This Sabbath we will start the analysis of the national identities of the people of the earth and their origins. This will be issued as a paper at the completion of the series.
The Genetic Origin of the Nations
One of the greatest advances in human genetics is that of measuring the DNA of both males and females.
Males are measured through the Y chromosome that is handed down from father to son in a continual line that mutates over time. This is called YDNA. Only males carry this through their Y chromosome, being XY. Females have XX chromosomes. Science says this rate of mutation is much slower than the Bible demands it to be in accord with its history of the nations as descended from Noah.
The female line is measured by testing their mitochondrial DNA (termed MTDNA) that both males and females possess. Mitochondria are grouped in haplogroups that relate to the lines of females in which they occur, and this line is passed from mother to her offspring in the X chromosome, which they all, both male and female, possess.
The YDNA and MTDNA are measured in two different ways. YDNA is measured in what are termed polymorphs. These polymorphs are allocated a numeric value and, according to the value when tested, the sub-groupings that are formed are called clades and subclades of the overall grouping which is called a Haplogroup. These values record the change in YDNA mutations and lines.
The MTDNA is determined by reporting the polymorphic site such as for example 311C, meaning a mutation has occurred at base pair 16,311 and the base that changed here was actually changed to cytosine. It is this change of the polymorphic site that determines the genetic ancestry, as the parent passes on to the offspring the DNA polymorphisms that they have with the same or similar numerical values. These values when tested that are not exactly the same as the parent are termed mutations. The values thus vary and have determined the tribal groupings of the world’s nations.
The YDNA system that has been allocated to the male human species is grouped into a series of Haplogroups from A to R.
The usual extensive measurement (using the Arizona system) is usually of 37 sites as markers. Basic testing is done for the first twelve, then to 25, and then on to 37 of these polymorphic sites, or locations to determine relatedness and haplogroup association. There could be some 100 or more markers tested for changes (a.k.a. polymorphisms). An example of what might be a typical YDNA structure is as follows:
27 GATA H4
28 YCA II a
29 YCA II b
34 CDY a
35 CDY b
*Also known as DYS 394
**On 5/19/2003, these values were adjusted down by 1 point because of a change in Lab nomenclature. (Source Family Tree DNA Chart 2004/5)
There are values that when tested are allocated to the right column of the table. Those values help determine whether a person has fallen into a typical Celt haplogroup or one that is found among a Semite, or an Amerindian, or Polynesian, or Chinese or Japanese racial type. To properly determine the type, what is known as an SNP test is run, but the values from the 12, 25 and 37 marker tests point us in the right direction. No national group is of a pure genetic haplogroup with the exception of some Amerindian tribes of the Q group in South America (from the charts produced by Dr. J. D. McDonald). The table above, depending on tested values, could be that of the typical R1b Celt of Europe or the Native Americans, both of whose DNA belongs to the last two haplogroups on the scale.
The mitochondria, first sequenced in 1981, became known as the Cambridge Reference Sequence (CRS). The CRS has been used as a basis for comparison with individual MTDNA. In other words, any place in an individual MTDNA that has a difference from the CRS, is characterized as a mutation. If a result shows no mutations at all, it means that the MTDNA matches the CRS. A mutation happens a). when a base replaces another base - for example a C (Cytosine) replaces an A (Adenine); b). when a base is no longer in that position, or a deletion; and c). when a new base is inserted between the other bases without replacing any other (an insertion).
That is how the MTDNA mutates. The original female DNA of the human species was confined to seven females but in Europe only. Throughout the world there are about 26 sub-branches of the tree of human kind on the female lineages. Thus, the female lineages might be argued to be explicable within the biblical terms in Europe only. The MTDNA thus requires harmonising with the Bible account by explaining the entire 26 female lines.
We are dependent on science in its organising of the haplogroups. As the polymorphs mutate, they alter the values and so the rate of mutation may well cause some movement between haplogroups not yet identified.
Harmonising the Bible and Genetics
If the Bible is to answer the challenge posed by this very important genetic discovery then it must place this structure over the Bible record and explain the distribution of nations within terms that can take account of and properly answer the challenges posed by the genetic trees of both the YDNA and the MTDNA trees of the species.
The female lineages may well have an effect on the male causing mutations that are as not yet known, and an examination of that system will perhaps also reveal some important aspects. However, at present, other than known recombination, no affect on the male mutations caused by the female is known scientifically.
We now know that the mitochondria is directly responsible for the mutations
of the human genetic structure. It inserts into active genes and causes mutation.
This is especially so in DNA that is damaged by pollution or radiation, which
makes them susceptible to further damage from stray mitochondrial DNA. Working
genes are more prone to damage as their DNA is regularly unzipped to churn out
proteins (New Scientist 18 September 2004 article "The enemy within that
targets genes" p. 11).
"Miria Richetti at the Pasteur Institute in Paris and her team identified 211 insertions of mitochondria DNA across the genome, 23 of them new, 80 percent were in genes but genes only make up 3 per cent of the genome. The targets are widely transcribed genes, probably because they have more double strand breaks, says Richetti"(ibid).
Jef Boeke at John Hopkins University thinks that Mitochondrial DNA is unlikely to be a major source of human gene mutation. However there seemed to be a case of this directly related to the Chernobyl radiation disaster.
By comparing the sequences of 21 ethnically diverse volunteers Richetti's team found six insertions that were not shared by all of them. (PLoS Biology, vol. 2, e273). The scientists held that "these must have occurred after our ancestors split from the ancestors of chimps and thus could give scientists clues about the origins of ethnic groups and historical migrations" (ibid).
We are agreed that these mitochondria are capable of mutating the human genetic structure and the incidence of intermarriage with new mitochondria are held to cause the mutations at an accelerating rate.
That is why isolated societies such as the Australian Aborigines show the basic C structure and less change than does the Maori and other more open C societies intermingling with other mitochondrial haplogroups. So also the RxR1 groups there are less affected.
It is not an indicator of time but rather one of intermarriage.
There appears to be a problem in what is termed the Y Chromosome Phylogenetic Tree in that the Haplogroup A is the first markedly divergent fork in the tree, and thus first to diverge from Hgs B to R. All haplogroups have a fork at which they diverge.
We will look now at an overview of the Bible account. The Bible says simply that Noah was perfect in his generations and that he begat Japheth and then Ham and then Shem. The progeny of the sons of Noah are listed and the tribes and distribution are noted and so allow us a few precious clues to measure against the DNA record.
The Bible accounts have been construed as only allowing eight people on the ark, however, the record may refer to eight males, as females were never mentioned in ancient genealogies except in very rare instances and sometimes only in the deletion of a prefix in the fathers name (see the paper The Genealogy of the Messiah (No, 119)).
This eight male scenario is probable as Canaan was old enough in the first wine harvest after the flood when Noah was drunk with new wine to have either sodomised him or castrated him. The Jewish traditions discuss either scenario. That is the reason for the biblical curse on Canaan. The latter case is important to the DNA record in that only the sons’ wives would have then bred on, and Noah’s wife’s MTDNA would have stopped unless there were females from Noah’s wife there as well, which is possible if only males are mentioned.
The male lines were thus Japheth and Shem with their wives and Ham and the sons of Ham (four) and their wives totalling seven males and seven females in addition to Noah and his wife.
This would then also allow eight females including Noah’s wife thus providing the main seven female MTDNA lines, and that seems to accord with the current findings of MTDNA haplogroups, but for Europe only. It might be argued that some MTDNA lines are later divisions. The scientific evidence indicates that there were seven so-called “eves” to the genetic MTDNA pool in the Caucasian but there are 26 female lines overall. Thus, the explanation must account for the entire sequence. The argument might thus be advanced that there were 26 females on the ark that bred on.
This view would place science in direct harmony with the Bible record as far as female lineages are concerned. We will also find that when we look at the MTDNA record for the female lines, we are able then to place the female divisions in line with the YDNA male divisions and thus see the break-up of the families of Noah in their world distribution. We will examine this aspect later.
The Noah gene pool
Noah was understood to be pure in his generations. The Bible also maintains that the people in the Ark were all the family of Noah. Thus, to properly account for the genetic diversity, Noah must have maintained the capacity to throw genetically distinct offspring, and this offspring had the characteristics of the line from which it came but not the entire sequence that Noah had originally.
Conventional views of the YDNA systems are that they number back 35,000 years, and some say 60,000 to 130,000 years, and that the levels of mutation are slow. This extended view is based on mathematical models, but seemingly to advance an evolutionary model. Further, no cognizance is taken of the impact of the diverse female DNA systems. The MTDNA is measured but the effects of the female X chromosome on the male YDNA structure is considered important, and it will be argued that it causes mutations in the YDNA structure at a much faster rate than the current model is believed to allow.
One of the known histories that we are able to examine is that of the Jews and we can identify a number of nations that come from them, and within their DNA structure we can see a great many people that are not actually Semite according to current wisdom. For example, 52% of all Ashkenazi Levites are not Semites according to the YDNA models and the current explanations. Thus, we may have evidence here of a large number of converts to Judaism marrying into the tribes. This in all probability points to the Khazar conversion as the source of the Ashkenazi Levites. We will examine this aspect below.
Further we know that the Buba Clan of the Lemba people in Zimbabwe in the YDNA lines are all Cohenim of Levi and the Lemba are predominantly Jewish YDNA, even though they are black having taken African wives after they were isolated at the Babylonian captivity. Their Judaism is much more basic than post captivity Judaism, and their calendar determination is based on the conjunction determined in advance. They have held their beliefs in a very basic form for 2,500 years separate from Judah.
For Noah to be the father of the human structure, he is held to have had the capacity for the following YDNA substructure as all humans are descended from him. Any male on the planet will have only the mutations that signify his branch and path only.
M91, SRY 10831a, M42, M94, M139, M60, M181, RPS4Y711, M216, YAP M145, M203, M174, SRY 4064, M96, P29, P14, M89, M213 and the core for the subsequent derivatives.
The divisions that sprung from him are as follows.
Sons of Ham:
YDNA Haplogroup (Hg) A: M91 and subsequent derivatives
A2: M6, M14, M33, M49, M71, M135, M141, P3, P4, P5, MEH1, M196, M206
A3a: M28, M59
A3b M144, M190, M220
A3b2: M13, M63, M127,
This tree is distinct from the other Hgs B to R.
This group is found predominantly in the Sudan >45% Ethiopia > 15%, and South Africa > 30%. Very small elements of the Hg A are found in Cameroon, seemingly in Morocco, and among the Pygmies in Central Africa. The majority of these others are ExE3b and B for the Pygmies and in South Africa, or for Morocco E3b.
Africa is predominantly ExE3b and E3b with the B group distributed among them.
The incidence of A in Africa is also seen with Haplogroup C at its root, prior to a group that stayed in Africa and a branch that left Africa (see below).
Haplogroup B is comprised of M60, M181 then
B2a1: M109, M152, P32
B2b2: M115, M169
B2b3: M30, M129
B2b4b: MSY2a, M211
Haplogroup B appears in smaller percentages in Mali, Cameroon, among the pygmy of Central Africa, in South Africa, in Sudan and in Ethiopia. Haplogroups A and B do not appear in any significance outside of Africa or African Americans.
Haplogroup C is a very interesting Haplogroup. It is derived from the DNA groups M168 and P9 and then to the RPS4Y711 and M216 segments which form the basic C group. The basic C group is found among the Australian Aboriginals. The divisions are:
C1: M8, M105, M131
C3: M217, P44
C3c: M48, M77, M86
The C groups are found among the following people:
Australian Aboriginals >65%
French Polynesians >55%
Western Samoans >30%
Smaller percentages are found in Iryan Jaya, Borneo (Kalimantan), New Britain, and the Philippines,
Smaller percentages are also found in China and in Japan.
The major percentages are then found in Northern Asia:
Mongols up to 60%
Buryats up to 65%
Evenks up to 70%
Koryaks up to 35%
Altaians up to 23%
Khazakstan up to 42%
Uzbeks up to 15%
Kyrgyzstan some 10%
There was an element that moved into the Amerindians in Alaska (say some 42%), and then to the Chippewa or Na-Dene in Canada (+- 6%), and the Cheyenne (>14%) and Apache (>12%) in USA. There is a very small percentage in the Greenland Eskimos showing extensive Arctic contact.
It is a matter of great significance that we have been able to unearth the point of departure for these people and tribes in Asia. The Choukoutien Upper Cave in China (discovered 1930 excavated by Pei 1938-1940) was found to be home to a family group occupying the same strata and comprised of Melanesoid, Eskimoid and Mongol types. Weidenreich held that the Wadjak remains were more like the adult female remains in the Upper Choukoutien Cave than with any Mediterraneans so far (R. M and C. H Berndt, Aboriginal Man in Australia, Angus and Robertson, 1965, pp. 30, 32-33).
Previously, Huxley (1870) had classified the Australian Aboriginal as being the advance guard of the Dravidians that left the Mediterranean and Egypt and moved into India and on to Australia. He regarded the Dekkan Hill tribes and more tenuously the ancient Egyptians as the only links with Aboriginal Australians (ibid p. 33). He had classified the early men into four types of Negroids, Mongoloids and Xanthochroics with the Australoids as the fourfold types of early man. The Tasmanian Aborigines he classified as a Melanesian branch of the Negroids. Wallace (1893) had said that the Australians were neither Negroid nor Mongoloid, and classified them as early Caucasians (ibid). However, this has been shown to be incorrect and the Australian Aboriginals are direct descendents of the division of Haplogroup C that left Africa.
We now know from DNA that the finds in Choukoutien Cave of the same family with these three types were in fact correct. The YDNA of the tribal groups shows that these people are indeed all descended from the same paternal lines, and the Australian is the basic C structure that moved into Australia from Africa via the North with the Melanesians and Polynesians developing the Pacific, and the Mongols and what became the Far northern tribes going into Northern Asia.
There is no published DNA of which the writer is aware of the early Australoids that links the existing Australian Aboriginals with the earlier finds in Australia. There are two major YDNA groups in Australia and they are C and K haplogroups, with an early RxR1 haplogroup >10% that is only found in any significance in Cameroon (>40%) in Africa, and with smaller groups in Uzbekistan and among the Dravidians and is rare in any event. That RxR1group would justify the links to Africa and the Dravidians. However, that is the only link that the Australian Aborigines have with the Dravidians. The base C group is a much better link and so the Aboriginals in the main came from the African groups that also formed groups in Cameroon and North East Africa. The vast majority of Europeans are R1a and R1b and might be considered to have descended from this earlier RxR1 DNA link. However, the RxR1 haplogroup is considered to preclude any ancient origin for the Aborigines. The 25% incidence of the K Hg shows movement of the early (proto) Melanesians into Australia from the north. The C groups appear to have come from Africa/the Middle East into Central Asia. This aspect is explainable biblically as the Cushite split. The western Cushites went into Africa through the Sudan, and the eastern Cushites went first into India and then moved on in groups. After the Aryan invasion of India in 1000 BCE they appear to have moved out of India. The Aborigines split rather early probably from their nomadic existence and moved south. The others moved east and north into Asia and then the Pacific. Thus, the African origin may be explained by a split in the Middle East rather then the move from Asia, and there is thus a Central Asian origin not only for that element of the Aborigines but also for the entire Mongol and Pacific systems of the C group. The R basic groups are argued to have formed in India Pakistan rather than being indicative of a Middle Eastern origin with migration into Africa and Australia. We will look at this aspect in dealing with Hg R. The diverse linguistic groups (8) for the Aborigines indicate some eight waves into Australia for at least three tribal Hg systems and probably more diverse migration.
There are no C haplogroups in South America and thus the supposed link between the Maori and the South Americans is a myth. The predominant YDNA in America is the Q Haplogroup with the C coming in there in far lesser numbers, and only from Alaska into central North America in the Na-Dene, Cheyenne and Apache.
It is considered that the C group might be misallocated in the charts and perhaps should be linked closer to the K groups that form the proto-Melanesoids of Hgs K and M. It might perhaps change places with Haplogroup E, but given the A and C arguments above in Africa that might not be so. The movement of the C groups were the minor groups with Q that moved into the Americas. Conventional wisdom says they moved 12-15,000 years ago but the Bible time frame says otherwise.
Maoris have told the writer that the traditions of the canoes, which narrate the movement of the tribes and their genealogy to those canoes arriving in New Zealand, do in fact allow for an African origin of the Maori. However, the C grouping DNA, with the incidence of O, seems to demand the central Asian origin and movement from the Chinese coast perhaps coinciding with the expansion of the Han. There is a trace of East and South East Asian (O) YDNA in the Maori but there are greater elements in the Western Samoans and, to a slightly lesser extent, among French Polynesians. This may well indicate a Malay/Philippine influence on the Pacific tribes of the C system, but such influence is not evident in Irian Jaya, Papua-New Guinea, and New Britain where we might expect to find it more readily. The arrival of the Maori in New Zealand is quite late and they replaced two previous civilisations in NZ in the early centuries of the second millennium of the current era. The first was a Papuan type culture, which was forced to migrate, and the later seems to be almost Celt in its stone structures. Their movement is thus quite distinct from the earlier Australian Aboriginal movement of both C and RxR1.
The Haplogroup is formed from the group D and E at the YAP division with M145 and M203 as the stem for both and M174 breaking into the D:
D2 M55, M57, M64a, P37a, P41a, 12f2b
D2a: P12, P42
This Haplogroup is confined to two peoples in any significance. These are Japan (>40%) and Tibet (>50%). The incidence of the Hg indicates that the Japanese and the Tibetans was once a people occupying the eastern Steppes and they moved northeast into Japan and south into the mountains of Tibet. The language of the Japanese is Uralic Altaic and has much in common with Finnish and Hungarian, Turkic, Altaic, Mongolian, Manchu/Tungus, Old Korean and the northern Siberian languages. Thus, we can assume that Haplogroup D was once a tribe with a common language system with those of Haplogroup C and others identified below. The other Hg for the Japanese and Tibetan indicates that the Chinese had interbred with them over the centuries, no doubt affecting the language system and customs from the areas of their movement. The Japanese have higher incidence of Hg C than does Tibet, perhaps from their exposure to the Mongols, the Buryats and Koryaks. However, the incidence of the Aboriginal Ainu may also be a factor in this due to population replacement in the later Japanese invasions.
The other significant incidence of D is perhaps from the trading influence of the Japanese in early time going to Sumatra and to Malaya. The more significant incidence is in Sumatra at up to 10%. The incidence in Malaya is less than 5%, as is the R1a grouping there as also and for F, C and M with a slightly higher incidence of K. Borneo has a less than 5% D group also, as do the Uygurs, Altai, the Mongols, the Kyrgyz, Uzbeks and the Siberian Eskimo.
Haplogroup E is found in Africa in the main. It continues the Yap division at M145 and M203 to SRY 4064 M96 and P29, which form E basic.
E1: M33, M132
E2b: M54, M85, M90.
E3: P2, DYS 391p
E3a: M2, P1
E3a6: M10, M66, M156
E3b: M35, M215 (omitted from some charts but contained in Family Tree DNA 2005 Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic Tree, see www.familytreeDNA.com)
The E groups are found in Africa with smaller incidence in the Middle East and southern Europe. Some speculate the incidence of E3a in UK to be from Roman slaves in Britain, while others view them as slaves coming in later times. Both views may well be correct.
ExE3b is highest in Burkina Faso at well over 90% perhaps 99%.
ExE3b is high in Mali (60%), Cameroon (45%), amongst the pygmy (65%) and in SA (55% approx). This group has low incidence in the Sudan and Ethiopia.
E3b is very high in Morocco (approx 75%) with an incidence of Hg J at approx 10%.
There is significant incidence in Mali (25%), Sudan (25%), and Ethiopia (55%,) SA (less than 10%). 15% of Middle East Arabs and Persians are E3b and some 10% of Italians and Iberians, and between 5% and 10% of Germans and Russians are E3b, and up to 5% of Georgians and Armenians are E3b. East European Jews are 25% E3b. They may well have been converted to Judaism from the Sudan and Ethiopia, as there are Semitic elements in both areas. We will examine these aspects when we look at the Semitic haplogroups below.
These Haplogroups A to E are the sons of Ham. We will try to identify their tribes at a later date.
As stated, Haplogroup C may well have been misallocated and probably should appear in order after where E stands in the tree, next to F this side of what is termed the YAP divide. Both D and E are both defined by an insertion on the Y that D and E share, while C and F do not have this insertion. They appear together more frequently in the tribal locations.
The F haplogroup stems from the division between the Yap M145, M203 divide for D and E and the RPS4Y 711 M216 divide for the C group. It is a small group and sometimes acts as a catchall because researchers did not do enough testing to determine the group correctly. There are small F groups in Georgia/Armenia, Persia, Uzbekistan, among the Kazan Tartar and in Khazakstan. The conclusion is that the basic root of F is nearly gone but the prolific sons survived and flourished producing the major national groups and the mutations that flowed from that stem.
This stem determines all the other haplogroups from F to R.
The basic F is P14, M89, M213.
In biblical terms, both Shem and Japheth passed this core haplogroup on to all their offspring. Perhaps Ham also passed it to one of his sons. The charts would make Ham’s sons widely divergent.
We will continue the examination over the next few weeks.
(Copyright 5 Jan. 2006)
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