lev. 23:6-7; Num. 28:17), and falls on Wednesday, 5 April.


It includes the Passover meal (Ex. 12:6-11), which is to be observed after dark the previous evening, Tuesday, 4 April. This evening is also referred to as the “Night to be Much Observed/Greatly Remembered” or the “Night of Watching” (Ex. 12:42; 13:3). See the papers Preparation for the Passover Meal on the Night of Watching (No. 093) and The Night to be Much Observed (No. 101).


Everyone takes part in this meal, including the children and the unconverted who are then encouraged to ask about the meaning of the Passover and the symbols associated with it (Ex. 12:26; 13:14). All those present are expected to provide reasons for partaking of the lamb (Ex. 12:27), the wine (Ex. 29:40), unleavened bread (Ex. 12:39; Deut. 16:3-5), bitter herbs (Ex. 1:14, 12:8; Num. 9:11), and the use of salt (Lev. 2:13; Mk. 9:49-50). See the paper Passover Questions and the Reasons for our Faith (No. 051).


For the Passover meal we normally eat lamb or another “herd” animal roasted (Ex. 12:8-9); however, we make no actual sacrifice of the lamb, as that aspect was fulfilled in Messiah. Our vigil on the Night of Watching is in commemoration of his death, and the expectation of his return. It is usual for all baptised persons to maintain the vigil until well after midnight.


Wave-Sheaf Offering

Although not a Sabbath in its own right, the Wave Sheaf must be held at the time of the morning sacrifice (9:00 a.m.) on Sunday 9 April.


The Wave Sheaf symbolises Christ as the first of the first-fruits being offered to God (Ex. 34:26; 1Cor. 15:23; Lev. 23:9-14; Ex. 29:24-25). The male lamb was also Christ as a first-fruits ascending into Heaven to his Father. See the paper The Wave Sheaf Offering (No. 106b).


This day always falls on the first day of the week (Sunday) within the Feast of Unleavened Bread and is used to start the count of the fifty days to Pentecost, which will be held at 9.00 a.m. on Sunday 28 May. The Omer Count to Pentecost (No. 173) paper should be studied.


Twenty-first Day: Last Day of Unleavened Bread

The Last Day of Unleavened Bread is on Tuesday, 11 April and is a Holy Day (Lev. 23:8; Num. 28:25; Deut. 16:8). Services are held at 9:00 a.m. and 3:00 p.m., that is, at the times of the morning and evening sacrifices in Israel (Ex. 29:39).


It is a day to reflect upon the entire period of Sanctification and the ongoing Restoration process, the sequence of which is outlined in the paper Josiah's Restoration (No. 245). The day also mirrors the Last Great Day in the Seventh month, representing the coming of God to the earth and the establishment of the City of God as the final part of His Restoration.


Passover is to be kept in the Millennium as a commemoration of the redemption of the world.


Passover of the Second Month

There is provision in God's Law for the Lord's Supper/Passover to be taken in the Second month, or Iyar. This is for the occasions when the Lord’s Supper in the First month has been missed due to unforeseen circumstances, such as travelling, accidents, illness, etc., or in the event of childbirth. Although the 14th day of the Second month falls on 3 May, the ceremony is observed after dark on 2 May, as described for the Lord's Supper of the first month (cf. Num. 9:9-11).


A particularly relevant example of a Passover celebrated in the Second month may be seen in 2Chronicles 29 and 30; this followed the cleansing and sanctification of the Temple in Jerusalem.


Sanctification of the Nations

The Sanctification of the Nations is a 50-year period that began in 1978 after the Jubilee of 1977 and includes the seven perfect Sabbaths of years as represented within the Omer Count to Pentecost. See the paper Sanctification of the Nations (No. 077). On a year-for-a-day basis, the final part of this sanctification period is correlated with the complete 21-day Passover season, as follows:






·        21st Abib, the Last Day of Unleavened Bread, represents also the final year 2026/27 (also the last Sabbath year of the 120th Jubilee cycle and the end of the Six Days of the creation given to Satan, whose time has already been cut short). The nations will be in place prior to the commencement of the last Jubilee and the allocation of lands for the Millennium or “Sabbath Rest of Christ”. The 120th Jubilee, the six-thousandth year of the cursed earth is in 2027/28. The New Millennial system takes place from 2028.


Eternal Life

There are three elements for eternal life that are not normally dealt with in the Lord’s Supper.


First element: "And this is eternal life, that they know you the only true God (Deut. 6:4; Mal. 2:10; Eph. 4:6), and Jesus Christ whom you have sent" (Jn. 17:3; 1Tim. 2:5; 1Cor. 8:4-6).


Second element: Faith in Jesus Christ through knowledge of the One True God (Jn. 17:3) and that God raised him from the dead (Rom. 10:9). This leads from our repentance to baptism as an adult and to receiving the gift of the Holy Spirit.


Third element: Participation in the Passover and the eating of the body and drinking the blood of Jesus Christ (Jn. 6:53-54; 1Cor. 6:11).


All of those three elements are predicated upon obedience. Obedience to the One True God and love of Him are demonstrated by the keeping of His Commandments (Jn. 15:10; Deut. 6:1-25). Obedience is the necessary prerequisite to the retention of the Holy Spirit (Acts 5:32). Without the Spirit we cannot worship God completely (Jn. 4:23; Phil. 3:3), nor can we enter the Kingdom of God and thus have eternal life in either the First Resurrection (Rom. 8:11) or the Second Resurrection (Ezek. 37:12-14). However, with the Holy Spirit we are able to obey all of God's Commandments (1Jn. 3:24). See the paper Eternal Life (No. 133).


Obedience to the Passover ordinance entails keeping the Laws and regulations that Christ set for our participation in this Festival. If we do not partake in the ceremony of the Lord's Supper we have no part with Jesus Christ (Jn. 13:8). We are required to obey God's instructions even before we fully understand them, as understanding will follow obedience (Prov. 16:3).


By obedience we also make it possible for others to understand and to be added to the Body of Christ, and for the Body to grow as the Church of God in truth and honesty of conviction.


Christ kept the Passover and the Law (Mat. 26:17-20; Lk. 22:15; Jn. 2:13, 23; 13:1ff.); he did not change one “jot” or “tittle” of the Law (Mat. 5:18).


There is only One True God, Eloah, and Jesus Christ, or Joshua the Messiah, is His son. Knowledge of them is eternal life (Jn. 17:1-3).




2023/2024 – 45/120




(Vernal Equinox: 20 March 2023 @ 23:24)


New Moons
Jerusalem time

EENT at Jerusalem

New Moon and other
Dates to be kept

= Biblical date

21 January 23             22:53


Sunday 22 January

1 Shebat            11th Month

20 February 23        09:06


Monday 20 February

1 Adar              12th Month


21 March 23          19:23


Wednesday 22 March

1 Nisan = New Year  1st Month,

46th Year of the 120th Jubilee




Tuesday 28 March

7 Nisan          Sanctification




Tuesday 04 April

(Evening of previous day)


14 Nisan        Lord's Supper




Wednesday 05 April

(Evening of previous day)


15 Nisan       Passover/NTBMR




Sunday 09 April

Wave Sheaf (9:00 AM)




Tuesday 11 April

21 Nisan       Last Day of UB


20 April 23            06:12


Thursday 20 April

1 Iyar               2nd Month

19 May               17:53


Friday 19 May

1 Sivan             3rd Month



Sunday 28 May

Pentecost (9:00 AM)


18 June 23           06:37


Sunday 18 June

1 Tammuz           4th Month


17 July 23            20:32


Tuesday 18 July

1 Ab                 5th Month

16 August 23         11:38


Wednesday 16 August

1 Elul                6th Month


15 September 23      03:40


Friday 15 September

1 Tishri = Trumpets   7th Month



Sunday 24 September

10 Tishri       




Friday 29 September

(Evening of previous day)






Friday 29 September

15 Tishri       Tabernacles




Friday 06 October

22 Tishri      Last Great Day


14 October 23              19:55


Sunday 15 October

1 Heshvan           8th Month


13 November 23       11:27


Monday 13 November

1 Kislev              9th Month


13 December 23       01:32


Wednesday 13 December

1 Tebeth            10th Month


11 January 24             13:57


Thursday 11 January

1 Shebat            11th Month

10 February 24        00:59


Saturday 10 February

1 Adar              12th Month


10 March 24          11:00


Sunday 10 March

1 Nisan = New Years  1st Month,

47th Year of the 120th Jubilee




Local time of dark, or EENT, for any day of the year can be obtained from the website: